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C# : C Sharp

C# : C Sharp

C# : C Sharp <a href=http://www.academictutorials.com/c-sharp.net/ C# : C Sharp C-Sharp Before we start explaining what .Net is? Lets discuss about Internet on business organization. There are three phases of Internet. .NET is the Microsoft Web services strategy to connect information, people, systems,and devices through software. Integrated across the Microsoft platform, .NET technology provides the ability to quickly build, deploy, manage, and use connected, security-enhanced solutions with Web services. Introduction to .NET Introduction: Before we start explaining what .Net is? Lets discuss about Internet on business organization. There are three phases of Internet. First phase starts early in 1990’s, which brought big revolution. Organizations created and launched their websites. The core idea behind this is to know “hit rate ” means how many peoples are interested in their product and services. So that they can update their products accordingly. The 2nd is in which we are right now. Organization is generating revenues from on-line trading. We are moving into 3rd phase and here idea is to communicate peoples, partner and share resources which are geographically far to run business successfully. Here .net comes into picture, which is designed by Microsoft people, which provide to build net based application which connect peoples and data at remote locations through any devices (i.e. laptop, mobiles, and pda) 1 " id="pdf-obj-0-9" src="pdf-obj-0-9.jpg">

C-Sharp

Before we start explaining what .Net is? Lets discuss about Internet on business organization. There are three phases of Internet.

.NET is the Microsoft Web services strategy to connect information, people, systems,and devices through software.

Integrated across the Microsoft platform, .NET technology provides the ability to quickly build, deploy, manage, and use connected, security-enhanced solutions with Web services.

Introduction to .NET

Introduction:

Before we start explaining what .Net is? Lets discuss about Internet on business organization. There are three phases of Internet.

First phase starts early in 1990’s, which brought big revolution. Organizations created and launched their websites. The core idea behind this is to know “hit rate ” means how many peoples are interested in their product and services. So that they can update their products accordingly.

The 2nd is in which we are right now. Organization is generating revenues from on-line trading.

We are moving into 3rd phase and here idea is to communicate peoples, partner and share resources which are geographically far to run business successfully.

Here .net comes into picture, which is designed by Microsoft people, which provide to build net based application which connect peoples and data at remote locations through any devices (i.e. laptop, mobiles, and pda)

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What is .net basically?

NET is the Microsoft Web services strategy to connect information, people, systems, and devices through software. Integrated across the Microsoft platform, .NET technology provides the ability to quickly build, deploy, manage, and use connected,

security-enhanced solutions with Web

services.

.NET-connected solutions enable

businesses to integrate their systems more rapidly and in a more agile manner and help them realize the promise of information anytime, anywhere, on any device.

The Microsoft platform includes everything a business needs to develop and deploy a Web service-connected IT architecture: servers to host Web services, development tools to create them, applications to use them, and a worldwide network of more than 35k Microsoft Certified Partner organizations to provide any help we need.

An Introduction To The .NET Framework

.NET Framework

.NET is Microsoft’s new strategy for the development and deployment of software. Depending on your interests and development background, we may already have a number of preconceived notions regarding

NET fundamentally changes the way applications execute under the Windows Operating System.

with .NET Microsoft is, in effect, abandoning its traditional Way of application development, one which favors compiled components, and is embracing Interpreted technology (similar, in many ways, to the Java Paradigm).

NET brings about significant changes to both C++ and Visual Basic, and introduces a new language called C# .

NET is built from the ground up with the Internet in mind, embracing open Internet standards such as XML and HTTP.

The .NET Framework can be distilled into the following three entities:

The Time-wasters will surround you all the sides and will tear away at your minutes

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and hours, holding the back from producing a critical results which are vital to the success in the career.

The Common Language Runtime (CLR)

CLR is execution environment for all programs in the .NET Framework. The CLR is similar to a Java Virtual Machine (VM) in that it interprets byte code and executes it on the fly, while simultaneously providing services such as garbage collection and exception handling. Unlike a Java VM, which is limited to the Java language, the CLR is accessible from any compiler that produces Microsoft Intermediate Language (IL) code, which is similar to Java byte code. Code that executes inside the CLR is referred to as managed code. Code that executes outside its boundaries is called unmanaged code.

USER INTERFACE AND WINDOWS FORM

BASE CLASS LIBRARIES

COMMON LANGUAGE RUNTIME

.

Net framework

The Base class libraries

It provides hundreds of prewritten services that user uses. These classes are the building blocks for .NET applications. Every language had its own unique supporting libraries, accessible only from that particular language. This library includes UI, Data, Web, Diagonostic, and Ado.

User interface and Win forms

This includes ASP.net pages or windows forms to interact with the application.

System Requirements

System Requirements

In order to install the .NET Framework on your machine, Microsoft recommends the following system configuration:

Processor: Minimum Pentium II-450Mhz (Pentium III-650Mhz recommended).

Operating System: Windows 2000 (Server or Professional), Windows XP, or Windows NT 4.0 Server.

Memory: 96 MB (128 MB recommended) for Windows 2000 Professional, 192MB (256

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MB recommended) for Windows 2000 server.

Hard drive: 500MB free on the drive where the OS is installed (usually C:\) and 2.5 Gigs free on the installation drive (where VS.NET will be installed)..

An introduction to C# (pronounced "C sharp")

C# (pronounced "C sharp") is a simple, modern, object-oriented, and type-safe programming language. It will immediately be familiar to C and C++ programmers. C# combines the high productivity of Rapid Application Development (RAD) languages.

Visual C# .NET is Microsoft's C# development tool. It includes an interactive development environment, visual designers for building Windows and Web applications, a compiler, and a debugger. Visual C# .NET is part of a suite of products, called Visual Studio .NET, that also includes Visual Basic .NET, Visual C++ .NET, and the JScript scripting language. All of these languages provide access to the Microsoft .NET Framework, which includes a common execution engine and a rich class library. The .NET Framework defines a "Common Language Specification" (CLS), a sort of lingua franca that ensures seamless interoperability between CLS-compliant languages and class libraries. For C# developers, this means that even though C# is a new language, it has complete access to the same rich class libraries that are used by seasoned tools such as Visual Basic .NET and Visual C++ .NET. C# itself does not include a class library

Features of c: -

As a new programming language following features made this different from other languages: -

Simple

Type safe

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Versioning: making new version of an application from existing one to work.

Follows all OOPs paradigm

Automatic garbage collection

Flexible

What c has added?

As compared to c++, following concepts are added into c: - Assemblies

Versioning

Indexers

Boxing

Delegates

Application Types in C#

Application Types in C#

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Class Library

Console Application

ASP.NET Web Application

ASP.NET Web Service

ASP.NET Mobile Web Application Empty Project Empty Web Project

Creates a project for creating classes that can be used in other applications.

Creates a Visual C# application with a command-line interface. Creates a Visual C# application with a Web user interface. Creates an XML Web service with Visual C# that other applications can access. Creates an application viewable on PDAs, cell phones, and other mobile devices. Creates an empty project for creating a local application. Creates an empty project for creating a Web application.

To Begin With C# Programming

To Begin With C# Programming

C# is a language that provides Simplicity of Visual Basic

Power of C++

Concentrate on the high-value tasks;

Portability of Java

First C# program to display “hello, world “ on the console

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using System; class Hello { static void Main () { Console.WriteLine("hello, world"); } }

The source code for a C# program is typically stored in one or more text files with a file extension of .cs, as in hello.cs. Using the command-line compiler provided with Visual Studio .NET, such a program can be compiled with the command-line directive

csc hello.cs , which produces an application, named hello.exe. The output produced by this application when it is run is:

hello, world
hello, world

The using System; directive references a namespace called System that is provided by the Microsoft .NET Framework class library. This namespace contains the Console class referred to in the Main method. Namespaces provide a hierarchical means of organizing the elements of one or more programs. A "using" directive enables unqualified use of the types that are members of the namespace. The "hello, world" program uses Console. WriteLine as shorthand forSystem.Console.WriteLine.

The Main method is a member of the class Hello. It has the static modifier, and so it is a method on the class Hello rather than on instances of this class. The entry point for an application — the method that is called to begin execution — is always a static method named Main. The "hello, world" output is produced using a class library. The language does not itself provide a class library. Instead, it uses a class library that is also used by Visual Basic .NET and Visual C++.NET.

The program does not use a global method for Main. Methods and variables are not supported at the global level; such elements are always contained within type declarations (e.g., class and struct declarations).

C# language does not use either "::" or "->" operators. The "::" is not an operator at all, and the "->" operator is used in only a small fraction of programs — those that employ unsafe code. The separator "." is used in compound names such as Console. WriteLine.

The program does not contain forward declarations. Forward declarations are never needed, as declaration order is not significant. C# does not use #include to import program text. Dependencies among programs are handled symbolically rather than

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textually. This approach eliminates barriers between applications written using multiple languages ..

.NET Type

TYPE:

C# supports two kinds of types: value types and reference types. Value types include simple types (e.g., char, int, and float), enum types, and struct types. Reference types include class types, interface types, delegate types, and array types.

Value types differ from reference types in that variables of the value types directly contain their data, whereas variables of the reference types store references to objects. With reference types, it is possible for two variables to reference the same object, and thus possible for operations on one variable to affect the object referenced by the other variable. With value types, the variables each have their own copy of the data, and it is not possible for operations on one to affect the other. The example

The example using System; class Class1 { public int Value = 0; } class Test { static void Main () { int val1 = 0; int val2 = val1; val2 = 123; Class1 ref1 = new Class1(); Class1 ref2 = ref1; ref2.Value = 123; Console.WriteLine("Values: {0}, {1}", val1, val2); Console.WriteLine("Refs: {0}, {1}", ref1.Value, ref2.Value); } }

The output produced is

Values: 0, 123 Refs: 123, 123

The lines

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Console.WriteLine ("Values: {0}, {1}", val1, val2); Console.WriteLine ("Refs: {0}, {1}", ref1. Value, ref2. Value);

The first argument is a string, which may contain numbered placeholders like {0} and {1}. Each placeholder refers to a trailing argument with {0} referring to the second argument, {1} referring to the third argument, and so on. Before the output is sent to the console, each placeholder is replaced with the formatted value of its corresponding argument

Developers can define new value types through enum and struct declarations, and can define new reference types via class, interface, and delegate declarations.

Eliminating the Time Wasters

The Time-wasters will surround you all the sides and will tear away at your minutes and hours, holding the back from producing a critical results which are vital to the success in the career.

Eliminate a time wasters in life;

The Law of an Excluded Alternative;

Identify a major time-wasters;

Practical ways to overcome and avoid them if possible.

Predefined Reference Types

Predefined Reference Types

The predefined reference types are object and string. The type object is the ultimate base type of all other types. The type string is used to represent Unicode string values. Values of type string are immutable.

Object The ultimate base type of all other types object o = null;

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string String type; a string is a sequence of Unicode characters string s = "hello";

Predefined value types

The predefined value types include signed and unsigned integral types, floating-point types, and the types bool, char, and decimal. The signed integral types are sbyte, short, int, and long; the unsigned integral types are byte, ushort, uint, and ulong; and the floating-point types are float and double.

Eliminate a time wasters in life;

The Law of an Excluded Alternative;

Identify a major time-wasters;

Practical ways to overcome and avoid them if possible.

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sbyte 8-bit signed integral type sbyte val = 12;

short 16-bit signed integral type short val = 12;

int 32-bit signed integral type int val = 12;

long 64-bit signed integral type long val1 = 12; long val2 = 34L;

byte 8-bit unsigned integral type byte val1 = 12;

ushort 16-bit unsigned integral type ushort val1 = 12;

uint 32-bit unsigned integral type uint val1 = 12;

float Single-precision floating point type float val = 1.23F;

double Double-precision floating point type double val1 = 1.23;

double val2 = 4.56D;

Bool

The bool type is used to represent Boolean values: values that are either true or false. The inclusion of bool makes it easier to write self-documenting code, and also helps eliminate the all-too-common C++ coding error in which a developer mistakenly uses "=" when "==" should have been used. In C#, the example

int i =…; F (i); if (i = 0) // the test should be (i == 0) G();

Boolean type; a bool value is either true or false bool val1 = true; bool val2 = false;

char

The char type is used to represent Unicode characters. A variable of type char represents a single 16-bit Unicode character. Character type; a char value is a Unicode character char val = 'h';

Decimal

The decimal type is appropriate for calculations in which rounding errors caused by floating point representations are unacceptable. Common examples include financial calculations such as tax computations and currency conversions. The decimal type provides 28 significant digits.

Precise decimal type with 28 significant digits decimal val = 1.23M;

Each of the predefined types is shorthand for a system-provided type. For example, the keyword int refers to the struct System.Int32. As a matter of style, use of the keyword is favored over use of the complete system type name.

Two expressions of type int are considered equal if they represent the same integer value. Two expressions of type object are considered equal if both refer to the same object, or if both are null. Two expressions of type string are considered equal if the string instances have identical lengths and identical characters in each character position, or if both are null.

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Differences Between Values Types and Reference Types.

The following table shows some of the differences between values types and reference types.

Value types

Allocated on stack

A value type variable contains the data itself

When we copy a value type variable to another one, the actual data is copied and each variable can be independently manipulated.

integer, float, boolean, double etc are value types.

struct is value type.

Data types in C# and .NET

Data types in C# and .NET

Reference types

Allocated on heap

Reference type variable contains the address of memory location where data is actually stored

When copying a reference type variable to another variable, only the memory address is copied. Both variables will still point to the same memory location, which means, if we change one variable, the value will be changed for the other variable too.

string and object are reference types.

Classes and interfaces are reference types.

Data Types are the basic building block of any language. Microsoft has tried to standardise the data types in .NET framework by introducing a limited, fixed set of types that can be used to represent almost anything in programming world.

C++ was very rich in data types, but that leads to confusion too. Especially, when we write components that may be consumed by applications written in other platforms, we have to make sure the types used are compatible with other platforms too!

NET types start from a clean slate. All .NET languages share the same types. So, they are all compatible and no worries. This means, we can call C# code from VB.NET and vice versa, without worrying about type conversions.

NET data types are either structures or classes, part of the System namespace. For example, the following data types are implemented as struct in .NET:

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Int16

Int32

Double

(String is implemented as a class in .NET.) If you are not very familiar with struct and class, don't worry about it. We can just use them as if they are simple data types.

Here is how we can declare variables of type Int, Double and String:

Int16 age, employee Number;

Double salary;

String name, address;

we can use any of the .NET data types directly in any .NET language - in C#, VB.NET or xyz. NET. But in addition to the .NET types, each language provides a set of primitive types, which map to the corresponding types in .NET class library. This is why we may see some people use string and some others use String. There is no big difference. string is a primitive data type in C# and String is the corresponding class in .NET class library. The string in C# is mapped to the class in .NET class library. So, whether we use string or String, there is no real difference.

Data Types in C# and the corresponding class/struct in .NET class library

The following list shows the list of data types available in C# and their corresponding class/struct in .NET class library.

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C# Data type

Mapped to .NET class/struct

sbyte

System.SByte

byte

System.Byte

char

System.Char

float

System.Single

decimal

System.Decimal

double

System.Double

ushort

System.UInt16

short

System.Int16

uint

System.UInt32

int

System.Int32

ulong

System.UInt64

long

System.Int64

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Classes and Object Model in .NET

Classes and Object Model in .NET

We will start with an introduction to what is object oriented programming, how to write simple classes, creating objects etc.

What is a class’?

In modern object oriented programming, large computer programs are divided into several 'classes'. Typically, a large project will have several hundred classes. A class represents an entity in a program.

For example, if we are doing a small program called calculator, we will typically have a single (or more) class called 'Calculator' .The class will have several ‘methods’ that will do the functionality of the class

So, our calculator may have methods like the following:

Add ()

Subtract ()

Multiply ()

Divide () Here is a sample calculator class, written in C# :

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using System;

public class Calculator { public int Add(int value1, int value2) { return value1 + value2; }

public int Subtract(int value1, int value2) { return value1 - value2; }

public int Multiply(int value1, int value2) { return value1 * value2; }

public int Divide(int value1, int value2) { return value1 / value2; } }

Methods

Any class in an object-oriented language has method and property members. These are the places where the actual business logic or functionality is written and executed. Method is object-oriented item of any language. All C# programs are constructed from a number of classes and almost all the classes will contain methods. A class when instantiated is called an object. Object-oriented concepts of programming say that the data members of each object represent its state and methods represent the object behavior.

Method Signature in C#: Each method is declared as follows:

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Return-type methodname ( Parameterslist );

For better understanding of methods let consider following example. We have a class Man. It can have many fields like that:

public class Man { public Man(){} private int m_old; private string m_name; public string WhatIsYourName() { Console.WriteLine(m_name); return m_name; } public string HowOldAreYou() { Console.WriteLine(m_old.ToString()); return m_old; } }

The private members m_old and m_name define some state of objects that can be created as instances of our class. Also the class Man has two methods, which serve some of our requests. Method string WhatIsYourName() writes current object?s name to the console and returns it, and the second one similar to first return age of man and also writes an output to the console

The return type in the example above returns strings, which is an in-built data type. The methods can also return any generic C# type or any custom types created by us.

Passing Parameters to Methods in C#:

The input parameters can be passed in two ways.

Value type

Reference type

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Output Parameters in Methods:

The return values in any function will be enough for any one if only one value is needed. But in case a function is required to return more than one value, then output parameters are the norm. This is not supported in C++ though it can be achieved by using some programming tricks. In C# the output parameter is declared with the keyword out before the data type. A typical example is as follows.

public void CalculateBirthYear(ref int year, out int birthyear) { int b = year - m_old; Console.WriteLine("Birth year is {0}",b); birthyear = b; return; }

Strictly speaking there is no difference between ref and out parameters. The only difference is that the ref input parameters need an input value and the out parameters don?t.

Variable arguments in C#:

The C# language supports variable arguments through a keyword called params. A typical example for the declaration of a function with variable argument signature is as follows.

Public void functionName(int a, params int[] varParam);

Property in C# class

Property in C# class

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How do we access member variables of any class from outside the class? In most of the languages including C++, we will make the member variables public so that we can create an instance of the class and directly access the public fields, as shown below:

using System; class Hello { static void Main () { Console.WriteLine("hello, world"); } }

The above class has one public field: color. We may access this field from outside the class as shown below:

Car car = new Car ();

car. Color = "red"; string color = car.color;

But this is the old way ! This would still work with C#, but the suggested approach is to use "Property" instead of directly accessing member variables. The following code snippet shows how to create "Property" in a class.

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public class Car { // private fields. private string color;

// constructor public Car() { }

public string Color { get { return color; // return the value from privte field. } set { color = value; // save value into private field. } } }

The above class has one private field - color. Then we have one "Property" called 'Color', which is used to represent the private field. Note that the field is private and the Property is public. (We have used the same name with upper/lower case to represent the 'Property' and 'field', but we may give any name we want.)

Each property has two parts:

get

set The get part is executed when we access the value of the Property as shown below:

Car car = new Car();

string color = car.Color;

When executed, the above get accessor will return the value stored in the field 'color'. The set part is executed when we assign a value to the Property as shown below:

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Car car = new Car();

car.Color = "RED";

When executed, the above set accessor will assign the value "RED" to the private field 'color'. (Note that 'value' is a keyword, which will have the value assigned to it.)

So, what is the difference ?

On the first look, there is no difference! We can achieve the same behaviour by writing

2 different methods ( like SetColor(

...),

GetColor() ).

First advantage of using property is, code looks cleaner than having 2 separate methods. We can simply call a property as if it was a field in the class.

Well, then we may ask why make it 2 methods, we can make it a public field, so that we can access it by creating an instance of the class.

The main advantage over using a Property instead of a public field is, with the property, we will get a chance to write few lines of code (if we want) in the get and set accessors. So, we can perform some validation or any other logic before returning any values or assigning to the private field. See the modified class below:

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public class Car { // private fields. private string color;

// constructor public Car() { }

public string Color { get { if ( color == "" ) return "GREEN"; else return color; } set { if ( value == "" ) thrown new Exception ("Wrong value."); else color = value; } } }

Let us analyze the get part first. Here we are checking whether there is a valid value in the field 'color' before we return the value. If it is empty, we are getting a chance to return a default value 'Green'. This way, we can make sure that whoever calls the property 'Color' will always get a valid color, never an empty string.

In the set part, we are doing a validation to make sure we always assign a a valid value to our field. If someone assign an empty string to the 'Color' property, he will get an exception (error).

Car car = new Car();

car.Color = "";

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The above code will throw an error because we are trying to assign an empty string and the set accessor will throw an error if it an empty string. This way, we can make sure that we allow only valid values to be assigned.

So, i guess now you would appreciate the purpose of "Property". So, no more public fields! Always have private fields and write public properties as wrapper for them if required to expose them to outside the class.

Arrays

Arrays

C# arrays are reference types. The size of the array is not part of the array type

int[] row; int[,] grid;
int[] row;
int[,] grid;

Array instances are created using the new keyword. Array elements are default initialised to zero (enums and numeric types), false (bool), or null (reference types).

row = new int[42]; grid = new int[9,6];

Array instances can be initialised:

int[] row = new int[4]{ 1, 2, 3, 4 }; // longhand int[] row = { 1, 2, 3, 4 }; // shorthand row = new int[4]{ 1, 2, 3, 4 }; // okay row = { 1, 2, 3, 4 }; // compile time error

Array indexes start at zero and all array accesses are bounds checked (IndexOutOfRangeException). All arrays implicitly inherit from the System.Array class. This class brings array types into the CLR and provides some handy properties and methods:

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namespace System

{ public abstract class Array : . ..

{

... public int Length { get {

...

} }

public int Rank { get {

} }

... public int GetLength(int rank) {

...

}

public virutal IEnumerator GetEnumerator() { ... } }

...

}

What are Jagged Arrays in C#?

A special type of array is introduced in C#. A Jagged Array is an array of an array in which the length of each array index can differ.

Example: A Jagged Array can be used is to create a table in which the lengths of the rows are not same. This Array is declared using square brackets ( [ ] ) to indicate each dimension.

The following code demonstrates the creation of a two-dimensional jagged array.

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Class Jagged { public static void Main() { int [][] jagged=new int [3][]; jagged[0]=mew int[4] jagged[1]=mew int[3] jagged[2]=mew int[5] int I; ‘Storing values in first array for (I=0;I<4;I++)

jagged[0][I]=I;

‘Storing values in second array

for( I=0;I<3;I++)

jagged[1][I]=I;

‘Storing values in third array

for(I=0;I<5;I++)

jagged[2][I]=I;

‘Displaying values from first array

for (I=0;I<4;I++)

Console.WriteLine(jagged[0][I])

‘Displaying values from second array for (I=0;I<3;I++)

Console.WriteLine(jagged[1][I])

‘Displaying values from third array

for(I=0;I<5;I++)

Console.WriteLine(jagged[2][I])

}

}

The element type of an array cans itself be an array creating a so-called “ragged” array. Ragged arrays are not CLS compliant. We can use a foreach statement to iterate through a ragged array or through a rectangular array of any rank:

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class ArrayIteration { static void Main() { int[] row = { 1, 2, 3, 4 }; foreach (int number in row) { ... } int[,] grid = { { 1, 2 }, { 3, 4 } }; foreach (int number in grid) { ... } int[][] ragged = { new int[2]{1,2}, new int[4]{3,4,5,6} }; foreach (int[] array in ragged) { foreach (int number in array) { ... } } } }

Method Overloading

Method Overloading

In complex applications written in C#, we may need many methods which do essentially similar functions but are just different enough to be considered unique. For example, we may have to calculate a person's tax liability and would need to implement a method for doing this calculation in our application program. However, there are many different rules when it comes to tax calculations and they vary throughout the world. While there may be many rules, one basic equation stays the same: Your net income equals your gross income minus a computed tax amount. We would probably have to implement different methods for each type of tax calculation. And, we could give each method a unique name such as TaxCalc1, TaxCalc2, TaxCalc3, etc. But wouldn't it be nice to just name the method TaxCalc and pass different arguments to it based on the computation desired?

Syntax:

How does C# know which method to call? It's easy. It knows which method to invoke based on the number and type of arguments passed to it. This is also referred to as the signature of the method. If C# sees you are calling TaxCalc with four arguments, then it will call that method with four receiving arguments. The methods are all very similar however they are differ by the number of arguments used in the tax calculation.

Caveat

It is important to remember that C# determines which method to call based upon the method's signature. If you were to define two methods with the same name and the same number and type of passed arguments, you would get a compile-time error .

However, we can have two methods with the same name and the same number of arguments as long as the argument types differ.

Method overloading is a powerful concept in C# in that it helps to simplify code reusability and clarity. If our example method of TaxCalc was placed in a .dll file somewhere, we would only have to remember that I have to call TaxCalc and only fill in the appropriate arguments to pass.

Net C# Tutorial Namespaces

Net C# Tutorial Namespaces

A Namespace in Microsoft .Net is like containers of objects. They may contain unions, classes, structures, interfaces, enumerators and delegates. Main goal of using namespace in .Net is for creating a hierarchical organization of program. In this case a developer does not need to worry about the naming conflicts of classes, functions, variables etc., inside a project.

In Microsoft .Net, every program is created with a default namespace. This default namespace is called as global namespace. But the program itself can declare any number of namespaces, each of them with a unique name. The advantage is that every namespace can contain any number of classes, functions, variables and also namespaces etc., whose names are unique only inside the namespace. The members with the same name can be created in some other namespace without any compiler complaints from Microsoft .Net.

To declare namespace C# .Net has a reserved keyword namespace. If a new project is created in Visual Studio .NET it automatically adds some global namespaces. These

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namespaces can be different in different projects. But each of them should be placed under the base namespace System. The names space must be added and used through the using operator, if used in a different project.

using System;

namespace OutNamespace { namespace WorkNamespace { /// can be placed some classes, structures etc. } }

this example we create two namespaces. These namespaces have hierarchical structure. We have some outer one named OutNamespace and the inner one called WorkNamespace. The inner namespace is declared with a C# .Net class WorkItem.

Eliminating the Time Wasters

The Time-wasters will surround you all the sides and will tear away at your minutes and hours, holding the back from producing a critical results which are vital to the success in the career.

Eliminate a time wasters in life;

The Law of an Excluded Alternative;

Identify a major time-wasters;

Practical ways to overcome and avoid them if possible.

Interfaces

Interfaces

An Interface is a reference type and it contains only abstract members. Interface's members can be Events, Methods, Properties and Indexers. But the interface contains only declaration for its members. Any implementation must be placed in class that realizes them. The interface can't contain constants, data fields, constructors,

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destructors and static members. All the member declarations inside interface are implicitly public.

Defining an Interface:

Let us look at a simple example for c# interfaces. In this example interface declares base functionality of node object.

interface INode { string Text { get; set; } object Tag { get; set; } int Height { get; set; } int Width { get; set; } float CalculateArea(); }

The above INode interface has declared a few abstract properties and function which should be implemented by the derived classes.

Sample for Deriving a class using a C# .Net interface

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public class Node : INode { public Node() {} public string Text { get { return m_text; } set { m_text = value; } }

private string m_text; public object Tag { get { return m_tag; } set { m_tag = value; } }

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private object m_tag = null; public int Height { get { return m_height; } set { m_height = value; } } private int m_height = 0; public int Width { get { return m_width; } set { m_width = value;

} } private int m_width = 0; public float CalculateArea() {

if((m_width<0)||(m_height<0))

return 0; return m_height*m_width; } }

Now the above code has created a c# class Node that inherits from INode c# interface and implement all its members. A very important point to be remembered about c# interfaces is, if some interface is inherited, the program must implement all its declared members. Otherwise the c# compiler throws an error.

The above code was a simple example of c# interface usage. Now this has to be followed with some advanced details of interface building in C# .Net. The previous example used only names of methods or properties that have the same names as in interface. But there is another alternative method for writing the implementation for

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the members in class. It uses full method or property name .

Multiple Inheritance using C# interfaces:

Next feature that obviously needs to be explained is multiple inheritance using c# interfaces. This can be done using child class that inherits from any number of c# interfaces. The inheritance can also happen with a combination of a C# .Net class and c# interfaces. Now let us see a small piece of code that demonstrate us multiple inheritance using only interfaces as parent data types

class ClonableNode : INode,ICloneable { public object Clone() { return null; } // INode members }

The above example created a class ClonableNode. It implements all the functionality of INode interface in the same way as it was done in Node class. Also it realizes Clone method only one item of IClonable interface of .NET library.

is Operator for C# .Net interfaces -

At last a new C# operator that can be used to define that class should be explained. It is the “ is “ operator. Look at the following piece of code:

if(nodeC is INode) Console.WriteLine("nodeC is object of INode type"); else Console.WriteLine("nodeC isn't object of INode type");

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In example nodeC object was created as ClonableNode type, but when we run program "if operator" returns true. It means that nodeC also is of INode type.

Delegates in C#

Delegates in C# .Net:

If we look at C++ there is a feature called callback function. This feature uses Pointers to Functions to pass them as parameters to other functions. Delegate is a similar feature but it is more type safe, which stands as a stark contrast with C++ function pointers. A delegate can hold reference/s to one more more functions and invoke them as and when needed.

A delegate needs the method's name and its parameters (input and output variables) when we create a delegate. But delegate is not a standalone construction. it's a class. Any delegate is inherited from base delegate class of .NET class library when it is declared. This can be from either of the two classes from System.Delegate or System. MulticastDelegate.

If the delegate contains a return type of void, then it is automatically aliased to the type of System.MulticastDelegate. This can support multiple functions with a += operator. If the delegate contains a non-void return type then it is aliased to System. Delegate class and it cannot support multiple methods.

Let us have a look at the following sample code.

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class Figure { public Figure(float a, float b, float c) { m_xPos = a; m_yPos = b; m_zPos = c; } public void InvertX() { m_xPos = - m_xPos; } public void InvertY() { m_yPos = - m_yPos; } public void InvertZ() { m_zPos = - m_zPos; } private float m_xPos = 0; private float m_yPos = 0; private float m_zPos = 0; }

Now, we have a class named Figure and it has three private fields that use to store position and three methods to invert this position by every axis. In main class we declare delegate as follows:

public delegate void FigureDelegate();

And now in the main function we should use it like this:

Figure figure = new Figure(10,20,30); FigureDelegate fx = new FigureDelegate(figure.InvertX); FigureDelegate fy = new FigureDelegate(figure.InvertY); FigureDelegate fz = new FigureDelegate(figure.InvertZ); MulticastDelegate f_del = fx+fy+fz;

In this example we create three delegates of FigureDelegate type and attach to these elements our three methods from Figure class. Now every delegate keeps the address

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of the attached function. The last line of code is very interesting, here we create a delegate of base type (MulticastDelegate) and attach three of our already created delegates. As all our methods are of void return type they are automatically of type MutlticastDelegate and a MulticastDelegate can support multiple methods invocation also. Hence we can write

Figure figure = new Figure(10,20,30); FigureDelegate fMulti = new FigureDelegate(figure.InvertX); fMulti += new FigureDelegate(figure.InvertY); fMulti();

Events in C# .Net

Events in C# .Net:

Delegate usefulness does not just lie in the fact that it can hold the references to functions but in the fact that it can define and use function names at runtime and not at compile time. A large goal of design delegates is their applicability in events model of .Net. Events are the actions of the system on user manipulations (e.g. mouse clicks, key press, timer etc.) or any event triggered by the program. To understand the usage of delegates for event model, the previous examples are used here. We should add to our Figure class next things:

public delegate void FigureHandler(string msg); public static event FigureHandler Inverted; public void InvertZ() { m_zPos = - m_zPos; Inverted("inverted by z-axis"); }

Now we have a delegate declared and event that uses this delegate's type. In every function we should call our event. The next code snippet should explain it clearly

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static void Main(string[] args) { Figure figure = new Figure(10,20,30); Figure.Inverted+=new Test.Figure.FigureHandler(OnFigureInverted); figure.InvertX(); figure.InvertZ(); } private static void OnFigureInverted(string msg) { Console.WriteLine("Figure was {0}",msg); }

So, in the main function we should create an object of figure class and attach event handler to the method OnFigureInverted. And when we call any of invert methods the event is fired and it calls our event handler. The application will print the following string into the console: Figure was inverted by x-axis Figure was inverted by z-axis .

Reflection

Reflection

Reflection is one of the features of .Net framework and has greater importance during the development of large applications. In brief it is a powerful way of collecting and manipulate information present in application's assemblies and its metadata. Metadata contain all the Type information used by the application. The ability to obtain information at runtime also makes it even more advantageous. When reflection is used along with system.type, it allows the developer to get the valuable information about all the types and about the assemblies. We can even create the instances and then invoke various types that are used across the application.

Reflection is the ability to find out information about objects, the application details (assemblies), its metadata at run-time

This allows application to collect information about itself and also manipulate on itself. It can be used effectively to find all the types in an assembly and/or dynamically invoke methods in an assembly. This includes information about the type, properties, methods and events of an object and to invoke the methods of object Invoke method can be used too. With reflection we can dynamically create an instance of a type, bind the type to an existing object, or get the type from an existing object and invoke its methods or access its fields and properties. If Attributes (C#) are used in application, then with help of reflection we can access these attributes. It can be even used to emit Intermediate Language code dynamically so that the generated code can be executed directly.

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How to use Reflection in our applications?

System.Reflection namespace contains all the Reflection related classes. These classes are used to get information from any of the class under .NET framework. The Type class is the root of all reflection operations. Type is an abstract base class that acts as means to access metadata though the reflection classes. Using Type object, any information related to methods, implementation details and manipulating information can be obtained. The types include the constructors, methods, fields, properties, and events of a class, along with this the module and the assembly in which these information are present can be accessed and manipulated easily.

As mentioned earlier, we can use reflection to dynamically create an instance of any type, bind the type to an existing object, or get the type from an existing object. Once this is done appropriate method can be invoked, access the fields and properties. This can be done by specifying the Type of object or by specifying both assembly and Type of the object that needs to be created. By this the new object created acts like any other object and associated methods, fields and properties can be easily accessed. With reflection we can also find out about various methods associated with newly created object and how to use these object. To find out the attributes and methods associated with an object we can use the abstract class MemberInfo, this class is available under the namespace System.Reflection.

Exception Handling

Exception Handling

Practically any program including c# .net can have some amount of errors. They can be broadly classified as compile-time errors and runtime errors. Compile-time errors are errors that can be found during compilation process of source code. Most of them are syntax errors. Runtime errors happen when program is running.

It is very difficult to find and debug the run-time errors. These errors also called exceptions. Rules of good coding style say that program must be able to handle any runtime error. Exception generates an exception call at runtime. Exceptions in C# can be called using two methods:

Using the throw operator. It call the manage code anyway and process an exception.

If using the operators goes awry, it can generate an exception.

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Different Types of Exceptions

C# language uses many types of exceptions, which are defined in special classes. All of them are inherited from base class named System.Exception. There are classes that process many kinds of exceptions: out of memory exception, stack overflow exception, null reference exception, index out of range exception, invalid cast exception, arithmetic exception etc. This c# tutorial deals with DivideByZero c# exception and custom classes in c# exceptions.

C# has defined some keywords for processing exceptions. The most important are try, catch and finally.

The first one to be known is the try operator. This is used in a part of code, where there exists a possibility of exception to be thrown. But operator ?try? is always used with the operators: catch and finally.

See the following example of handling a simple exception in c#.

// try catch exception int zero = 0; try { int div = 100/zero; } catch(DivideByZeroException) { Console.WriteLine("Division by zero exception passed"); }

This code in runtime throws a DivideByZeroException and writes some message through the console. But if you want to release some resources that were created you must use try ? finally construction. Finally will be called even if there were no exceptions raised.

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Bitmap bit = null; // try finally exception try { bit = new Bitmap(100,100); } finally { bit.Dispose(); Console.WriteLine("bitmap is disposed"); }

In the similar way we can use try ? catch ? finally construction.

Some larger projects might have a requirement of creating their own custom exception classes. Let us try to create class that validates email address. It will validate for the ? @? symbol. Please have a look on the following piece of code:

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public class TextException : Exception { public TextException() : base() { }

public TextException(string message) : base(message) { } }

public class MailValidator { MailValidator() { }

private static char symbol = '@';

public static void TestEnteredMail(string mailAddress) {

if(mailAddress.IndexOf(symbol)==-1)

{ Console.WriteLine("The string entered is not a valid email address"); throw(new TextException()); } } }

Here were created a C# .Net TextException class that inherits from System.Exception class of .NET class library. Actually it does nothing, but there is an additional class MailValidator. It has TestEnteredMail method that raises a TextException. Now look at usage of it in Main function.

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try { MailValidator.TestEnteredMail(Console.ReadLine()); } catch(TextException) { Console.WriteLine("Exception was passed"); }

So, if user enters mail address without “@” symbol throws an exception.

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