Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2011, 2(1): 142-145

Constraints Perceived by Farmers in Adopting Scientific Dairy Farming Practices in Madhuni district of Bihar
Jitendra umar, Birendra Kumar and *Sanjeev Kumar
District Dairy Development Office, Gopalganj, Bihar, India *Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Rajendra Agriculture University), Banka, Bihar, India
e-mail: sanju_kvk@yahoo.co.in

ABSTRACT
The study was carried out in six villages of Madhubani of Bihar to identify various constraints perceived by dairy farmers in adopting improved dairy farming practices. The data were collected through interview schedule from 150 dairy farmers of study area. The major constraints with respect to breeding were ill equipped AI services, repeat breeding and lack of pedigree bull for natural services, followed by low genetic potential of local animals, poor knowledge of AI services and poor availability of resources to maintain superior breed of milch animals. The main constraints among feeding practices, were inadequate knowledge about proper feeding of dairy animals and under feeding due to limited financial resources. In respect of major management and health care, ill equipped veterinary hospital, lack of awareness and knowledge about the information of vaccination, deworming etc other constraints, were lack of knowledge in making value added milk product, lack of dairy cooperative societies and lack of loan facilities were constraints for dairy farmers. Considering of these constraints, it is suggested that appropriate strategy may be formulated by the dairy development agency for transfer of technology related to improved dairy farming practices in the area. Key words: Dairy farming, Constraints, Scientific practices, Adoption Though, India became the largest milk producing country in the world and their production is growing at around 5% per annum (Department of animal husbandry dairying & fisheries, animal report, 200708). In India, dairying is recognized as an instrument for social and economic development. But, unfortunately inspite of several years of planed efforts, the pace of development is not uniform in different parts of the country. There is serious regional imbalance with respect to production as well as per capita availability and consumption of milk. Even in Bihar, the paces of dairy development are not uniform. Madhubani is one of the district of Bihar, is undeveloped in dairy sector because it was not covered by operation flood programme initiated by government of India. This may also be due to the reason that the milk producers do not follow the improved dairy farming practices at desire level because of number of constraints. Since, 90% of total populations of this district are depended on agriculture and animal husbandry for their livelihood. Hence, development in dairy sector in Madhubani will certainly improves the socio-economic status and quality of life in the area. Keeping in view, the present study was conduct with the specific objective of identifying the constraints perceived by milk producers in adoption of scientific dairy farming practices. Lokaha, Bhakhrain and Lokahi in Madhubani district. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 25 milk producers (dairy farmers) from each village constituting 150 milk producers as total respondents. Open-ended questions were used to ascertain the different constraints as perceived by the farmers in adoption of scientific dairy farming practices. The data collected were compiled, tabulated and analyzed to draw meaningful conclusion. The constraints related to breeding, feeding management and health care etc. were ranked based on the frequency of responses expressed by respondents for each constraint.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Constraints pertaining to scientific breeding practices It is evident form Table 1 that the major constraints (82.66%) whose rank first reported in non-adoption of improved breeding practices, were ill equipped and negligible services at artificial insemination (AI) centres, followed by problem of repeat breeding in dairy cattle (74.66%), whereas (69.33%) respondents realized that lack of pedigrees bulls for natural services and its ranked third. Other constraints were low genetic potential of local animals (65.33%), poor availability of resources to maintain cross breed/ superior of milch animals (61.33%), inadequate knowledge of AI services (58.66%). Our findings were not in concurrence with the observation of Balakrishna (1997), Chaudhary and Intodia (2000), Yedukondalu et al. (2000), Misra and Pal (2003), Dabas et al. (2004) because these areas have

MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was conducted in purposively selected six villages namely Sukki, Ganauli, Bhawanipur,

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A profitable dairy business should not only have genetically high yielder. Chaudhary and Intodia (2000). but also helpful in enhancing milk production and productivity. so that cost of milk production could be minimized and farmers get proper market for their milk with reasonable cost. ill equipped AI centre and repeat breeding problem got support as major constraints as observed by Kumar et al. medicine and other services at least block level hospital of Madhubani. They should also conduct joint training programme to improve the knowledge of farmers about advantages of AI services. The balance ration not only helpful in maintaining proper health.33%). In addition to this. animal husbandry department should also take assistance from scientist of dairy of Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK). Government should also encourage the private sector for opening of AI centre in Madhubani district. are the other major constraints of dairy development in the study area.33%) have inadequate knowledge about proper feeding to milch animals. veterinary and animal husbandry officers. whereas lack of knowledge about scientific dairy management and health care (76. It is therefore. (2009). The present finding repeat breeding was got support as the major constraint as observed by Vyas and Patel (2001). growth and reproduction. Table 1 reveals that majority of farmers (81.33%). better keeping of cross breed cows. poor availability of high cost of compound feed and mineral mixture (72%). in rainy season. non availability of vaccine and medicine at veterinary hospital in Madhubani on due time.info . It is apparent from table 1 that veterinary hospitals were ill equipped with medicine and other essential inputs. followed by under feeding due to limited financial resources (78. Our findings were in close accordance with the most of finding of Pandey (1996). Dabas et al. dairy development department must conduct skilled oriented long term training for production of value added milk products. However. necessary that government as well as NGO (Non-government organization) must take initiative for proper functioning of AI centres of Madhubani district with all essential inputs.66%). animal husbandry department must conduct vaccination/ deworming/ health care programme with the help of scientists of KVK in the study area in order to create awareness as well as improve knowledge among farmers about importance of schedule vaccination. Pal (2006). so that they get more prices from their raw material (milk). In addition to this poor knowledge about clean milk production (72%) and poor housing to dairy animals (69. Thus. 143 www. Due to submersion of most of parts of area of the district during flood.rjas. In addition to this. so that milk production and productivity could be enhanced in the study area. Yedukonadalu et al. most parts of the district are submerged during floods.66%) among the farmers.66%). Constraints related animal management and health care practices Better management and proper health care of dairy animals is important for maintaining higher productivity. so that problems related to breeding could be minimized. It is therefore. Government should take proper action for controlling the high charges taken by particularly government veterinary doctor/staff for performing medical assistance. better functioning of government as well as private AI centre. Animal husbandry department must conduct on-farm trail as well as front-line demonstration (FLD) of high yielding varieties of feed and fodder and conduct related training programme to upgrade their knowledge level in improving feeding practices under the guidelines of concern scientists of Krishi Vigyan Kendra for making low cost balance ration from the available resources. followed by lack of awareness and knowledge about importance of vaccination (80%) among the farmers. necessary that government must take right steps to make available all infrastructures along with sufficient supply of vaccine. Other constraints were poor availability of high yielding varieties of fodder (74. district dairy development officers and scientists of Krishi Vigyan Kendra and other developing agencies must aware the farmers regarding scientific feeding practices to dairy animals through conducting training. 2009. These findings were in close conformity with the observations of Sah (1999). (2004) who have also reported almost similar constraint in adoption of better management practices. Madhubani for conducting animal health camps relevant to breeding aspects. Dabas et al. Misra and Pal (2003). (2001). our finding particularly. The district animal husbandry department must ensure the timely availability of medicine and vaccine in all veterinary hospitals of the district. deworming and health care of dairy animals and also conduct training programme for milk producers of study area about better management of milch animals coupled with importance and techniques of clean milk production. alternate arrangement should be done by the government agencies for ensuring availability of feed and fodder to milch animals. but also should have provision for feeding to milch animals with minimum cost of balance ration for gaining better return. (2000). (2004). while study area had almost negligible in functioning of AI centre of all blocks of Madhubani district. As most of time.Kumar et al. Kumar et al. Besides that. whereas unavailability of feed and fodder during flood (76%) is also one of the major hurdle in the study area for dairy development. Besides this. Podikunju et al. found one of the major hurdle (84%) under the subhead of dairy management and health care. It is therefore. inadequate knowledge and resources for raising fodder crops (61. Constraints related to scientific feeding practices Proper feeding of milch animals is one of the basis for successful dairy farming.

66%) have not knowledge about conversion of milk into value added even indigenous milk products due to that they are not getting more profit from their milk.66 I VI IV II III V V II I IV VII III VI III IV 118 103 98 133 78.66 66. Under feeding due to limited financial resources.66 68. Therefore. Others Lack of dairy cooperative societies Lack of loan facilities and high rate of interest High production cost of milk. lacking facilities for treatment.66 61.00 76. from their raw material (milk). there is need from government or other dairy development agencies to make available all essential infrastructures along with proper supply of technical inputs and services at the same time.33 74.66 69. In addition to this dairy development department must conduct skill-oriented long term training programs for production of value added milk products. animal management and health care through conductivity training programmes.info .33%) and lack of loan facility for dairy animals by bank also creating constraints in adopting dairy as a business.66 76.33 58.Constraints Perceived by Farmers in Adopting Scientific Dairy Farming Table 1 Constraints in adoption of improved dairy farming practices as perceived by respondents (N = 150) Constraints Frequency Percent Rank I Breeding Ill equipped AI centre & negligible services at AI centre. It is also evident from table 1 that majority of respondent (78.66 II III IV I Other constraints As evident from the Table 1 that majority of respondent (88. so that they get more prices.33 80.33 74.33 88.66 78. Veterinary hospitals are ill equipped.66%) have reported that there are negligible dairy cooperative societies working in the study area. Lack of Pedigree bulls for natural service Inadequate knowledge of AI services Low genetic potential of local animals Repeat breeding problems in dairy cattle Poor availability of resources to maintain crossbreed / superior breed of milch animals Feeding Inadequate knowledge about proper feeding of dairy animals Inadequate knowledge for cultivation of fodder crops round the year Poor availability of high yielding variety seeds of fodder. high cost of compound feed and mineral mixture Management and Health care Lack of awareness of deworming of milch animals Lack of awareness & knowledge about importance of vaccination.33 I III VI IV II V II 122 92 112 118 114 108 104 120 126 108 96 115 100 81. 124 104 88 98 112 92 82. government and milk federation must take corrective action for formation of village level cooperative societies. Other constraints are high production cost of milk (65.00 69. feeding. Veterinary and animal husbandry department and dairy development department.00 84. Therefore.00 72.66 65. Keeping in view of above study.rjas. vaccination/ deworming/ health camps/ FLD and on 144 www. medicine etc.66 65. so that farmers get proper market for their milk with reasonable cost.00 64.00 72. Bank of local area should encourages the rural youth for dairy business by easily availability of loans with reasonable interest or providing subsidies to dairy farmers by the dairy development department for promoting dairy business in the study area.33 61. Unavailability of seeds & fodder during floods. KVK of district should try to motivate farmers about the advantages of dairy business and acquaints the farmers about different aspects of scientific breeding. Lack of knowledge in making value added dairy products. Poor knowledge about clean milk production Poor housing to dairy animals Poor knowledge of farmers about scientific animals management and health practice High cost/ charge levied by veterinary staff for performing medical assistance. Poor availability. vaccine. CONCLUSION The present study reveals that there are several constraints in each aspect of improved dairy farming practices in the study area of Madhubani. farmers were not getting proper remuneration for their milk.

Sah U. Pandey A K.rjas. NDRI. Karnal. Indian Dairyman 55(12): 55-59. Karnal. D. Unpublished M. Vyas H U and Patel K F. 2000. Constraints Encountered by Farm Women in Management of Dairy Animal in Southern Rajasthan. Bardhan D and Mustafa S.info . Kateryar K M and Sankhala S. Rural India 64(6): 111-118. Indian Journal of Animal Research 34(2): 116-119. NDRI. Sc. Constraints in Adoption of Dairy Technology by Rural Women in Tarai Area of Uttaranchal. 2004. V. Misra R K and Pal P K. value addition of milk etc. Prospects and Constraints of Dairying in Rural Bengal-A Case Study. Hindustani S. Thesis. Kumar S. Ph. 2000. Raghavendra B V and Rao K Saian. A gender Perspective. government dairy development department should try to establish milk chilling centre at different location of Madhubani district for collection and preservation of milk. farm trails of high yielding varieties of feed and fodder. 2003. so that farmers can be motivated for opting dairy as a business. Thesis. Constraints faced by milk producers in adoption of Dairy Technology. An Analysis of Dairy Animal Breeding and Management Practices in Hill Zone of UP. Indian Journal of Dairy Science 62(2): 131-134. In addition to this. LITERATURE CITED Balakrishna B. 2006. Karnal. thesis. Chaudhary M and Intodia S L. D. Pal S. Thesis. Yedulondalu R. 145 www. Journal of Indian Dairy Science 6(3): 43-48. Unpublished Ph. Evaluation of Dairy Production Practices in Selected Farming System of Karnataka State. 2001. 2001. Indian Dairyman 56(5): 25-28. 1996. Study on Dairy Livestock Feeding and Health Care Practices Among Dairy Enterpreneurs in Burdwan District of West Bengal. If all suggestive measures taken up by government then only the study area will get momentum in dairy sector. 2009. Constraints Perceived by Cattle Owners in Adoption of Modern Cattle Management Practices. NDRI. Indian Dairyman 53(7): 53-57. Sharma F L and Panwar J S. NDRI. Problems & Prospective of Dairy in Medak District of A. 1997. Ph. Constraints perceived by farmers in adopting scientific Dairy farming practices in Banka District of Bihar. Karnal. 1999. P. Podikunju Bindu. D.Kumar et al. Dabas Y P S. A comparative Study of Livestock Rearing System Among Tribal and Non-Tribal in Chotanagpur Region of Bihar.

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