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Spiritual art, Body art, Philosophical


The Human Body shoes (optional) gloves (optional)



Parkour (sometimes abbreviated PK) is a way of conditioning the body and the mind by

learning how to overcome obstacles with speed, efficiency, and agility. Originally

Comparatively. Parkour can be practiced anywhere.2 Video games 9.developed in France.3 Comic books 10 See also 11 References [edit]Overview . the main purpose of the non -competitive sport is to teach participants how to adapt t heir movements to their environment by vaulting. traceurs (parkour practitioners) train to be able to identify and utilize alternate or more efficient paths. while Freerunning employs creativity through the use of tricking moves such as aerial rotations and spins (see below).1 Non-rivalry 4. Parkour is often mistaken for "Freerunning". They are often used interchangeably even though these terms refer to distinct disciplines. Using their surroundings to their advantage.2 Hébert's legacy 3.4 Development in Lisses 4 Philosophy and theories o o 4.2 Freerunning 5 Military training 6 Criticism 7 Movements o 7.3 Belle family 3. Contents [hide] 1 Overview 2 Terminology 3 History o o o o 3.1 Historical precedents 3.1 Film and television 9.1 Basic movements 8 Accessories 9 Popular culture o o o 9. running. the aim of Parkour is to enable the practitioner to move quickly and efficiently past obstacles. but areas dense with obstacles offer many different training opportunities. and jumping. rolling.

[6][7][8] A practitioner of parkour is called a traceur" [t as "traceuse" [t asøz]. [1][2][3] t l l'Adolescence N x it . normally means "trace". t t f l . ffi i ' i l f i l . t e classic obstacle course met od of ]. ithout a trace).A i i D t l t t i i P i ' l t fi t l t titi [ it] t i ti t ' l . l l t l t t i il ti it . or "trail" i. In rench. l i i t t t i i i ti fl l lf ill t f Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance et de t t t  l' t :[ é l i t l Hubert i ti ku ] hey may also be . It deri es from rcours du combattant . [edit]History See also: Timeline of parkour. "traceur" is an adjective ualifying something that leaves a trace or a trail behind it. " "&!% " ! # ' $#   £ £   § ¥ ¡ ¡  ¨   ¨ £ £ § ¤ ©  § ¦ ¡¥ ¡¤ ¢¡   ll li t t f l ti l i i ffi i l i l ffi i t i i j i t ft . [4] i fi t t . t t t t i t . ti t i i t tt i être et durer t i ti i f ' t t ll il l i it A ti t l t it f ff i . t t . deri ed from the Parisian slang form of "tracer" hich means "to hurry" or "to move uickly". ti .At iti l t i . [5] l t t i t i f ft i i "& ( K undé. Al ffi i i f i fl t iti lt i A t . it t e feminine form being hich [10] military training roposed by Georges Hébert. he escaped [9] ey are substanti es deri ed from t e rench erb "tracer".e.

enduring. or to move around.. free running has al ays been there.. where Hébert was stationed.] he Neanderthals. Sr. suffered from a volcanic eruption of Mount Pelée. We pretended we were Ninja warriors". 1902. Hollywood stars and stuntmen such as Douglas airbanks. former naval officer Georges Hébert travelled throughout the world. During a visit to Africa. skillful. Martini ue. It is an ancient art [. oucan does acknowledge the influence of martial arts movies on the development of Parkour: "We also climbed onto the roof of our school. Saint-Pierre. and resistant but yet they had no other tutor in gymnastics but their lives in nature. e didn¶t put it in the box. "their bodies were splendid. he was impressed by the physical development and skills of indigenous tribes that he met:[12] He noted." [12] n May 8.[11] In Eastern martial arts such as Ninjutsu andQing Gong. A "traceur" performing a "passe muraille" [edit]Hébert's legacy Main article: Georges Hébert Before World War I. John iampa and Buster Keaton captured parkour-like moves on film as early as the 1920±40s. movements similar to those of Parkour have been taught for centuries and with a similar aim.[edit]Historical precedents In the film Jump London. flexible. the thing is that no one gave it a name." angible historical precedents may be traced to movie stuntmen and martial arts practitioners. Sebastien oucan states that "Le Parkour has al ays existed. Hébert coordinated the escape and rescue of some . nimble. InJump London. they had to practice the free run. to hunt.. he latter was also an inspiration for the famous on foot chase scenes of Hong Kong stuntman. or to chase. martial artist and actor Jackie han.

equilibrium (balancing). one dominant moral idea: altruism. lifting. developing one s energy and all other facets of action or virility such that all assets. Thus. from childhood to adulthood. that has as its objective: assuring integrated physical development. e eventually developed this ethos into his motto "être fort pour être utile" (" b e strong to be useful"). honor. and reinforced his belief that athletic skill must be combined with courage and altruism. emphasizing aptitudes across all genres of natural e ercise and indispensable utilities (walking. courage. developed by a Swiss architect. jumping.[ ] which is standard in the military trai ning and led to the development of ] developed their obstacle courses known as "parcour s du combattant" and parcours SP". [ Also. e began to define the principles of his own system of physical education and to defined as: " ethodical. French soldiers and firefighters . 2) the proponents of "parcours". bert s teaching continued to e pand. defending and swimming).[ ) 3 ] [edit]Belle famil 0) civilian fitness trails and confidence courses.700 people. increasing organic resistances. an obstacle course. [ ]Inspired by indigenous tribes. coolness. 1) self-defense." [ ] bert set up a "m thode naturelle" session consisting of ten fundamental groups: walking. becoming bert was one of the standard system of French militar y education and training. w illpower. progressive and continuous action. bert became a physical education tutor at the college of Reims in ] 0) France. and honesty Physical sense: muscles and breath uring World War I and World War II. climbing. bo th physical and 1) 0) create various apparatuses and e ercises to teach his "m thode naturelle" [ which he virile. lifting. balancing. running. This e perience had a profound effect on him. running. climbing. swimming. throwing. are mastered. assistance. quadrupedal movement. which are part of three main forces: [    ] Energetic or virile sense: energy. quadrupedal movement. and firmness oral sense: benevolence. throwing. jumping.

strong body. hau Belle. parkour founder. at he New Yorker estival Main articles: Raymond Belle and David Belle aymond Belle was born in Vietnam. Guylain Perriere." In 1997. as [15] aymond). aymond was repatriated to rance and completed his military education in 1958." his. is "the vision of parkour. strong man. and means "strong spirit. You just have to look. At age 19. at the time part of rench Indochina. Yann Hnautra. David left school seeking freedom and action. After the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. harles Perriere.[16] David participated in activities such as martial arts and gymnasticsand sought to apply his athletic prowess for some practical purpose. David Belle. Laurent Piemontesi. His father died during the irst Indochina War and aymond was separated from his mother during the division of Vietnam in 1954. He trained extremely hard mostly to try to win the approval of his father useful in life. David Belle continued his journey with others who [15] would later form the group the Yamakasi. At age 17. endurance". Sébastien Foucan. He was taken by the rench Army in Da Lat and [16] received a military education and training that shaped his character. [edit]Development in Lisses After moving to Lisses commune. his dedication to fitness helped him serve in Paris's regiment of "sapeurs-pompiers" the rench fire service). as he d describes.David Belle. you just have to think. like chil ren. Sébastien oucan noted in Jump London "From then on we developed and really the whole town was there for us.[17] whose name comes from the Lingala language of ongo. He continued to develop his strength and dexterity in order to be [15] aymond had advised him. After the musical showNotre 5 4 . there for parkour. Malik Diouf and Williams Belle created the group Yamakasi.

A man must constantly e ceed his level. but you must not stay there.Dame e Pari .¶ If you¶re not better than you were HH C I H H your mind in order to master the art of parkour. parkour went on to become a widely practiced activity itati E FF D outside of France. It teaches us to touch the world and interact with it. [ [edit]Non-ri alry ay 007 by Parkour. you must go beyond them. and the French [ ] Châu Belle ] 0] ] ] to preserve parkour s . [19] Andy (Animus of Parkour orth Americ a) clarifies it as "a means of reclaiming what it means to be a human being. it gives you the ability to overcome your fears and pains and r eapply this to life as you must be able to control A point has been made about the similarities between the martial arts philosophy acknowledges the influence of Lee s thinking: "There¶s a quote by Bruce Lee that¶s my motto: µThere are no limits. ET portal [ RP A campaign was started on 1 philosophy against sport competition and rivalry. Building-to-building jumps and drops of over a storey became common in media portrayals. If P Q 8 9 7 6 ] The film Yamakasi ( 001). that parkour is "only a state of mind" rather than a set of actions. and emotional obstacles as well as physical barriers. avid Belle the day before. There are plateaus. Over the years. [ C B A A@ B documentary rati Yamakasi were created without Belle and Foucan. Belle and Foucan split up due to money and disagreements over the definition of "l art du d placement". as dedicated practitioners improved their skills. [ 1] In an interview with The ew Y rker. then what are you doing ²what¶s the point?". often leaving people with a slanted view of parkour." [19]"It is as much as a part of truly learning the physical art as well as being able to master the movements." [ of Bruce Lee and Parkour. [ ] In the words of Erwan LeCorre: "Competition pushes people to fight against others for the satisfaction of a crowd and/or the benefits of a few business people by changing its mindset. Belle e plains it is a "type of freedom" or "kind of e pression". because legal accessibility in urban areas is difficult. round -based movements are more common. one that many non -practitioners have never been e posed to. [ [edit]Philosophy eeded] and theories According to Williams Belle. From the Parisian suburbs. Parkour is unique and cannot be a competitive sport unless it ignores its altruistic core of self development. their numbers of moves grew. and that it is about overcoming and adapting to mental G G trains people because he wants "it to be alive" and for "people to use it". instead of being sheltered by it. [ A newer convention of parkour philosophy has been the idea of "human reclamation". It teaches us to move using the natural methods that we should have learned from infancy. the philosophies and theories behind parkour are an integral aspect of the art.

ultimately leading one giant community working and growing to gether. he man who coined the phrase Sébastien Foucan defines freerunning as a discipline [citation needed] for self development." According to LeCorre. as a way to present parkour to the English-speaking world.parkour becomes a sport. [edit]Freerunning Main article: Free running A saut de bras he term "freerunning" was coined during the filming ofJump London. And a new sport will be spread t at may be called parkour. l'art du deplacement. it allows them to be united internationally and forget the social and economical problems which separated them globally. [26] . [6] Acrobatics existed a long time ago before parkour. of following your own way . it will be hard to seriously teach and spread parkour as a non competitive activity. So if youdo acrobatics things on the street with no other goal than showing off. Parkour and Free unning have very little differences. the Yamakasi group deny the differences and say: "parkour. You have to make the difference between what is useful and what is not in emergency situations.. freerunning.. those who truly practice Parkour have the same mind aspect of eac other. but that h [23] won't hold its philosophical essence anymore. the art of movement.[25] He notes "Understand that this form of art has been crea by few ted soldiers in Vietnam to escape or reach: and this is the spirit we'd like parkour to keep." When uestions are raised between the differences of parkour and freerunning. please don't say it's parkour. His dissatisfaction with the limited creativity and self-expression in Parkour was the motivation for Sebastian Foucan to develop a similar but also very different art of movement that became known as freerunning. hen you'll know what is parkour and what is not. the same nine guys originally. he only thing that differs is each individual's way of moving". hey are all movement and they all came from the same place. therefore it brings people to h work together rather than compete. they are all the same thing.

[ ][ 7][ ] Some figures within the parkour community [ 7][ 9][ 0][ 1] agree that this sort of behaviour is not to be encouraged. Often that technique cannot and need not be classified and given a name. e ecutive director of the American Sports edicine Institute. for e ample. Leicester has raised 0. playgrounds. [ ] owever. notes that many of the injuries are not reported. with police forces calling for ` ` Y Y aY jumping off high buildings. on body type. Each obstacle a traceur faces presents a unique challenge. many members in the parkour community encourage pursuing the most scientifically sound method to recovery and future prevention. Concerns have Y Y contradictory to the philosophy of freedom. [ ] They argue that practitioners are needlessly risking damage XY Y practitioners to stay off the rooftops.S.[edit] ilitary training ale. [ 0] Traceurs practice parkour in urban areas 1] inappropriate places. Although efforts are being made to create places for it. angle of approach. offices. speed. most Tracuers do not like the idea as it is such as gyms. The ability to overcome the challenge depends on multiple factors. [ [ W different countries began looking for ways to incorporate parkour into training." but Lanier ohnson. committed Tracuers tend to shy away from defining movement. [ Youth Centre free running club in a free running park/training utility on the park opposite the youth center. [ Y` do occur. most traceurs will take care of their training spots and len Parva. damage of property. parks. [ W X W ] and parkour is slowly being W and the practice in ][ ] The agpie Y b but ] Even when injuries . [edit] [ ] ovements There are fewer pre-defined movements in parkour than in gymnastics. militaries from TU T V S After the attention that parkour received following the film Casi Royal arines hired parkour athletes to train their members. and abandoned structures. Concerns have been raised by law enforcement and fire and rescue teams of the risk in to both themselves and rooftops by practicing at height. as there is no list of "moves". Parkour is about training the body and mind to react to those obstacles appropriately with a technique that is effective. the physical make-up of the obstacle. [ 9] Parkour is not widely practiced in dedicated public facilities such as skateparks.000 Euros to build `Y YY will remove themselves quickly and quietly from a public place if asked. In many cases Y been raised regarding trespassing. military introduced into theUnited States [edit]Criticism arine Corps. The British 7] Colorado Parkour began a project to introduce parkour into the U. American traceur on what they can t control ark Toorock says that injuries are rare "because participants rely not wheels or the icy surfaces of snowboarding and skiing ` W their own hands and feet.

According to avid Belle." Lache Hanging drop. Balance Walking along the crest of an obstacle." Cat Crawl Quadrupedal movement along the crest of an obstacle. is often stressed as the most important technique to learn. or whole footed). ost important are good jumping and landing techniques. [ ] but not necessarily with the same movements or movements ] dc Some movements defined in parkour are: [ Synonym Description French French pronouncation English Équilibre de chat e Lâché [la e] e e ee Franchissement [f e Équilibre [ekilib ] ism ]Z Underbar e e e réception [ es psj ] e e Atterrissage [ate isa ] Landing Bending the knees when toes make contact with ground (never land flat footed. always land on toes and ball of your foot. allowing a traceur to jump from greater heights than those often considered sensible in other forms of acrobatics and gymnastics.effective parkour techniques depend on fast redistribution of body weight and the use of momentum to perform seemingly difficult or impossible body maneuvers at great speed. Also. The roll. literally "balance. used to limit impact after a drop and to carry one s momentum onward. Absorption and redistribution of energy is also an important factor." To hang or swing (on a bar. Jumping or swinging through a gap between obstacles. you need "passements". lâcher literally meaning "to let go. such as body rolls when landing which reduce impact forces on the legs and spine. on a branch) and let . literally "to cross" or "to break through. the practice is to move in such a way that will help you gain the most ground as if escaping or chasing something. if you go from A to B. [edit]Basi cc to be able to get back from B to A. on a wall. espite this. there are many basic versatile and effective techniques that are emphasized for beginners.

this might seem similar to the saut de chat. Passe muraille [pas my aj] f Overcoming a tall structure. Passement Passement assis g Saut de chat [sod a] g Demitour [d mi tu ] Turn Down g Passement [pasm ] Vault. This can refer to almost all hanging/swinging type movements. and encompasses leaping from a position similar to an armjump. Dash vault This vault involves using the hands to move oneself forwards at the end of the vault. often used for an overhang. monkey vault The saut de chat involves diving forward over an obstacle so that the body becomes horizontal. . Speed vault To overcome an obstacle by jumping side-ways first." This move is often used to place yourself hanging from an object in order to shorten a drop or prepare for a jump. opposite to "Static") This movement comes from climbing terminology. such that the body is brought back to a vertical position. One uses both hands to overcome an obstacle by jumping feet first over the obstacle and pushing off with the hands at the end. the wall to transform forward momentum into upward Wallpass. Allegedly David Belle has questioned the effectiveness of this movement. (king) kong vault. Dyno (shortened from "Dynamic[clarification needed] ". Turn vault A vault or dropping movement involving a 180° turn. then grabbing an obstacle usually higher than the initial starting place. usually by use of a step off Pop vault. ready to land. literally "half turn. This movement is used when a simpler movement is not possible. then using the arms to climb onto and over the object. wall hop. Pass To move over an object with one's hand(s) on an object to ease the movement.swing go. wallrun momentum. Thief Lazy vault To overcome an obstacle by using a one-handed vault. Cat pass/jump. then placing one hand on the obstacle to self-right your body and continue running. but reversed. dropping to the ground or to hang from another object. then using the other hand at the end of the vault to push oneself forwards in order to finish the move. pushing off with the hands and tucking the legs. Visually.

the hands gripping the top edge. Gap jump. ready to perform a muscle up. over a gap/distance. cat leap cat grab Drop Literally 'jump to the ground' / 'jump to the floor'. Saut de bras [sodbra] Saut de détente [sod det t] h h Saut de précision [so d presizi ] Precision h Saut de fond [sodf ] h Roulade [ ulad] Roll A forward roll where the hands. rail.Saut de chat inversé Reverse vault A vault involving a 180° rotation such that the traceur's back faces forward as they pass the obstacle. supported by the arms. often called breakfall. or drop down from something. The purpose of the rotation is ease of technique in the case of otherwise awkward body position or loss of momentum prior to the vault. This term can refer to any form of . Static or moving jump from one object to a precise spot on another object. arm jump. jujutsu. branch. After pushing off with the hands in a kong vault. ninjutsu. To jump down. holding the body. It is similar to the basic kaiten or ukemi and it was taken from martial arts such as judo. the body continues past vertical over the object until the feet are leading the body. Kash vault This vault is a combination of two vaults. preventing a painful landing. Used primarily to transfer the momentum/energy from jumps and to minimize impact. The kash vault is then finished by pushing off the object at the end.) into a position where your upper body is above the obstacle. the kong vault and the dash vault. Arm jump To land on the side of an obstacle in a hanging/crouched position. This technique is most often followed with a roll. as in a dash vault. arms and diagonal of the back contact the ground. hapkido and aikido. etc. running jump To jump from one place/object to another. This then allows for you to climb up onto the obstacle and continue. Muscle-up hh Planche [pl ] climb-up To get from a hanging position (wall.

avid Belle notes: "bare feet are the best shoes!" [ [edit] v p p ore e perienced traceurs with stronger feet tend to train barefoot. [ ] t those who do not. There is no equipment required. with good grip. some wear tracksuit bottoms or light shorts. For people that have trouble with kong vaults. the person dives and then rotates their lower body around the obstacle. [citati eeded] which is the best way to feel the environment. Used for shorter to medium obstacles. eeded] Some use thin athletic gloves to protect the 1] .[ Since parkour is closely related to "m thode naturelle". that are generally light. [citati hands. and fle ibility are encouraged. any traceurs think cheaper and easier to replace shoes are much more r ss  Comfortable running shoes. Some traceurs use sweat-bands for ut r ss forearm protection. sleeveless shirt or crop top if anything is worn on the upper body. practical.jumping however. Often abbreviated to "pre" i précision [presizi ] Wall Jump Saut de mur Tic-Tac To step off a wall in order to overcome another obstacle or gain height to grab something Rotary jump Saut de rotation Rotary vault [edit]Accessories Similar to a kong vault. Various sport shoes manu facturers around the world started offering parkour -specific products. preferring to "feel their environment" directly. develop thick 9][ 0] v callouses. Light lower body garment²usually sweatpants. Some parkour artists also use the lightweight "Feiyue" martial arts shoes. practitioners sometimes train barefooted to be able to move efficiently without depending on their gear. although practitioners normally train wearing light casual q clothing: [  ] [ 7] Light upper body garment ²such as T-shirt.

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