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Chapter 1
Linear Equations in Two Variables
 An equation of the form ax + by + c = 0, where a, b, and c are real numbers, such
that a and b are both not zero, is called a linear equation in two variables.
For example:
2x + 3y + 10 = 0, 3x + 7y = 0, etc.
 Equations of the form ax + b = 0 and by + c = 0 are also examples of linear
equations in two variables since they can be written as:
ax + 0.y + b = 0
0.x + by + c = 0
 A solution of a linear equation in two variables, say x and y, is a pair of values for x
and y, which satisfies the equation.
 A linear equation in two variables has infinitely many solutions.
Example:
Find five different solutions of the equation 3x – 7y + 9 = 0.
Solution:
The given equation is 3x – 7y + 9 = 0.
For x = 0, 3 × 0 – 7y + 9 = 0¬ –7y + 9 = 0
¬ 7y = 9
¬ y =
9
7
Similarly, we substitute x = 1, 2, 3, and 4 in the given equation and find the
corresponding values of y.
Thus, the five different solutions of the given linear equation in two variables
are ( )
9 12 15 18
0, , 1, , 2, , 3, , and 4, 3
7 7 7 7
       
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .
.
 The geometrical representation of the equation ax + by + c = 0 is a straight line.
 Equations of lines parallel to the xaxis and yaxis
The graph of the equation x = a is a straight line parallel to the yaxis and is
at a distance of a units from the yaxis. If a > 0, then the line is to the
right of the yaxis; if a < 0, then the line is to the left of the yaxis.
The graph of the equation y = b is a straight line parallel to the xaxis and is
at a distance of b units from the xaxis. If b > 0, then the line is above the
xaxis; if b < 0, then the line is below the xaxis.
Equations of xaxis and yaxis are respectively y = 0 and x = 0.
Note: If the equations x = a and y = b are drawn on the same graph, then the point
of intersection of these two lines will be (a, b).
 A pair of linear equations in two variables can be solved by:
Graphical method or
Algebraic method
 Graphical method
Example:
Solve the following system of linear equations graphically.
x + y + 2 = 0, 2x – 3y + 9 = 0
Solution:
The given equations are:
x + y + 2 = 0 … (1)
2x – 3y + 9 = 0 … (2)
First of all, we find the values of y for two values of x.
Table for the equation x + y + 2 = 0
x 0 –2
y –2 0
Table for the equation 2x – 3y + 9 = 0
x 0 –4.5
y 3 0
By plotting and joining the points (0, –2) and (–2, 0), the line representing equation
(1) is obtained.
By plotting and joining the points (0, 3) and (–4.5, 0), the line representing
equation (2) is obtained.
It is seen that the two lines intersect at point B (–3, 1).
Solution of the given system of equations is (–3, 1).
 If the lines corresponding to the linear equations coincide with each other, then the
system of linear equations has infinite solutions.
 If the lines corresponding to the linear equations are parallel to each other, then the
system of linear equations has no solution.
 Algebraic method
Simultaneous linear equations can be solved algebraically by the following methods:
Elimination by substitution
Example:
Solve the following system of equations by the method of elimination by
substitution.
x – 4y + 7 = 0, 3x + 2y = 0
Solution:
The given equations are
x – 4y + 7 = 0 … (1)
3x + 2y = 0 … (2)
From equation (2), 3x = – 2y
2
3
x y ¬ = ÷
Putting
2
3
x y = ÷ in equation (1), we obtain
2
4 7 0
3
2 12
7
3
14 21
21 3
14 2
2 3
1
3 2
y y
y y
y
y
x
÷ ÷ + =
÷ ÷
¬ = ÷
¬ ÷ = ÷
÷
¬ = =
÷
 
= ÷ = ÷

\ .
Therefore, the required solution is x = –1 and y =
3
2
.
Elimination by equating the coefficients
Example:
Solve the following pair of linear equations by the method of elimination by
equating the coefficients.
7x – 2y = 10, 5x + 3y = 6
Solution:
7x – 2y = 10 … (1)
5x + 3y = 6 … (2)
Multiplying equation (1) by 5 and equation (2) by 7, we obtain
35x – 10y = 50 … (3)
35x + 21y = 42 … (4)
Subtracting equation (4) from (3), we obtain
–31y = 8 ¬ y =
8
31
÷
Now, using equation (1), we obtain
7x = 10 + 2y
1 8 42
10 2
7 31 31
x
÷ ¦ ¹
¬ = + × =
´ `
¹ )
Therefore, the required solution is x =
42
31
and y =
8
31
÷ .
 Solution of linear equations in two variables by the method of
determinants
The solution of the system of linear equations a
1
x + b
1
y = c
1
, a
2
x +b
2
y = c
2
is given
by:
D
D
,
D D
y
x
x y = = , where
1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
D , D and D
x y
a b c b a c
a b c b a c
= = =
This method of obtaining solutions of simultaneous equations by using determinants
is called ‘Cramer’s Rule’.
Example:
Solve the following pair of linear equations by Cramer’s Rule.
x – 5y = 14, 4x + 3y = 10
Solution:
The given equations are:
x – 5y = 14
4x + 3y = 10
Therefore, we have
( )
( )
1 5
D 1 3 5 4 3 20 23
4 3
14 5
D 14 3 5 10 42 50 92
10 3
1 14
D 1 10 14 4 10 56 46
4 10
x
y
÷
= = × ÷ ÷ × = + =
÷
= = × ÷ ÷ × = + =
= = × ÷ × = ÷ = ÷
Therefore, by Cramer’s Rule, we have
D
D
,
D D
92 46
4, 2
23 23
y
x
x y
x y
= =
÷
¬ = = = = ÷
The required solution is x = 4 and y = –2.
 Some pairs of equations, which do not seem to be linear, can be reduced to linear
form by suitable substitutions.
Example:
2 1
1
2 1
5 6
20
2 1
x y
x y
÷ =
÷ ÷
÷ =
÷ ÷
Let x – 2 = u, y – 1 = v. Then, the given system of equations reduces to
2u – v = 1
5u – 6v = 20
Now, we solve these equations for u and v and then find the values of x and y from
the relations x – 2 = u, y – 1 = v
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5 y 3 0 By plotting and joining the points (0.5. Table for the equation x + y + 2 = 0 x 0 –2 y –2 0 Table for the equation 2x – 3y + 9 = 0 x 0 –4. b). By plotting and joining the points (0. A pair of linear equations in two variables can be solved by: Graphical method or Algebraic method Graphical method Example: Solve the following system of linear equations graphically. 0). then the point of intersection of these two lines will be (a. 0). x + y + 2 = 0. . the line representing equation (1) is obtained. 3) and (–4. the line representing equation (2) is obtained.Note: If the equations x = a and y = b are drawn on the same graph. we find the values of y for two values of x. 2x – 3y + 9 = 0 Solution: The given equations are: x+y+2=0 … (1) 2x – 3y + 9 = 0 … (2) First of all. –2) and (–2.
If the lines corresponding to the linear equations coincide with each other. 1). Solution of the given system of equations is (–3. then the system of linear equations has no solution.It is seen that the two lines intersect at point B (–3. 3x + 2y = 0 Solution: The given equations are x – 4y + 7 = 0 … (1) 3x + 2y = 0 … (2) From equation (2). x – 4y + 7 = 0. 3x = – 2y x 2 y 3 2 3 Putting x y in equation (1). If the lines corresponding to the linear equations are parallel to each other. we obtain . 1). Algebraic method Simultaneous linear equations can be solved algebraically by the following methods: Elimination by substitution Example: Solve the following system of equations by the method of elimination by substitution. then the system of linear equations has infinite solutions.
we obtain 7x = 10 + 2y x 1 8 42 10 2 7 31 31 42 8 and y = .2 y 4y 7 0 3 2 y 12 y 7 3 14 y 21 21 3 14 2 23 x 1 32 y Therefore. where D 1 a2 D D b1 b2 . we obtain 35x – 10y = 50 … (3) 35x + 21y = 42 … (4) Subtracting equation (4) from (3). Elimination by equating the coefficients Example: Solve the following pair of linear equations by the method of elimination by equating the coefficients. the required solution is x = –1 and y = . a2x +b2y = c2 is given by: x a Dy Dx .y . Dx c1 c2 b1 b2 and D y a1 a2 c1 c2 . 7x – 2y = 10. 31 31 Therefore. using equation (1). the required solution is x = Solution of linear equations in two variables by the method of determinants The solution of the system of linear equations a1x + b1y = c1. we obtain –31y = 8 y = 8 31 3 2 Now. 5x + 3y = 6 Solution: 7x – 2y = 10 … (1) 5x + 3y = 6 … (2) Multiplying equation (1) by 5 and equation (2) by 7.
can be reduced to linear form by suitable substitutions. by Cramer’s Rule. Example: 2 x2 5 x2 1 1 y 1 6 20 y 1 Let x – 2 = u.This method of obtaining solutions of simultaneous equations by using determinants is called ‘Cramer’s Rule’. we have D 1 4 14 10 1 4 5 3 3 14 10 1 3 5 4 3 20 23 14 3 5 10 42 50 92 110 14 4 10 56 46 Dx Dy 5 Therefore. y 2 23 23 x The required solution is x = 4 and y = –2. Some pairs of equations. we have Dy Dx . which do not seem to be linear. x – 5y = 14.y D D 92 46 x 4. y – 1 = v . 4x + 3y = 10 Solution: The given equations are: x – 5y = 14 4x + 3y = 10 Therefore. Example: Solve the following pair of linear equations by Cramer’s Rule. y – 1 = v. Then. we solve these equations for u and v and then find the values of x and y from the relations x – 2 = u. the given system of equations reduces to 2u – v = 1 5u – 6v = 20 Now.
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