Chapter-1 Metals and Non-Metals

 Elements that lose electrons to form compounds are called metals whereas elements that gain electrons to form compounds are called non-metals.  Physical properties of metals are discussed below:  Metallic Lustre: The surface of most metals is shiny.  Hardness: Metals are generally hard in nature.  Malleability: Metals are malleable i.e., they can be beaten into thin sheets.  Ductility: Most metals are ductile, which means that they can be drawn into thin wires without breaking.  Conduction of heat and electricity: Metals are generally good conductors of heat and electricity.  Physical properties of non-metals are discussed below:  Lustre: Non-metals do not have a shiny surface.  Hardness: Non-metals generally exist as solids, liquids, or gases.  Malleability and ductility: Non-metals that exist in solid states are not very strong. Therefore, non-metals are neither malleable nor ductile.  Conduction of heat and electricity: Non-metals are poor conductors of heat and electricity.  Chemical properties of metals:  Metals combine with oxygen to form metal oxides. 2Cu + O2 → 2CuO 4Al + O2 → 2Al2O3  They react with water to form metal oxides and hydrogen gas.
2Al + 3H 2O (g)  Al2O3 + 3H 2 3Fe + 4H 2O  Fe3O4 + 4H 2

 They react with acids to give a salt and hydrogen gas.  The series in which various metals are arranged in the order of their decreasing reactivity is called a Reactivity series.  Chemical properties of non-metals:  On heating, non-metals react with oxygen to form their oxides.  Non-metals generally do not react with water and acids. Metallurgy  The minerals from which metals can be extracted commercially are known as ores.  Some important ores of iron are Haematite, Magnetite, Limonite.

 In Electrolytic Reduction of Alumina. Mostly. manganese. etc. Extraction of Aluminium from Alumina  Aluminium is generally extracted from the bauxite ore. if the ore is soluble in some suitable solvent. Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon. potassium.  Removal of unwanted materials such as sand and clay from ores is known as concentration (or dressing or benefaction) of ores.  Reduction of these metal oxides is done to obtain pure metals after obtaining metal oxides from the ores. these metals are reduced by passing an electric current through their molten salts. Na3AlF6 or CaF2 is added to pure alumina to lower the melting point and to increase the conductivity of the electrolyte.  Alloys of aluminium are also useful as they are both light and strong. The bauxite ore can be concentrated by the process of leaching by digesting it with concentrated sodium hydroxide solution at 473-523 K and 35-36 bar pressure.  Metals present at the top of the series such as sodium. Therefore. and aluminium are very reactive.  Magnetic field can also be applied to separate magnetically attractive particles from magnetically non-attractive particles.  In hydraulic washing. Some important ores of zinc are Zinc blende or Sphalerite. carbon in the form of coke is used for this. magnelium.  Some alloys of iron are steel. Calamine. These metals cannot be reduced using coke.  The process by which a pure metal is obtained from its ore is known as extraction. Some of its alloys are duralumin. Alloying is done to enhance the properties of metals. Alloys  Alloys are homogeneous mixtures of two or more metals. mineral and gangue particles are separated by first wetting the mineral particles with oil. calcium. as their affinity for oxygen is much more than that of carbon.  The process of leaching is used. leaving behind the heavier ore. and gangue particles with water. . stainless steel. Zincite.  There are two methods by which ores are converted into their respective oxides:  Roasting: It is the process of conversion of sulphide ores into oxides by heating the ores in a regular supply of air at a temperature below the melting point of the metal. etc. and then the mineral particles are carried out by forming froth. This process is known as electrolytic reduction. the lighter gangue particles are washed away by a stream of water.  In froth-floatation process.  The most important source of aluminium is bauxite. Siderite.  Calcination: It is the process of conversion of hydroxide and carbonate ores into oxides by heating the ores either in the absence or in a limited supply of air at a temperature below the melting point of the metal.

respiration and fermentation processes. . and German silver. bronze. Some alloys of zinc are brass.  The allotropes of sulphur are rhombic sulphur and monoclinic sulphur.  Carbon dioxide occurs in air.  Ammonia is produced by decomposition of proteins in bodies of plants and animals. Also. it is produced by burning of fuels.

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