EdkifiHa&;odyH`

Poltical Science

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Political Science
Center of International Studies

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(Political Theories)

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၂.

၄. ၅.

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၁. ၂.

၇.

(Unitary) (Federal) (Unitary State)

(Federal State)

၁၄. ၁၅. ၁၆. ၁၇.

၁.

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၃. ၄.

၇.

၉. ၁၀. ၁၁.

၂. ၃.

၅. ၆. ၇ ၈. ၉ ၁၀. ၁၁. ၁၂. ၁၃. ၁၄. ၁၅. ၁၆ ` ၁၇. ၁၈. (Upper House) (Bi Party System) ၏ (Multi-Party System) ၏

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၁၉. ၂၀. ၂၁. ၂၂. ၂၃. ၂၄. ၂၅. ၂၆. ၂၇. ၂၈. ၂၉. ၃၀. ၃၁. ၃၂. ၃၃. ၃၄. ၃၅. ၃၆ ၃၇ ၃၈. ၃၉ ၄၀ ၄၁. ၄၂. ၄၃. (House of Representative) (Lower House) (၂၀၁၁) (British Upper House/ British House of Lords) (US Senate)

၁. ၂. ၃. ၄.

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၅. ၆. ၇. ၈. ၉. ၁၀. ၁၁. ၁၂. ၁၃. ၁၄. ၁၅. ႓၏

၁. ၂. ၃. ၄ ၅. ၆. ၇. ၈. ၉. ၁၀. ၁၁. ၁၂. ၁၃. ၁၄. ၁၅. ၁၆. ၁၇. ၁၈.

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၁၉. ၂၀. ၂၁. ၂၂. ၂၃. ၂၄. ၂၅. ၂၆. ၂၇. ၂၈. ၂၉. ( )/ ( (US Administration)

(House of Representative) (Senate Member)

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၁)

၂)

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႔ႀ

၏။

႓၏

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႓က

၏။

၀ဖ

၏။

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Πολιτικά ဤ Πολιτικά (politika) “Affairs of the City” (politika) ၏ အဂ “ ၎ “Relating to Citizens” “ Of Citizens” “ For Citizens” ” “ “Affairs of the ” “ City”

(politika)

၎ Πολιτικά

(၁၅) “Polettiques” “Politics” (Polettiques)

Latin

“Affairs of the City” ( ၁၅၂၀) Latin

႓) Latin

Concise ၁၄၃၀)

Oxford

Dictionary “Politics” ၎

(Politique) (Politique) Latin (Politicus)

πολιτικός (politikos) “Civil” “Civic” “Belonging to the State” “ ” “ πόλις (polis) ” πολιτικός (politikos) πολίτης (polites) “City”

၎ πολιτικός (politikos) ၏

πολίτης Latin “Citizen” πόλις (polis)

(polites) (Politicus)

Πολιτικά

(politika)

πολιτικός

(politikos) ( ႓) ၎

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(

႓)

/

(Collective Decisions)

-

-

-

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႓)

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၊ ႓၏ ႓ ၾက ၍

ဆႏၵ

ပ။ / /

မရဏ၊ (

သခၤါရ)

(အၿ

ပ၏။

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၆၀၀) “

” ၎

-

၁ ၂ ၃ ၄ ၅ ၆ ၇ ၈

အဂၤ မဂဓ

Anga Magadha Kashi Kosala Vrijji

၉ ၁၀ ၁၁ ၁၂ ၁၃ ၁၄ ၁၅ ၁၆ အႆက မစၧ

Kuru Panchala Matsya Shurasena Assaka Avanti Gandhara Kamboja

မလႅ

Malla Chetiya Vatsa

-

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”၌

၂. / ၃. ၂

႓)
၄. ၄

႔ ဝါဒစ

၅.

၆.

/

႓၏ ၃

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႓၌

႓၏ ပ

႓၏

- “

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” ႓ ” ”

လ၏။ “

” “ ”

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“ ”

“ ”

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“ ”

၏”

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“ ”

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႓ “

႓၌

၏။ - “

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၊ ” “ ”

-

၁၃. ၁၄. ၁၅ ၁၆ ( ႓) ႓ ( ႓)

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(Ram Chandra Kur)

” “ ”

၀က “ဝါ  ”

(Ram Chandra Kur) -

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၀ါဒ၊

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႔ႀ

၁. ၂. ၃. ၄. ၅. ၆. ၈. ၉. ၁၀. ၁၂. ၁၃. ၁၅. ၁၆. စ

ၾက

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၁. ၂. ၃. ၄. ၅. ၆. ၇. (Tyranny) (China, Confucius)

(Monarchy)

(Realism, Naturalism, Greek) (Rule by the Best) (Greek, Rule by the Wealth) ႓၏ ၀ါဒ (China, Taoism) (Oligarchy)

၉. ၁၀. ၁၁. ၀ါဒ (Capitalism, Europe) ၀ါဒ (Colonism, Europe) (Socialism) ၁၃. ၀ါဒ (Communist) (Karl Marx)

(Democracy)

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Anarchism Aristocracy Authoritarianism

၀ါဒ The rule by the Best ႓

၂ ၃

၄ ၅ ၆

Autocracy Communist State Democracy (demo + Kratos) Rule by the people ၀ါဒ ၀ါဒ Rule by the Priests Rule by the Thieves Rule by the Justice Rule by the Judges Despotism Dictatorship Fascism Feudalism Hierocracy Kleptocracy Kritarchy Krytocracy Meritocracy Monarchy

one who rules by himself a. Direct Democracy b. Representative Democracy

၇ ၈ ၉ ၁၀ ၁၁

၁၂

၁၃

၁၄ ၁၅ ၁၆

a. Absolute Monarchy b. Constitutional Monarchy

၁၇ ၁၈

Ochlocracy Oligarchy Plutocracy Single Party State Thalassocracy

Rule by Mob Rule by the few Rule by wealth

၁၉ ၂၀ ၂၁

Base on Imperialism
၂၂

Theocracy Timocracy Totalitarianism Tyranny a. Rule by the honor ၀ါဒ၊ b. Rule by the wealth

၂၃ ၂၄ ၂၅

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The Republic

႓ စ

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The Chinese philosopher Confucius (551- 471 BC)

- Kong Fu Tzu (孔夫子) - Kung Qiu, (…) or Kung Chin or Master Kung -

- Zhou Dynasty Era

-

၀ါဒ

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-

´

 Confucius {Kong Qiu, September 28, (BC-511~471~479)

႓ႀ

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၊ ၾက၏။

ၾက

၀အရ

တ တ

႓၏

ၾက

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(R မ

လ ၀

႔ရ

(R ၎ တ ႔ရ၏။

စရ။”

(Zi Gong) (Shu) ၏ -

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Shang

Dynasty

(R

(R (Li) (Ritual) ပ (Hsin) (Good (R

(Yi)

(R (R (H (Ti)

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႔၏ အထ

(R (R (R (Li)

(Hsi

႔ရ၏။

(R

(R

(R

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၀ါ

(Taoism)

(Ming)

-

၁.

၃. ၏။

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ခ ။

။ (၉) ။

၁. ၂. ၃. ၄. ၀ ၅. ၆. ၇. ၈. ၉.

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တ ။

။”

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Socrates (BC 470~399) -

 Name Birth Death School/ Tradition Main interests Notable ideas Influences Influenced : Socrates : ca. 470 BC : 399 BC : Classical Greek, Socratic School : Epistemology, Ethics : Socratic Method, Socratic irony : Anaxagoras, Parmenides, Prodicus, Diotima : Plato, Aristotle the rest of Western Philosophy

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။ ၁. ၂. ။

(Concept)

။ က

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(Courage)

။ -

(Hypothesis)

(The Method of Speculation)

(Socrates

Method)

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Plato (BC- 428~328) Name Birth Death Main interests Notable ideas : Plato : BC 428 – 427 BC, Athens : BC 348 – 347 BC, Athens : Rhetoric, Art, Literature, Epistemology, Justice, Virtue, Politics, Education, Family, Militarism. : Platonic Realism. -

School/Tradition: Platonism

-

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၁. ၂. ၃.

(Ignorance) (Opinion)

၀မ

(Ignoranc ။

။ (Knowledge must be infal ။ (Knowledge must have reality as its ob

(Reality)

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Aristotle (BC- 384~322)

(Aristotle) (384-322BC) Name Birth Death Main interests Notable ideas Influences Influenced : Aristotle : 384 BC : March 7th, 322 BC : Politics, Metaphysics, Science, Ethics : The golden mean, Reason, Logic, Biology, Passion : Parmenides, Socrates, Plato : Alexander the great, Avicenna, Averroes, St. Thomas Aqunas, most of western Philosophy and Science

School/Tradition: Inspired the Peripatetic school and tradition of Aristoteliansm

႔အႀ ။

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(The Stoic  -

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Niccolo Machiavelli (1469~1527)

-

(

)

Name Birth Death Main interests Influences Influenced

: Niccolo Machiavelli : May 3rd, 1469 (Florence) : June 21th, 1527 (Florence) : Politics, Military theory, History : Cicero, Sallust, Livy, Xenophon : Thomas Hobby, James Harrington, Jean Jacques Rousseau (၁၄၆၉~၁၅၂၇) ႔

School/Tradition: Renaissance Philosophy, Realism, Classical, Republicanism

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"T

(၁၂၇၈~၁၃၄၃) "Marsilius" က -

"Padu

"Marsilius" က -

"Divine Rig

႓၏

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)

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၁. ၂.

၄. ၅. ၆. ၇. ၈. - အ႒

-၃၈)

-

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၁ ၂ ၃ ၄ ၅ ႔၏ ၁။ -

၆ ႓ ၇ ၈ ၉ ၁၀ -

၁၁

-

၁၂ ၁၃ ၁၄ ၁၅ ၁၆ ၁၇ ၁၈ ၁၉ ၂၀ -

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၁။ ထႂ ၂။ ၃။ ၄။ ၅။ ၆။ ႐ႈ ။

၁။ ၂။ ၃။ ၄။ ၅။ ၆။

-အ ႓၌

႓၌ ႓၌ ၂-ဆ၊ ၃-ဆ

(၆) ႔ ။ ႔

၁။ ၂။ ၃။ ၄။ ၅။ ၆။

=

= =

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၂ ႓

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(၁၁) ခၐ

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. ။

10.

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၁ ၂ ၃ ၄ ၅ ၆ ၇ ၈ ။ ၉ ။ ၁၀

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႓ ၀ါဒ၊ ”

(

-

/

/

)

“ ႓ဘ၀ ႔ ဘ၀က

႔ဘ၀၊

႔ ႓ ႓

႔ ဘ၀

( )

-

/

(၃၀၄)/

(၃၉၅)

/Politics/

၌ (၁၉၄၆) ဖဆပလ ၀ ပ

(၁၇ - ၂၀) (၁၉၄၆) (၂၀)

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” “

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(

)

(၁၉၄၈၁၉၆၂) (၁၉၄၇) -

(၁၉၇၄)

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ပါ

။ ။

၁။ တ ၂။

႔က

ၾက

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၀ါ

၁. ၂. ၃. ၄. ၅.

၀ါဒ (Authoritarianism) ၀ါဒ (Depotisim) (Dictatorship), (Totalitarianism) ၀ါဒ (Tyranny) ၀ါဒ (Militarism) က

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“ ”

အတၱ ႔) အတၱ၀ါဒ အတၱ ဓမ

၀ါဒ၊ အတၱဓ

႔ ။

ပ။

႔အ

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”(

႔ ”

။ -

႔ ႓ ႓ ။

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၃. တ ၄.

-

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ဖ ။ ဤ ”

။ အခါက ႓၏ ။ အရ



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ပါလ

၁။ ၾကပါ၏

႔ၾကပါ၏

႔ဘ၀

၂။

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၁။

-

“အန

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စ ။ ၁.

၂. ။

။ ၁. ၂.

၅၀ %

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႔၏

-

)

(၁၀၇ - ၁၅၂) (AD- ၄၀၀) (AD- ၁၆၀၃) (၁၀၄၄ - ၁၀၇၇)

(၂၀၀၇)

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၁ ၂ ၃ ၄ ၅ ၆ ၇ ၈ ၉ ၁၀

AD ၁၀၇-၁၅၂
First Burmese Empire

Kindom of England First British Empire Old St Paul’s Cathedral Palace of Westminster Westminster Cathedral
UK Constituional Monarchy

AD ၄၀၀ - ၁၆၀၃ AD ၁၅၈၃ - ၁၇၈၃ AD ၁၀၈၇ - ၁၃၁၄ AD ၁၀၄၅ - ၁၀၅၀ AD ၁၀၇၉ AD ၁၆၈၈ AD ၁၆၄၃ - ၁၇၂၇ AD ၁၇၉၁ - ၁၈၆၇ AD ၁၈၄၇ - ၁၉၃၁ AD ၁၈၅၆ - ၁၉၄၀

AD ၁၀၄၄ - ၁၀၇၇ AD ၁၀၉၀ - ၁၁၀၅ AD ၈၇၄ AD ၈၅၀

Second Burmese Empire Third Burmese Empire -

AD 1551 AD ၁၇၅၂ - ၁၈၈၅ AD ၁၈၂၄ - ၁၈၂၆ AD ၁၈၅၂ - ၁၈၅၃ AD ၁၈၈၅

Sir Isaac Newton Michael Faraday Thomas Alva Edison Sir Joseph j.j Thomson

၁။ (၁၈၂၄) ႓

၂။

႔ ၃။ (၁၉၀၀) (၂၀)

၄။ (၁၉၀၅) (Relativity Theory)

၅။

အဂၤ

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 ႔ရ

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ဒသႏၲရ

၁။ (Location)

(Member)

႔ (Excecutive Members) (Rules)

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ပ (Sov ၏……

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၁ ၂ ၃ ၄ ၅ ၆ ၇ ၈ ၉ ၁၀ ၁၁ ၁၂ ၁၃ ၁၄ ၁၅ ၁၆ ၁၇ ၁၈ ၁၉ ၂၀ ၂၁ ၂၂ ၂၃ ၂၄ ၂၅ ၂၆

Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Bosnia & Herzegovina Brazil Canada Comoros Ethiopia Germany India Iraq Malaysia Mexico
Federated State of Micronesia

Provinces States and Territories States Divisions Devisions States Provinces & Territories Regions State States & Territories Governorates States States States Zones States Provinces & Territories Federal Subjects Islands & Parishes States States Cantons Emirates States States

(23) Provinces (6) States (9) Landers (3) Communities (2) Entities (36) States (10) Provoinces (3) Islands (9) Regions (16) Landers (28) States (18) Governorates (13) States (31) States (4) States (14) Zones (36) States (4) Provinces (21) Republic,(46) Oblasts,(9) Krais,

(1) Autonomous City (10) Territories (3) Regions (1) District (1) Federal District, (5561) Municipalities (3) Territories (2) Chartered City (7) Territories Including (1) is Autonomous (Kurdistan) (3) Federal Territories (1) Federal District

Nepal Nigeria Perkistan Russia Saint Kitt & Nevis South Sudan North Sudan Switzerland UAE USA Venezuela

(75) Districts (1) Territories (4) Territories (1) Autonomous Oblast,(4) Autonomous Okrugs, (2) Federal City (14) Parishes

(2) Island (10) States (25) States (26) Cantons (7) Emirates (50) States (23) States

(1) (1)

Federal Federal

District,(1) District,

Incorporated (1) Federal

Territory, (13)Unincorporated Territories Dependency

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၁။ ၂။ ၃။

(Being to the Supereme State Power) (Common Wealth) (Defence, Agression from Foreign Troops)

၏။ … ၁. ၂. ၀လ ၃. ၄.

(၁၂၈၃)

(၁၈၀၀) ႔ (Federa

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(၁၇၇၅)

(၁၉၀၀)

၏။

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၁။ ၂။

(Mutual Absorption) (Unitary State)

(Unitary State)

… (၁၂၈၃)

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တ ႔၏

(၁၇၈၉) (၁၈၄၇) (၁၉၀၀)

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(Unitary State) ။

(Unitary ၏။

State)

(က)

(Unitary State) ႔တ

(၅၁)

(ခ)

႔ (Unitary State)

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တ (Unitary State) (ဂ) (Unitary State) ရ ရ

ဒသႏၲ

၏ တ ႔တ ၀ ႔

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၁။ (Unitary State)

၂။ ႔

၃။

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၄။

၅။

၆။

(Unitary State) တ

၇။

(Unitary State) (Unitary State) (Unitary State)

၁။ (Unitary State)

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(Unitary State)

၂။

စ …)

၃။

၄။

(Unitary State)

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(Federation

႔ Si Thu.Center of International Studies, Human Resource Development Program. ©H.R.D.P

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၏။ … ၁။ ၂။ ၃။ ႔တ ။

(Unitary State)

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ရ ႔

ကရ

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၁။ ၂။

၃။

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၄။ ၅။ ၆။

အႂ

(Re

အႂ

႔စ

၎အႂ

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(Reserve of Power) ၁။ ၂။ ၃။

(Reserve of Power) ၁။ ၂။

….

၃။ (Reserve of Power)

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(Unitary State)

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(၁၇၅၆)

(၁၇၆၃)

(၁၇၇၅) (၁၇၇၆) (၁၇၈၃)

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(Senate)

(၁၀၀)

တ တ

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တ တ န

(၂)

(Double Texation System) ႔

႔ ႔( ႔

(၁၇၇၀-) (၆)

(၁၉၀၀)

(၆)

(၁၉၀၀)

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(၆)

အႂ

(Reserve of Power)

ပ ( Fe ႔

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(၂) ႀ

ပါ /မႀ

(၉၀)

(၆) ႔

(၁၀) (၆၀) ႔ တ

ပ။

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(၁၆၈၀)

(၁၇၆၀-) (၁၇၇၅-) (၁၈၇၃) ႓

(၁၈၆၇-)

အ State) ႔ ႓က

(Unitary

Unitary State)

႓က

(Reserve

of

Power)

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(Unitary State) ႓

အရ

႓ တႀ

(၁၃)

နဒါ

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ခၐ (Canton)

(၁၉)

(Reserve of Power)

(Reserve of Power)

႔၏

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(Direct D

/မႀ

(Canton)

(၁၈၃၈) ႀ

(၁၉၃၅) (၇၂) ႓၏

(၁၂၃)

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၄၄) (၁၉ (၄) (၆)

အမ

(၄)

အႂ

႓၏

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(၁)

။ (၂) ႓၏

ပ (၃) ၊

(၄) ပ

(၅)

အဓမၼ

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(၁)

(၁၉၁၉)

Treaty of Versailles

။ (၂)

(၃)

ႀ (၄) စ

(၅)

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၁။ ၂။

၁။ ၂။ ၃။ ၄။ ၅။

(Traditional Concept, Precedent) (Ruling) (Act) (Bye Law) (Order)

ပါ

႓ ”က ႓

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ပါ

(Non Documentary)

(Rigid Constitution)

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စၿ

ပါ

၁.

။ (Parliament) ။ (Referendum) ။ (Parliament Special Session) (Federal States)

-

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 (၂/၃) အ

႔ ပ၍ ႀ /မႀ (Refe

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(၁၀၆၆

႓၏

(၁၆၈၈-) ၂)၏

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(၁၉၁၁-)

(၇)

(၅)

Su

႓ မႀ (၂) တ (၃) ႀ

(၂) (၁၉၄၄)

(၁၉၁၇)

သ ပ

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(၁၈၅၂) (၆၁)

(၁၈၇၆

၌ ဥ ၎ ပၐ

(၁၈၇၆)

(၂)

(၁၉၅၁)

(၂)

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(၁၇၈၉) (၁၇၈၇) ႓ (၁၉၉၂) (၂၀၃) (၂၇)

(၂၇)

၁။ (၂/၃) (၂/၃) (၂/၃) ၂/၃)

၂။

(၂/၃)

၃။ (၃/၄)

(၃/၄)

႓က

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တ (National Assembly)

(Referendum) (၂/၃)

(၃/၅)

႓ဆႏၵ

(၁၉၂၂)

၁၃၈)

(Senat (၉၀) ရ

(၁/၅) (၅၀၀၀၀)

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(၂/၃)

(၂/၃)

-

(၁) ႔၊

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(၂)

။ (၃)

(၁)

(၂)

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-

(Legislature) (Executive) (Judiciary)

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(Direct Democracy) ႓ က ႓ ၁။ ၂။ ၃။ ၿ (၇၀၀၀) ႓ (၃)

႓ ႓က ႓၏ (Indirect Democracy) ႓

/

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"ႂ

" (The End J

႓၏

၁။ ၂။

ပ။

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(၁) (၂) (၃) (၄) (၅)

/ (၂၀) (၂၅ (၂၁) (၂၃)

(၁၈)

႔ ။

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(၄၀) မ

-

(၁)

ၿ ။

(၂)

(၃)

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(၂၀) လ

၁။ ပ

၂။

၃။

၄။ ႔

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၁။ ၏ ႓

၂။

၃။

(၁၉၁၉) (၁၉၄၇)

(၁၉၂၀)

(၁၉၄၆)

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(Weighted -

(၂၅)

၊ ၊ ႓၏ ပ

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႓၏ ႓၏

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အ တ

(Single Member Constituency) (Multi-Member Constituency)

-

(၁) (၂) (၃)

(၄) ၊

႓၏ ႓၏

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(၁) ဆႏၵတ တ တ ႓

၁၈႓

ၿ ႔ (၄၀၀၀၀) (၂၀၀၀၀)

(၂) စ ႓က (၁၀၀၀၀) (၉၀၀၀) ပ (၃၀၀၀၀) (၁၁၀၀၀)

(၁၁၀၀၀) (၁၉၀၀၀) ႓ (၁၁၀၀၀) ႓၏ ၿ ႓၏ (၁၉၀၀၀)

႓၏

႓၏

႓ႀ တ ႓ႀ ပ ႓၏

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စ (၃) ႓အႀ

႓ တ

၁ ၂ ၃ ၄ ၅ ၆ ၇ ၈ ၉ ၁၀ ၁၁ ၁၂ ၁၃

ဖဆပလ ပမညတ

၁၀၈ ၄၆ ၁၁ ၀ ၁

၉၁ ၆၂ ၁၃ ၆ ၄ ၃ ၈ ၂ ၁ ၁ ၁ ၃ ၁၉၅ - (၂၄၇၆၇) (၁၅၄၂၄)

၁၆၆၅၈၆၁ ၁၁၃၉၂၈၆ ၂၃၃၈၆၃ ၁၀၂၀၀၀ ၇၅၀၂၀ ၅၃၈၉၇ ၁၄၀၄၀၅ ၃၈၃၆၁ ၂၃၄၈၇ ၂၀၁၆၇ ၁၅၃၆၇ ၄၃၁၃၈ ၃၅၅၀၈၅၁

၁၅၄၂၄ ၂၄၇၆၇

ရတည ဘစညဖ ရပလဖ ရတလစ ပအမဖ ကမက ပယကဖ

၅ ၁၄ ၃ ၁ ၁ ၁ ၄ ၁၉၅ -

၊ (ပ-မ-ည-တ) မ ပ-လ) ။ (၉၁) (၁၇)

(ဖ-ဆ-

(ပ-မ-ည-တ)

(၁၆

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၀ါႀ ၿ (ဖ-ဆ-ပ-လ) (၁၈၈၄၉၉၁) ၿ

-ဆ-ပ-လ)

(၁၆၆၅၈၆၀

%
၁ Conservative & Liberal Unionist ၂ Liberal ၃ Irish Parliamentary ၄ Independent Liberal ၅ Independent Liberal Unionist ၆ ၁၁၁၅ ၆၇၀ ၂၈၆၅၃၁၀ ၂ ၀ ၀ ၅၄၄ ၁ ၀ ၀.၁ % ၁၂၄၇ ၉၈ ၈၅ ၃.၃ % ၉၇၉၅၀ ၄၅၁ ၁၉၂ ၄၁.၈ % ၁၂၄၄၆၈၃ ၅၆၃ ၃၉၃ (၃၁၆+၇၇) ၅၁.၁ % ၁၅၂၀၈၈၆

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Parliament Popular Votes Position Common -1886) Seat (British House of 1886
3.41% 0.06% Irish Parliamentary 12.69%

43.44%

Liberal

28.66% 53.08%

Conservative & Liberal Unionist Conservative & Liberal Unionist Liberal Liberal Irish Parliamentary Irish Parliamentary Independent

Conservative & Liberal Unionist

58.65%

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%


ဇႏၷ၀ါ ၌

(၁၈၈၆) (၁-၂၇)

႓) Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil ( ႓) (3rd Marquess of Salisbury) ( ႓

(၁၈၈၆)

(Popular Votes) ၏ (၄၆.၉၂ %) ၏ တ

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၁ ၂ ၃ ၄ ၅ ၆ ၇ ၈ ၉ ၁၀ ၁၁ ၁၂ ၁၃ ၁၄ ၁၅ ၁၆

Conservative Labour Liberal National Liberal Inde-Conservative Independent Nationalist(NI) Communist Agriculturalist Inde-Labour Constitutionalist Scottish Prohibition Inde-Liberal Inde-Unionist Inde-Communist Anti-Parliamentary Communist

၄၈၂ ၄၁၄ ၃၃၄ ၁၅၁ ၂၀ ၁၅ ၄ ၅ ၄ ၄ ၁ ၁ ၃ ၁ ၁ ၁ ၁၄၄၁

၃၄၄ ၁၄၂ ၆၂ ၅၃ ၃ ၃ ၃ ၁ ၀ ၁ ၁ ၁ ၁

၂၃၆ ၁၈၂ ၁၁၆ ၆၀ ၅ ၅ ၂ ၁ ၀ ၀ ၀ ၀ ၀ ၀ ၀ ၀

၅၂၉၄၄၆၅ ၄၀၇၆၆၆၅ ၂၆၀၁၄၈၆ ၁၃၅၅၃၆၆ ၁၁၆၈၆၁ ၁၁၄၆၉၇ ၅၇၆၄၁ ၃၀၆၈၄ ၂၁၅၁၀ ၁၈၄၁၉ ၁၆၆၆၂ ၁၆၂၈၉ ၁၃၁၉၇ ၉၈၆၁ ၄၀၂၇ ၄၇၀ ၁၃၇၄၈၃၀၀

၁၅၃၉၀.၈၈ ၂၈၇၀၈.၉၀

၆၁၅

=၂၂၃၅၄.၉၅

21510 16662 30684 18419 57641 116861 114697 1355366 2601486

16289 9861 470 13197

Popular Vote 1922
Conservative 4027 Labour Liberal

5294465

National Liberal Inde- Conservative Independent

4076665

Nationalist(NI) Communist Agriculturalist Inde_Labour Constitutionalist

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Popular Vote Position (British Election 2010)
110970 42762 Other 12% 165394 22860 168216 171942 1929619 285616 491386 10703754 6836824 21181 Conservative Labour Liberal Democrat SNP Green Sinn Fein Democrat Unionist

23% 29%
8609527

36%

Plaid Cymru SDLP Alliance Speaker Inde-Sylvia Hermon

Total Votes of Ruling Party (Conservative Party) = 36% Total Votes of Opposition Parties (Eleted + Unelected) = 64 %

Total Unelected Popular Vote

Elected Position (British Election 2010)
6 57 1 5 83 3 1 1 Conservative Labour

Other 4% 9%

Liberal Democrat SNP 306 Green Sinn Fein

40%
258

47%

Democrat Unionist Plaid Cymru SDLP Alliance Inde-Sylvai Hermon

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႓၌

စ ႓

႓၏

႓၏

(

႓)

၁။ ၂။

(French Type) (Hare System (or) Single Transferrable Vote)

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(၄) (၄၀၀၀၀) (၁၀၀၀၀) ႓ -

ပါ

(Quota) (၅၀၀၀၀၀) (၅၀၀၀၀၀) (၁၀၀၀၀) (၅၀) (Quota) (၅၀)

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(

႓)

(၄) (၄ ပထမ၊ (၂)

(၂ က

ပထမ၊

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႓ “ ” ။

၎၏ အ

႓ (၁၉၁၈) ( (၁၉၄၈) ႓

(၁၉၀၇) (၁၆၁၅)

၎စ

၁။ စ

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၂။

၃။

၁။

အခါ

႓ ႓၌

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၂။ “ ” ႓

၃။

၄။ မသ

၅။ “ ” ႓

၆။

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( 1. 2.

႓) = / ႓( ႓) ( ( ) ၊ ) ၊ )

= ၀ါဒ (

-





/

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/ ႓

႓၏

(Manifesto)

႓၏ ( ႓)

(

႓)

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“ /

႓၌

မႀ

( / ႓ ႓

ဓနအ

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႓၏

/

႓၌

(Bi Party System) (Multi Party System) (၂)

က။ ၏

ခ။ စ

ဂ။

ဃ။

႓၏ ႓

င။

၀ါဒ

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က။ စ ႓၏

(

႓)

က။

ခ။

ဂ။

႓၏ ။

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( ( ႓ စ

႓) စ၍

သမၼတ




႓၏

လႊ

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/ /

/

႓က

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႓၏

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က

(Bicamera System)

) ( ) တ

၁။ ၂။ ၃။ (၃) (Election) ။ (Acting) ။ (Divine Rights)

( ပထမ

)

႓၏ ႓

(

)

႓က

အရ

/

႓၏ တ

/

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၁ ၂ ၃ ၄ ၅ ၆ ၇ ၈ ၉ ၁၀ ၁၁ ၁၂ ၁၃ ၁၄

Senate Federation Council Council of State House of Lords Chambre des Pairs Dewan Negara (National Hall) House of Magnates(Fo”rendiha’z) Eerste Kamer (First Chamber) Protsaphea Regional Representative Council House of Councillors (Sangiin) National Council National Council of Provinces Amyotha Hluttaw ( (House of Nationalities) )

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၁။

၂။

႓က

၃။ ။ ႓ ႓ ႓ န

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႓ ပ။

႓၏

(Senate) (၅၀) (၂) (၁၀၀)

ခၐ)

(၉) (၃၀ (၆)

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ခၐ) ၌ ပ

-

၁။

၂။

၃။

သမၼတ၏

၄။ Treaty of Versailles

(၁၆)

႓ (၇၃) (၄) ႓

၎ ႓

(၄) ႓

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(Class) (A, B, C)

၁. Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry ( ၂. Appropriations ၃. Armed Services ( ) ) ) )

)

၄. Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs ( ၅. Budget (

၆. Commerce, Science, and Transportation (
)

၇. Energy and Natural Resources ( ၈. Environment and Public Works (
)

)

၉. Finance ( ၁၀. Foreign Relations (

) )

၁၁. Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions (
)

၁၂. Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (
)

၁၃. Judiciary ( ၁၄. Rules and Administration ( ၁၅. Small Business and Entrepreneurship ( ၁၆. Veterans' Affairs (

) )
)

)

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၁. Indian Affairs (

)

၂. Select Committee on Ethics (
)

၃. Select Committee on Intelligence ( ၄. Special Committee on Aging (
)

)

၁. Joint Committee on Printing ( ၂. Joint Committee on Taxation ( ၃. Joint Committee on the Library ( ၄. Joint Economic Committee ( )

)

) )

(

႓)

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၁။

ခၐ)

၂။ ပ ခၐ)

၃။

(၆)

(၁၀၀)

(၅၀)

(၂)

(၅၀) (၂)

(၆) (၄) ႓

၄။

(

)

႓က

၅။ ၀

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အဂၤ (House of Lords) ပ ႓၏ ႓၏ (၂) ႓၏ ႓ ႓

(Church of England) (၁၆) (Including one Archbishop) သ (၂၈)

(၂)

(၂၄) (၄)

(Church of Ireland)

႓ -

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၁။ ႓က

၂။

႓၏

(၇၈၉) (၄၀၈) ပ ။

/ ၁ ၂ ၃ ၄ ၅ ၆ ၇ ၈ ၉ ၁၀ Labour Conservative
Liberal Democrats

၂၃၉ ၁၇၀ ၈၈ ၄ ၄ ၁ ၁ ၁၅၂ ၁၇ ၆၇၆

၄ ၄၈ ၄ ၀ ၀ ၁ ၀ ၃၀ ၁ ၈၈

၂၅

၂၄၃ ၂၁၈ ၉၂ ၄ ၄ ၂ ၁ ၁၈၂ ၁၈

DUP UUP UKIP Plaid Cymru Crossbenchers Lords Spiritual Other Total

၂၅

၇၈၉

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၁။ ၂။ ၃။

(၁၉၁၁)

က

(၁၉၁၁)

(၁၉၄၇)

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၁။ ၂။

ခၐ ခၐ)

(Federation Council) (Upper House) (State of Duma) (Lower House)

၃။

ခၐ) (Federal Assembly of Russia) (U+L)

 Duma = “To Think” or “To Consider”

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အထ Council) (Upper House) ခၐ) ၎ (၆၂၈) Federal

ခၐ

(Federation (State of Duma) (Lower House)

Assembly

( (၂၁) (၂)

႓) (၄၆) (၄) (၈၃) (၉) (၁)

(၂) (၁၆၆) ႓၊

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႓၏ ႓၏

႔ ( ) ( )

၁။ ႓ ၂။

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၃။ ၄။ ၅။ ၆။ ၇။ သမၼတ၏ သမၼတ၏ ( )( )

၈။

သမၼတ၏

၉။

(

)၊

(၄၅၀)

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၁။ ၂။ ၃။ ၄။ ၅။ ဥကၑဌ /

၆။

၇။ ၈။

႓၊ / / / / ၀ ( ) ႓၌

(

)

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ပ။ (၂၄) (၆) ၌ ( ) (၄) (၁၀၅) ၊ (၁ (Nova Scotia) (၁၀)

(Ontario) (New Brunswick)

ဒသ ၁ ၂ ၃ ၄ ၅ ၆ ၇ ၈ ၉ ၁၀ ၁၁ ၁၂ ၁၃ Ontario Uuebec Nova Scotia New Brunswick British Columbia Alberta Manitoba Saskatchewan New Foundland and Labrador Prince Edward Island Northwest Territories Yukon Nunavut = ၁၃ 24 24 10 10 6 6 6 6 6 4 1 1 1 ၁၀၅ 506,678 314,422 91,346 72,999 685,581 548,391 191,400 161,359 84,244 33,962 41,464 30,372 29,474 2791692

(၃၀) (၄၀၀၀)

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(၁) ႓ ႓

(၂) (Unitary State)

အႂ

(Reserve of Power) ပ

႓၌

႓၏

(၃) အႀ

ႀ ႀ

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(၆)

(၁၂ ႓

(၆) (၃)

(၃၀)

-

၁။

ႀ အႀ ႓

၂။ ႓၏ ပ ႓

႓က

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(Bicameralism)

(၂) (Federal Assembly ( ႓ ) (၂)

စ ) ၌

လ (National Council) ( ႓)

(Council of State (

႓)

(Federal Assembly) ၌ (National Council) ( ) (၄၆) Assembly) (၂၀၀) (၂၄၆) (Council of State) (

( (

႓ ႓)

(Federal

(Council of State) (၂၃) (Half Coanton) ၎(Half Canton) (၆) State) ၀ (၂) (၂၀ (၆) (၄၆) (၆) ၊ (၂၀) ပ (၆ (၆ (Council of (၂၀ (၃) (၂) (၃ (၆

အ ႓က ႓၏ (၁) (၄)

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(House of Lords)

(Senate)

) ႓၏

႓၏

....

(၁)

(၂)

႓၏ " " ႓က ႓၏

(၁)

(၄) ႓၏

(Direct Democratic - Check)

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( Assembly) ( ႓)

(National (Senate)

႓က

(၅၇၇)

႓က (Regional (Mayors) )(National Assembly) (၉၀ (Councilors) ႓ (၁၂) (၃၄၃) (Senator) (၃၂၁) (၉) (၉) (၃) (၆) ႓ (၂၀၀၄) %) Councilors) (City (Department Councilors) Councilors)

(၃)

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(၄၀) မၿ ႓

၍ ( ) ႓ ႓ ၌

စ ႓၏

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(Single Party) Congress)

ပ (၃၀၀၀)

(National People

႓၏

( ရ လ) )

/

(၁၁၀)

(၁၀၀) ( ႓ (၁၂၀) (၁၀၀) ) ( / ႓)

(၅)

႓၏ ႓က " (Recall)

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႓ (၃၀ %) လႊ (၁/၅) က (United Front Democratic Parties)

(၇၀ %)

(၂/၃) ႓ သမၼတ၊ ၊ ( ႓ )၊

(၅) (Standing Committee) စသ ႓ ပ

(Standing Committee)

(၁၅၃)

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၎ ၁။ ၂။ ၃။ ၄။

(Standing Committee) အ (Legal Committee) (Finance and Economics Committee) (Education, Science, Culture and (Special committees the Ethnic Groups Committee)

Publi Health Committee) ၅။ ၆။ ၇။ ၈။ Committee) (Foreign Affairs Committee) (Oversea Chinese Committee) (Internal and Judicial Committee) (Environmental and Resource Protection

(Standing Committee)

-

(၁) (၂) (၃) (၄) (

႓)

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(Bicamera System)

႓ ပ

-

၁။

(၂)

က။ ခ။ /

႓၏ (House of Representatives)

႓က

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/

(

႓၏

/

၁။ ၂။ ၃။ ၄။ ၅။ ၆။ ၇။ ( ႓) ( ႓)

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၁။ Chamber of Deputies ၂။ Chamber of Representatives ၃။ House of Assembly ၄။ House of Representatives ၅။ House of Common ၆။ Legislative Assembly ၇။ National Assembly

၁။

၂။

အၿ

၃။ ပ Si Thu.Center of International Studies, Human Resource Development Program. ©H.R.D.P

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(

႓)

၄။

၅။

-

(၁) (၂) (၃ (၄) (၅ (၆) (၇) (၈) (၉ ။ ႓က / ၍ ႓ / ။ ႓ (Electoral Colleges) ႓၍

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၁။

၂။ ပ

၃။ ၀ါဒ (၁၉၅၁) အထ

(Unitary State)

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႔ ႓၏

အႀ

(Direct Democracy System) or (Pure Democracy) (Representative Democracy System) ႓ (Electoral Collage) က

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အႀ

သမၼတ

(Electoral

College

(Indirect Democracy System)

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႓ (Electoral College)

(သမၼတ) စ (Direct Democrac (သမၼတ)

(Indirect Democracy System)

-

(၄ (၅)

စ စ

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၊ ၊

က

(၇)

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႓၏ ႓၏

(၂၀) ႓

ႀ -

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(၁)

(၂) အၿ

(၁) (၂) (၃) (၄) (၅)

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ပ။

႓ ပ

႓၊ ၿ

၊ ႓ ၊ ႓ အႏၲ

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႓ " " (Check And Balance)

)

"

"

႓ /

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စသ

အႀ

အႀ

႓ ၍

႓က

႓က

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႓၏ ပ

၍ ႓၏ ႓

(၁)

ပ ႓

(၂)

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(၃) ႓

(၄)

႓၏ ႓၏

႓၏

႓ ပ

႓၌

(၅)

႓က

(၆)

(၁၉၄၈)

-

Si Thu.Center of International Studies, Human Resource Development Program. ©H.R.D.P

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(၁) ၀က

႓၏

႓၏

/

႓၏

(၂)

(

) (Cabinet)

႓၏ ႓ လက

(၃)

(၄)

႓၏

အၿ ႀ ႓၏ မႈ၏ သ

Si Thu.Center of International Studies, Human Resource Development Program. ©H.R.D.P

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(၅)

႓ သမၼတ

၀ါဒ

(၆) ပ ။ ႓ ၿ ႓

(၇)

(၈)

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-

၁။ ၂။ ၃။ ၄။ ၅။

ၿ ႓ (၀ါ)

"

" (Fixed Executive)

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(၁)

အႀ

(၂)

႓က

သမၼတ

(၃)

စ ႓ အႀ ပ သမၼတ ပ။

(၄)

သမၼတ ႓၏ ပ အႀ အႀ

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ခၐ) သမ ႓ (Congress)

(College of Electros)

(၁) ႓

ပ။ ႀ

(၂) အႀ အႀ သမၼတက မႀ သမၼ၌ အႀ

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(၃)

တ (၄) ႓၏ (၁/၃)

ပ (၂) ႓၌

သမၼတ (၁)ခါ

႓ အၿ သမၼတ၏ ပ ၀ါ

(၄) ႓၌ ႓က သမၼတက (၂/၃) သမၼတ၏ (Legislative Veto) ႓ ပၿ

(၅) ၀ါဒ သမၼတ၏ ႓ ။

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President Truman signs the Atomic Energy Act on August 1, 1946.

၀ါဒ ပ

(၆)

(၇) (၁၉၄၆)

(The Atomic Energy Act of 1946 ) အရ

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႓၏ ၀ါအႀ သမၼတ၏ ႓

သမၼတ၏

သမၼတ၏

(၁)

(၁၇၇၆) Obama) သမၼတ (၁၂ အႀ သမၼ (Franklin D. (၄၄) Roosevelt)

စ၍

႓ သမၼတ (၃၁) ႀ (၁၉၃၃) (၁၉၄၅)

(Barack

႓ ၌

(၂)

သမၼတ၏

(၃) ႓ ( ႓၏ )က

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(၁)

(၂)

(၃)

႓ စ ၎၏

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(၄) (Congress) ႓ ၀ ႓

(၁)

႓ အခါ ႓ ႓က ပၐ (No Confidence Motion)

(၂)

(၂၀)

(၃) ပ ႓

(Cabinet)

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(၄) (National And Real Executive) ႓

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-

႓ ႓၏

ပ ႓၏ ႓၏

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၁။ ၂။ ၃။ ႓က

(Seperation

Of

power)

(က) ႓၏

(ခ) /

တ ႓

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အ ပ

႓က ႓က

႓က

ပ (က) ၎

(၁) (၂) (၃) (၄)

"

"

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(က)

႓၏

အၿ

" (ခ)

"

႓ ႀ ရ၏ သမၼတက ႓က (Chancellor) က ႀ (ဂ) ႓၏ ပ (Chancellor) ၏ အႀ ႓က

၏ " ႓ ။ ႓၏ ႓၏

(ဃ)

(င) ပ

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(၁၇၀၀)

။ ( ႓ ) ႓ (Lord Chancellor)က

(Lord Chancellor) က ႓

(Court of Cessation) က (၇)

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(၁) (၂)

(Rule of Law) (Public Law) (The Droit Administrative)

(၁

(Rule of Law) (Public Law)

" (Rule of Law)

၍ "

၊ " The Droit

Administrative Law ႓၏

႓၏ ႓

" (Rule of Law) “ ” (The Driot Administrative Law)

႓၏ ႓၏ ႓။

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" ပ။

"

ရ၏။

႓၏

၏ ၊

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(၁) (၂) (၃)

(၁) ႓က ႓၏

႓၏

(၂) ရ၏။

၏ ႔၌ ပ

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႓က ႓၏

႓၏

႓ ။ အႂ မ

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/

ပၐ

...

(၁) ပ

(၂)

/

... ၁။ ၂။ ႓

႓ " / " ၌ စ

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...

၁။ ၂။ ၃။ ၄။ ၅။

(Canton Courts) (Courts of Arrondissements) (Courts of Appeal) (Courts of Assizes) (Courts of Cessation)

ပထမ (၁) (၃) (၂) (၂)

(Courts of Cessation) ပ (၄၉

႓၏

(The Courts of State) (Councilor) (၃၅) / (Courts of State) /

/

သမၼတက (Perfectorial Council)

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(Courts /

of

Conflit)

"

(Court of Conflit) (Court of Conflit) (Court of Conflit) Cessation) ႓က ပ ၊ / (Council of State) (၉ (Courts of

(၁)

/

/

/

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(၂) ႓က

(၃)

႓ ၿ

(၄) အမႈ

/အမႈ

(၁) ႓

ရ အမႈ

/

(၂) /

ပ နရ (Court of Confilt) ။

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႓ အႂ

(၃)

႓၏ ပ

ပ ႓

ပ ။

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(Greek) ၿ (Direct Democracy)

န ” ႀ

ပ ပ။ ႓၏

"

" (Indirect Democracy)

႓၏

႓၏ ႓

႓ " " ပ မ ႓ ႓၏ ႓၏ ႓၏

႓၏

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(Direct Democratic - Check)

(၁) ၿ

(၄) ႓၏

(၅)

႓ ႓၏

(၂)

(၄)

(

႓) (၅)

ၿ ဆႏၵ ႓ ႓၏

(၃) ႔ ႓ ႔ ႓က

႓က

(၄)

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(၁) (၂) (၃) (၄) (Plebiscite) (Referendum) (Popular Initiative) (Recall)

႓ " " Plebiscite

႓၏

(၁၈၊၁၉၊၂၀)

ပထမ

(Alsace Lorraine)

ပ၏။

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(Sar ၿ (League ၀f Nations) ႓က (၁၅) (၁၅)

District)

(၁၉၃၅)

အႀ

ၿ စ

က။

ခ။

/

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႓ ႀ

ဂ။ (၆) (၃) ပၐ ပ (၂၉၉၉၉၉၉)

၊ ဤစ

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(Popular Initative)

(Referendum) ႓

ပ ႓ဆႏၵ

႓ဆႏၵ ႓

( ပ စ

အ ပ ပ စ ပ ၅၀၀၀၀( (၁၄) (၉ ႓ ) က

/ မ ပ။

က။ ႔႐ႈ၍ ႓ ႔ရႈ၍ ပ ပ -

႓၏ ႓

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ခ။ “အ ပ ႓၏ ႓ ၀

႓ (Recall) ။ ပ (၄) ဆပါက (၅) ။ ၿ ႓၏

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က။ ၀ ႓၏ အၿ ႓ မႀ

႓၏

ခ။

နပါက ႓၏

/

(၁) (၂) (၃) (၄) (၅) (၆) ႓။ ႓။ ႓

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(Unitary State) State)

(Federal

႓၏

႓ ႓ ...

(၁) (၂) (၃)

႓၏

႓၏

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-

(၁) (၂) (၃) (၄) ႓၏

႓၏ ႓ ပ

(၁) (၂) (၃) (၄) (Nominal Executive) (Real Executive) ႓၏

ပ ႔ အ ႔ စသ / ပ

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(၆)

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(၅၀)

(Sovereignty) အ ႔

(

႓ အ ( ႓) အႂ

၍ (Reserve of Power) " (High

႓၏ ပ

Federalised State)

(Rigid Constitution) ၿ (၂/၃) (၂/၃) (၃/၄) ( )

(Documentry Record)

(၁၉၂၀)

(၂၀)

/

(၄၃၅)

(House

of

Representative)

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(

) " " (Republican)

(Bi-Party System) " "

(Democrat)

(၅၀) ႓က ၊ ႓က (House of Representative)

(Senate) (House of Representative) ႓၏ (၂) လႊ

အမ ( House of Representative) ႓၌ (North Dakota) (၁) (South Dakota)

႓၏

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(၂၀၁၀)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakoda Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Taxas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming 50 States Total Population Non Voting Member American Samoa Distict of Columbia Guam North Mariana Island *Puerto Rico U.S Virgin Island Total US Territories Population (၅၀) (၅၀) 4,779,736 710,231 6,392,017 2,915,918 37,253,956 5,029,196 3,574,097 900,877 18,801,310 9,687,653 1,360,301 1,567,582 12,830,632 6,483,802 3,046,355 2,853,118 4,339,367 4,533,372 1,328,361 5,773,552 6,547,629 9,883,640 5,303,925 2,967,297 5,988,927 989,415 1,826,341 2,700,551 1,316,470 8,791,894 2,059,179 19,378,102 9,535,483 672,591 11,536,504 3,751,351 3,831,074 12,702,379 1,052,567 4,625,364 814,180 6,346,105 25,145,561 2,763,885 625,741 8,001,024 6,724,540 1,852,994 5,686,986 563,626 308,143,815* 65,628 601,723 178,430 88,662 3,725,789 109,825 7 1 8 4 53 7 5 1 25 13 2 2 19 9 5 4 6 7 2 8 10 15 8 4 9 1 3 3 2 13 3 29 13 1 18 5 5 19 2 6 1 9 32 3 1 11 9 3 8 1 7 1 8 4 53 7 5 1 25 13 2 2 19 9 5 4 6 7 2 8 10 15 8 4 9 1 3 3 2 13 3 29 13 1 18 5 5 19 2 6 1 9 32 3 1 11 9 3 8 1

435
1 1 1 1 1 1

435
1 1 1 1 1 1

1 2 3 4 5 6

312,913,872
*Puerto Rico = 308143815+601723 = 308,745,538

6
(Resident Commissioner)

6

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N0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

State
Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Taxas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming 50 States Total Population

Population(2010)
4,779,736 710,231 6,392,017 2,915,918 37,253,956 5,029,196 3,574,097

Elected
2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Party
Republican Republican + Democratic Republican Republican + Democratic Democratic Democratic Independent Democratic + Democratic Democratic Republican + Democratic Republican Democratic Republican Republican + Democratic Republican Republican + Democratic Republican Republican Republican + Democratic Republican Democratic Republican+Democratic Democratic Democratic Farmer Labor Republican Republican + Democratic Democratic Republican + Democratic Republican + Democratic Republican + Democratic Democratic Democratic Democratic Republican + Democratic North Dakota Democratic – NLP + Republican Republican + Democratic Republican Democrtaic Republican + Democratic Democratic Republican Republican + Democratic Republican Republican Republican Independent + Democratic Democratic Democratic Democratic Republican + Democratic Republican

Senate Member
2 1+1 2 1+1 2 2 1 1 2 1+1 2 2 2 1+1 2 1+1 2 2 1+1 2 2 1+1 2 2 2 1+1 2 1+1 1+1 1+1 2 2 2 1+1 1 1 1+1 2 2 1+1 2 2 1+1 2 2 2 1+1 2 2 2 1+1 2

900,877 18,801,310 9,687,653 1,360,301 1,567,582 12,830,632 6,483,802 3,046,355 2,853,118 4,339,367 4,533,372 1,328,361 5,773,552 6,547,629 9,883,640 5,303,925 2,967,297 5,988,927 989,415 1,826,341 2,700,551 1,316,470 8,791,894 2,059,179 19,378,102 9,535,483 672,591 11,536,504 3,751,351 3,831,074 12,702,379 1,052,567 4,625,364 814,180 6,346,105 25,145,561 2,763,885 625,741 8,001,024 6,724,540 1,852,994 5,686,986 563,626 308,143,815*

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

100

D =51, R = 47, Inde = 2 /

100

* = (၂)

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အႀ

(၄)

(Real ပ

Executive)

႓ ႓ ႓

(Congress) စ ႓ (၀ါ) (Fixed Executive)

(Parliament)

(၄)

႓ ႓ ပ သမၼတ၏

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(Supreme Court of United State) (၉) သမၼတ (Senate)

႓၏

(၂၀)

(Reserve of Power) ပ

၅၀၀၀၀) (Citizen’ Initiative)

Popular Initiative)

႓)

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(၁၈)

(၄၀၀၀၀)

(Na (၂၀၀) (၄) ႓၏ အမ

(၂၆)

(၄၆) (၆)

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)

က

(Fixed

(၇) (၇) (၄) (၇ တ ႓

(၇)

(၃၀ (၆)

႓က

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(၁၂၈၄) (၁၈၀၀)

(၁၇၀၁) (၄)

(၁၉၁၉)

(၂၁ (Constitue (၆၅၀) ပ

(၉၂၀၀၀)

(First - Past – The – Post) စ

(၁ (၂

(Conservative Party) (Labour Party)

(၃) Cross Bencher (၄ (၅) Lords Spiritual (၆) UK Independent Party ပ (Liberal Democrats Party)

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႓ (Upper House)

(Lower House)

(၅ (၆၅၀)

၏။

(Church of England) (၁၆) (၄) (Including one Archbishop) (၂၈)

(၂) (Church of Ireland)

(၂၄)

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/ ၁ ၂ ၃ ၄ ၅ ၆ ၇ ၈ ၉ ၁၀ Labour Conservative
Liberal Democrats

၂၃၉ ၁၇၀ ၈၈ ၄ ၄ ၁ ၁ ၁၅၂ ၁၇ ၆၇၆

၄ ၄၈ ၄ ၀ ၀ ၁ ၀ ၃၀ ၁ ၈၈

၂၅

၂၄၃ ၂၁၈ ၉၂ ၄ ၄ ၂ ၁ ၁၈၂ ၁၈

DUP UUP UKIP Plaid Cymru Crossbenchers Lords Spiritual Other Total

၂၅

၇၈၉

Cabinet)

႓က

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Conservative ၁ ၂ ၃ ၄ ၅ ၆ ၇ ၈ ၉ ၁၀ ၁၁ Labour Liberal Democrat Democratic Unionist SNP Sinn Fein Plaid Cymru SDLP Alliance Green Independent Speakers & Deputy Speakers

၃၀၅ ၂၅၅ ၅၇ ၈ ၆ ၅ ၃ ၃ ၁ ၁ ၂ ၄ ၆၅၀ ႔ Scottish National Party Irish Republican Political Party The Party of Wales Social Democratic abd Labour Party (North Ireland) Alliance Party of North Ireland Green Party of England and Wales ႔

(Supreme Court of United Kingom)

(၁၂)

၏ အႀ ႓၏ (၂၀၀၅) (Constitutional Reform Act 2005) သ (၇၀ - ၇၅) ၏။

(၇၀ - ၇၅) (Law Lords)

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(၁၉၀၀)

(၆ (Sovereignty Power) (Reserve

of Power) အႂ ပ

(Documentary)

မရ

(၉၀

(Governer General) မႀ ႓ဆႏၵ

(၂၁)

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(Bicameralism)

(၁၂၃)

(၃

(၁၂ (၆)

(၇၂)

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(၁၀)

(၁၈၆၇

(၂၁)

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(၂၆၁)

(၁၀၂)

(Govern

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(Sovereignty Power) (Reserve Power)

အႂ

(၂/၃)

(၂၁)

(Lok Sabha or Lower House) (၅) (၇၁၄)

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(၇)

(၅၃၀)

(၅၅၂) (၂၂) (၇) (၁၅၀၀၀၀၀)

(Rajya Sabha or Upper House) တ

(၁၂)

(၆)

စ အ သမၼတ

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(၁၉၄၆) ၁) (Documantary) (၉၀ ။

၂)

(၁၉၄၈)

႓ဆႏၵ

(၁၈) ခၐ (Italian Senate)

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(Chamber of Deputies) (၆၃၀) (၅) ႀ

(Italian Senate) (၅) (၆ (၃၂၀)

(၇)

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(၅)

ႀ (၅)

(၅) ပ



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1. 2. 3. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. အ 22. အ 23. အ 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. ၂၀၀၁) ( )( ဓမ မ ဓမ လ ဓမ ခ ႓ ၁၊၂၊၃၊၄၊၅၊၆ ၀ ( ( ( ( ( (၂၀၀၇) ( (အ (အ ဒၐခ သန က တ -မ ) ) ) ပါ /ပထမအႀ ( မ မ သ သ ) ) ) ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ( ) )

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38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45.

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(၁၉၈၂ (၁၉၈၂ (

50. CIA World Fact Book 51. Wikipedia Encyclopedia 52. Political Science 53. Constitution 54. Politics 55. Federalism 56. Taoism 57. Karl Marx 58. Marxism
59.

Anarchism

60. The Communist Manifesto 61. Comunisim 62. Socialism 63. Monarchy 64. Federal States 65. Judiciary 66. Supreme Court/Constitutional Court 67. Unitary State 68. American History 69. World War (I) 70. World War (II) 71. American Constituion 72. American Congress 73. American Senate 74. American House of Representative 75. American Election 76. Electoral College 77. Senate Election 78. House of Representative Election

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79. President of the United State 80. United State Federal Courts 81. Democracy 82. Republic 83. Confucius 84. History of China/Spring and Autumn Period 85. Socrates 86. Plato 87. Confucius 88. Aristotle

89. Niccol Machiavelli
90. Parliament of United Kingdom 91. House of Lords (Upper House) 92. House of Representative (Lower House) 93. Judiciary of England and Wales 94. United Kingdom 95. North Iraland 96. Scotland 97. British Election 98. French Parliament 99. Judiciary of French 100.Switzerland 101.Canton 102.Swiss Parliament 103.Federal Council of Switzerland 104.Federal Assembly of Switzerland 105.New Zealand 106.New Zealand 107.New Zealand Election 108.Australia 109.Australia Parliament 110.Australia Election 111.Italian Politic 112.Italian Parliament 113.Russia Federation 114.Russia Parliament 115.Russian Federa Assembly 116.Federation Council (Upper House) 117.State Duma (Lower House) 118.President of the Russia Federation 119.India

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120.India Parliament 121.India Election 122.China 123.National People’ Congress/China 124. Elections in the People's Republic of China 125. Chinese Communist Party National Representatives Congress 126.

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