Official Study Guide 2009
Introductory Psychology

College-Level Examination Program®
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I. Preparing to Take CLEP Examinations
Having made the decision to take one or more CLEP exams, most people then want to know how to prepare for them—how much, how long, when, and how should they go about it? The precise answers to these questions vary greatly from individual to individual. However, most candidates find that some type of test preparation is helpful. Most people who take CLEP exams do so to show that they have already learned the key material taught in a college course. Many of them need only a quick review to assure themselves that they have not forgotten what they once studied, and to fill in some of the gaps in their knowledge of the subject. Others feel that they need a thorough review and spend several weeks studying for an exam. Some people take a CLEP exam as a kind of “final exam” for independent study of a subject. This last group requires significantly more study than do those who only need to review, and they may need some guidance from professors of the subjects they are studying. The key to how you prepare for CLEP exams often lies in locating those skills and areas of prior learning in which you are strongest and deciding where to focus your energies. Some people may know a great deal about a certain subject area but may not test well. These individuals would probably be just as concerned about strengthening their test-taking skills as they would about studying for a specific test. Many mental and physical skills are required in preparing for a test. It is important not only to review or study for the exams but also to make certain that you are alert, relatively free of anxiety, and aware of how to approach standardized tests. Suggestions about developing test-taking skills and preparing psychologically and physically for a test are given in this chapter. The following section suggests ways of assessing your knowledge of the content of an exam and then reviewing and studying the material.

Using the Examination Guides
Each exam guide includes an outline of the knowledge and skills covered by the test, sample questions similar to those that appear on the exam, and tips for preparing to take the exam. You may also choose to contact a college in your area that offers a course with content comparable to that on the CLEP exam you want to take. If possible, use the textbook and other materials required for that course to help you prepare. To get this information, check the college’s catalog for a list of courses offered. Then call the admissions office, explain what subject you’re interested in, and ask who in that academic department you can contact for specific information on textbooks and other study resources to use. Be sure that the college you’re interested in gives credit for the CLEP exam for which you’re preparing. Begin by carefully reading the test description and outline of knowledge and skills required for the exam in the exam guide. As you read through the topics listed, ask yourself how much you know about each one. Also note the terms, names, and symbols that are mentioned, and ask yourself whether you are familiar with them. This will give you a quick overview of how much you know about the subject. If you are


you will probably need a minimum of review. you find that you need extensive review. Do not refer to the sample questions as you prepare for the exam. 2 . but none of the questions will actually appear on an exam. If you complete them before reviewing the material. If you think you are familiar with most of the test material. so concentrating on them without broader study of the subject won’t help you. put off answering the sample questions until you have done some reading in the subject. The sample questions are representative of the types of questions you will find on a CLEP exam. try to answer the sample questions. you will probably require substantial study to do well on the exam.I . you will probably look for the answers as you study. If. Use the test-taking strategies described in the next chapter. P R E P A R I N G T O T A K E C L E P E X A M I N A T I O N S familiar with nearly all the material. and this will not be a good assessment of your ability at a later date. checking your responses against the answer key. if topics and terms are unfamiliar. however. after reviewing the test description provided in the exam guide.

P R E P A R I N G T O T A K E C L E P E X A M I N A T I O N S Assessing Your Readiness for a CLEP Examination Select Exam Title Read Exam Description and Knowledge and Skills Required Understand Terms Do Not Understand Terms Try Sample Questions Review Study Materials suggested in the Study Resources section of the exam guide Most Sample Questions Answered Correctly Difficulty Answering Sample Questions Take CLEP Examination 3 .I .

to familiarize yourself with CLEP CBT exams before taking the test. course materials. determine your study goals. ask them how they prepared. However. or check his or her Web site. Some Web sites offer course materials and lectures online. and scrolling skills by working with the Sampler. Using the guidelines for knowledge and skills required. clicking. Use CLEP you can practice the necessary pointing. If you are not comfortable using a computer. An answer key for each subject is also included. Use the syllabus. Use the CLEP Sampler. You’ll also be able to practice using the testing tools that will help you navigate throughout the test. You may want to get a copy of a syllabus for the college course that is comparable to the CLEP exam(s) you plan to take. If you don’t have access to a computer. Examples of these include: ● MIT OpenCourseWare (ocw. The tutorials are also part of the testing however. locate suitable resource materials. and you’ll see the types of questions you’ll be required to answer. these can be an excellent resource. If a preparation course is offered by an adult school or college in your This exam guide contains a complete exam description—including a content outline. which can be downloaded from the CLEP Web If you know others who have taken CLEP exams. 2.collegeboard.I . the exam guide is not intended to replace a textbook.html). ● and the Online Education Database (oedb. for a reading list. You can find the Sampler on the Web at www. You can also ask the appropriate professor at the school you’ll be attending. Additional study may be required. The College Board has no responsibility for the content of these courses. check with the library or test center at the school where you’ll be testing. a description of the knowledge and skills required to do well. P R E P A R I N G T O T A K E C L E P E X A M I N A T I O N S Suggestions for Studying The following suggestions have been gathered from people who have prepared for CLEP exams or other college-level tests. you might find it helpful to enroll. 4 . it’s also the only official CLEP tutorial program for computer-based testing. and sample questions. ● Carnegie Mellon’s Open Learning Initiative (www. You may purchase these or check them out of your local library. that such courses are not authorized or sponsored by the College Board. 1. and/or reading list as a guide for selecting textbooks and study materials. Define your goals and locate study materials. Check with the test center to see how much time will be allotted for your testing appointment. and you’ll be able to work through them before you begin your test. Make sure you are familiar with the computer-based format of the CLEP exams. (You should be aware. then you can determine how much time you might need to spend on the tutorials. First. nor are they responsible for books on preparing for CLEP exams that have been published by other Many CLEP test centers and college libraries will have the Sampler installed on computers in public areas. so you’ll be able to practice and review before your test date.

6. To study effectively. These supplementary materials may include videos or DVDs made by education-oriented companies and organizations. or exercise) and estimate how many hours a day you spend on each 4. and computer software. Learn how to take an active role in studying. Now. read the chapter summary and the introduction so you will know what to look for in your reading. Find a good place to study. For example. try this exercise: Make a list of your daily activities (for example. convert the section or paragraph headlines into questions. or attending a play. Some people find it helpful to write out a weekly schedule and cross out each study period when it is completed. If you decide to study at home or in your dorm. Schedule time to study. First. Establish a study routine and a set of goals. watching a PBS series. that will help you concentrate on and remember what you read. you should establish specific goals and a schedule for accomplishing them. sports. attending class.or 30-minute study periods with short breaks between them. sleeping. P R E P A R I N G T O T A K E C L E P E X A M I N A T I O N S Most of this material is offered for free. Often people are astonished at how an average day appears from this perspective. b. Next. Some people like to allow themselves rewards as they complete each study goal. whether it’s surfing current-events Web sites. To determine what kind of place you need for studying. For example. ask yourself the following questions: Do I need a quiet place? Does the telephone distract me? Do objects I see in this place remind me of things I should do? Is it too warm? Is it well lit? Am I too comfortable here? Do I have space to spread out my materials? You may find the library more conducive to studying than your home.nationalgeographic. rate all the activities on your list in order of their importance and evaluate your use of time. reading a financial newsletter. Most people find short periods of intense study more productive than long stretches of time. you could remove the least important activities from your day and devote that time to studying or to another important activity.I . a. If you have not studied a textbook for some time. they may follow a regular schedule of several 20. can be helpful as well. 5. the point is to be committed to your or the National Geographic Society (www. It is not essential that you accomplish every goal exactly within your schedule. like those offered by PBS (www. And don’t forget that what you do with your leisure time can be very educational. You may discover that your time can be scheduled in alternative ways. language tapes. 3. To help you determine where studying best fits into your schedule. such as the one outlined below and on the next page. working. you may find it difficult to concentrate at first. Others maintain their concentration better by writing down the time when they expect to complete a study task. Check with your librarian about locating study aids relevant to the exams you plan to take. Educational Web sites. Try a method of studying. eating. For example.pbs. if you are reading a 5 . you might prevent interruptions by other household members by putting a sign on the door of your study room to indicate when you will be available.

Not only might candidates find the types of tests and questions unfamiliar. If you are preparing for an exam over an extended period of time. but other aspects of the testing environment may be strange as well. 1. “What were the causes of the American Revolution?” Compose the answer as you read the paragraph.) b. both mentally and physically. (See the exam guide and the CLEP Sampler. If you underline more than a third of each paragraph. what types of questions and directions appear on the exam. get directions ahead of time.I . Underline only important points. P R E P A R I N G T O T A K E C L E P E X A M I N A T I O N S section entitled “The Causes of the American Revolution. Writing will also help you fix concepts more firmly in your mind. Mathematics textbooks (and some other books) sometimes include answers to some or all of the exercises. d. c. in which building and room the exam will be administered. Some younger students. If you don’t know where the building is.” ask yourself. Familiarize yourself as much as possible with the test and the test situation before the day of the exam. Do not wait for weeks to review the material or you will need to relearn much of it. The physical and mental stress that results from meeting this new experience can hinder a candidate’s ability to demonstrate his or her true degree of knowledge in the subject area being tested. e. It will be helpful for you to know ahead of time: a. it is important to go to the test center well prepared. for taking the test. review key concepts and notes each week or so. You may find the following suggestions helpful. most people have to review the material periodically. how your test score will be computed. For this reason. 6 . as well. work enough problems to master the required methods and concepts. Psychological and Physical Preparation Most people feel at least some nervousness before taking a test.) c. If you have such a book. If there are questions or problems at the end of a chapter. Underlining key ideas or writing notes in your book can be helpful and will be useful for review. are uncomfortable with testing situations. Take notes on key ideas or concepts as you read. answer or solve them on paper as if you were asked to do them for homework. review any sample problems or explanations in the chapter. (This information is included in the exam guide and in the CLEP Sampler. or they may have had little experience with standardized tests. To retain knowledge. If you have difficulty with problems. how much time will be allowed for the test and whether there are timed subsections. d. write your answers before looking at the ones given. you are probably underlining too much. Adults who are returning to college may not have taken tests in many years. Reading and answering questions aloud will help you understand and remember the material. When problem solving is involved. People who received their education in countries outside the United States may find that many tests given in this country are quite different from the ones they are accustomed to taking.

Be relaxed and alert while you are taking the exam. or credit card. If you follow the other directions in this book. g. you won’t need artificial aids. Take the following with you: ● any registration forms or printouts required by the test center. Don’t drink a lot of liquids before taking the exam. if you will be taking public transportation. b. Contact the test center to determine the amount and the method of payment. a valid credit card to pay the $70 examination fee. You may wish to confirm this information a day or two before the exam and find out what time the building and room will be open so that you can plan to arrive early. P R E P A R I N G T O T A K E C L E P E X A M I N A T I O N S e. is usually counterproductive. a. Make sure you have filled out all necessary paperwork in advance of your testing date. the time of the test administration. whether there will be a break between exams (if you will be taking more than one on the same day). Arrive early enough so that you can find a parking place. you can also pay by check or money order (payable to the College-Level Examination Program). e. Get a good night’s sleep. a. and get settled comfortably before testing begins. Last-minute cramming. passport. and notes outside the test center. d. where to park your car and whether you will need a parking permit or. It is usually not wise to skip breakfast or lunch on the day you take the exam or to eat a big meal just before testing. locate the test center. remember to do the following. ● ● ● ● c. your driver’s license.I . learn some relaxation exercises and use them to prepare for the exam. such as a student ID. Leave all books. b. and whether there is a place nearby where you can get something to eat or drink. (This fee is subject to change. You may need a pencil for writing an outline or figuring out math problems. 2.) Although a credit card is the preferred method of payment. c. On the day of the exam. which bus or train to take and the location of the nearest stop. Mechanical pencils are prohibited in the testing room. it will be provided by the test center. Avoid tranquilizers and stimulants. or other government-issued identification that includes your photograph and signature. You will be asked to show this identification to be admitted to the testing area. but stimulants such as coffee and cola can make you nervous and interfere with your concentration. your glasses if you need them for reading or seeing the chalkboard or wall clock. military ID. papers. 3. two pencils with good erasers. Your test center may require an additional administration fee. Eat normally. social security card. Leaving to use the restroom during testing will disturb your concentration and reduce the time you have to complete the exam. 7 . You will not be permitted to use your own scratch paper. It’s better to be a little tense than to be drowsy. If you are inclined to be nervous or tense. as well as a secondary form of ID that includes a photo and/or your signature. f. Allow some extra time in case you are delayed unexpectedly. particularly late the night before.

If you don’t understand the directions. it is important to ensure that you are taking the exam(s) with accommodations that are approved by your score recipient institution. Also. f. P. the test center administrator can usually accommodate special needs. When you enter the test room: a. raise your hand and a proctor will assist you. Read directions carefully and listen to all instructions given by the test administrator. If bad testing conditions cannot be remedied. and. it will be built into the testing software and available to you on the computer. you may request special accommodations and arrangements to take it on a regularly scheduled test date or at a special administration. Box 6656. If a calculator is required. b. Wear layers of clothing that can be removed if the room is too hot but that will keep you warm if it is too cold. ask for help before test timing begins. If you must ask a question after testing has begun. Know your rights as a test-taker. Princeton. Each test center sets its own guidelines in terms of deadlines for submission of documentation and approval of accommodations. Only students with documented hearing. and the name(s) of the exam(s) you took. 4. If a poor testing situation is preventing you from doing your best. P R E P A R I N G T O T A K E C L E P E X A M I N A T I O N S d. or visual disabilities are eligible to receive testing accommodations. ask the person in charge to report the problem on an Electronic Irregularity Report that will be submitted with your test results. c. ask whether the situation can be remedied. physical. You may also wish to immediately write a letter to CLEP. Do not bring a cell phone or other electronic devices into the testing room. Do not take a calculator to the exam. learning. NJ 08541-6656. Testing accommodations that may be provided with appropriate disability documentation include: ● ZoomText (screen magnification) ● Modifiable screen colors ● Scripts for the listening sections of the language exams ● Use of a reader or amanuensis or sign language interpreter ● Extended time ● Untimed rest breaks 8 . if the problem is serious enough. The problem will be investigated to make sure it does not happen again. e. Arrangements for Students with Disabilities CLEP is committed to working with test-takers with disabilities. Be sure to communicate your needs before the day you test. the test date. Contact a CLEP test center prior to registration about testing accommodations and to ensure the accommodation you are requesting is available. You can expect to be given the full working time allowed for taking the exam and a reasonably quiet and comfortable place in which to work. Describe the exact circumstances as completely as you can. Be sure to include the name of the test center.I . Be prepared to adjust to an uncomfortable temperature in the testing room.O. If you have a learning or physical disability that would prevent you from taking a CLEP exam under standard conditions. The CLEP Sampler and the pretest tutorials will show you how to use that feature. Although you will be assigned to a computer testing station. arrangements will be made for you to retake the exam without charge. The proctor can answer certain kinds of questions but cannot help you with the exam.

2. may also influence your approach to the exam and your use of test time. Questions that look complicated at first glance may not actually be so difficult once you have read them carefully. You should have answered at least half the questions in a section when half the time for that section has passed. Taking CLEP Exams 1. Read and consider every question. including all the answer choices. your preparation for an exam should include finding out all you can about the exam so you can use the most effective test-taking strategies. Test-taking skills enable a person to use all available information to earn a score that truly reflects his or her ability. Keep an eye on the clock and the timing that is built into the testing software. Even when the first or second answer choice looks good to you. such as how the exam will be graded. Sometimes one answer choice is partially correct but another option is better. If you don’t know the answer after you’ve considered it briefly. Mark that question using the mark tool at the bottom of the screen. Other factors. 3. While a command of test-taking skills cannot substitute for knowledge of the subject matter. Instructions usually tell you to select the “best’’ answer. 9 . therefore. Thus. free-response and multiple-choice questions require very different approaches.II. 4. speed up your pace on the remaining questions. and go back to review the question later. As you proceed. read the entire question. go on to the next question. Listen carefully to any instructions given by the test administrator and read the on-screen instructions before you begin to answer the questions. 5. Knowing how to approach an exam is an important part of the testing process. If you have not reached that point in the section. you should still read the remaining options. if you have time. Taking the Examinations A person may know a great deal about the subject being tested but not be able to demonstrate it on the exam. it’s usually a good idea to read all the answers before you choose one. it can be a significant factor in successful testing. make sure that you are not working too slowly. There are different strategies for approaching different kinds of exam questions. Before answering a question. For example. You have the option of turning the clock on or off at any time. Do not spend too much time on any one question.

” there can be no exceptions to the answer you choose. and fair exams. that they have only one correct answer. It is to your benefit to guess if you do not know an answer since CLEP CBT uses “rights-only” scoring.’’ and “none. Include the name of the exam and test center.II. Use of words such as ‘‘often. the exam date. 10 . NJ 08541-6600.’’ “rarely. Watch for the following key words in test questions: all always but except every generally however may must necessary never none not often only perhaps rarely seldom sometimes usually When a question or answer option contains words such as ‘‘always.” ‘‘sometimes. Do not waste your time looking for clues to right answers based on flaws in question wording or patterns in correct answers. P.) If you are not sure of the correct answer but have some knowledge of the question and are able to eliminate one or more of the answer choices as wrong. (An explanation of the procedures used for scoring CLEP exams is given in the next chapter. and the number of the exam question. Make educated guesses. Princeton. CLEP puts a great deal of effort into developing valid.’’ ‘‘every. your chance of getting the right answer is improved. and that they cover college-level topics. If you think a question is flawed. These committees do not intentionally include ‘‘trick’’ questions. T A K I N G T H E E X A M I N A T I O N S 6. 8. Faculty committee members make every effort to ensure that the questions are not ambiguous. Box 6600. ask the test administrator to report it. or write immediately to CLEP Test Development. 7. There is no penalty for incorrect answers. CLEP test development committees are composed of college faculty who are experts in the subjects covered by the exams and are appointed by the College Board to write test questions and to scrutinize each question that is included on a CLEP exam.’’ and ‘‘generally’’ indicates that there may be some exceptions to the answer.’’ ‘‘only. reliable. All such inquiries are investigated by test development professionals.O.’’ ‘‘never.

the highest. your raw score is converted into a “scaled score” by a statistical process called equating. A fee will be charged for each score recipient you select at a later date. your score will be mailed to you two to three weeks after the exam date. you can request a transcript at a later date. recommends that colleges refer to the standards set by the American Council on Education (ACE). which you will receive with your exam score. First. This is the number of questions you answer correctly. The policy will state the score that is required to earn credit at that institution. Your raw score is converted to a scaled score that ranges from 20. For this exam. the lowest. to 80. employer. 11 . If you want your scores sent to a college. This ensures that your score does not depend on the specific test form you took or how well others did on the same form. A brief explanation appears below. The final scaled score is the score that appears on your score report. Equating maintains the consistency of standards for test scores over time by adjusting for slight differences in difficulty between test forms.III. Your exam score will be printed for you at the test center immediately upon completion of the examination. two calculations are performed. Interpreting Your Scores CLEP score requirements for awarding credit vary from institution to institution. Your raw score is increased by one point for each question you answer correctly. However. Your CLEP exam scores are reported only to you. Your scores are kept on file for 20 years. The pamphlet What Your CLEP Score Means. or certifying agency. unless you took English Composition with Essay. How CLEP Scores Are Computed In order to reach a total score on your exam. Many colleges award credit at the score levels recommended by ACE. unless you ask to have them sent elsewhere. The College Board. To determine whether you are eligible for credit for your CLEP scores. you must select this option through the examination software. gives detailed information about interpreting your scores. your “raw score” is calculated. you should refer to the policy of the college you will be attending. however. Second. some require scores that are higher or lower than these. and no points are gained or lost when you do not answer a question or answer it incorrectly. A copy of the pamphlet is included on the last two pages of this exam guide. This service is free only if you select your score recipient at the time you test. For a fee. All ACE recommendations are the result of careful and periodic review by evaluation teams made up of faculty who are subject-matter experts and technical experts in testing and measurement.

sex. clinical. principles. humanistic. and analyze problem situations • Ability to apply knowledge to new situations The subject matter of the Introductory Psychology examination is drawn from the following topics. pain Social motivation Theories of emotion Theories of motivation Knowledge and Skills Required Questions on the Introductory Psychology examination require candidates to demonstrate one or more of the following abilities in the approximate proportions indicated. psychodynamic Research methods: experimental. gustation. The examination contains approximately 95 questions to be answered in 90 minutes. olfaction. Some of these are pretest questions that will not be scored. Approaches. Methods History of psychology Approaches: biological. behavioral. vestibular system Perceptional development Perceptional processes Receptor processes: vision. cognitive. 8–9% History. correlational Ethics in research 8–9% Biological Bases of Behavior Endocrine system Etiology Functional organization of the nervous system Genetics Neuroanatomy Physiological techniques 12 . The percentages next to the main topics indicate the approximate percentage of exam questions on that topic.Introductory Psychology Description of the Examination The Introductory Psychology examination covers material that is usually taught in a one-semester undergraduate course in introductory psychology. adaptation 5–6% States of Consciousness Hypnosis and meditation Psychoactive drug effects Sleep and dreaming 10–11% Learning Biological bases Classical conditioning Cognitive process in learning Observational learning Operant conditioning 8–9% Cognition Intelligence and creativity Language Memory Thinking and problem solving 7–8% Motivation and Emotion Biological bases Hunger. Any time candidates spend on tutorials and providing personal information is in addition to the actual testing time. 7–8% Sensation and Perception Attention Other senses: somesthesis. It stresses basic facts. and theory • Ability to comprehend. • Knowledge of terminology. audition Sensory mechanisms: thresholds. evaluate. concepts. and generally accepted principles in the 13 areas listed in the following section. thirst.

moral Gender identity and sex roles Heredity-environment issues Research methods: longitudinal. cognitive. and coping Personality disorders Psychoses Somatoform disorders Theories of psychopathology 7–8% Treatment of Psychological Disorders Behavioral therapies Biological and drug therapies Cognitive therapies Community and preventive approaches Insight therapies: psychodynamic and humanistic approaches P S Y C H O L O G Y 7–8% Social Psychology Aggression/antisocial behavior Attitudes and attitude change Attribution processes Conformity. and Measurement Descriptive statistics Inferential statistics Measurement of intelligence Mental handicapping conditions Reliability and validity Samples. stress. compliance. Test. cross-sectional Theories of development 7–8% Personality Assessment techniques Growth and adjustment Personality theories and approaches Research methods: idiographic. obedience Group dynamics Interpersonal perception 3–4% Statistics. norms Types of tests 13 . nomothetic Self-concept.I N T R O D U C T O R Y 8–9% Developmental Psychology Dimensions of development: physical. populations. self-esteem 8–9% Psychological Disorders and Health Affective disorders Anxiety disorders Dissociative disorders Health. social.

They are intended to give potential test-takers an indication of the format and difficulty level of the examination and to provide content for practice and review. A neuron is said to be polarized when (A) it is in the refractory period (B) it is in a resting state (C) it is about to undergo an action potential (D) the synaptic terminals release chemicals into the synaptic gap (E) chemicals outside the cell body cross the cell membrane Sample Test Questions The following sample questions do not appear on an actual CLEP examination. 1. Which of the following types of research design is most appropriate for establishing a cause-andeffect relationship between two variables? (A) Correlational (B) Naturalistic observation (C) Participant observation (D) Experimental (E) Case study 3. “The focus of psychological science is the attempt to relate overt responses to observable environmental stimuli. Knowing the correct answers to all of the sample questions is not a guarantee of satisfactory performance on the exam. The statement “response latency is the number of seconds that elapses between the stimulus and the response” is an example of (A) introspection (B) a description of interaction (C) a deduction (D) an operational definition (E) free association 6.” This statement is most closely associated with which of the following approaches? (A) Cognitive (B) Behavioral (C) Biological (D) Humanistic (E) Psychodynamic 2. Select the one that is best in each case. The science of psychology is typically dated from the establishment of the late-nineteenthcentury Leipzig laboratory of (A) Hermann Ebbinghaus (B) Hermann von Helmholtz (C) William James (D) Wilhelm Wundt (E) John Locke 14 .I N T R O D U C T O R Y P S Y C H O L O G Y 4. Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. The release of a neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft is caused by which of the following? (A) An extended refractory period (B) An action potential (C) Reuptake of the neurotransmitter (D) Binding of the neurotransmitter to a postsynaptic cell membrane (E) Vesicles migrating into the synaptic cleft 7. The requirement that prospective participants know the general nature of a study so that they can decide whether to participate is a major part of (A) reciprocal determinism (B) confidentiality (C) informed consent (D) duty to inform (E) the free-choice paradigm 5.

The opponent-process theory in vision best explains which of the following? (A) Size constancy (B) Color afterimages (C) Superior visual acuity in the fovea (D) Depth perception using monocular cues (E) Illusory movement 14. hearing. 13. (C) The image on the retina is upside down. and touch (D) profound apathy and a subjective sensation of powerlessness (E) hallucinations and impaired efficiency in all areas of intellectual functioning P S Y C H O L O G Y 12. (B) The blind spot is closer to the fovea than to the edge of the retina. In adults. Which of the following statements does NOT accurately describe the retina? (A) The rods are more dense in the fovea than in the periphery. The receptors for hearing are the (A) ossicles in the middle ear (B) otoliths in the semicircular canals (C) hair cells on the basilar membrane (D) specialized cells on the tympanic membrane (E) cells in the lining of the auditory canal 15. provided the participant was mentally stable before the deprivation (C) increased efficiency in the senses of sight. How many pairs of chromosomes are contained in most human cells? (A) 7 (B) 10 (C) 16 (D) 23 (E) 31 10.I N T R O D U C T O R Y 8. (E) The eye contains two kinds of receptors: rods and cones. (D) The image is located at the back of the eye. total sensory deprivation for long periods of time produces (A) a feeling of well-being similar to that achieved through meditation (B) no change in emotions or cognition. Down syndrome is caused by (A) an extra chromosome (B) an imbalance of neurotransmitters (C) a tumor in the parietal lobe (D) a nutritional deficiency (E) a viral infection in the third trimester of pregnancy 9. The picture above of a road receding in the distance represents the depth perception cue known as (A) accommodation (B) retinal disparity (C) texture gradient (D) relative size (E) linear perspective 15 . Damage to an individual’s parietal lobes would most likely result in (A) a heightened sense of smell (B) a reduced sensitivity to touch (C) decreased reaction time (D) a loss in the ability to understand language (E) a difficulty with visual discrimination 11.

only to be told to sit down each time. the child is standing up more and more frequently. Brain waves during REM sleep generally appear as (A) alternating high. According to current psychological research. hypnosis is most useful for which of the following purposes? (A) Pain control (B) Age regression (C) Treatment of psychotic behavior (D) Treatment of a memory disorder (E) Treatment of a personality disorder 19. Which of the following is a secondary reinforcer? (A) Food (B) Warmth (C) Water (D) Money (E) Sex 16 . It is most likely that the teacher’s reprimands are serving as (A) a punishment (B) approval (C) a reinforcer (D) an aversive stimulus (E) a conditioned stimulus 23. Which of the following is a type of sleep pattern that becomes less prevalent as one moves from infancy to adulthood? (A) Alpha (B) Beta (C) Gamma (D) Theta (E) REM 18. Making the amount of time a child can spend playing video games contingent on the amount of time the child spends practicing the piano is an illustration of (A) Jeremy Bentham’s adaptive hedonism principle (B) John Locke’s law of association (C) aversive conditioning (D) classical conditioning (E) operant conditioning 21.and low-amplitude waves (B) rapid low-amplitude waves (C) irregular medium-amplitude waves (D) slow low-amplitude waves (E) slow high-amplitude waves 17. Which of the following strategies would undermine the effectiveness of punishment? (A) Delaying punishment (B) Using punishment just severe enough to be effective (C) Making punishment consistent (D) Explaining punishment (E) Minimizing dependence on physical punishment 22. Checking the coin return every time one passes a pay telephone or a vending machine is a type of behavior probably being maintained by which of the following schedules of reinforcement? (A) Fixed interval only (B) Fixed ratio only (C) Variable ratio only (D) Variable interval and fixed ratio (E) Fixed interval and variable ratio P S Y C H O L O G Y 20.I N T R O D U C T O R Y 16. A teacher tells a child to sit down in class. Over the course of several days.

short-term memory. information is progressively processed by (A) long-term memory. If on the last day of a psychology class. According to information processing theory. This phenomenon is best viewed as an example of (A) differentiation (B) negative transfer (C) imprinting (D) stimulus generalization (E) linear perspective 25. Research has shown that students generally perform better if tested in the same room where they did their learning. 29. and then long-term memory (C) sensory memory. This situation is an example of (A) retroactive interference (B) positive transfer (C) the serial position effect (D) proactive interference (E) short-term memory 26. (C) It decreases at a steady rate until it reaches a near-zero level. a student is asked to remember what was done in class each day during the term. she will likely be able to remember best the activities of the first and last class meetings. and then it decreases very slowly over the next few weeks. This shows the importance of which of the following in memory? (A) Insight (B) Preparedness (C) Context (D) Invariance (E) Rehearsal P S Y C H O L O G Y 28. which of the following approaches almost always guarantees a solution? (A) Insight (B) Heuristic (C) Algorithm (D) Critical thinking (E) Convergent thinking 17 . and then it drops off quite sharply. and then it begins a gradual decline. Shortly after learning to associate the word “dog” with certain four-legged furry animals.I N T R O D U C T O R Y 24. (D) It remains steady for about the first week. and then it levels off. and then sensory memory 30. and then sensory memory (B) sensory memory. In problem solving. long-term memory. (B) It decreases slowly at first. semantic memory. (E) It increases for the first few hours after learning. semantic memory. and then long-term memory (E) short-term memory. young children will frequently misidentify a cow or a horse as a dog. Proactive interference describes a process by which (A) people remember digits better than words (B) people remember images better than words (C) people remember elements in pairs (D) prior learning interferes with subsequent learning (E) subsequent learning interferes with prior learning 27. short-term memory. Which of the following is true of recall performance on a typical forgetting curve? (A) It decreases rapidly at first. and then long-term memory (D) short-term memory.

Developmental psychologists would most likely prefer longitudinal research designs to cross-sectional research designs because longitudinal designs (A) usually yield results much more quickly (B) offer the advantage of between-subjects comparisons (C) are much less likely to be influenced by cultural changes that occur over time (D) utilize the subjects as their own experimental controls (E) are more valid 38.’’ In Jean Piaget’s analysis. physiological needs (C) Physiological needs. (D) Overarousal leads to performance efficiency. Which of the following illustrates drive reduction? (A) A person wins five dollars in the lottery. (B) Greater arousal leads to poorer performance. the child’s behavior is evidence of (A) formal logical operations (B) concrete logical operations (C) conservation (D) preoperational thought (E) sensorimotor analysis 18 . (D) A dog salivates at the sound of a tone previously paired with fresh meat. safety (D) Esteem. esteem 34. (E) Underarousal leads to performance efficiency.I N T R O D U C T O R Y 31. A young child breaks her cookie into a number of pieces and asserts that ‘‘now there is more to eat. as the person nears the goal. safety (B) Self-actualization. Which of the following accurately describes this relationship? (A) Greater arousal leads to better performance. (B) A dog burned by a hot stove avoids the stove thereafter. In an approach-avoidance conflict. (E) A woman who is cold puts on a warm coat. (C) Low and high levels of arousal lead to poorest performance. the levels of attraction and aversion change in which of the following ways? (A) Both increase (B) Both decrease (C) Attraction increases and aversion decreases (D) Attraction decreases and aversion increases (E) Both are extinguished P S Y C H O L O G Y 35. Which of the following presents a pair of needs from Abraham Maslow’s hierarchical need structure in order from lower to higher need? (A) Belongingness. (C) A child who likes music turns up the volume of the radio. belongingness (E) Self-actualization. In which of the following areas does psychological research show most clearly that girls develop earlier than boys? (A) Independence from parents (B) Athletic competence (C) Intellectual achievement (D) Adolescent physical growth spurt (E) Self-actualization 37. Which of the following has been identified as correlating most closely with heart disease? (A) Anxiety (B) Physical overexertion (C) Guilt (D) Muscle tension (E) Hostility 36. 32. 33. One theory of the effects of arousal holds that efficiency of behavior can be described as an inverted U-shaped function of increasing arousal.

Sally’s first impulse was to strike him. denial. anger. anger. depression. Instead. acceptance (C) Denial. When preschool children see the world from only their point of view. depression. denial. A school psychologist informs a ninth-grade teacher that Jimmy “identifies” with his twelfthgrade brother. This means of reducing aggressive impulses exemplifies which of the following? (A) Repression (B) Abreaction (C) Displacement (D) Cathexis (E) Sublimation 43. Erik Erikson’s and Sigmund Freud’s theories of personality development are most similar in that they both (A) emphasize the libido (B) focus on adult development (C) discount the importance of culture (D) are based on stages (E) view behavior as a continuum 45. bargaining. denial.I N T R O D U C T O R Y 39. anger. acceptance (B) Bargaining. acceptance 41. she yelled loudly and kicked a door several times. When insulted by a friend. acceptance (E) Depression. depression. what is the correct order of the stages for confronting impending death? (A) Anger. anger. denial. Carl Jung is associated with which of the following concepts? (A) Inferiority complex (B) Need for achievement (C) Collective unconscious (D) Self-esteem (E) Self-actualization 44. According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross. acceptance (D) Depression. they are displaying (A) accommodation (B) assimilation (C) egocentric thinking (D) deductive reasoning (E) object permanence P S Y C H O L O G Y 42. The use of projective tests is associated with which of the following psychological approaches? (A) Behaviorism (B) Psychoanalysis (C) Cognitive behaviorism (D) Humanism (E) Functionalism 19 . bargaining. bargaining. What the psychologist means is that Jimmy tends to (A) feel inferior to his brother (B) envy and to be jealous of his brother (C) influence the way his brother views the world (D) recognize similarities between his brother and himself (E) accept his brother’s values and to imitate his behavior 40. bargaining.

rigid. A diagnosis of schizophrenia typically includes which of the following symptoms? (A) Delusions (B) Panic attacks (C) Hypochondriasis (D) Multiple personality (E) Psychosexual dysfunction 49. frequently accompanied by panic attacks (B) Inflexible and maladaptive responses to stress. A somatization disorder is characterized chiefly by (A) changes in mood (B) panic attacks (C) agoraphobia (D) changes in eating behavior (E) physical complaints 52. Lawrence would be classified as (A) independent-dependent (B) stable-extraverted (C) internal-external (D) unstable-introverted (E) passive-aggressive 47. Research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy has indicated that (A) there are therapeutic methods that have been shown to be especially effective for particular psychological disorders (B) nondirective techniques are generally superior to directive ones (C) the effectiveness of a method depends on the length of time a therapist was trained in the method (D) psychoanalysis is the most effective technique for eliminating behavior disorders (E) psychoanalysis is the most effective technique for curing anxiety disorders 54. The key distinction between a personality trait and an attitude is (A) centrality (B) salience (C) durability (D) direction (E) valence 48. Lawrence is pessimistic. and problematic social relationships (C) A successful response to neuroleptic drugs (D) A deficiency of acetylcholine in the brain (E) An increased level of serotonin in the brain 53. In terms of Hans Eysenck’s personality dimensions. Which of the following kinds of therapy attempts to correct irrational beliefs that lead to psychological distress? (A) Behavioral (B) Cognitive (C) Existential (D) Gestalt (E) Psychoanalytic 20 . An obsession is defined as (A) a senseless ritual (B) a hallucination (C) a delusion (D) an unwanted thought (E) a panic attack P S Y C H O L O G Y 51.I N T R O D U C T O R Y 46. The term etiology refers to the study of which of the following aspects of an illness? (A) Origins and causes (B) Characteristic symptoms (C) Expected outcome following treatment (D) Frequency of occurrence (E) Level of contagiousness 50. Personality disorders are characterized by which of the following? (A) A fear of public places. and moody.

(C) A person is more likely to perform an altruistic act when another person has modeled altruistic behavior. altruism (C) Intimacy. and familiarity are important determinants of (A) observational learning (B) friendship formation (C) sexual orientation (D) aggression (E) imprinting P S Y C H O L O G Y 59. Which of the following can be a significant side effect of electroconvulsive therapy? (A) Aphasia (B) Sustained convulsions (C) Muscle tremors (D) Loss of muscle control (E) Temporary loss of memory 57. 60. accommodation. humility. commitment (D) Selflessness. trust 62. According to Robert Sternberg. (B) It is more likely to be inherited than is aggressive behavior. (D) A person is more likely to perform an altruistic act when another person has pointed out the need. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are used primarily in the treatment of which of the following? (A) Anxiety (B) Schizophrenia (C) Depression (D) Mania (E) Sleep disorders 58. proximity. The bystander effect has been explained by which of the following? (A) Empathy (B) Diffusion of responsibility (C) Social facilitation (D) Reactive devaluation (E) Defective schemas 61. Similarity. (E) A person is more likely to be altruistic when not in a hurry. agape. love is composed of which of the following? (A) Maturity. liking (B) Assimilation. An individual undergoing psychotherapy shows improvement due only to that person’s belief in the therapy and not because of the therapy itself. All of the following are true about altruism EXCEPT: (A) It is more common in small towns and rural areas than in cities. passion. This result illustrates a (A) transference effect (B) placebo effect (C) cathectic effect (D) primary gain (E) conditioned response 56. Job satisfaction has an inverse relationship with (A) productivity (B) career interest (C) turnover (D) age (E) skill level 21 . companionship (E) Tolerance. romance.I N T R O D U C T O R Y 55.

An attribution that focuses on an individual’s ability or personality characteristics is described as (A) situational (B) collectivist (C) dispositional (D) stereotypic (E) homogeneous 64. 66.I N T R O D U C T O R Y 63. Which of the following is a true statement about the relationship between test validity and test reliability? (A) A test can be reliable without being valid. then making a larger request? (A) Door-in-the-face (B) Foot-in-the-door (C) Social facilitation (D) Matching (E) Overjustification P S Y C H O L O G Y 65. (B) A test that has high content validity will have high reliability. (D) The higher the test’s validity. Which of the following terms refers to the strategy of making a small request to gain listeners’ compliance. (E) The validity of a test always exceeds its reliability. (C) A test that has low content validity will have low reliability.2 (C) A range of 6 (D) A mean of 61. Which of the following statistics indicates the distribution with the greatest variability? (A) A variance of 30.5 (E) A median of 38 22 . the lower its reliability will be.6 (B) A standard deviation of 11.

38. 52. In addition. 32. 60. 42. 17. 39. 56. 35. 27. 5. 21. 54. 40. A E D D D E C C C C D B D C A A D E B A B B E C B B B C C C B A B 23 . 48. 61. 25. pp. 66. 44. 30. 4. 65. check the table of contents against the knowledge and skills required for this test. To prepare for the Introductory Psychology exam. 50. 7. 11. 31. 20.I N T R O D U C T O R Y P S Y C H O L O G Y Study Resources Most textbooks used in college-level introductory psychology courses cover the topics in the outline given earlier. 37. 45. 58. but the approaches to certain topics and the emphasis given to them may differ. 29. 18. 8. 49. 53. 51. 2. When selecting a textbook. 43. 16. 33. 18–19. 24. 41. 57. 63. 36. 23. 10. 59. 22. 19. 28.” 1. Answer Key B D D C D B B A D B E A B C E B E A C E A C D D C D C A B C C E C 34. 55. 62. 46. and there are a number of educational Web sites such as those mentioned in Chapter IV. You may also find it helpful to supplement your reading with books listed in the bibliographies that can be found in most psychology textbooks. 47. 9. 64. 3. which can be found in most college bookstores. that contain useful resources organized by subject. it is advisable to study one or more college textbooks. many college faculty post their course materials on their schools’ Web sites. 26. 14. 15. 6. 13. Additional suggestions for preparing for CLEP exams are given in “Preparing to Take CLEP Examinations. 12.

write to CLEP. compare your score to the score in the table shown.What Your CLEP® Score Means In order to reach the total score you see on your score report. If you have not already done so. but only at the request of the candidate.S. DANTES-funded military examinees: The U. the number of credit hours granted. Each college. and method of reporting results.collegeboard. your “raw score” is calculated. score reports may be sent to an institution. 24 . the score will be canceled. or about any other aspect of a CLEP examination that your test center cannot answer. the lowest. which may differ from that of ACE. During this period. First. direct comparisons should not be made between CLEP examinations in different or obtained by contacting CLEP. contact your college as soon as possible to find out the score it requires to grant credit. reserves the right to set its own credit-granting policy. P. Box 6600. Equating maintains the consistency of standards for test scores over time by adjusting for slight differences in difficulty between test forms. and no points are gained or lost when a question is not answered or is answered incorrectly.collegeboard. Second. Please note that CLEP® examinations are developed and evaluated independently and are not linked to each other except by the program’s common purpose. your raw score is converted into a “scaled score” by a statistical process called equating.O. to 80. the highest. This is the number of questions you answered correctly. For this reason. If the candidate retakes the examination within the six-month period. Candidates may not repeat an examination of the same title within six months of the initial testing date. and the course(s) that can be bypassed with a satisfactory score. A Transcript Request Form and instructions for having a transcript sent to an institution can be downloaded from the CLEP Web site (www. The scores that appear in this table are the credit-granting scores recommended by the American Council on Education (ACE). however. Your raw score is converted to a scaled score that ranges from 20. To see whether you attained a score sufficient to receive college credit. Princeton. two calculations are performed. government will not fund CLEP examinations that are repeated within a 180-day period. the administration will be considered invalid. Your raw score increases by one point for each question answered correctly. about a test question. CLEP scores are not comparable to SAT® scores or other test scores. If you have a question about your score report. Test scores are kept on file for 20 years. This ensures that your score does not depend on the specific test form you took or how well others did on the same form.collegeboard. NJ 08541-6600 or e-mail clep@info. Visit CLEP on the Web: and any test fees will be forfeited. The final scaled score is the score that appears on your score report.

and program initiatives. Level 1 50 6 Spanish Language. 747460 www. Level 1 50 6 12 German Language. the American Council on Education (ACE) is the nation’s unifying voice for higher education.collegeboard. The scores listed above are equivalent to a grade of C in the corresponding 25 . 3 This score is recommended for exams administered after June 30. research. Level 2 603 Spanish Language.2008-09 CLEP® Credit-Granting Recommendations Computer-Based Testing (CBT) and Paper-and-Pencil Testing ACE Recommended Score1 Semester Hours1 Business Financial Accounting 50 3 Information Systems and Computer Applications 50 3 Introductory Business Law 50 3 Principles of Accounting2 50 6 Principles of Management 50 3 Principles of Marketing 50 3 Composition and Literature American Literature 50 6 Analyzing and Interpreting Literature 50 6 English Composition with Essay 50 6 English Composition without Essay 50 6 English Literature 50 6 Freshman College Composition 50 6 Humanities 50 6 Foreign Languages French Language. Founded in 1918. 2 This examination is no longer available to students. Level 2 59 12 German Language. ACE serves as a consensus leader on key higher education issues and seeks to influence public policy through advocacy. Level 2 63 12 Level 1—equivalent to the first two semesters (or 6 semester hours) of college-level foreign language course work Level 2—equivalent to the first four semesters (or 12 semester hours) of college-level foreign language course work History and Social Sciences American Government 50 3 History of the United States I: Early Colonization to 1877 50 3 History of the United States II: 1865 to Present 50 3 Human Growth and Development 50 3 Introduction to Educational Psychology 50 3 Introductory Psychology 50 3 Introductory Sociology 50 3 Principles of Macroeconomics 50 3 Principles of Microeconomics 50 3 Social Sciences and History 50 6 Western Civilization I: Ancient Near East to 1648 50 3 Western Civilization II: 1648 to Present 50 3 Science and Mathematics Biology 50 6 Calculus 50 3 Chemistry 50 6 College Algebra 50 3 College Mathematics 50 6 Precalculus 50 3 Natural Sciences 50 6 1 The scores and credit hours that appear in this table are the credit-granting scores and semester hours recommended by the American Council on Education (ACE). Level 1 50 6 French Language. 2008.

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