# Source: CIVIL ENGINEERING FORMULAS

CHAPTER 7

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UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
Units of measurement used in past and present surveys are For construction work: feet, inches, fractions of inches (m, mm) For most surveys: feet, tenths, hundredths, thousandths (m, mm) For National Geodetic Survey (NGS) control surveys: meters, 0.1, 0.01, 0.001 m The most-used equivalents are 1 meter 39.37 in (exactly) 3.2808 ft 1 rod 1 pole 1 perch 161 2 ft (5.029 m) 1 engineer’s chain 100 ft 100 links (30.48 m) 1 Gunter’s chain 66 ft (20.11 m) 100 Gunter’s links (lk) 4 rods 1 80 mi (0.020 km) 1 acre 100,000 sq (Gunter’s) links 43,560 ft2 160 rods2 10 sq (Gunter’s) chains 4046.87 m2 0.4047 ha 1 rood 3 4 acre (1011.5 m2) 40 rods2 (also local unit 51 2 to 8 yd) (5.029 to 7.315 m) 1 ha 10,000 m2 107,639.10 ft2 2.471 acres 1 arpent about 0.85 acre, or length of side of 1 square arpent (varies) (about 3439.1 m2) 1 statute mi 5280 ft 1609.35 m 1 mi2 640 acres (258.94 ha) 1 nautical mi (U.S.) 6080.27 ft 1853.248 m 1 fathom 6 ft (1.829 m) 1 cubit 18 in (0.457 m) 1 vara 33 in (0.838 m) (Calif.), 331 3 in (0.851 m) (Texas), varies 1 degree 1 360 circle 60 min 3600 s 0.01745 rad sin 1 0.01745241

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1 rad 57 17 44.8 or about 57.30 1 grad (grade) 1 400 circle 1 100 quadrant 100 centesimal min tesimals (French) 1 mil 1 6400 circle 0.05625 1 military pace (milpace) 21 2 ft (0.762 m)

104 cen-

THEORY OF ERRORS
When a number of surveying measurements of the same quantity have been made, they must be analyzed on the basis of probability and the theory of errors. After all systematic (cumulative) errors and mistakes have been eliminated, random (compensating) errors are investigated to determine the most probable value (mean) and other critical values. Formulas determined from statistical theory and the normal, or Gaussian, bell-shaped probability distribution curve, for the most common of these values follow. Standard deviation of a series of observations is
s

d2 Bn 1

(7.1) num-

where d residual (difference from mean) of single observation and n ber of observations. The probable error of a single observation is PE s 0.6745
s

(7.2)

(The probability that an error within this range will occur is 0.50.) The probability that an error will lie between two values is given by the ratio of the area of the probability curve included between the values to the total area. Inasmuch as the area under the entire probability curve is unity, there is a 100 percent probability that all measurements will lie within the range of the curve. The area of the curve between s is 0.683; that is, there is a 68.3 percent probability of an error between s in a single measurement. This error range is also called the one-sigma or 68.3 percent confidence level. The area of the curve between 2 s is 0.955. Thus, there is a 95.5 percent probability of an error between 2 s and 2 s that represents the 95.5 percent error (twosigma or 95.5 percent confidence level). Similarly, 3 s is referred to as the 99.7 percent error (three-sigma or 99.7 percent confidence level). For practical purposes, a maximum tolerable level often is assumed to be the 99.9 percent error. Table 7.1 indicates the probability of occurrence of larger errors in a single measurement. The probable error of the combined effects of accidental errors from different causes is Esum
1 2E 2

E2 2

E2 3

(7.3)

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TABLE 7.1 Probability of Error in a Single Measurement Probability of larger error 1 in 2 1 in 3 1 in 10 1 in 20 1 in 370 1 in 1000

Error Probable (0.6745 s) Standard deviation ( s) 90% (1.6449 s) 2 s or 95.5% 3 s or 97.7% Maximum (3.29 s)

Confidence level, % 50 68.3 90 95.5 99.7 99.9

where E1, E2, E3 . . . are probable errors of the separate measurements. Error of the mean is Em Esum n Es n n Es n B n(n (7.4)

where Es specified error of a single measurement. Probable error of the mean is PEm PEs n 0.6745

d2 1)

(7.5)

MEASUREMENT OF DISTANCE WITH TAPES
Reasonable precisions for different methods of measuring distances are Pacing (ordinary terrain): 1 50 to 1 100 Taping (ordinary steel tape): 1 1000 to 1 10,000 (Results can be improved by use of tension apparatus, transit alignment, leveling.) Baseline (invar tape): 1 50,000 to 1 1,000,000 Stadia: 1 300 to 1 500 (with special procedures) Subtense bar: 1 1000 to 1 7000 (for short distances, with a 1-s theodolite, averaging angles taken at both ends) Electronic distance measurement (EDM) devices have been in use since the middle of the twentieth century and have now largely replaced steel tape measurements on large projects. The continued development, and the resulting drop in prices, are making their use widespread. A knowledge of steel-taping errors and corrections remains important, however, because use of earlier survey data requires a knowledge of how the measurements were made, common sources for errors, and corrections that were typically required.

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For ordinary taping, a tape accurate to 0.01 ft (0.00305 m) should be used. The tension of the tape should be about 15 lb (66.7 N). The temperature should be determined within 10°F (5.56°C); and the slope of the ground, within 2 percent; and the proper corrections, applied. The correction to be applied for temperature when using a steel tape is Ct 0.0000065s(T T0) (7.6) The correction to be made to measurements on a slope is Ch or or where Ct Ch s T T0 h s (1 cos )
2

exact approximate approximate

(7.7) (7.8) (7.9)

0.00015s h /2s
2

temperature correction to measured length, ft (m) correction to be subtracted from slope distance, ft (m) measured length, ft (m) temperature at which measurements are made, F ( C) temperature at which tape is standardized, F ( C) difference in elevation at ends of measured length, ft (m) slope angle, degree

In more accurate taping, using a tape standardized when fully supported throughout, corrections should also be made for tension and for support conditions. The correction for tension is Cp (Pm SE Ps)s (7.10)

The correction for sag when not fully supported is Cs where Cp Cs Pm Ps S E w L w 2L3 2 24P m (7.11)

tension correction to measured length, ft (m) sag correction to measured length for each section of unsupported tape, ft (m) actual tension, lb (N) tension at which tape is standardized, lb (N) (usually 10 lb) (44.4 N) cross-sectional area of tape, in2 (mm2) modulus of elasticity of tape, lb/in2 (MPa) [29 million lb/in2 (MPa) for steel] (199,955 MPa) weight of tape, lb/ft (kg/m) unsupported length, ft (m)

Slope Corrections In slope measurements, the horizontal distance H L cos x, where L slope distance and x vertical angle, measured from the horizontal—a simple

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hand calculator operation. For slopes of 10 percent or less, the correction to be applied to L for a difference d in elevation between tape ends, or for a horizontal offset d between tape ends, may be computed from Cs d2 2L (7.12)

For a slope greater than 10 percent, Cs may be determined from Cs d2 2L d4 8L3 (7.13)

Temperature Corrections For incorrect tape length: Ct (actual tape length nominal tape length)L nominal tape length (7.14)

For nonstandard tension: Ct (applied pull standard tension)L AE (7.15) modulus of elas-

where A cross-sectional area of tape, in2 (mm2); and E ticity 29,000,00 lb / in2 for steel (199,955 MPa). For sag correction between points of support, ft (m): C where w Ls P w2 L3 s 24P2

(7.16)

weight of tape per foot, lb (N) unsupported length of tape, ft (m) pull on tape, lb (N)

Orthometric Correction This is a correction applied to preliminary elevations due to flattening of the earth in the polar direction. Its value is a function of the latitude and elevation of the level circuit. Curvature of the earth causes a horizontal line to depart from a level surface. The departure Cf , ft; or Cm, (m), may be computed from Cf 0.667M 2 Cm 0.0239F 2
2

(7.17) (7.18)

0.0785K

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where M, F, and K are distances in miles, thousands of feet, and kilometers, respectively, from the point of tangency to the earth. Refraction causes light rays that pass through the earth’s atmosphere to bend toward the earth’s surface. For horizontal sights, the average angular displacement (like the sun’s diameter) is about 32 min. The displacement Rf, ft, or Rm, m, is given approximately by Rf 0.093M 2 Rm 0.0033F 2
2

(7.19) (7.20)

0.011K

To obtain the combined effect of refraction and curvature of the earth, subtract Rf from Cf or Rm from Cm. Borrow-pit or cross-section leveling produces elevations at the corners of squares or rectangles with sides that are dependent on the area to be covered, type of terrain, and accuracy desired. For example, sides may be 10, 20, 40, 50, or 100 ft (3.048, 6.09, 12.19, 15.24, or 30.48 m). Contours can be located readily, but topographic features, not so well. Quantities of material to be excavated or filled are computed, in yd3 (m3), by selecting a grade elevation or final ground elevation, computing elevation differences for the corners, and substituting in Q where n x A nxA 108 (7.21)

number of times a particular corner enters as part of a division block difference in ground and grade elevation for each corner, ft (m) area of each block, ft2 (m2)

VERTICAL CONTROL
The NGS provides vertical control for all types of surveys. NGS furnishes descriptions and elevations of bench marks on request. As given in “Standards and Specifications for Geodetic Control Networks,” Federal Geodetic Control Committee, the relative accuracy C, mm, required between directly connected bench marks for the three orders of leveling is First order: C Second order: C Third order: C
0.5 2K for Class I and 0.7 2K for Class II 2.0 2K 1.0 2K for Class I and 1.3 2K for Class II

(7.22) (7.23) (7.24)

where K is the distance between bench marks, km.

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In stadia surveying, a transit having horizontal stadia crosshairs above and below the central horizontal crosshair is used. The difference in the rod readings at the stadia crosshairs is termed the rod intercept. The intercept may be converted to the horizontal and vertical distances between the instrument and the rod by the following formulas: H V where H V K i a f c Ki (cos a)2 1 Ki (sin 2a) 2 (f (f c) cos a c) sin a (7.25) (7.26)

horizontal distance between center of transit and rod, ft (m) vertical distance between center of transit and point on rod intersected by middle horizontal crosshair, ft (m) stadia factor (usually 100) rod intercept, ft (m) vertical inclination of line of sight, measured from the horizontal, degree instrument constant, ft (m) (usually taken as 1 ft) (0.3048 m)

In the use of these formulas, distances are usually calculated to the foot (meter) and differences in elevation to tenths of a foot (meter). Figure 7.1 shows stadia relationships for a horizontal sight with the older type of external-focusing telescope. Relationships are comparable for the internal-focusing type. For horizontal sights, the stadia distance, ft, (m) (from instrument spindle to rod), is D f1 C c a b a´ i m b´ F D A R f d B R f i C f2 (7.27)

FIGURE 7.1 Distance D is measured with an external-focusing telescope by determining interval R intercepted on a rod AB by two horizontal sighting wires a and b.

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where R f i

intercept on rod between two sighting wires, ft (m) focal length of telescope, ft (m) (constant for specific instrument) distance between stadia wires, ft (m) C f c (7.28)

c

distance from center of spindle to center of objective lens, ft (m)

C is called the stadia constant, although c and C vary slightly. The value of f/i, the stadia factor, is set by the manufacturer to be about 100, but it is not necessarily 100.00. The value should be checked before use on important work, or when the wires or reticle are damaged and replaced.

PHOTOGRAMMETRY
Photogrammetry is the art and science of obtaining reliable measurements by photography (metric photogrammetry) and qualitative evaluation of image data (photo interpretation). It includes use of terrestrial, close-range, aerial, vertical, oblique, strip, and space photographs along with their interpretation. Scale formulas are as follows: Photo scale Map scale Photo scale where f H h1 photo distance map distance ab AB f H h1 (7.29) (7.30)

focal length of lens, in (m) flying height of airplane above datum (usually mean sea level), ft (m) elevation of point, line, or area with respect to datum, ft (m)