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LIGHT

ASSIGNMENT
1. (a) What do you understand by the term light energy ? (b) What do you understand by the term rectilinear propagation of light ? (c) Give two everyday phenomena which suggest that light travels in straight lines. 2. What do you understand by the following terms ? Give three examples in each case. (a) Transparent medium (b) Translucent medium (c) Opaque body

3. (a) What do you understand by the term shadow ?

(b) State three conditions necessary for the formation of a shadow. 4. What do you understand by the following terms : (a) Umbra (b) Penumbra

5. (a) Draw the formation of a shadow, when source of light is a point source. (b) How is the size of shadow affected when : (i) Point source of light is moved towards the opaque body ? (ii) Screen is moved towards the opaque body ? (c) Why is not the penumbra formed in the above case ?

6. (a) Draw a diagram for the formation of shadow by an opaque body, when it is bigger than source of light. (b) Why is umbra smaller than the penumbra ? (c) How are the umbra and penumbra affected when : (i) Screen is taken away from the opaque body ? (ii) When source of light moves towards the opaque body ? (d) Why is the light emitted by a fluorescent tube called shadowless light ? (e) Why are the shadows produced by a filament lamp darker than the shadows produced by a fluorescent tube ?

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7. Why does not a bird flying high up in the air cast its shadow ? 8. Define the following terms regarding reflection of light : (a) Mirror (c) Point of incidence (e) Normal (g) Angle of reflection (i) Glance angle of reflection 9. (a) State two laws of reflection. (b) Incident ray (d) Reflected ray (f) Angle of incidence (h) Glance angle of incidence

(b) State five characteristics of the image formed in the plane mirror. 10. (a) What do you understand by the term reflection of light ? (i) Regular reflection (b) Define by giving an example, drawing a diagram and one use of the following : (ii) Irregular (Diffused) reflection

11. Define the following terms with reference to reflection of light : (a) Image (b) Real image

(c) Virtual image

12. Draw a diagram to show reflection of ray of light using a plane mirror. In the diagram, label the incident ray, the reflected ray, the normal, the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection. 13. State three ways in which the image formed in a pinhole camera differs from the image formed in a plane mirror. 14. By drawing two ray diagrams, show how eye sees image.

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15. (a) Diagram shows two plane mirrors inclined at an angle of 90. By drawing two ray diagrams, show how an eye sees the images.

(b) Which of the images formed above is brightest and why ?

16. By drawing a two ray diagram, show the formation of two images in the mirrors M1 and M2.

17. An insect is sitting in front of a plane mirror at a distance of 1 m from it. (a) Where is the image of the insect formed ? (b) What is the distance between the insect and the image ?

18. (a) What must be the minimum length of a plane mirror in which a person can see himself full length ? (b) Draw a diagram to justify your answer. (c) Does the distance of person from mirror affect above statement ? 19. (a) State the mirror formula for finding the number of images formed between two plane mirrors inclined at an angle . (b) Calculate the number of images formed in two plane mirrors when angle of inclination is : (i) 45 (ii) 60
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20. (a) How many images are formed when an object is placed between two parallel plane mirrors, with their reflecting surfaces are facing each other ? (b) Why do more distant images appear fainter ? Give two reasons. 21. (a) Write down the letters of the word POLEX as seen in a plane mirror. (b) Name a mirror which always produces an erect and virtual image of the same size as the object. (c) Distinguish between the real and the virtual image. (d) An object is placed at a distance of 2 cm from a plane mirror. If the object is moved 1 cm towards mirror, what will be new distance between the object and the image ? 22. Define the following terms : (a) Concave mirror (b) Convex mirror

23. (a) Describe the principle of a simple periscope, through an outline ray diagram. (b) State one use of the periscope. (c) State two disadvantages of the periscope.

24. (a) What do you understand by the following terms with respect to a spherical mirror ? (i) Pole (ii) Centre of curvature (iii) Principal axis (v) Focal length (vii) Aperture (iv) Principal focus

(vi) Radius of curvature

(b) State the relation between the focal length and the radius of curvature. 25.

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(a) In the diagram, shown above is a concave mirror M. A is a point on the principal axis. If an object is kept at A, the image is formed on itself. Draw the image in the diagram. (b) Is this image real or virtual ? (c) Measure the distance PA. (d) What is the distance PA called ? (e) Mark a point B on the principal axis at which, if a point source of light is kept, the rays travel parallel to principal axis after reflection from M. What is the point B called ? 26. (a) What is a real image ? (b) Is real image always inverted ? (c) What type of mirror is used to obtain a real image ?

(d) Does the mirror named by you always form real image for all locations of the object ? 27. (a) An object O is placed at point A, in front of a concave mirror. Show by two-ray diagram, how the image is formed.

(b) State four characteristics of the image. 28.

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An object OA is placed on the principal axis of a concave mirror as shown in diagram. Complete the diagram to show the formation of the image. 29. (a) Name a mirror which always forms virtual, erect image of the same size as the object. (b) Name a mirror which sometimes forms a real image and sometimes a virtual image for different locations of the object. (c) Name a mirror which always forms a virtual, erect and diminished image. 30. Compare the properties of an image formed in case of a convex mirror and a concave mirror when the object is placed between the pole and the infinity. 31. By drawing two rays, show the formation of an image in the diagram given below, for the object AB. State the size, position and the nature of the image formed.

32. You are provided with a plane mirror, a convex mirror and a concave mirror. How will you distinguish between them without touching the mirrors ? 33. Why do drivers prefer a convex mirror as a rear view mirror ? Illustrate your answer with a diagram. 34. Give two uses each of : Plane mirror Concave mirror Convex mirror

35. A ray of light is incident on a plane mirror at an angle of 20. If the mirror is rotated through an angle of 45, find : (a) Angle between the incident ray and the reflected ray before turning. (b) Angle between the incident ray and the reflected ray when the mirror is turned. (c) Angle through which the reflected ray turns. (d) What conclusion do you draw between the angle through which the mirror turns to the angle through which the reflected ray turns ?

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