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Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.

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Table of Contents of Yoga Sutram An Entry Level Explanation
First Thing First ........................................................................................................................................................................ 4
Prayer and Thanks ............................................................................................................................................................... 4
Few thing need to know first .............................................................................................................................................. 5
Chapter -1 Samadhi Pada ...................................................................................................................................................... 6
1.1 What is Yoga............................................................................................................................................................ 6
1.2 First Layer of Filters - Patterns of Mind (Vrtti) ........................................................................................................ 6
1.2.1 Types of First Filter Layer of Pattern (Vrtti) of Mind ........................................................................................... 7
1.2.2 Dealing with Patterns of Mind (Vrtti ) ................................................................................................................. 7
1.3 Type of Concentration (Samadhi) ........................................................................................................................... 8
1.3.1 Samprajnata Samadhi ..................................................................................................................................... 8
1.3.2 Asamprajnata Samadhi .................................................................................................................................. 8
1.4 Pace of practice ....................................................................................................................................................... 8
1.5 Pure Consciousness (Isvara ) and alternative method ............................................................................................ 9
1.6 Pain/Problems in Ordinary Life ........................................................................................................................... 10
1.6.1 Types of problem/pain encountered in the life. ........................................................................................... 10
1.6.2 Four consequences (Action-Reaction) - Karmic effect .................................................................................. 11
1.7 Various Method to overcome these Problems and their consequences in life .................................................... 11
1.7.1 Effect on Mind ( Citta ) .................................................................................................................................. 12
1.7.2 Engrossment ( samapattih) .......................................................................................................................... 12
1.8 Objectless concentration (Nirbijah Samadhih) ..................................................................................................... 14
Chapter -2 Practice (Sadhana Pada) ................................................................................................................................ 15
2.1 Three Component of practice - Dynamic Yoga Practice (kriya) ......................................................................... 15
2.2 Second layer of Filters - Inborn psychological Patternss (Kleshas) ................................................................... 15
2.2.1 Five Type of Inborn psychological Patterns (Kleshas) ................................................................................ 15
2.3 Dealing with Inborn psychological patterns (Kleshas) of mind ( Citta ) ............................................................... 16
2.4 Third Filter - Latent impressions (karmashaya) .......................................................................................... 17
2.4.1 Three consequences of Latent impressions storage .................................................................................... 17
2.5 Core issue - Ignorance ( Avidhya) ........................................................................................................................ 18
2.5.1 The cause of the conjunction is ignorance ( Avidhya) ................................................................................. 19
2.6 The Eight Process steps of Yoga ........................................................................................................................... 19


Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
2.7 First Process - Moral Restraints (Yamas) .............................................................................................................. 20
2.8 Second Process - Ethical Observances (Niyama) .................................................................................................. 20
2-9 Outcomes of first two steps ( Yamas and Niyamas ) ........................................................................................... 21
2-10 Third Process Posture (Vyayama or Asana) ...................................................................................................... 23
2-11 Fourth Process - Pranayama ............................................................................................................................... 23
2-12 Fifth Process - Sense Withdrawal (Pratyahara) .................................................................................................... 24
Chapter -3 Manifestation (Vibhuti Pada ) ..................................................................................................................... 25
3.1 The Sixth Process - Concentration (dharana) ........................................................................................................ 25
3.2 The Seventh Process - Meditation (dhyana) ......................................................................................................... 25
3.3 The Eighth Process Pure Consciousness (Samadhi) ........................................................................................... 25
3.4 Collective effect of last three Processes (samyama) ............................................................................................ 25
3.4.1 Type of Samyama ......................................................................................................................................... 26
3.4.1.1 nirodhah-parinamah .................................................................................................................................... 26
3.4.1.2 samadhi-parinamah ..................................................................................................................................... 27
3.4.1.3 ekagrata-parinamah ..................................................................................................................................... 27
3.4.2 Experiences from Samyama .......................................................................................................................... 27
3.4.2.1 Knowledge of the past and future ( Tri-Kaal-Darshi) ................................................................................... 27
3.4.2.2 Knowledge of al languages ........................................................................................................................... 28
3.4.2.3 Knowledge of previous incarnations ............................................................................................................ 28
3.4.2.4 Mind reading ................................................................................................................................................ 28
3.4.2.5 Information of action and motives of others ............................................................................................... 28
3.4.2.6 Invisibility ..................................................................................................................................................... 28
3.4.2.7 Capabilities beyond the Five senses ............................................................................................................. 29
3.4.2.8 Fore knowledge of time of death ................................................................................................................. 29
3.4.2.9 Harmony ....................................................................................................................................................... 29
3.4.2.10 Great Physical Strength ( Atulaya Bal ) ..................................................................................................... 29
3.4.2.11 Clairvoyance .............................................................................................................................................. 29
3.4.2.12 Subtle knowledge ...................................................................................................................................... 29
3.4.2.13 Knowledge of the inner stars and galaxies gained .................................................................................... 30
3.4.2.14 Knowledge of the movement of stars ( cosmology ) ................................................................................ 30
3.4.2.15 Knowledge of the arrangement of body systems ( Chakra ) ..................................................................... 30
3.4.2.16 Power to go beyond hunger and thirst ( can survive with food and water) ............................................. 30
3.4.2.17 Power of great steadiness ......................................................................................................................... 30


Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
3.4.2.18 Vision of Siddhas ....................................................................................................................................... 30
3.4.2.19 Knowledge of everything .......................................................................................................................... 30
3.4.2.20 Knowledge of mind ................................................................................................................................... 30
3.4.2.21 Knowledge of pure consciousness ............................................................................................................ 31
3.4.2.22 Divine sensations ...................................................................................................................................... 31
3.4.2.23 ability of Transmigration ........................................................................................................................... 31
3.4.2.24 ability of Levitation ................................................................................................................................... 31
3.4.2.25 Great effulgence ....................................................................................................................................... 32
3.4.2.26 Divine hearing ........................................................................................................................................... 32
3.4.2.27 Extreme lightness of body ( weightlessness) ............................................................................................ 32
3.4.2.28 Removal of the veil of ignorance ( false reality )...................................................................................... 32
3.4.2.29 Mastery over the five manifest elements ( panch tatva) .......................................................................... 32
3.4.2.30 Attainment of Anima and the other seven Siddhis ................................................................................... 32
3.4.2.31 Perfection of body ..................................................................................................................................... 32
3.4.2.32 Perfection of sensory apparatus .............................................................................................................. 32
3.4.2.33 Mastery over the primal cause itself ........................................................................................................ 33
3.5 Higher discrimination ( Vivek ) through Samyama that lead to realization or liberation ..................................... 33
Chapter -4 Liberation or Realization (KAIVALYA PDA) .................................................................................................. 35
4.1 Alternative methods to achieve mystic skills ( Sidhis ) ......................................................................................... 35
4.2 New emerging patterns of Mind ( Chitta) ............................................................................................................ 35
4.3 Three-fold properties of Actions ( karma ) ........................................................................................................... 36
4.4 Objects and the Three Properties (Gunas) ........................................................................................................... 37
4.5 some more Properties of Mind ( Chitta ) .............................................................................................................. 37
4.6 Final Process of liberation and realization ............................................................................................................ 38
4.7 Last Filter Deep interfering thought patterns .................................................................................................... 39
4.8 Liberation or Realization (KAIVALYA) .................................................................................................................... 40






Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
First Thing First
Prayer and Thanks

t t I

May all be happy. May all be healthy. May we all experience what is good and let no one suffer.
-:-
7

: :
From the unreal, lead us to the Real; from darkness, lead us unto Light; from death, lead us to
Immortality. Om peace, peace, peace.
-:-
F T
s

6 4
8 t 9 5
I bow to the lotus feet of our great teachers, who uncover our true self and awaken happiness
Like a Shaman in the Jungle he brings total complete well-being. He can even heal the most
awful poison of conditioning and illusion
The upper body of human shape, carrying a mussel horn (original tone), a discus (infinity) and a
sword (power of differentiation)
Having thousand heads bright white, I bow to Patanjali.
-:-
I bow to my Mother and Father, for everything I have today.
-:-



Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
Few thing need to know first

This great book as written by Great Saga Patanjali, is a frame work to understand how Mind
works, I suggest reading it completely before drawing any conclusions.

Since the original Text is written in Sanskrit, each word have a different meaning when it used
with other words, so much more complex explanation can be possible, Also sometime writer
coded the information as well This attempt is to present it as I understand it and there is very
high possibility to present it in much better way.

We are neither body (certainly not ) nor the mind so who I am , Journey begin to find the
reality, the obstacles in journey are pattern of mind as those act as filter and create a virtual
world around us , interruptive patterns( Vrtti), Inborn psychological thinking patterns (Kleshas),
Latent impressions (Karma), Residual Deep interfering thought patterns etc .

Yoga is the process of dealing these filter , as we start with 8 step process ,in first step we
create a healthy environment for self, in second step create a healthy surrounding, in third step
healthy link between body and self, in 4th step healthy perception by understanding five
senses, in 6th step healthy mind and pure perception of objects, Engrossment or final print of
objects around appear as it is , understanding beyond the properties of object, entry into the
reality (without filters) , then understanding mind itself , understanding the viewer of this
process and then start discriminating between mind and reality and then disappearance of mind
and then.....




Beginning.











Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
Chapter -1 Samadhi Pada
1.1 What is Yoga
H 4l l+ HlB+P + H 4l l+ HlB+P + H 4l l+ HlB+P + H 4l l+ HlB+P +- -- -+ + + +
atha yoga anushasanam [1-1]
4l |4 ||+l - + 4l |4 ||+l - + 4l |4 ||+l - + 4l |4 ||+l - +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
yogah chitta vritti nirodhah [1-2]
67l 7 - F4-9 54Fl+P + 67l 7 - F4-9 54Fl+P + 67l 7 - F4-9 54Fl+P + 67l 7 - F4-9 54Fl+P +- -- -+ + + +
tad drau svarpe avasthnam [1-3]
4 |Bl--4|P6 + 4 |Bl--4|P6 + 4 |Bl--4|P6 + 4 |Bl--4|P6 +- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
vtti srpyam itaratra [1-4]

This is science of yoga (process of Joining, making a single entity). Yoga is the process of
dissolving the patterns (Vrtti) of mind (chit), So that the original self of our inherent original true
nature established.

1.2 First Layer of Filters - Patterns of Mind (Vrtti)

4 4- 964- 4 4- 964- 4 4- 964- 4 4- 964- |T7l5|T7l- |T7l5|T7l- |T7l5|T7l- |T7l5|T7l- + + + +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
vttaya pacatayya kli akli [1-5]
9PlT|494 4|4T-9|+lFP 64- + 9PlT|494 4|4T-9|+lFP 64- + 9PlT|494 4|4T-9|+lFP 64- + 9PlT|494 4|4T-9|+lFP 64- +- -- -+ + + +
prama viparyaya vikalpa nidr smtaya [1-6]
9t4l+ Pl+lPl- 9PlTl|+ + 9t4l+ Pl+lPl- 9PlTl|+ + 9t4l+ Pl+lPl- 9PlTl|+ + 9t4l+ Pl+lPl- 9PlTl|+ +- -- -+ + + +
pratyaka anumna gam pramni [1-7]
|494 4l |P4ll+P6 99|67P |494 4l |P4ll+P6 99|67P |494 4l |P4ll+P6 99|67P |494 4l |P4ll+P6 99|67P + + + +- -- -<+ <+ <+ <+
viparyaya mithyjnam atadrpa pratiham [ 1-8]
H-7l+l+ 9l6l 4F6 H -4l |4T-9- H-7l+l+ 9l6l 4F6 H -4l |4T-9- H-7l+l+ 9l6l 4F6 H -4l |4T-9- H-7l+l+ 9l6l 4F6 H -4l |4T-9- + + + +- -- -+ + + +
abdajna anupt vastunya vikalpa [1-9]
Hl49t44l4+l 4 ||+ l Hl49t44l4+l 4 ||+ l Hl49t44l4+l 4 ||+ l Hl49t44l4+l 4 ||+ l + + + +- -- -+ + + +
abhva pratyaya lamban vtti nidr [1-10]
H+ 6|494lB9Pl 9- FP |6- H+ 6|494lB9Pl 9- FP |6- H+ 6|494lB9Pl 9- FP |6- H+ 6|494lB9Pl 9- FP |6- + + + +- -- -+ + + +
anubhta viaya asapramoa smti [1-11]


Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com

The first filter ( or obstacle ) is interruptive pattern of mind ( Vrtti ) which form virtual world ( or
virtual reality ) around the original self.

1.2.1 Types of First Filter Layer of Pattern (Vrtti) of Mind
They are five type of Patterns ( Vrtti) of mind
1. Perception ( Pramana ) - conception ,
2. Misconception (Viparyaya) Distorted or incorrect perception
3. Illusion ( Vikalpa ) illusions and fantasies , biasing
4. Inattentiveness ( Nidra) sleepy dullness or state of drowsiness, improper filtration
of incoming information.
5. Memory (Smriti) the previous information, past experiences, past traumas,
dramas, memories, and past dualistic false identifications

This is a key sutra where author makes it clear that yoga is not just a philosophical system. It is
neither based on right knowledge nor on wrong knowledge, rather yoga is an inner experiential
system based on practice and can be experienced only. So any knowledge is just interruptive
patterns ( Vrtti) as it obstacle the direct experience.

1.2.2 Dealing with Patterns of Mind (Vrtti )
H-4lB4 l4l-4l 6|l - H-4lB4 l4l-4l 6|l - H-4lB4 l4l-4l 6|l - H-4lB4 l4l-4l 6|l - + + + +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
abhysa vairgybhy tannirodha [1-12]
6 |F6l 4l 5-4lB- 6 |F6l 4l 5-4lB- 6 |F6l 4l 5-4lB- 6 |F6l 4l 5-4lB- + + + +- -- -+ + + +
tatra sthitau yatna abhysa [1-13]
B 6 7l Tl+ -64 BtTllB |46l 7 |P- + B 6 7l Tl+ -64 BtTllB |46l 7 |P- + B 6 7l Tl+ -64 BtTllB |46l 7 |P- + B 6 7l Tl+ -64 BtTllB |46l 7 |P- +- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
sa tu drghakla nairantarya satkra sevita dhabhmi [1-14]
7l+~|4T|494|46 7l+~|4T|494|46 7l+~|4T|494|46 7l+~|4T|494|46 !TF4 4HlTlB-l 4 l4P !TF4 4HlTlB-l 4 l4P !TF4 4HlTlB-l 4 l4P !TF4 4HlTlB-l 4 l4P + + + +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
da nuravika viaya vitasya vakrasaj vairgyam [1-15]
6t9 9 694l6 T4 6 !TlP 6t9 9 694l6 T4 6 !TlP 6t9 9 694l6 T4 6 !TlP 6t9 9 694l6 T4 6 !TlP + + + +- -- - + ++ +
tatpara puruakhyte guavaityam [1-16]

These Vrttis (operations and machinations of the interruptive mental patterns) are dissolved or
cease by practice (abhyasa) of Samadhi (explained later) and non-attachment (vairagya) ,
Practice means doing those actions that bring a stable and tranquil state . When practice is
done consistently sincerely and with devotion, then the practice becomes a firmly rooted, stable
and solid foundation and by non-attachment the mind loses desire, it acquires a state of
desirelessness that is called nonattachment (vairagya)



Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
1.3 Type of Concentration (Samadhi)

|46T |4ll+-7l|FP6l-9l+ Pl6 B9l6- |46T |4ll+-7l|FP6l-9l+ Pl6 B9l6- |46T |4ll+-7l|FP6l-9l+ Pl6 B9l6- |46T |4ll+-7l|FP6l-9l+ Pl6 B9l6- + + + +- -- -+ + + +
vitarka vicra nanda asmitrpa anugamt saprajta [1-17]
|4lP9t44l-4lB9 4 - B FTlH 9l 5+4- |4lP9t44l-4lB9 4 - B FTlH 9l 5+4- |4lP9t44l-4lB9 4 - B FTlH 9l 5+4- |4lP9t44l-4lB9 4 - B FTlH 9l 5+4- + + + +- -- -<+ <+ <+ <+
virmapratyaya abhysaprva saskraea anya [1-18]

1.3.1 Samprajnata Samadhi

Samprajnata Samadhi - The mind remains concentrated on the object of meditation, the
properties (gunas) of the object of meditation persists. It is external Samadhi on object defined
through gross thoughts and reasoning sometime termed as conscious Samadhi (Samprajnata)

It is of four kinds

Savitarka - the mind (Citta) is concentrated upon a gross object of meditation such
as a flame of a lamp, the tip of the nose, or any object with the gross thought and
reasoning
Savichara - the mind (Citta) is concentrated upon a gross object of meditation on any
object with the gross thought only and no reasoning
Sananda - the mind is concentrated upon a still subtler object of meditation, like the
senses.
Sasmita - the mind is concentrated upon the ego-substance with which the self is
generally identified, object is your own thoughts/thought process.

1.3.2 Asamprajnata Samadhi

Asamprajnata Samadhi - The Mind and the object of meditation are fused together. The
consciousness of the object of meditation is transcended. Consciousness no longer attached to
any objects of form, attainment of this state is preceded by the constant practice of allowing all
of the gross and subtle fluctuations of mind to recede back into the field from which they arose.

1.4 Pace of practice

49t44l |47 r9T |64l+lP + 49t44l |47 r9T |64l+lP + 49t44l |47 r9T |64l+lP + 49t44l |47 r9T |64l+lP +- -- -+ + + +
bhavapratyaya videha praktilaynm [1-19]

Some who have attained higher levels (videhas) or know unmanifest nature (prakritilayas), are
drawn into birth in this world by their remaining latent impressions of ignorance, and more
naturally come to these states of samadhi.
~&l4l4 FP |6BPl|9l9 4 T 6 9lP + ~&l4l4 FP |6BPl|9l9 4 T 6 9lP + ~&l4l4 FP |6BPl|9l9 4 T 6 9lP + ~&l4l4 FP |6BPl|9l9 4 T 6 9lP +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
raddh vrya smti samdhipraj prvaka itarem [1-20]


Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
Others follow a five-fold systematic path of 1) faithful certainty in the path, 2) directing energy towards
the practices, 3) repeated memory of the path and the process of stilling the mind, 4) training in deep
concentration, and 5) the pursuit of real knowledge, by which the higher samadhi (asamprajnata samadhi)
is attained.
6lB 4 l+lPlB- 6lB 4 l+lPlB- 6lB 4 l+lPlB- 6lB 4 l+lPlB- + + + +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
tvrasavegnm sanna [1-21]
PTP\4l|Plt4l6l 5|9 |4H 9- PTP\4l|Plt4l6l 5|9 |4H 9- PTP\4l|Plt4l6l 5|9 |4H 9- PTP\4l|Plt4l6l 5|9 |4H 9- + + + +- -- ---+ --+ --+ --+
mdu madhya adhimtratvt tata api viea [1-22]

Then there is even more ratings, according to intense, mediocre, or slight practice.

1.5 Pure Consciousness (Isvara ) and alternative method
H9|Tl+ll + H9|Tl+ll + H9|Tl+ll + H9|Tl+ll +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
vara praidhnt v [1-23]

(There are multiple method ) the method of religious meditation ( Bhatki ) upon the pure
consciousness (Isvara ).

T HTP |49lTlH4 9lP 7- 9 69|4H 9 H- T HTP |49lTlH4 9lP 7- 9 69|4H 9 H- T HTP |49lTlH4 9lP 7- 9 69|4H 9 H- T HTP |49lTlH4 9lP 7- 9 69|4H 9 H- + + + +- -- --v+ -v+ -v+ -v+
klea karma vipka ayai aparma puruaviea vara [1-24]

The pure consciousness is the one which is not involved and affected by actions (Karma),
developments or motivations (difficult for me to explain)
6 |+|6H4 B4 4l=P 6 |+|6H4 B4 4l=P 6 |+|6H4 B4 4l=P 6 |+|6H4 B4 4l=P + + + +- -- ---+ --+ --+ --+
tatra niratiaya sarvajabjam [1-25]
There, in that state, is found the unsurpassed origin of all knowledge. . (Difficult for me to
explain)
B 99- 9 4 9lP|9 6- Tl +l+47 7l6 B 99- 9 4 9lP|9 6- Tl +l+47 7l6 B 99- 9 4 9lP|9 6- Tl +l+47 7l6 B 99- 9 4 9lP|9 6- Tl +l+47 7l6 + + + +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
sa ea prvem api guru klena anavacchedt [1-26]
that, remain unconditioned by time , is the original knowledge provider (guru), is ancient and ,
the authorities from before.
6F4 4lT- 9T4- 6F4 4lT- 9T4- 6F4 4lT- 9T4- 6F4 4lT- 9T4- + + + +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+


Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
tasya vcaka praava [1-27]
that is denoted by syllable um (Om)
6=9F67l4+P 6=9F67l4+P 6=9F67l4+P 6=9F67l4+P + + + +- -- --<+ -<+ -<+ -<+
tajjapa tadarthabhvanam [1-28]
And this sound can be repeated, murmured constantly for realizing its meaning.
66- 9t4 6+l|Pl 5-4-6l4ll4 66- 9t4 6+l|Pl 5-4-6l4ll4 66- 9t4 6+l|Pl 5-4-6l4ll4 66- 9t4 6+l|Pl 5-4-6l4ll4 + + + +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
tata pratyakcetana adhigama api antarya abhva ca [1-29]

As a result there is inwardness of the sense consciousness and the disappearance of obstacles to
progress.

1.6 Pain/Problems in Ordinary Life
-4l|Ft4l+B H49Pl7lF4l|4|6Hl|-6 -4l|Ft4l+B H49Pl7lF4l|4|6Hl|-6 -4l|Ft4l+B H49Pl7lF4l|4|6Hl|-6 -4l|Ft4l+B H49Pl7lF4l|4|6Hl|-6 7H +l- |PTt4l+4|F6t4l|+ ||4 9lF6 5-6l4l- 7H +l- |PTt4l+4|F6t4l|+ ||4 9lF6 5-6l4l- 7H +l- |PTt4l+4|F6t4l|+ ||4 9lF6 5-6l4l- 7H +l- |PTt4l+4|F6t4l|+ ||4 9lF6 5-6l4l- + + + +- -- -+ + + +
vydhi styna saaya pramda lasya avirati bhrnti
daranaalabdhabhmikatva anavasthitatvni cittavikepa te antary [1-30]
T-G7l P +F4lP =4t4HlB9HlBl |4 9Br 4- T-G7l P +F4lP =4t4HlB9HlBl |4 9Br 4- T-G7l P +F4lP =4t4HlB9HlBl |4 9Br 4- T-G7l P +F4lP =4t4HlB9HlBl |4 9Br 4- + + + +- -- -+ + + +
dukha daurmanasya agamejayatva vsapravs vikepa sahabhuva[1-31]


1.6.1 Types of problem/pain encountered in the life.
In normal life, we face following physical and mental pain and problems

1. Physical illness (vyadhi) - disease, illness, sickness
2. Tendency of the mind (styana) - mental laziness, inefficiency, idleness, procrastination,
dullness
3. doubt or indecision( samshaya) - indecision, doubt
4. Addiction (pramada)
5. lack of attention (alasya ) - sloth, languor, laziness, carelessness, negligence
6. sensual craving (avirati) - sensuality, want of non-attachment, non-abstention, craving
7. mistaken views /confusion/Illusion ( bhranti-darshana)- false views or perception,
confusion of philosophies (bhranti = false; darshana = views, perception)
8. Inability to attain or maintain any progress (alabdha-bhumikatva) - failing to attain
stages /growth (alabdha = not obtaining; bhumikatva = stage, state, firm ground)
9. instability ( anavasthitatva) - instability, slipping down, inability to maintain chitta-
vikshepa = distractions of the mind (chitta = mind field; vikshepa = distractions,
diversions) scattered mental thought process (Anavasthitatva) inability to maintain that
state that has been attained - scattered mental and emotional energy


Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com

1.6.2 Four consequences (Action-Reaction) - Karmic effect
These pain causes following effect

1. Suffering (Duhkha) - Pain (mental or physical).
2. despair/ depression (Daurmanasya) - sadness, despair, dejection, frustration, depression,
anguish, nervousness
3. angam-ejayatva = shakiness, unsteadiness, movement, tremor of the limbs or body
(anga = limbs or body)
4. Svasa-Prasvasa Birth and incarnation ( stages of life ) etc

1.7 Various Method to overcome these Problems and their consequences in life
6t9|69 l P T6x4l-4lB- + 6t9|69 l P T6x4l-4lB- + 6t9|69 l P T6x4l-4lB- + 6t9|69 l P T6x4l-4lB- +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
tatpratiedhrtham ekatattva abhysa [1-32]

To get free from these effects or consequences, one should practice the method used to pursuit
the reality.
P lT6TlP |76l 9 lTl P lT6TlP |76l 9 lTl P lT6TlP |76l 9 lTl P lT6TlP |76l 9 lTl B GT-G9 '4l9 '4|494lTll4+l6|9Bl7+P B GT-G9 '4l9 '4|494lTll4+l6|9Bl7+P B GT-G9 '4l9 '4|494lTll4+l6|9Bl7+P B GT-G9 '4l9 '4|494lTll4+l6|9Bl7+P + + + +- -- -+ + + +
maitr karu mudit upekaam sukha dukha puya apuya viay bhvanta cittaprasdanam
[1-33]

The Stabilizing and clearing the mind and clearing of mind achieved by following methods
treating friendliness, compassion, cheerfulness and non-responsiveness to happiness, distress,
virtue etc as gift equally.
97 +|4lTl-4l 4l 9lTF4 + 97 +|4lTl-4l 4l 9lTF4 + 97 +|4lTl-4l 4l 9lTF4 + 97 +|4lTl-4l 4l 9lTF4 +- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
pracchardana vidhrabhy v prasya [1-34]

Alternatively /or by regulating the exhalation and inhalation of the vital energy using breathing
techniques.
|49446l |49446l |49446l |49446l 4l 94 |6t9l P+B- |F|6|+4-+l + 4l 94 |6t9l P+B- |F|6|+4-+l + 4l 94 |6t9l P+B- |F|6|+4-+l + 4l 94 |6t9l P+B- |F|6|+4-+l +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
viayavat v pravtti utpann manasa sthiti nibandhan [1-35]

The inner concentration on the process of sensory experiencing( 5 senses) , done in a way that
leads towards higher, subtle sense perception; this also leads to stability and tranquility of the
mind.




Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
|4Hl Tl 4l 74l |6!P6l |4Hl Tl 4l 74l |6!P6l |4Hl Tl 4l 74l |6!P6l |4Hl Tl 4l 74l |6!P6l + + + +- -- -+ + + +
viokh v jyotimat [1-36]

Or concentration on a painless inner state of lucidness and luminosity also brings stability and
tranquility.
4l6l|494 4l |P 4l6l|494 4l |P 4l6l|494 4l |P 4l6l|494 4l |P + + + +- -- -+ + + +
vtarga viaya v cittam [1-37]
Or contemplating on having a mind that is free from desires, the mind gets stabilized and
tranquil.
F4U|+ll+l4+ 4l F4U|+ll+l4+ 4l F4U|+ll+l4+ 4l F4U|+ll+l4+ 4l + + + +- -- - < << <+ ++ +
svapna nidr jna lambana v [1-38]

Or by focusing on the nature of the stream in the dream state or the nature of the state of
dreamless sleep, the mind becomes stabilized and tranquil.
4l|P6\4l+ll 4l|P6\4l+ll 4l|P6\4l+ll 4l|P6\4l+ll + + + +- -- - + ++ +
yathbhimata dhynt v [1-39]
Or it can be achieved from the effortless concentration ( dhayan) of the mind to a higher
concentration.


1.7.1 Effect on Mind ( Citta )
9PlT 9PPrx4l-6l 5F4 4HlTl- 9PlT 9PPrx4l-6l 5F4 4HlTl- 9PlT 9PPrx4l-6l 5F4 4HlTl- 9PlT 9PPrx4l-6l 5F4 4HlTl- + + + +- -- -v v v v+ ++ +
paramu paramamahattvnta asya vakra [1-40]

the mind develops the power of becoming stable on the smallest size object as well as on the
Largest, then the mind truly comes under control and it result in control of his relationship to
the smallest atom or to cosmic proportions.

1.7.2 Engrossment ( samapattih)
lT4 |=l6F4 4 PT rl6 rTlG 9 lT4 |=l6F4 4 PT rl6 rTlG 9 lT4 |=l6F4 4 PT rl6 rTlG 9 lT4 |=l6F4 4 PT rl6 rTlG 9 6tF67V+6l BPl9|- 6tF67V+6l BPl9|- 6tF67V+6l BPl9|- 6tF67V+6l BPl9|- + + + +- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
kavtte abhijtasya iva mae graht grahaa grhyeu tatstha tadajanat sampatti [1-41]

the filter of mind become week the stabilizing mind becomes like a transparent crystal, and thus
can easily take on the qualities of whatever object observed, whether that object be the


Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
observer, the means of observing, or an object observed, means there is fusion of the perceiver,
the flow of perceptions and what is perceived, just like the absorption of a transparent jewel.
The process of engrossment (Samapattih ) re-defined .

1.7.2.1 Engrossment with filters on (Savitarka Samapattih)
6 H-7l l+|4T-9 - BTlTl B|46Tl BPl9|- 6 H-7l l+|4T-9 - BTlTl B|46Tl BPl9|- 6 H-7l l+|4T-9 - BTlTl B|46Tl BPl9|- 6 H-7l l+|4T-9 - BTlTl B|46Tl BPl9|- + + + +- -- -v-+ v-+ v-+ v-+
tatra abda artha jna vikalpai sakr savitark sampatti [1-42]

One type of such an engrossment (samapattih) is one in which there is a mixture of three
things, a word or name going with the object, the meaning or identity of that object, and the
knowledge associated with that object; this engrossment is known as savitarka samapattih
(associated with gross objects).

1.7.2.2 Engrossment Filter Off (Savitarka Samapattih)
FP FP FP FP |69|H&l F4-9H -4 4l Pl|+l Bl |+|4 6Tl |69|H&l F4-9H -4 4l Pl|+l Bl |+|4 6Tl |69|H&l F4-9H -4 4l Pl|+l Bl |+|4 6Tl |69|H&l F4-9H -4 4l Pl|+l Bl |+|4 6Tl + + + +- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
smtipariuddhau svarpanya iva arthamtranirbhs nirvitarka [1-43]

When the memory or storehouse of modifications of mind is clear or purified, then the mind
appears to be devoid of its own nature and only the object on which it is contemplating appears
to shine forward; this type of engrossment is known as nirvitarka samapattih.

1.7.2.3 Filters off engrossment (savichara and nirvichara samapattih)
964 4 B|4ll |+|4 ll 964 4 B|4ll |+|4 ll 964 4 B|4ll |+|4 ll 964 4 B|4ll |+|4 ll B P|494l -4l4l6l B P|494l -4l4l6l B P|494l -4l4l6l B P|494l -4l4l6l + + + +- -- -vv+ vv+ vv+ vv+
etayaiva savicra nirvicra ca skmaviay vykhyt [1-44]

In the same way that these engrossments operate with gross objects in savitarka samapattih,
the engrossment with subtle objects (thoughts) also operates, and is known as with thoughts
(savichara) and without thoughts (nirvichara samapattih) .
B P|494t4 l|94 4Bl+P B P|494t4 l|94 4Bl+P B P|494t4 l|94 4Bl+P B P|494t4 l|94 4Bl+P + + + +- -- -v-+ v-+ v-+ v-+
skmaviayatva ca aliga paryavasnam [1-45]

Having such subtle objects extends all the way up to unmanifest prakriti.( characteristics )
6l 94 B4l=- BPl|- 6l 94 B4l=- BPl|- 6l 94 B4l=- BPl|- 6l 94 B4l=- BPl|- + + + +- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
t eva sabja samdhi [1-46]



Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
These four varieties of engrossment are the only kinds of concentrations (samadhi) which are
objective, and have a seed of an object.

1.8 Objectless concentration (Nirbijah Samadhih)

|+|4 l4 HlH 5\4ltP9Bl7- |+|4 l4 HlH 5\4ltP9Bl7- |+|4 l4 HlH 5\4ltP9Bl7- |+|4 l4 HlH 5\4ltP9Bl7- + + + +- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
nirvicra vairadye adhytmaprasda [1-47]

As one gains proficiency in the undisturbed flow in nirvichara, a purity and luminosity of the
inner instrument of mind is developed
+ ++ +6l 6 9l 6l 6 9l 6l 6 9l 6l 6 9l + + + +- -- -v<+ v<+ v<+ v<+
tabhar tatra praj [1-48]

The experiential knowledge that is gained in that state is one of essential wisdom and is filled
with truth and the reality-perceptive insight.
~ 6l+ Pl+9l-4lP-4|494l |4H 9l t4l6 ~ 6l+ Pl+9l-4lP-4|494l |4H 9l t4l6 ~ 6l+ Pl+9l-4lP-4|494l |4H 9l t4l6 ~ 6l+ Pl+9l-4lP-4|494l |4H 9l t4l6 + + + +- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
ruta anumna prajbhym anyaviay vierthatvt [1-49]

That knowledge is different from the knowledge that is commingled with testimony or through
inference, because it relates directly to the specifics of the object, rather than to those words or
other concepts.

6=- B FTll 5-4B FTl9|64-l 6=- B FTll 5-4B FTl9|64-l 6=- B FTll 5-4B FTl9|64-l 6=- B FTll 5-4B FTl9|64-l + + + +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
tajja saskra anyasaskra pratibandh [1-50]

This type of knowledge that is filled with truth creates latent impressions in the mind, and those
new impressions tend to reduce the formation of other less useful forms of habitual latent
impressions.

6F4l|9 |+l B4 |+l l|4l =FBPl|- 6F4l|9 |+l B4 |+l l|4l =FBPl|- 6F4l|9 |+l B4 |+l l|4l =FBPl|- 6F4l|9 |+l B4 |+l l|4l =FBPl|- + + + +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
tasypi nirodhe sarvanirodht nirbja samdhi [1-51]

When those old latent impressions of mind disappears ( nirodhe) , then there is objectless
concentration. (nirbijah samadhih)



Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
Chapter -2 Practice (Sadhana Pada)

This chapter deals with the importance of practice, the process of working towards the ultimate
goal using step-by-step approach.

2.1 Three Component of practice - Dynamic Yoga Practice (kriya)
69-F4l\4l4 H9|Tl+l|+ |44l4l - 69-F4l\4l4 H9|Tl+l|+ |44l4l - 69-F4l\4l4 H9|Tl+l|+ |44l4l - 69-F4l\4l4 H9|Tl+l|+ |44l4l - +- +- +- +-- -- -+ + + +
tapa svdhyya varapraidhnni kriyyoga [2-1]

Austerity (Tapa) , self study/self practice (Swadhyaya) and devotion/meditation on the pure
consciousness or God (Ishwara Pranidhana ) constitute dynamic yoga practice (kriya Yoga
Practice)

2.2 Second layer of Filters - Inborn psychological Patternss (Kleshas)
BPl|l4+l - BPl|l4+l - BPl|l4+l - BPl|l4+l - T H6+ TTl T H6+ TTl T H6+ TTl T H6+ TTl +- +- +- +-- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
samdhi bhvanrtha klea tankarartha ca [2-2]

After the first layer of filter ( Vrtti) the next layer of filter or distortions is Inborn psychological
patterns of mind (Kleshas) and the methods of their removal prescribed as the method to
facilitate attainment of Samadhi.

2.2.1 Five Type of Inborn psychological Patterns (Kleshas)

The five types of psychological impression or patterns of mind / filters /distortions (Pancha
Kleshas)
H|4Hl5|FP6ll 9l||+4 Hl- H|4Hl5|FP6ll 9l||+4 Hl- H|4Hl5|FP6ll 9l||+4 Hl- H|4Hl5|FP6ll 9l||+4 Hl- 9T Hl- 9T Hl- 9T Hl- 9T Hl- +- +- +- +-- -- -+ + + +
avidy asmit rga dvea abhinivea paca kle [2-3]
H|4Hl P 9l 9B 86+ |4|7l 7llTlP +- H|4Hl P 9l 9B 86+ |4|7l 7llTlP +- H|4Hl P 9l 9B 86+ |4|7l 7llTlP +- H|4Hl P 9l 9B 86+ |4|7l 7llTlP +-- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
avidy ketram uttare prasupta tanu vicchina udrm [2-4]
H|+t4lH |T-Gl+ltPB |+t4H |B GltP4l|6|4Hl H|+t4lH |T-Gl+ltPB |+t4H |B GltP4l|6|4Hl H|+t4lH |T-Gl+ltPB |+t4H |B GltP4l|6|4Hl H|+t4lH |T-Gl+ltPB |+t4H |B GltP4l|6|4Hl +- +- +- +-- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
anitya auci duka antmasu nitya uci sukha tma khyti avidy [2-5]
7H +H1t4l TltP6 4l5|FP6l +- 7H +H1t4l TltP6 4l5|FP6l +- 7H +H1t4l TltP6 4l5|FP6l +- 7H +H1t4l TltP6 4l5|FP6l +-- -- -+ + + +


Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
dg daranaaktyo ektmat iva asmit [2-6]
B Gl+ H4l l- +- B Gl+ H4l l- +- B Gl+ H4l l- +- B Gl+ H4l l- +-- -- -+ + + +
sukha anuay rga [2-7]
T-Gl+ H4l 9- +- T-Gl+ H4l 9- +- T-Gl+ H4l 9- +- T-Gl+ H4l 9- +-- -- -< + < + < + < +
dukha anuayi dvea [2-8]
F4B4lrl |4T9l 5|9 6l-7l 5||+4 H- +- F4B4lrl |4T9l 5|9 6l-7l 5||+4 H- +- F4B4lrl |4T9l 5|9 6l-7l 5||+4 H- +- F4B4lrl |4T9l 5|9 6l-7l 5||+4 H- +-- -- -+ + + +
svarasavh vidua pi tatha rho bhinivea [2-9]

The five types of psychological impression (Pancha Kleshas)

1. Ignorance or Mis-information (Avidya ) ignorance of the ultimate reality that manifest as the
mistaking of the non eternal to be eternal, the impure to be pure, the suffering to be pleasure
and the non-self to be the self.
2. Mistaken identity (Asmita ) egoism that results from misidentifying the mere instrument of
experience (Buddhi) as the ultimate Self
3. Attractive attachment (Raga) attractive attachment to that which gives us pleasure
4. Repulsive aversion (Dvesha) repulsive aversion to that which gives us pain
5. Survival instinct (Abhinivesha) the deep rooted survival instinct resulting from fear of death
that is present in all living beings irrespective of any amount of knowledge .

The Ignorance (Avidya ) about these Inborn psychological afflictions (kleshas) breeds four
different stages of the Kleshas as follows:

1. The dormant state (Prasupta )
2. The attenuated state (Tanu) -
3. The manifest state (Vicchinna)
4. The overpowering state (Udaranam)

2.3 Dealing with Inborn psychological patterns (Kleshas) of mind ( Citta )
6 9|69B4r 4l- B Pl- 6 9|69B4r 4l- B Pl- 6 9|69B4r 4l- B Pl- 6 9|69B4r 4l- B Pl- +- +- +- +-- -- -+ + + +
te pratiprasavahey skm [2-10]
When the (kleshas) are in their subtle, merely potential form, they are then destroyed by their
disappearance or cessation into and of the field of mind ( Citta) itself.
\4l+r 4lF6 4- \4l+r 4lF6 4- \4l+r 4lF6 4- \4l+r 4lF6 4- +- +- +- +-- -- -+ + + +
dhynahey tadvttaya [2-11]



Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
(and ) Inborn psychological patterns /Fluctuations of mind ( Citta ) i.e kleshas can be abandoned
by Meditation ( Dhyana)
2.4 Third Filter - Latent impressions (karmashaya)
T HP - T HP - T HP - T HP - TPl H4l 7=-P4 7+l4- TPl H4l 7=-P4 7+l4- TPl H4l 7=-P4 7+l4- TPl H4l 7=-P4 7+l4- +- +- +- +-- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
kleamla karmaya da ada janma vedanya [2-12]

Latent impressions (psychological storage- karmashaya ) are psychological afflictions result
from other actions (karmas) that were brought by kleshas, and become active and experienced
in a current life or a future life.

2.4.1 Three consequences of Latent impressions storage

B|6 P 6|9lTl =lt4l4l l- B|6 P 6|9lTl =lt4l4l l- B|6 P 6|9lTl =lt4l4l l- B|6 P 6|9lTl =lt4l4l l- +- +- +- +-- -- -+ + + +
sati mle tadvipka jti yu bhog [2-13]
As long as those kleshas remains at the root There exists the resulting effects which manifest as
a particular species of life with certain duration of body and type of experiences gained in that
form.

Three consequences are produced:
1) Birth,
2) Span of life and
3) Experiences in that life.
6 l79|6l9Tl- 9 '4l9 '4r 6 t4l6 6 l79|6l9Tl- 9 '4l9 '4r 6 t4l6 6 l79|6l9Tl- 9 '4l9 '4r 6 t4l6 6 l79|6l9Tl- 9 '4l9 '4r 6 t4l6 +- +- +- +-- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
te hlda paritpa phal puya apuya hetutvt [2-14]
Because of having the nature of merits or demerits (virtue or vice), these three (birth, span of
life, and experiences) may be experienced as either pleasure or pain.
9|TlP6l9B FTlT-G T4 ||4l l T-GP 4 B4 |44 |T+- 9|TlP6l9B FTlT-G T4 ||4l l T-GP 4 B4 |44 |T+- 9|TlP6l9B FTlT-G T4 ||4l l T-GP 4 B4 |44 |T+- 9|TlP6l9B FTlT-G T4 ||4l l T-GP 4 B4 |44 |T+- +- +- +- +-- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
parima tpa saskra dukai guavtti virodht ca dukham eva sarva vivekina [2-15]

The discriminating person sees all the worldly experiences as distressful because of
circumstantial changes, impulsive motivations, clashing aspects and all these experiences lead
to more consequences, anxiety, and deep habits (samskaras)
r 4 T-GP+l6P r 4 T-GP+l6P r 4 T-GP+l6P r 4 T-GP+l6P +- +- +- +-- -- -+ + + +
heya dukham angatam [2-16]

Because the worldly experiences are seen as painful, so distress which is not manifested is to be
avoided as it is the pain, which is yet to come.


Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
7 744l - B 4l l r 4r 6 - 7 744l - B 4l l r 4r 6 - 7 744l - B 4l l r 4r 6 - 7 744l - B 4l l r 4r 6 - +- +- +- +-- -- -+ + + +
dradyayo sayogo heyahetu [2-17]

The cause which is to be avoided is the indiscriminate association of the observer and what is
perceived.
9TlH| 9TlH| 9TlH| 9TlH|4 44 44l|F|6Hl 6 |-4ltPT l l94l 74P 4l|F|6Hl 6 |-4ltPT l l94l 74P 4l|F|6Hl 6 |-4ltPT l l94l 74P 4l|F|6Hl 6 |-4ltPT l l94l 74P +- +- +- +-- -- -<+ <+ <+ <+
praka kriy sthiti la bhtendriytmaka bhogpavargrtha dyam [2-18]

What is perceived is of the nature of the mundane elements and the sense organs and is formed
in clear perception, action or stability. Its purpose is to give experience or to allow liberation.

2.5 Core issue - Ignorance ( Avidhya)
|4H 9l|4H 9|Pll| |4H 9l|4H 9|Pll| |4H 9l|4H 9|Pll| |4H 9l|4H 9|Pll|l|+ T94l |T l|+ T94l |T l|+ T94l |T l|+ T94l |T +- +- +- +-- -- -+ + + +
viea aviea ligamtra aligni guaparvi [2-19]

The phases of the influences of material nature are those which are specific, regular, indicated or
not indicated.
7l |HPl- H&l 5|9 9t44l+ 974- 7l |HPl- H&l 5|9 9t44l+ 974- 7l |HPl- H&l 5|9 9t44l+ 974- 7l |HPl- H&l 5|9 9t44l+ 974- +- +- +- +-- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
dra dimtra uddha api pratyaynupaya [2-20]

The perceiver is the pure extent of his consciousness but his conviction is patterned by what is
perceived.
67 94 74F4ltPl 67 94 74F4ltPl 67 94 74F4ltPl 67 94 74F4ltPl +- +- +- +-- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
tadartha eva dyasya tma [2-21]

The individual, who is involved in what is seen, exists here for that purpose only.
T 6l 9|6 +7P-4+7 67-4BllTt4l6 T 6l 9|6 +7P-4+7 67-4BllTt4l6 T 6l 9|6 +7P-4+7 67-4BllTt4l6 T 6l 9|6 +7P-4+7 67-4BllTt4l6 +- +- +- +-- -- ---+ --+ --+ --+
ktrtha prati naam api anaa tadanya sdhraatvt [2-22]

It is not effective for one to whom its purpose is fulfilled but it has a common effect on the others.


Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
F4F4l|PH4l - F4-9l 9|-r 6 - B 4l - F4F4l|PH4l - F4-9l 9|-r 6 - B 4l - F4F4l|PH4l - F4-9l 9|-r 6 - B 4l - F4F4l|PH4l - F4-9l 9|-r 6 - B 4l - +- +- +- +-- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
sva svmiaktyo svarpa upalabdhi hetu sayoga [2-23]

There is a reason for the conjunction of the individual self and his psychological energies. It is
for obtaining the experience of his own form.
6F4 r 6 |4Hl 6F4 r 6 |4Hl 6F4 r 6 |4Hl 6F4 r 6 |4Hl +- +- +- +-- -- --v+ -v+ -v+ -v+
tasya hetu avidy [2-24]

2.5.1 The cause of the conjunction is ignorance ( Avidhya)
67l4l6 B 4l ll4l rl+ 6 H - T 4-4P 67l4l6 B 4l ll4l rl+ 6 H - T 4-4P 67l4l6 B 4l ll4l rl+ 6 H - T 4-4P 67l4l6 B 4l ll4l rl+ 6 H - T 4-4P +- +- +- +-- -- ---+ --+ --+ --+
tad abhvt sayog abhva hna tadde kaivalyam [2-25]

The elimination of the conjunction which results from the elimination of that spiritual ignorance
is the withdrawal that is the total separation of the perceiver from the mundane psychology.
2.6 The Eight Process steps of Yoga
|44 T4l|6|4-4l rl+l 9l4- |44 T4l|6|4-4l rl+l 9l4- |44 T4l|6|4-4l rl+l 9l4- |44 T4l|6|4-4l rl+l 9l4- +- +- +- +-- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
vivekakhyti aviplav hnopya [2-26]

The method for avoiding that spiritual ignorance is the establishment of continuous
discriminative insight ( Vivek).
6F4 B8l 9l-6 |P- 9l 6F4 B8l 9l-6 |P- 9l 6F4 B8l 9l-6 |P- 9l 6F4 B8l 9l-6 |P- 9l +- +- +- +-- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
tasya saptadh prntabhmi praj [2-27]

Concerning the development of his discriminative insight, there are seven stages or kinds.
4l ll+ Ul+l7H |&4 l+7l|8l|44 T4l6 - 4l ll+ Ul+l7H |&4 l+7l|8l|44 T4l6 - 4l ll+ Ul+l7H |&4 l+7l|8l|44 T4l6 - 4l ll+ Ul+l7H |&4 l+7l|8l|44 T4l6 - +- +- +- +-- -- --<+ -<+ -<+ -<+
yog gnuhnt auddhikaye jnadpti vivekakhyte [2-28]

From the consistent practice of the parts of the yoga process, on the elimination of the impurity,
the radiant organ of perception becomes manifest, until there is steady discriminative insight.
4P|+4PlB+9lTl4lP9t4lrllTl\4l+BPl4l 57l4l|+ 4P|+4PlB+9lTl4lP9t4lrllTl\4l+BPl4l 57l4l|+ 4P|+4PlB+9lTl4lP9t4lrllTl\4l+BPl4l 57l4l|+ 4P|+4PlB+9lTl4lP9t4lrllTl\4l+BPl4l 57l4l|+ +- +- +- +-- -- --+ -+ -+ -+


Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
yama niyama sana pryma pratyhra dhra dhyna samdhaya aau agni [2-29]

Moral restrains, recommended behaviors, body posture, breath enrichment, sensual energy
withdrawal, Concentration, Meditation , and pure-consciousness are the eight parts of the yoga
system.

2.7 First Process - Moral Restraints (Yamas)
H|r BlBt4lF6 4O4l 9|rl 4Pl- H|r BlBt4lF6 4O4l 9|rl 4Pl- H|r BlBt4lF6 4O4l 9|rl 4Pl- H|r BlBt4lF6 4O4l 9|rl 4Pl- +- +- +- +-- -- -+ + + +
ahis satya asteya brahmacarya aparigrah yam [2-30]

Pancha Yama- the five moral restraints that help us obtain control over our
lower, animal centric nature thus becoming human.

These are:
1. Non-violence (Ahimsa) - control of ones violent tendencies
2. Realism /Truth and only truth (Satya ) control of ones lying tendencies
3. Non-stealing (Asteya)- control of ones thieving tendencies, no tendency to take thing which
do not belong to you.
4. Brahmacharya- control of ones vigor energies
5. Aparigraha control of ones possessive tendencies

=l|67 HTlBP4l+4|7l- Bl4l Pl Prl6P =l|67 HTlBP4l+4|7l- Bl4l Pl Prl6P =l|67 HTlBP4l+4|7l- Bl4l Pl Prl6P =l|67 HTlBP4l+4|7l- Bl4l Pl Prl6P +- +- +- +-- -- - + + + +
jti dea kla samaya anavacchinn srvabhaum mahvratam [2-31]

Those moral restraints are not to be adjusted by the status, location, time and condition.
They are related to all stages of yoga.

2.8 Second Process - Ethical Observances (Niyama)
Hl B-6l 969- Hl B-6l 969- Hl B-6l 969- Hl B-6l 969-F4l\4l4 H9|Tl+l|+ |+4Pl- F4l\4l4 H9|Tl+l|+ |+4Pl- F4l\4l4 H9|Tl+l|+ |+4Pl- F4l\4l4 H9|Tl+l|+ |+4Pl- +- +- +- +-- -- -- - - -+ + + +
auca satoa tapa svdhyya varapraidhnni niyam [2-32]

Pancha Niyama - the five ethical observances that help us to enhance our human qualities
preparing us for the higher, conscious life of Yoga. These are:
1. Purification (Saucha) cleanliness at all levels
2. contentment (Santhosha) self contented happiness
3. austerity ( Tapa) - disciplined efforts
4. Swadhyaya introspection self study/ analysis
5. meditation on the pure-consciousness ( Ishwara Pranidhana ) the ability to surrender ones
will to the pure-consciousness or God.


Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
|46T 4l+ 9|69l4+P |46T 4l+ 9|69l4+P |46T 4l+ 9|69l4+P |46T 4l+ 9|69l4+P +- +- +- +-- -- -+ + + +
vitarkabdhane pratipakabhvanam [2-33]

In the case of the annoyance produced by doubts, one should conceive of what is opposite.
|46Tl |r Bl74- T 6Tl|6l+ Pl |76l l 4l Pl r9 4 Tl PTP\4l|PllT-Gll+l+-6Tl |6 9|69l4+P |46Tl |r Bl74- T 6Tl|6l+ Pl |76l l 4l Pl r9 4 Tl PTP\4l|PllT-Gll+l+-6Tl |6 9|69l4+P |46Tl |r Bl74- T 6Tl|6l+ Pl |76l l 4l Pl r9 4 Tl PTP\4l|PllT-Gll+l+-6Tl |6 9|69l4+P |46Tl |r Bl74- T 6Tl|6l+ Pl |76l l 4l Pl r9 4 Tl PTP\4l|PllT-Gll+l+-6Tl |6 9|69l4+P +- +- +- +-- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
vitarka hisdaya kta krita anumodit lobha krodha moha prvaka mdu madhya adhimtra dukha ajna
anantaphal iti pratipakabhvanam [2-34]

Doubts which produce violence and related actions, which are performed, caused to be done or
endorsed, and which are caused by greed, anger and delusion, even if minor, mediocre or
substantial, cause endless distress and spiritual ignorance as the results. Therefore, one should
consider the opposite features.
2-9 Outcomes of first two steps ( Yamas and Niyamas )
H|r Bl9|6Ul4l 6tB|l 4 t4l- H|r Bl9|6Ul4l 6tB|l 4 t4l- H|r Bl9|6Ul4l 6tB|l 4 t4l- H|r Bl9|6Ul4l 6tB|l 4 t4l- +- +- +- +-- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
ahispratihy tatsannidhau vairatyga [2-35]
On being firmly established in non-violence, the abandonment of hostility occurs in his presence.
Bt49|6Ul4l |44lTl~4t4P Bt49|6Ul4l |44lTl~4t4P Bt49|6Ul4l |44lTl~4t4P Bt49|6Ul4l |44lTl~4t4P +- +- +- +-- -- -+ + + +
satyapratihy kriyphalrayatvam [2-36]
On being established in realism, his actions serve as a basis for results.
HF6 49|6Ul4l B4 l 9Fl+P HF6 49|6Ul4l B4 l 9Fl+P HF6 49|6Ul4l B4 l 9Fl+P HF6 49|6Ul4l B4 l 9Fl+P +- +- +- +-- -- -+ + + +
asteyapratihy sarvaratnopasthnam [2-37]
On being firmly established in non-sealing, all precious things wait to serve.
O4 9|6Ul4l O4 9|6Ul4l O4 9|6Ul4l O4 9|6Ul4l 4l4 l- 4l4 l- 4l4 l- 4l4 l- +- +- +- +-- -- -<+ <+ <+ <+
brahmacaryapratihy vryalbha [2-38]

On being firmly established in the sexual non-expressiveness, which results in the perception of
spirituality, vigor is gained.
H9|rF 4 =-PT-6lB4l - H9|rF 4 =-PT-6lB4l - H9|rF 4 =-PT-6lB4l - H9|rF 4 =-PT-6lB4l - +- +- +- +-- -- -+ + + +
aparigrahasthairye janmakathat sabodha [2-39]



Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
In being consistent in non possessiveness, there is manifested the reason and the correct
perception regarding ones birth.
Hl ltF4l= -Bl 9 B B - Hl ltF4l= -Bl 9 B B - Hl ltF4l= -Bl 9 B B - Hl ltF4l= -Bl 9 B B - +- +- +- +-- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
auct svgajugups parai asasarga [2-40]
From purification come a disgust for ones own body and a lack of desire to associate with
others.
Bx4H |&Bl P+F4 Tl |-4=4ltP7H +4l 4t4l|+ Bx4H |&Bl P+F4 Tl |-4=4ltP7H +4l 4t4l|+ Bx4H |&Bl P+F4 Tl |-4=4ltP7H +4l 4t4l|+ Bx4H |&Bl P+F4 Tl |-4=4ltP7H +4l 4t4l|+ +- +- +- +-- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
sattvauddhi saumanasya ekgra indriyajaya tmadarana yogyatvni ca [2-41]

Purification of the psyche results in benevolence, the ability to link the attention to one
concentration force or person, conquest of the sensual energy, vision of the spirit and fitness for
abstract meditation.
B-6l 9l7+ PB Gl- B-6l 9l7+ PB Gl- B-6l 9l7+ PB Gl- B-6l 9l7+ PB Gl- +- +- +- +-- -- -v-+ v-+ v-+ v-+
satot anuttama sukhalbha [2-42]

From contentment, the very best in happiness is obtained.
Tl4 |-4|B|&H |&4l9B- Tl4 |-4|B|&H |&4l9B- Tl4 |-4|B|&H |&4l9B- Tl4 |-4|B|&H |&4l9B- +- +- +- +-- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
kya indriya siddhi auddhikayt tapasa [2-43]

Austerity, resulting in the elimination of impurity produces perfection of the body and sensual
energy.
F4l\4l4l|777 46lB94l - F4l\4l4l|777 46lB94l - F4l\4l4l|777 46lB94l - F4l\4l4l|777 46lB94l - +- +- +- +-- -- -vv+ vv+ vv+ vv+
svdhyyt iadevat saprayoga [2-44]

From Self study , comes knowledge and intimate contact with the Reality.

BPl||B|&lH9|Tl+l6 BPl||B|&lH9|Tl+l6 BPl||B|&lH9|Tl+l6 BPl||B|&lH9|Tl+l6 +- +- +- +-- -- -v-+ v-+ v-+ v-+
samdhisiddhi varapraidhnt [2-45]

From the meditation upon the pure-consciousness or God , comes the perfection attainment of
Samadhi.


Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
2-10 Third Process Posture (Vyayama or Asana)
|FB GPlB+P |FB GPlB+P |FB GPlB+P |FB GPlB+P +- +- +- +-- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
sthira sukham sanam [2-46]

The posture should be steady and comfortable.
94H |-4l+-6BPl9|-4lP 94H |-4l+-6BPl9|-4lP 94H |-4l+-6BPl9|-4lP 94H |-4l+-6BPl9|-4lP +- +- +- +-- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
prayatna aithilya ananta sampattibhym [2-47]
It results in relaxation of effort and the meeting with the infinite.
66l -l+|l6- 66l -l+|l6- 66l -l+|l6- 66l -l+|l6- +- +- +- +-- -- -v<+ v<+ v<+ v<+
tata dvandv anabhighta [2-48]
From then on, there are no botherations from the dualities like happiness and distress, heat and
cold.
2-11 Fourth Process - Pranayama
6|FP-B|6 HlB9HlB4l |6|47 7- 9lTl4lP- 6|FP-B|6 HlB9HlB4l |6|47 7- 9lTl4lP- 6|FP-B|6 HlB9HlB4l |6|47 7- 9lTl4lP- 6|FP-B|6 HlB9HlB4l |6|47 7- 9lTl4lP- +- +- +- +-- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
tasmin sativsa pravsayo gativiccheda pryma [2-49]

(4th process /Step ) Once the perfected posture has been achieved, then breath regulation,
which is the separation /slowing of the flow of inhalation and exhalation, is attained. This leads
to the absence of the awareness of both (inhalation and exhalation)
4lGl-4-6F64 |7 HTlB=G 4l|- 9|7l 7l B P- 4lGl-4-6F64 |7 HTlB=G 4l|- 9|7l 7l B P- 4lGl-4-6F64 |7 HTlB=G 4l|- 9|7l 7l B P- 4lGl-4-6F64 |7 HTlB=G 4l|- 9|7l 7l B P- +- +- +- +-- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
bhya bhyantara stambha vtti dea kla sakhybhi paridah drgha skma [2-50]


That Pranayama has following aspects external or outward flow (exhalation), internal or inward
flow (inhalation), absence of both during (the transition between them ) or suspension, These
are regulated by place, time, and number, with breath becoming slow and subtle.
4lGl-4-6|494l 9l 6 - 4lGl-4-6|494l 9l 6 - 4lGl-4-6|494l 9l 6 - 4lGl-4-6|494l 9l 6 - +- +- +- +-- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
bhya bhyantara viaya kep caturtha [2-51]

That which transcends the objective external and internal breath regulation is the fourth type of
pranayama. The fourth pranayama is that continuous prana which surpasses, is beyond, or
behind those others that operate in the exterior and interior realms or fields.


Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
66- l46 9TlHl4TP 66- l46 9TlHl4TP 66- l46 9TlHl4TP 66- l46 9TlHl4TP +- +- +- +-- -- ---+ --+ --+ --+
tata kyate praka varaam [2-52]

Through that pranayama the veil of karmasheya (2.12) that covers the inner illumination or light
is thinned, diminishes and vanishes From that is dissipated, the mental darkness which veils the
light,
lTlB 4l 46l P+B- lTlB 4l 46l P+B- lTlB 4l 46l P+B- lTlB 4l 46l P+B- +- +- +- +-- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
dhrasu ca yogyat manasa [2-53]
and Through the practices of pranayama ( 4th Step ) the mind develops the capability for
concentration (dharana the 6th Step ).
2-12 Fifth Process - Sense Withdrawal (Pratyahara)
F4|494lB94l |F4 F4-9l+ Tl 4 |-4lTl 9t4lrl- F4|494lB94l |F4 F4-9l+ Tl 4 |-4lTl 9t4lrl- F4|494lB94l |F4 F4-9l+ Tl 4 |-4lTl 9t4lrl- F4|494lB94l |F4 F4-9l+ Tl 4 |-4lTl 9t4lrl- +- +- +- +-- -- --v+ -v+ -v+ -v+
svaviaya asaprayoge cittasya svarpanukra iva indriy pratyhra [2-54]
( In the 5th Process or steps the all 5 sense organs brought in the control ) The withdrawal of
the senses is as it were, cease to be engaged with the corresponding objects in their mental
realm and turn them back to Mind ( Citta ) from which they arose, this is called sense
withdrawal (pratyahara).
66- 9Pl 4746 |-4lTlP 66- 9Pl 4746 |-4lTlP 66- 9Pl 4746 |-4lTlP 66- 9Pl 4746 |-4lTlP +- +- +- +-- -- ---+ --+ --+ --+
tata param vayat indriym [2-55]

Through that turning inward of the organs of senses and actions (indriyas) comes a supreme
ability, controllability, or mastery over those senses.








Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
Chapter -3 Manifestation (Vibhuti Pada )

3.1 The Sixth Process - Concentration (dharana)
7 H4-|F4 lTl 7 H4-|F4 lTl 7 H4-|F4 lTl 7 H4-|F4 lTl + + + +- -- -+ + + +
dea bandha cittasya dhra [3-1]
(6th step or process of Yoga) - Concentration (dharana) is the process of holding the attention
of mind (citta) onto one object or place. Object can be internal or external or it can be subtle or
secret. ( Process that need a separate book to explain )
3.2 The Seventh Process - Meditation (dhyana)
6 9t44 T6l+6l \4l+P 6 9t44 T6l+6l \4l+P 6 9t44 T6l+6l \4l+P 6 9t44 T6l+6l \4l+P + + + +- -- -- -- -+ ++ +
tatra pratyaya ekatnat dhynam [3-2]
(7th step or process of Yoga) - Meditation (dhyana ) - it occurs when there is a steady and
continuous flow of attention and concentration on a point, place or object.( It is a very vast topic
and need a separate book to explain )
3.3 The Eighth Process Pure Consciousness (Samadhi)
67 4l Pl|+l B 67 4l Pl|+l B 67 4l Pl|+l B 67 4l Pl|+l B F4-9H -4|P4 BPl|- F4-9H -4|P4 BPl|- F4-9H -4|P4 BPl|- F4-9H -4|P4 BPl|- + + + +- -- - + ++ +
tadeva arthamtranirbhsa svarpanyam iva samdhi [3-3]

The state of absorptive pure-consciousness (Samadhi 8th step or process) is an omnipresent
state when the mind loses itself and the object alone shines without differentiation between the
self and object.

3.4 Collective effect of last three Processes (samyama)

The three internal (Antaranga) processes of Yoga, namely Concentration (Dharana), Meditation (
Dhyana) and pure-consciousness (Samadhi).

4P T B 4P- 4P T B 4P- 4P T B 4P- 4P T B 4P- + + + +- -- -v vv v+ ++ +
trayam ekatra sayama [3-4]

The three processes of Concentration (dharana), meditation (dhyana) , and super-consciousness
(Samadhi ), when taken together on the same object, place or point is called samyama.
6=4lt9ll T- 6=4lt9ll T- 6=4lt9ll T- 6=4lt9ll T- + + + +- -- -- -- -+ ++ +


Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
tajjayt prajloka [3-5]
From the mastery samyama one develops the illuminating insight and see reflected light of
universal wisdom in all things/beings. That is called true insight (prajna).
6F4 |P9 |4|+4l - 6F4 |P9 |4|+4l - 6F4 |P9 |4|+4l - 6F4 |P9 |4|+4l - + + + +- -- -
tasya bhmiu viniyoga [3-6]
The practice of these three steps occurs in stages and after practice these are applied together
as one interconnected whole.
4P-6 9 4 -4- 4P-6 9 4 -4- 4P-6 9 4 -4- 4P-6 9 4 -4- + + + +- -- -+ + + +
trayam antaraga prvebhya [3-7]

In reference to the previous stages of yoga, these three higher states concern the psychological
order.
67|9 4|r- |+4l =F4 67|9 4|r- |+4l =F4 67|9 4|r- |+4l =F4 67|9 4|r- |+4l =F4 + + + +- -- -<+ <+ <+ <+
tadapi bahiraga nirbjasya [3-8]
But even that initial mastership of the three higher stages of yoga, is external in reference to
meditation, and not intimate compared to nirbija samadhi, which is samadhi that has no object,
nor even a seed object on which there is concentration.

3.4.1 Type of Samyama

3.4.1.1 nirodhah-parinamah
-4 tl+|+l B FTl4l |49lTl 4l |+l T|l-44l |+l 9|TlP- -4 tl+|+l B FTl4l |49lTl 4l |+l T|l-44l |+l 9|TlP- -4 tl+|+l B FTl4l |49lTl 4l |+l T|l-44l |+l 9|TlP- -4 tl+|+l B FTl4l |49lTl 4l |+l T|l-44l |+l 9|TlP- + + + +- -- -+ + + +
vyutthna nirodha saskrayo abhibhava prdurbhvau nirodhakaa cittnvaya nirodhaparima [3-9]

That high level of mastery called nirodhah-parinamah occurs in the moment of transition when
there is a convergence of the rising tendency of deep impressions, the subsiding tendency, and
the attention of the mind itself.
6F4 9Hl-64l|r6l B FTll6 6F4 9Hl-64l|r6l B FTll6 6F4 9Hl-64l|r6l B FTll6 6F4 9Hl-64l|r6l B FTll6 + + + +- -- -+ + + +
tasya prantavhita saskrt [3-10]

The steady flow of this state (nirodhah-parinamah) continues by the creation of deep mpressions
(samskaras) from doing the practice.






Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
3.4.1.2 samadhi-parinamah
B4l 6 Tl64l - 4l 74l |F4 BPl|9|TlP- B4l 6 Tl64l - 4l 74l |F4 BPl|9|TlP- B4l 6 Tl64l - 4l 74l |F4 BPl|9|TlP- B4l 6 Tl64l - 4l 74l |F4 BPl|9|TlP- + + + +- -- -+ + + +
sarvrthat ekgratayo kaya udayau cittasya samdhiparima [3-11]

The mastery called samadhi-parinamah is the transition whereby the tendency to all-pointedness
subsides, while the tendency to one-pointedness arises.

3.4.1.3 ekagrata-parinamah
66- 9 +- Hl-6l |76l 6 -49t44l |F4 Tl6l9|TlP- 66- 9 +- Hl-6l |76l 6 -49t44l |F4 Tl6l9|TlP- 66- 9 +- Hl-6l |76l 6 -49t44l |F4 Tl6l9|TlP- 66- 9 +- Hl-6l |76l 6 -49t44l |F4 Tl6l9|TlP- + + + +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
tata punanta uditau tulya pratyayau cittasya ekgratparima [3-12]

The mastery called ekagrata-parinamah is the transition whereby the same one pointedness
arises and subsides sequentially.
96 + 6 |-4 9 P Tl4Fl9|TlPl -4l4l6l- 96 + 6 |-4 9 P Tl4Fl9|TlPl -4l4l6l- 96 + 6 |-4 9 P Tl4Fl9|TlPl -4l4l6l- 96 + 6 |-4 9 P Tl4Fl9|TlPl -4l4l6l- + + + +- -- -+ + + +
etena bhtendriyeu dharma lakaa avasth parim vykhyt [3-13]

These three transition processes also explain the three transformations of form, time, and
characteristics, and how these relate to the material elements and senses.
Hl-6l |76l-497 74Pl + 9l6l Pl Hl-6l |76l-497 74Pl + 9l6l Pl Hl-6l |76l-497 74Pl + 9l6l Pl Hl-6l |76l-497 74Pl + 9l6l Pl + + + +- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
nta udita avyapadeya dharma anupt dharm [3-14]
When the collapsed, emergent and latent forces reach full retrogression that is the most basic
condition. There is an unmanifest, indescribable substratum or existence that is common or
contained within all of the other forms or qualities.
4Pl-4t4 4Pl-4t4 4Pl-4t4 4Pl-4t4 9|TlPl-4t4 r 6 - 9|TlPl-4t4 r 6 - 9|TlPl-4t4 r 6 - 9|TlPl-4t4 r 6 - + + + +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
karma anyatva parima anyatve hetu [3-15]
The cause of a difference in the transformation is the difference in the sequential changes.
Change in the sequence of the characteristics is the cause for the different appearances of
results, consequences, or effects.

3.4.2 Experiences from Samyama

3.4.2.1 Knowledge of the past and future ( Tri-Kaal-Darshi)
9|TlP4B 4Pl76l6l+l6l+P 9|TlP4B 4Pl76l6l+l6l+P 9|TlP4B 4Pl76l6l+l6l+P 9|TlP4B 4Pl76l6l+l6l+P + + + +- -- -+ + + +
parimatraya sayamt atta angatajnam [3-16]



Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
one gets information about the past and future. By samyama on the three-fold changes in form,
time, and characteristics, there comes knowledge of the past and future.( simple translation)

3.4.2.2 Knowledge of al languages
H-7l 9t44l+l|P6 6l\4lBltBTF6t9|4lB 4PltB4 666l+P H-7l 9t44l+l|P6 6l\4lBltBTF6t9|4lB 4PltB4 666l+P H-7l 9t44l+l|P6 6l\4lBltBTF6t9|4lB 4PltB4 666l+P H-7l 9t44l+l|P6 6l\4lBltBTF6t9|4lB 4PltB4 666l+P + + + +- -- -+ + + +
abda artha pratyaynm itaretardhyst sakara tatpravibhga sayamt
sarvabhta rutajnam [3-17]

Samyama on distinction between name, object and existence gives us the ability to
understand sounds (speech) of all beings (sarvabhuta rutajnanam). Once we begin to
understand this distinction, any language becomes understandable as all languages are based on
this combination of name, form and experience. (simple translation)

3.4.2.3 Knowledge of previous incarnations
B FTlBlltTTlt9 4 =l|6l+P B FTlBlltTTlt9 4 =l|6l+P B FTlBlltTTlt9 4 =l|6l+P B FTlBlltTTlt9 4 =l|6l+P + + + +- -- -<+ <+ <+ <+
saskra sktkarat prvajtijnam [3-18]

Samyama on latent impressions or inherent tendencies that manifest as habit patterns
(Samskaras) one gains the knowledge of previous incarnations /births.

3.4.2.4 Mind reading
9t44F4 9|l+P 9t44F4 9|l+P 9t44F4 9|l+P 9t44F4 9|l+P + + + +- -- -+ + + +
pratyayasya paracittajnam [3-19]
Samyama on the notions or presented ideas comes knowledge of another's
mind.( Mind reading)

3.4.2.5 Information of action and motives of others

+ 6tBl4+ 6F4l|494l 6t4l6 + 6tBl4+ 6F4l|494l 6t4l6 + 6tBl4+ 6F4l|494l 6t4l6 + 6tBl4+ 6F4l|494l 6t4l6 + + + +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
na ca tat slambana tasya aviay bhtatvt [3-20]
not only one can read the mind of other but also their operating principle underneath their
actions and their past lives.

3.4.2.6 Invisibility
Tl4-9B 4PllGH|F6 -9TlHlB94l 5-6&l +P Tl4-9B 4PllGH|F6 -9TlHlB94l 5-6&l +P Tl4-9B 4PllGH|F6 -9TlHlB94l 5-6&l +P Tl4-9B 4PllGH|F6 -9TlHlB94l 5-6&l +P + + + +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
kya rpa sayamt tadgrhyaakti stambhe caku praka asaprayoge antardhnam [3-21]

by the Samyama on relation to the shape of the body, on the suspension of the receptive
energy, there is no contact between light and vision, which results in invisibility.


Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com

3.4.2.7 Capabilities beyond the Five senses


B-7| B-7| B-7| B-7| -6 -6 -6 -6 tT tT tT tT + + + +- -- ---+ --+ --+ --+
etena abddi antardhnam uktam[3-22]

By this method, sound and the related sensual pursuits, may be restrained, which results in the
related perceptibility By this method, sound and the related sensual pursuits, may be restrained,
which results in the related perceptibility.

3.4.2.8 Fore knowledge of time of death
Bl 94P |+694P TP 6tB 4Pl79l-6l+P|7 4l 4l BG9lTlPl Bl 94P |+694P TP 6tB 4Pl79l-6l+P|7 4l 4l BG9lTlPl Bl 94P |+694P TP 6tB 4Pl79l-6l+P|7 4l 4l BG9lTlPl Bl 94P |+694P TP 6tB 4Pl79l-6l+P|7 4l 4l BG9lTlPl +| 9lTlPl +| 9lTlPl +| 9lTlPl +| 9lTlPl l TlPl l TlPl l TlPl l TlPl
sopakrama nirupakrama ca karma tatsayamdaparntajnamariebhyo v [3-23]

by the Samyama on current and destined cultural activities results in knowledge of entry into the
hereafter. Or the same result is gained by the complete restraint in relation to portents.

3.4.2.9 Harmony
P -4l|79 4l|+ P -4l|79 4l|+ P -4l|79 4l|+ P -4l|79 4l|+ + + + +- -- --v+ -v+ -v+ -v+
maitrydiu balni [3-24]

(By the Samyama) in relation to friendliness one develops harmony .

3.4.2.10 Great Physical Strength ( Atulaya Bal )
4 9 r|F64l7l|+ 4 9 r|F64l7l|+ 4 9 r|F64l7l|+ 4 9 r|F64l7l|+ + + + +- -- ---+ --+ --+ --+
baleu hasti baldni [3-25]

one can acquire the strength ( in early days strength was measured in Elephant power rather
than horse power)

3.4.2.11 Clairvoyance
94 x4ll T-4lBltB P-44|r6|49T 7l+P 94 x4ll T-4lBltB P-44|r6|49T 7l+P 94 x4ll T-4lBltB P-44|r6|49T 7l+P 94 x4ll T-4lBltB P-44|r6|49T 7l+P + + + +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
pravitti loka nyst skma vyavahita viprakajnam [3-26]

From the application of supernatural insight to the force producing cultural activities, one gets
information about what is subtle, concealed and what is remote from him.

3.4.2.12 Subtle knowledge


Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
4+l+ B 4 B 4Pl6 4+l+ B 4 B 4Pl6 4+l+ B 4 B 4Pl6 4+l+ B 4 B 4Pl6 + + + +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
bhuvanajna srye sayamt [3-27]
.knowledge of the solar system is gained.

3.4.2.13 Knowledge of the inner stars and galaxies gained
- 6ll-4 rl+P - 6ll-4 rl+P - 6ll-4 rl+P - 6ll-4 rl+P + + + +- -- -- -- -< << <+ ++ +
candre trvyhajnam [3-28]
3.4.2.14 Knowledge of the movement of stars ( cosmology )
4 6|6l+P 4 6|6l+P 4 6|6l+P 4 6|6l+P + + + +- -- -- -- - + ++ +
dhruve tadgatijnam [3-29]
3.4.2.15 Knowledge of the arrangement of body systems ( Chakra )
+l|4 Tl4-4 rl+P +l|4 Tl4-4 rl+P +l|4 Tl4-4 rl+P +l|4 Tl4-4 rl+P + + + +- -- - + ++ +
nbhicakre kyavyhajnam [3-30]
3.4.2.16 Power to go beyond hunger and thirst ( can survive with food and water)
T'T 9 |t99lBl|+4 |- T'T 9 |t99lBl|+4 |- T'T 9 |t99lBl|+4 |- T'T 9 |t99lBl|+4 |- + + + +- -- - + ++ +
kahakpe kutpips nivtti [3-31]

3.4.2.17 Power of great steadiness
T P +l7l F 4 P T P +l7l F 4 P T P +l7l F 4 P T P +l7l F 4 P + + + +- -- -- - - -+ ++ +
krmany sthairyam [3-32]
3.4.2.18 Vision of Siddhas
P& 74l |6|9 |B&7H +P P& 74l |6|9 |B&7H +P P& 74l |6|9 |B&7H +P P& 74l |6|9 |B&7H +P + + + +- -- - + ++ +
mrdhajyotii siddhadaranam [3-33]
3.4.2.19 Knowledge of everything
9l|6ll B4 P 9l|6ll B4 P 9l|6ll B4 P 9l|6ll B4 P + + + +- -- -v v v v+ ++ +
prtibht v sarvam [3-34]

3.4.2.20 Knowledge of mind


Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
874 |B |46 874 |B |46 874 |B |46 874 |B |46 + + + +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
hdaye cittasavit [3-35]

3.4.2.21 Knowledge of pure consciousness
Bx49 694l t4-6lBTlT 4l - 9t44l|4H 9l l - Bx49 694l t4-6lBTlT 4l - 9t44l|4H 9l l - Bx49 694l t4-6lBTlT 4l - 9t44l|4H 9l l - Bx49 694l t4-6lBTlT 4l - 9t44l|4H 9l l - 9l t4ltF4l B 4Pl6 9 69l+P 9l t4ltF4l B 4Pl6 9 69l+P 9l t4ltF4l B 4Pl6 9 69l+P 9l t4ltF4l B 4Pl6 9 69l+P + + + +- -- -+ + + +
sattva puruayo atyantsakrayo pratyaya aviea bhoga parrthatvt svrthasayamt puruajnam [3-36]

3.4.2.22 Divine sensations
66- 9l|6~l4T4 7+l557Hl 55F4l74ll =l4-6 66- 9l|6~l4T4 7+l557Hl 55F4l74ll =l4-6 66- 9l|6~l4T4 7+l557Hl 55F4l74ll =l4-6 66- 9l|6~l4T4 7+l557Hl 55F4l74ll =l4-6 + + + +- -- -+ + + +
tata prtibha rvaa vedana dara svda vrt jyante [3-37]

From that focus is produced smelling, tasting, seeing, touching and hearing, through the shining
organ of divination.

6 BPll4 9Bl -4 tl+ |B&4- 6 BPll4 9Bl -4 tl+ |B&4- 6 BPll4 9Bl -4 tl+ |B&4- 6 BPll4 9Bl -4 tl+ |B&4- + + + +- -- -<+ <+ <+ <+
te samdhau upasarg vyutthne siddhaya [3-38]

warning these all these acquired skills so far by virtue of practice of Samyama are attainment
but an obstacle as well to spiritual progress!

3.4.2.23 ability of Transmigration
4-TlTH |-4l6 9lB 4 7+l |F4 9Hll4 H- 4-TlTH |-4l6 9lB 4 7+l |F4 9Hll4 H- 4-TlTH |-4l6 9lB 4 7+l |F4 9Hll4 H- 4-TlTH |-4l6 9lB 4 7+l |F4 9Hll4 H- + + + +- -- -+ + + +
bandhakraa aithilyt pracra savedant ca cittasya paraarrvea [3-39]

The entrance into another body is possible by slackening the cause of bondage and by knowing
the channels of the mento-emotional energy.

3.4.2.24 ability of Levitation

77l+=4l=9TT'Tl|7!4B 7t4l|-6 77l+=4l=9TT'Tl|7!4B 7t4l|-6 77l+=4l=9TT'Tl|7!4B 7t4l|-6 77l+=4l=9TT'Tl|7!4B 7t4l|-6 + + + +- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
udnajayt jala paka kaakdiu asaga utkrnti ca [3-40]
By mastery over the air which rises from the throat into the head, a yogi can rise over or not
have contact with water, mud or sharp objects.







Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
3.4.2.25 Great effulgence
BPl+=4l774+P BPl+=4l774+P BPl+=4l774+P BPl+=4l774+P + + + +- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
samnajayt jvalanam [3-41]

3.4.2.26 Divine hearing
~l lTlH4l FB-B 4Pl|-4 ~l P ~l lTlH4l FB-B 4Pl|-4 ~l P ~l lTlH4l FB-B 4Pl|-4 ~l P ~l lTlH4l FB-B 4Pl|-4 ~l P + + + +- -- -v-+ v-+ v-+ v-+
rotra kayo sabandha sayamt divya rotram [3-42]

3.4.2.27 Extreme lightness of body ( weightlessness)
Tl4lTlH4l FB4-B Tl4lTlH4l FB4-B Tl4lTlH4l FB4-B Tl4lTlH4l FB4-B 4Pl 6 BPl9 lTlHP+P 4Pl 6 BPl9 lTlHP+P 4Pl 6 BPl9 lTlHP+P 4Pl 6 BPl9 lTlHP+P + + + +- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
kya kayo sabandha sayamt laghutlasampatte ca kagamanam [3-43]

3.4.2.28 Removal of the veil of ignorance ( false reality )
4|rT|-96l 4 |P rl|47 rl 66- 9TlHl4T4- 4|rT|-96l 4 |P rl|47 rl 66- 9TlHl4T4- 4|rT|-96l 4 |P rl|47 rl 66- 9TlHl4T4- 4|rT|-96l 4 |P rl|47 rl 66- 9TlHl4T4- + + + +- -- -vv+ vv+ vv+ vv+
bahi akalpit vtti mahvideh tata praka varaakaya [3-44]

3.4.2.29 Mastery over the five manifest elements ( panch tatva)
F F4-9B Pl-44l 4x4B 4PlT 6=4- F F4-9B Pl-44l 4x4B 4PlT 6=4- F F4-9B Pl-44l 4x4B 4PlT 6=4- F F4-9B Pl-44l 4x4B 4PlT 6=4- + + + +- -- -v-+ v-+ v-+ v-+
sthla svarpa skma anvaya arthavatva sayamt bhtajaya [3-45]

3.4.2.30 Attainment of Anima and the other seven Siddhis
66l 5|TPl|79lTl 4- Tl4B9&Pl +|l6 66l 5|TPl|79lTl 4- Tl4B9&Pl +|l6 66l 5|TPl|79lTl 4- Tl4B9&Pl +|l6 66l 5|TPl|79lTl 4- Tl4B9&Pl +|l6 + + + +- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
tata aimdi prdurbhva kyasapat taddharma anabhighta ca [3-46]

3.4.2.31 Perfection of body
-9l4'444B r++t4l|+ Tl4B96 -9l4'444B r++t4l|+ Tl4B96 -9l4'444B r++t4l|+ Tl4B96 -9l4'444B r++t4l|+ Tl4B96 + + + +- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
rpa lvaya bala vajra sahananatvni kyasapat [3-47]

Beautiful form, charm, mystic force and diamond-like definition come from the perfection of the
subtle body.

3.4.2.32 Perfection of sensory apparatus



Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
rTF4-9l|FP6l-44l 4x4B 4Pl|7|-4=4- rTF4-9l|FP6l-44l 4x4B 4Pl|7|-4=4- rTF4-9l|FP6l-44l 4x4B 4Pl|7|-4=4- rTF4-9l|FP6l-44l 4x4B 4Pl|7|-4=4- + + + +- -- -v<+ v<+ v<+ v<+
grahaa svarpa asmit anvaya arthavattva sayamt indriyajaya [3-48]

3.4.2.33 Mastery over the primal cause itself
66l P+l =|4t4 |4TTl4- 9l+=4 66l P+l =|4t4 |4TTl4- 9l+=4 66l P+l =|4t4 |4TTl4- 9l+=4 66l P+l =|4t4 |4TTl4- 9l+=4 + + + +- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
tata manojavitva vikaraabhva pradhnajaya ca [3-49]
Bx49 69l-46l4l|6PlF4 B4l4l|Ul6 t4 B4 l6 t4 Bx49 69l-46l4l|6PlF4 B4l4l|Ul6 t4 B4 l6 t4 Bx49 69l-46l4l|6PlF4 B4l4l|Ul6 t4 B4 l6 t4 Bx49 69l-46l4l|6PlF4 B4l4l|Ul6 t4 B4 l6 t4 + + + +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
sattva purua anyat khytimtrasya sarvabhva adhihttva sarvajttva ca [3-50]

Only when there is distinct discrimination between the clarifying perceptions of material nature
and the pure consciousness ,to one well established in the knowledge of the distinction between
the purest aspect of mind and consciousness itself, there comes supremacy over all forms or
states of existence, as well as over all forms of knowing.

6 l4l7|9 7l 9 6 l4l7|9 7l 9 6 l4l7|9 7l 9 6 l4l7|9 7l 94l=4 T 4-4P 4l=4 T 4-4P 4l=4 T 4-4P 4l=4 T 4-4P + + + +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
tadvairgyt api doabjakaye kaivalyam [3-51]

By a lack of interest, even to that (discrimination between the clarifying mundane energy and
the self) when the cause of that defect is eliminated, the absolute isolation of the self from the
lower psyche of itself, is achieved. With non-attachment or desirelessness even for that
supremacy over forms and states of existence and the omniscience (3.50), the seeds at the root
of those bondages are destroyed, and absolute liberation is attained.

Fl-4 9|+PT BFP4lTT 9 +|+79Bl6 Fl-4 9|+PT BFP4lTT 9 +|+79Bl6 Fl-4 9|+PT BFP4lTT 9 +|+79Bl6 Fl-4 9|+PT BFP4lTT 9 +|+79Bl6 + + + +- -- ---+ --+ --+ --+
sthnyupanimantrae sagasmaykaraa punarania prasagt [3-52]

When invited , no cause should be allowed to arise in the mind that would allow either
acceptance of the offer, or the smile of pride from receiving the invitation, because to allow such
thoughts to arise again might create the possibility of repeating undesirable thoughts and
actions. (too complex to explain talks about invitation by external forces/people living on other
planets (lokas ) etc )
3.5 Higher discrimination ( Vivek ) through Samyama that lead to realization or
liberation
T6t4P4l - B 4Pl|4 T= l+P T6t4P4l - B 4Pl|4 T= l+P T6t4P4l - B 4Pl|4 T= l+P T6t4P4l - B 4Pl|4 T= l+P + + + +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
kaa tatkramayo samyamt vivekajam jnam [3-53]

By the continuous practice of Samyam over the moments and their succession, one acquires the
higher knowledge that is discrimination (Vivek or Wisdom ).


Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
=l|6T7 H -46l+47 7l -44l F66- 9|69|- =l|6T7 H -46l+47 7l -44l F66- 9|69|- =l|6T7 H -46l+47 7l -44l F66- 9|69|- =l|6T7 H -46l+47 7l -44l F66- 9|69|- + + + +- -- --v+ -v+ -v+ -v+
jti lakaa deai anyat anavacchedt tulyayo tata pratipatti [3-54]
Subsequently, the awareness of the difference or distinction between two similar objects or
realities is possible which otherwise could not be sorted due to a lack of definition in terms of
their general category, individual characteristic and location.
6lT B4 |494 B4 l|494P4P |6 |44 T= l+P 6lT B4 |494 B4 l|494P4P |6 |44 T= l+P 6lT B4 |494 B4 l|494P4P |6 |44 T= l+P 6lT B4 |494 B4 l|494P4P |6 |44 T= l+P + + + +- -- ---+ --+ --+ --+
traka sarvaviaya sarvathviaya akrama ca iti vivekaja jnam [3-55]
the one who practice it get this higher knowledge of vivek, which is intuitive and transcendent
about all the objects as they are presented in real without involving any other sequential
perceptions of mind.
Bx49 694l - H |&Bl4 T 4-4|P|6 Bx49 694l - H |&Bl4 T 4-4|P|6 Bx49 694l - H |&Bl4 T 4-4|P|6 Bx49 694l - H |&Bl4 T 4-4|P|6 + + + +- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
sattva puruayo uddhi smye kaivalyam iti [3-56]

With the attainment of equality between the purest aspects (the true or real aspect or positive
aspect of mind and the pure consciousness, there comes absolute liberation or Realization. This
is the end














Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
Chapter -4 Liberation or Realization (KAIVALYA PDA)
4.1 Alternative methods to achieve mystic skills ( Sidhis )

=-Pl 9|P69-BPl|=l- |B&4- =-Pl 9|P69-BPl|=l- |B&4- =-Pl 9|P69-BPl|=l- |B&4- =-Pl 9|P69-BPl|=l- |B&4- +v +v +v +v- -- -+ + + +
janma auadhi mantra tapa samdhij siddhaya [4-1]

The mystic skills are produced through by
Taking birth in particular species (or by birth)
Taking special drugs (herbs)
Reciting special sounds ( Mantras)
Physical bodily austerities ( Tap )
The Mediation (Yoga Dhayan, meditation, Samadhi) and so on.

=lt4-69|TlP- 9T t4l9 l6 =lt4-69|TlP- 9T t4l9 l6 =lt4-69|TlP- 9T t4l9 l6 =lt4-69|TlP- 9T t4l9 l6 +v +v +v +v- -- -- -- -+ + + +
jtyantara parima praktyprt [4-2]

The transformation from one category to another is by the saturation of the subtle material
nature. (It is complex statement - talking about the basis of birth in another life
form/species.)

|+|PP94l =T 9T 6l+l 4T 7F6 66- |T46 |+|PP94l =T 9T 6l+l 4T 7F6 66- |T46 |+|PP94l =T 9T 6l+l 4T 7F6 66- |T46 |+|PP94l =T 9T 6l+l 4T 7F6 66- |T46 +v +v +v +v- -- -+ + + +
nimitta aprayojaka praktn varaabheda tu tata ketrikavat [4-3]

Liberation or realization is achieved by the continue preparation in that direction , step by
step, similar to a farmer who cultivate the fields by preparing the land , sowing seeds and
irrigate the fields , Incidental causes or actions do not lead to the emergence of attainments.

4.2 New emerging patterns of Mind ( Chitta)

|+Pl T|l-4|FP6lPll6 |+Pl T|l-4|FP6lPll6 |+Pl T|l-4|FP6lPll6 |+Pl T|l-4|FP6lPll6 +v +v +v +v- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
nirmacittni asmitmtrt [4-4]

The new emergent mind springs forth from the individuality of I-ness (asmita).

94 | 7 94l =T |P TP+ T 9lP 94 | 7 94l =T |P TP+ T 9lP 94 | 7 94l =T |P TP+ T 9lP 94 | 7 94l =T |P TP+ T 9lP +v +v +v +v- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
pravtti bhede prayojaka cittam ekam anekem [4-5]

While the activities of the Mind (Chitta) may be diverse, the one mind is the director of the all
the activities, numberless activities (dispersals of energy ) ( General sentence specifying the
quality of Mind how it govern the environment and other things)


Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
4.3 Three-fold properties of Actions ( karma )

6 \4l+=P+lH4P 6 \4l+=P+lH4P 6 \4l+=P+lH4P 6 \4l+=P+lH4P +v +v +v +v- -- -+ + + +
tatra dhynajam anayam [4-6]

New emerging patterns of Mind is free from any latent Impressions that could produce reaction
(action-reaction, karmic actions)

TPl H TlT !T 4l |+|U|4|P6 9lP TPl H TlT !T 4l |+|U|4|P6 9lP TPl H TlT !T 4l |+|U|4|P6 9lP TPl H TlT !T 4l |+|U|4|P6 9lP +v +v +v +v- -- -+ + + +
karma aukla akna yogina trividham itarem [4-7]

All actions have three-fold properties, while they are threefold for others. The actions after New
emerging patterns of Mind are neither white (good aspect) nor black ( bad aspect)

66F6|9lTl+ Tl+lP 4l|-4|164l B+l+lP 66F6|9lTl+ Tl+lP 4l|-4|164l B+l+lP 66F6|9lTl+ Tl+lP 4l|-4|164l B+l+lP 66F6|9lTl+ Tl+lP 4l|-4|164l B+l+lP +v +v +v +v- -- -<+ <+ <+ <+
tata tadvipka anugunm eva abhivyakti vsannm [4-8]

Those threefold actions result in latent impressions (vasanas) arises as result of action will later
arise to fruition only corresponding to those impressions. ( means all the action of mind will help
in getting the corresponding impressions ( or memories) describing characteristics of action.

=l|67 HTl-44|r6l+lP-4l+-64 FP |6B FTl4l T-9t4l6 =l|67 HTl-44|r6l+lP-4l+-64 FP |6B FTl4l T-9t4l6 =l|67 HTl-44|r6l+lP-4l+-64 FP |6B FTl4l T-9t4l6 =l|67 HTl-44|r6l+lP-4l+-64 FP |6B FTl4l T-9t4l6 +v +v +v +v- -- - + + + +
jti dea kla vyavahitnm api nantarya smti saskrayo ekarpatvt [4-9]

Since memory (smriti) and the deep habit impressions (samskaras) are the same in effect, there
is an unbroken continuity in the playing out of those traits, even though there might be a gap in
location, time, or state of life. (Birth after birth)

6lBlP+l|7t4 l|H9l |+t4t4l6 6lBlP+l|7t4 l|H9l |+t4t4l6 6lBlP+l|7t4 l|H9l |+t4t4l6 6lBlP+l|7t4 l|H9l |+t4t4l6 +v +v +v +v- -- -+ + + +
tsm anditva ca ia nityatvt [4-10]
(Once the Mind set into New emerging patterns ) there will be no beginning of memories and
impressions..

r 6 Tl~4l4+ - B rl6t4l7 9lPl4 67l4- r 6 Tl~4l4+ - B rl6t4l7 9lPl4 67l4- r 6 Tl~4l4+ - B rl6t4l7 9lPl4 67l4- r 6 Tl~4l4+ - B rl6t4l7 9lPl4 67l4- +v +v +v +v- -- -+ + + +
hetu phala raya lambanai saghtatvt em abhve tad abhva [4-11]

Since the impressions are held together by cause, motive, substratum, and object, they
disappear when those deep impressions disappear.




Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
H6l6l+l6 F4-96l 5Ft4\4 7l&Pl TlP H6l6l+l6 F4-96l 5Ft4\4 7l&Pl TlP H6l6l+l6 F4-96l 5Ft4\4 7l&Pl TlP H6l6l+l6 F4-96l 5Ft4\4 7l&Pl TlP +v +v +v +v- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
atta angata svarpata asti adhvabhedt dharmm [4-12]

Then the Past and future will exist in the present reality, they appearing to be different because
of having different characteristics or forms ( the time lost dimension aspect everything past,
present and future is now )
4.4 Objects and the Three Properties (Gunas)

6 -416B Pl TltPl+- 6 -416B Pl TltPl+- 6 -416B Pl TltPl+- 6 -416B Pl TltPl+- +v +v +v +v- -- -+ + + +
te vyakta skm gutmna [4-13]

They are gross or subtle, all depending on their inherent nature or properties (gunas)

9|TlP Tt4lF6 6x4P 9|TlP Tt4lF6 6x4P 9|TlP Tt4lF6 6x4P 9|TlP Tt4lF6 6x4P +v +v +v +v- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
parima ekatvt vastutattvam [4-14]

The actual composition or the characteristics of an object appear as a single unit, as they
manifested uniformly from the underlying properties (gunas)

4F6 Bl4 | 7l4l |4 - 9-l- 4F6 Bl4 | 7l4l |4 - 9-l- 4F6 Bl4 | 7l4l |4 - 9-l- 4F6 Bl4 | 7l4l |4 - 9-l- +v +v +v +v- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
vastusmye cittabhedt tayo vibhakta panth [4-15]

Although the same objects may be perceived by different Minds, they are Perceived in different
ways, because those minds manifested differently or Because of a difference in the Mind pattern
(Chitta) of two persons separate prejudices manifest in their viewing of the very same object.

+ T|6 4F6 679PlTT 67l |T F4l6 + T|6 4F6 679PlTT 67l |T F4l6 + T|6 4F6 679PlTT 67l |T F4l6 + T|6 4F6 679PlTT 67l |T F4l6 +v +v +v +v- -- -+ + + +
na ca ekacitta tantra ced vastu tat apramaka tad ki syt [4-16]

but in actual an object is not dependent on any person persons perception ( absolute Reality )

4.5 some more Properties of Mind ( Chitta )
6T9ll9 |t4l|F4 4F6 l6ll6P 6T9ll9 |t4l|F4 4F6 l6ll6P 6T9ll9 |t4l|F4 4F6 l6ll6P 6T9ll9 |t4l|F4 4F6 l6ll6P +v +v +v +v- -- -+ + + +
taduparga apekitvt cittasya vastu jta ajtam [4-17]

An object is perceived as familiar or unfamiliar (known properties or unknown properties) , is all
depending on the mood and expectation of the particular mind set (chitta) of the person ,in
reference to it.



Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
B7l l6l|4 4F6t9l - 9 69F4l9|Tl|Pt4l6 B7l l6l|4 4F6t9l - 9 69F4l9|Tl|Pt4l6 B7l l6l|4 4F6t9l - 9 69F4l9|Tl|Pt4l6 B7l l6l|4 4F6t9l - 9 69F4l9|Tl|Pt4l6 +v +v +v +v- -- -<+ <+ <+ <+
sad jt cittavttaya tatprabho puruasya aparimitvt [4-18]

(after acquiring New emerging patterns of Mind ( Chitta) ),The operations of the Chitta are
always known to that pure consciousness because that pure consciousness is superior to, and
master over the mind.

+ 6tF4llB 74t4l6 + 6tF4llB 74t4l6 + 6tF4llB 74t4l6 + 6tF4llB 74t4l6 +v +v +v +v- -- -+ + + +
na tat svbhsa dyatvt [4-19]

That mind (chitta) is not self-illuminating or self identity rather it is only capable of being
perceived. Or it is the object of knowledge and perception by the pure consciousness.

9TBP4 l4l+4lTP 9TBP4 l4l+4lTP 9TBP4 l4l+4lTP 9TBP4 l4l+4lTP +v +v +v +v- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
ekasamaye ca ubhaya anavadhraam [4-20]

Nor can both the mind and the illuminating process be cognized simultaneously.

|l-674 4 |&4& |69B- |l-674 4 |&4& |69B- |l-674 4 |&4& |69B- |l-674 4 |&4& |69B- FP |6BT FP |6BT FP |6BT FP |6BT +v +v +v +v- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
cittntaradye buddhibuddhe atiprasaga smtisakara ca [4-21]

If one mind were illumined by another, as its master, then there would be an endless and absurd
progression of cognitions, as well as confusion.

4.6 Final Process of liberation and realization

| 9|6B=G4Pl4lF67lTll9l F44 |&B 4 7+P | 9|6B=G4Pl4lF67lTll9l F44 |&B 4 7+P | 9|6B=G4Pl4lF67lTll9l F44 |&B 4 7+P | 9|6B=G4Pl4lF67lTll9l F44 |&B 4 7+P +v +v +v +v- -- ---+ --+ --+ --+
cite apratisakramy tadkrpattau svabuddhisavedanam [4-22]

When the unchanging consciousness appears to take on the shape of that finest aspect of Chitta
then the experience of one's own cognition process is possible.

7 74l 916 | B4l P 7 74l 916 | B4l P 7 74l 916 | B4l P 7 74l 916 | B4l P +v +v +v +v- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
dra dya uparakta citta sarvrtham [4-23]

Therefore The mind Chitta which is perceiver and the perceived both has the potential to
perceive any and all objects.

67B=G 4 44lB+l||P|9 9l B rt4Tl|t4l6 67B=G 4 44lB+l||P|9 9l B rt4Tl|t4l6 67B=G 4 44lB+l||P|9 9l B rt4Tl|t4l6 67B=G 4 44lB+l||P|9 9l B rt4Tl|t4l6 +v +v +v +v- -- --v+ -v+ -v+ -v+
tat asakhyeya vsanbhi citram api parrtha sahatyakritvt [4-24]



Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com
Although the chitta is though diverse by innumerable subtle impressions, but after much
cleansing witnessing pure consciousness because of its proximity.

|4H 97|H + HltPl4l4+l|4|+4 |- |4H 97|H + HltPl4l4+l|4|+4 |- |4H 97|H + HltPl4l4+l|4|+4 |- |4H 97|H + HltPl4l4+l|4|+4 |- +v +v +v +v- -- ---+ --+ --+ --+
vieadarina tmabhva bhvannivtti [4-25]

then comes the total stopping of the operations of the Chitta for the person who perceives the
distinction between chitta and the super consciousness itself.

67l |44 T|+VT 4-49ll|P 67l |44 T|+VT 4-49ll|P 67l |44 T|+VT 4-49ll|P 67l |44 T|+VT 4-49ll|P +v +v +v +v- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
tad hi vivekanimna kaivalya prgbhra cittam [4-26]

Then, indeed, the mind (Chitta) is inclined towards highest discrimination and gravitates towards
the total separation from the mundane psychology.

4.7 Last Filter Deep interfering thought patterns

6|7 9 9t44l-6l|T B FTl -4- 6|7 9 9t44l-6l|T B FTl -4- 6|7 9 9t44l-6l|T B FTl -4- 6|7 9 9t44l-6l|T B FTl -4- +v +v +v +v- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
tat cchidreu pratyayntari saskrebhya [4-27]
When there are breaks or breaches in that high discrimination, then other deep contents /
impressions /deep interfering thought patterns (may) arise from the deep unconscious.
Then the mind is inclined towards the highest discrimination, and gravitates towards absolute
liberation between seer (consciousness ) and seen (pure-consciousness).
rl+P 9l T H4T16P rl+P 9l T H4T16P rl+P 9l T H4T16P rl+P 9l T H4T16P +v +v +v +v- -- --<+ -<+ -<+ -<+
hnam e kleavat uktam [4-28]

and the removal of those interfering thought patterns is by the same method /process by which
the original klaeshs were removed.

9B=G 4l+ 5-4T Bl7F4 B4 l |44 T4l6 P P FBPl|- 9B=G 4l+ 5-4T Bl7F4 B4 l |44 T4l6 P P FBPl|- 9B=G 4l+ 5-4T Bl7F4 B4 l |44 T4l6 P P FBPl|- 9B=G 4l+ 5-4T Bl7F4 B4 l |44 T4l6 P P FBPl|- +v +v +v +v- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
prasakhyne api akusdasya sarvath vivekakhyte dharmamegha samdhi [4-29]

When there is no longer any interest , that discrimination allows the Samadhi, which brings an
abundance of virtues like a rain cloud brings rain.

66- T HTP |+4 |- 66- T HTP |+4 |- 66- T HTP |+4 |- 66- T HTP |+4 |- +v +v +v +v- -- -+ + + +
tata klea karma nivtti [4-30]

Subsequently there is stoppage of the Chitta After that, the effects of the kleshas and the
karmas are removed.. .dharma-meghah Samadhi occurs.


Patanjali YogaSutramAn Entry level Explanation (v0.90) harshgoel2k@rediffmail.com

67l B4l 4TPl9 6F4 l+F4l+-t4l7 4P-9P 67l B4l 4TPl9 6F4 l+F4l+-t4l7 4P-9P 67l B4l 4TPl9 6F4 l+F4l+-t4l7 4P-9P 67l B4l 4TPl9 6F4 l+F4l+-t4l7 4P-9P +v +v +v +v- -- -+ + + +
tad sarva varaa malpetasya jnasya nantyt jeyam alpam [4-31]

Then, because of the removal of all mental darkness and psychological impurities, there comes
the experience of the infinite, and the realization there is nothing left to be known.

4.8 Liberation or Realization (KAIVALYA)

66- T 6ll +l 9|TlP4PBPl|8 Tl+lP 66- T 6ll +l 9|TlP4PBPl|8 Tl+lP 66- T 6ll +l 9|TlP4PBPl|8 Tl+lP 66- T 6ll +l 9|TlP4PBPl|8 Tl+lP +v +v +v +v- -- --+ -+ -+ -+
tata ktrthn parimakrama samptir gunm [4-32]

Also resulting from that Samadhi (dharma-meghah samadhi) , the three primary elements or
gunas will have fulfilled their purpose, cease to transform into further transformations, and
recede back into their essence.

T9|64l l 9|TlPl9l-6|+l G- 4P- T9|64l l 9|TlPl9l-6|+l G- 4P- T9|64l l 9|TlPl9l-6|+l G- 4P- T9|64l l 9|TlPl9l-6|+l G- 4P- +v +v +v +v- -- -+ + + +
kaa pratiyog parima aparnta nirgrhya krama [4-33]

The sequencing process of moments and impressions corresponds to the moments of time, and
is apprehended at the end point of the sequence. Time lost its dimension.
9 69l H -4l+l Tl+l 9|69B4- 9 69l H -4l+l Tl+l 9|69B4- 9 69l H -4l+l Tl+l 9|69B4- 9 69l H -4l+l Tl+l 9|69B4- T 4-4 F4-99|6Ul 4l ||6H|16||6 T 4-4 F4-99|6Ul 4l ||6H|16||6 T 4-4 F4-99|6Ul 4l ||6H|16||6 T 4-4 F4-99|6Ul 4l ||6H|16||6 +v +v +v +v- -- -v+ v+ v+ v+
Pururthanyn gun pratiprasava kaivalya svarpapratih v citiaktiriti [4-34]

Thus at last, When those primary elements ( gunas ) involve, or resolve themselves back into
that out of which they emerged, there comes liberation, wherein the power of pure
consciousness becomes established in its true nature. the pure consciousness is established in
its own true form.

The beginning .