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. Indo-Russian Strategic Agreement was signed in 2001, under which more than 80 bilateral agreements were signed. Why did the United States provide financial assistance to the Central Asian countries in 2001? After 11 September 2001, United States wanted the military bases in the Central Asian region, for this purpose it hired some military bases of these countries to fuel its flights during wars. What do you mean by `the largest garage sale in history'? After the shock therapy about 90 percent of the USSR industries were put up for sale. Valuable industries were undervalued and sold at throw away prices. This sale was called `the largest garage sale in history`. State some changes took place after the disintegration of USSR? Some changes which took place after the disintegration of USSR was the end of the Cold War and ideological dispute over Socialist system and Capitalist system. The two military blocs came to an end and only one super power existed out of the two i.e. the United States. The capitalist economy dominates internationally now. What is meant by the Second World? A group of countries, which were allies of the WARSAW pact, a military alliance formed by USSR on the communist and socialist ideology is known as Second World countries or Socialist Blocs. State the political system of the Soviet Union? In the political system of Soviet Union, the makers of the Soviet system gave primary importance to the working class and the institution of the party that supported the poor people. The Soviet political system centered around the communist philosophy, and no other political party, or opposition was allowed. Why did Gorbachev want to bring about reforms in the USSR? He wanted to do so to keep USSR abreast of the information and technological revolutions taking place in the West. 2 marks In 1991, a coup took place in USSR. What was its result? Boris Yeltsin crushed the coup and emerged as hero of the new system. He won election from Russia and made way for the process of decentralization of the USSR. Independence movements began in the soviet controlled region of East Europe and they started to declare themselves as sovereign state. The Central Asian states were made the founders members of CIS. What were the other features of the disintegration of USSR? • Russia was accepted as the successor state of USSR. • It inherited the Soviet seat in the Security Council. • It accepted all the treaties and commitments of the Soviet Union.
• It took over as the nuclear state of the post Soviet space and carried out some disarmament measures with the US. Mention some of the countries that started reviving. What were the major factors which helped in their revival? • Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan revived after about ten years of their independence because of the export of natural resources like oil, natural gas and minerals. • Some other countries revived because they get the rent on the pipelines that pass through their countries. Mention spheres in which India and Russia benefit from each other. • Russia supports India’s cause on Kashmir. • It supports India’s need of energy supplies. • Russia benefits from India because it is the second largest arms market for Russia. • Russia is important for India’s nuclear plans, and has also collaborated with India on various scientific projects. 3 marks In your view what was the most important reason that led to the collapse of USSR? • The economic and political institutions had failed to meet the aspirations of the people. • Economic stagnation for several years had led to the shortage of consumer goods. • The people were comparing the economic advances of the West with their system, and so they openly started questioning the Soviet system of economy. What do you mean by multipolar World? Multi polar world means that there is co-existence of several powers in the international system. So there is a need for collective security and need to negotiate to settle international conflicts and an independent foreign policy for all countries and decision making through bodies like the UN. State the relation between India and Russia after the disintegration of the USSR? India and Russia maintained a very strong relation and their relations are embedded by trust and common interest and are matched by popular perceptions. It got benefits from its relationship such as sharing information on terrorism. Since India is the second largest arms market for Russia, The Indian military gets most of its military technologies from Russia. India has collaborated on various scientific projects with Russia. What do you mean by Shock Therapy? After the collapse of communism, all most all countries which were under the control of USSR witnessed the process of transition from an authoritarian Socialist system to a democratic capitalist system. The model of transition in Russia, Central Asia and east Europe that was influenced by the World Bank and the IMF, came to be known as ‘shock therapy’. State the relation between India and Russia after the disintegration of the USSR? • The resources of Soviet Union were used in building military and nuclear arsenals. • Development of its Satellite states brought huge financial burden for USSR.
• Its administration was corrupt and the government was not ready to implement any corrective measures. • There was no openness and the people were not allowed to express their views. Gorbachev’s initiative of reforms brought hopes for the people of USSR. Yet, he is blamed for the disintegration of USSR. Can you explain this statement? • By loosening the Soviet system, Gorbachev set in motion such expectations of the people as could hardly be anticipated by anyone. • Many people felt disappointed that Gorbachev did not work at a pace they had wanted. • The hardliners in the Communist Party blamed him for the deprivation of the privileges they enjoyed at one time Relate the instance of conflict in Yugoslavia. • There were severe conflicts in Yugoslavia between the Serbs and the non-Serbs. • After 1991, it broke out into provinces like Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina as independent countries. • Later, the NATO intervened in matter of Yugoslavia. What is the vision of the world shared by Russia and India? Both these countries share the vision of multi-polar world order, where the following features would be present: • Co-existence of several powers in the world. • Collective Security, in which all the countries act collectively against the offender country. • Peaceful settlements of the disputes. • Independent Foreign Policy. • Strengthening of International Organizations like UNO. 4 marks What are the reasons of the conflicts and tensions in the former Soviet Republics? Give some instances. • There have been violent secessionist movements in Chechnya and Dagestan, the Russian Republics. • Tajikistan in Central Asia witnessed a civil war for 10 years because of sectarianism. • In Georgia two provinces demanded independence which led to a civil war. • Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan and Georgia, there are movements against the existing rulers. Could the democratic institutions be established? Give examples to justify your answer. • Democracy could not be established in any of these countries. • The Constitutions had weakened the position of the Parliaments and had made the Presidents very powerful. • These Presidents became authoritarian and ruled according to their own wishes. For E.g., the Presidents of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan appointed themselves for ten years but ruled for another ten years. They did not allow any opposition. What was the result of the efforts that Gorbachev made to bring about the reforms?
• Gorbachev’s decision to normalize relations with the West and democratised and reformed the Soviet Union, which had the effects that neither he nor anyone else had expected. • The East European countries, which were part of the Soviet bloc started to protest against Soviet control. Thus the communist regimes collapsed one after another. • These developments were accompanied by a rapidly escalating crisis within the USSR that hastened its disintegration. • The reforms were opposed by hardliners within the Communist Party who felt that they would be deprived of their privileges. Why did the Soviet Union disintegrate? The main reason for the disintegration of USSR was the internal weakness in the field of political and economic institution, which failed to meet the demand of the people, economic stagnation for many years led to shortages of consumer good. Soviet Union economy used to maintain military, nuclear and development of satellite states in Eastern Europe. This led a huge economic burden, which they could not able to coop with, as well as the people became more aware about the economic advancement of the west. The Soviet Union had also stagnant in the administrative and political institutions. Besides all these reason the one most important cause was the rise of the nationalism and the desire for sovereignty with various republic including Russia proved to be final and the most immediate cause for the disintegration of USSR. Why Gorbachev is blamed for the disintegration of USSR? Explain Mikhail Gorbachev become the general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1985 and he introduced some reforms to normalize the relations with the west, but the reforms introduced by him created negative effect, instead of positive effect. The East European countries which were part of the Soviet blocs started protesting against their own governments and Soviet control and the disturbance started which caused for the disintegration of The Soviet Union one after another. Another reason is that Gorbachev initiated the policies of economic and political reforms for democratisation within the country, those reforms were opposed by the leaders within the communist party. In 1991 the people of USSR who tasted the taste of freedom, did not want the old-style rule of the Communist Party. Boris Yeltsin emerged as a national hero and shook off the Central led control. Slowly the power began to shift from the Soviet to the Republic. In December 1991 under the leadership of Boris Yeltsin three major republic of the USSR namely Russia, Ukraine and Belarus became independent and adopted Capitalism and democracy, and this paved the way for the disintegration of USSR. What led the unrest in the USSR in 1970? Lack of democracy and the absence of freedom of speech and the one party system represented by the communist party of Soviet Union had tight control over all institutions. Bureaucratic and authoritarian made life very difficult for its citizen. The party refused to recognize the urge of people in the fifteen republics, the people from the other republic felt neglected and often suppressed. Russia dominated other states. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 weakened its economic system. This led to the shortage of consumer goods. The soviet economy became stagnant and all this causes led to the unrest in USSR in late 1970s. State the position of the USSR after the Second World War?
After the Second World War the USSR emerged as one of the most powerful countries. The East European countries came under the control of the USSR. The soviet economy was the most developed one next to the US in the world. It had a complex network of communications, and had vast energy resources like oil, iron and steel etc. It had a domestic consumer industry that produced everything from pens to cars. The Soviet Union ensured a minimum standard of living for all citizens, and the government subsidized basic needs including health, education, childcare and other welfare schemes. There was no unemployment problem. The State ownership of land and productive assets were owned and controlled by the Soviet state. How did the world become bipolar after World War II? Define the meaning of ‘Bipolarity’ • The post-second world war years marked the division of world into two blocsEastern and Western Blocs. • The Eastern Bloc was led by USSR and the Western Bloc by USA. There was a situation of cold war due to enmity between the two blocs. • All the events occurring in any part of the world were connected with this rivalry. • Most of the smaller countries rallied around the two ‘Super Powers’. Bipolarity refers to clustering of countries around the two most powerful nations of the world. In which way was the USSR almost as developed USA after the Second World War? • It developed complex communications network. • Had vast energy resources like oil, iron and steel • Had domestic consumer industry producing everything. • Minimum standard of living for all citizens was provided. • Government subsidized basic necessities like health, education, childcare and other welfare schemes. • No unemployment was there. • Economy controlled by the State brought about Equality between the rich and poor. State the reasons, which justify the fact that soviet system brought more of problems than benefits to the people. • The system became bureaucratic and authoritarian. • Russia dominated all the 15 Republics that constituted USSR. • Communist Party was unaccountable to the people. • Lack of freedom of speech and democracy. • Backward technology and infrastructure due to which they lagged behind the West. • This led to the shortages of all the consumer goods. • Food imports had to be done. All this led to which the Soviet economy became stagnant. • Invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 weakened USSR further. 6 marks What are the differences between the Socialist economy of the Soviet Union and the Capitalist economy of USA? US Capitalism:
• US favoured capitalism is the economic system based on private or corporate ownership of, production and distribution of goods. • It favour a system of free enterprise, which means the government should not interfere in the economy - that the laws of supply and demand will make sure that the economy runs most efficiently in meeting people's needs. • US Economy is characterized by competition in which there is rivalry in supplying or getting an economic service or good. Sellers compete with other sellers, and buyers with other buyers. The buyers seek the best possible deal in purchasing goods and the sellers look to make the best possible sale allowing them the maximum profit. Soviet Socialism: • The Soviet economy was then more developed than the rest of the world except for the US. • It had a multifaceted communications network, vast energy resources, machinery production, and a transport sector that connected its remotest areas with efficiency. • It had a domestic consumer industry that produced everything from pins to airplane. • The Soviet state ensured a minimum standard of living for all citizens, and the government subsidized basic necessities including health, education, childcare and other welfare schemes. • State ownership was there: land and productive possessions were owned and controlled by the Soviet state. Did the ‘Shock Therapy’ administered in 1990, fulfill people’s expectations? State what actually happened? No. • As the state - controlled system of socialism came to an end, 90 percent of Russian industries were put on sale for the open market. This was called ‘the largest garage sale in history’ as it led to the virtual disappearance of the entire industries. • The value of Ruble, the Russian currency declined drastically and the rate of inflation was so high that people lost all their savings. • Russia had to import food due to its shortage because the collective farming system had been disbanded. • Large sections of people were pushed into poverty because of the withdrawal of government subsidies. • Around 1,500 Russian banks and financial institutions went bankrupt.