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The constitution of India was signed on 26 Nov, 1949 and it came into effect on January, 1950. When was Election Commission set up in India? The Election Commission in India was set up in January 1950. Who was the leader of the anti-caste movement? Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar was the leader of the anti-caste movement. Who was the founder President of Bhartiya Jana Sangh? Shyama Prasad Mukarjee was the founder President of Bhartiya Jana Sangh. When was the Swatantra Party formed? Swatantra Party was formed in August 1959. Name the parties in the contemporary India which trace their origins to the socialist party? Parties like the Samajwadi Party, The Rashtriya Janata Dal, Janata Dal (United) and the Janata Dal (Secular) trace their origins from the socialist party. Which two opposition leaders were included in the cabinet after the First General Elections? Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and Shyama Prasad Mukherjee were the two opposition leaders included in the cabinet after the first general elections. Which party was formed within the Congress in 1934? The Congress Socialist Party was formed within the Congress in 1934. Who was the first Chief Election Commissioner of India? Sukumar Sen was the first chief election commissioner of India. What is EVM? The term EVM stands for Electronic Voting Machine. It is an electronic device to record voters’ preferences. In which year the first General Elections in India were held? First General Elections in India were held in 1952. Why Swatantra Party was not able to build a strong organisational network? The narrow social base of the party and the lack of a dedicated cadre of party members did not allow it to build a strong organisational network. Name the founders of Swatantra Party. C. Rajagopalachari, K.M. Munshi, N.G. Ranga and Minoo Masani were the founders of the Swatantra party. Which ideology was believed by the socialists? The socialists believed in the ideology of democratic socialism which distinguished both from the Congress and communists.
2 marks C. Rajagopalachari He was a senior Congress leader and became the first Indian to be Governor General of India, Cabinet Member and later became Chief Minister of Madras State. He was the first recipient of the Bharat Ratna and founder of the Swatantra Party. Acharya Narendra Dev He was a freedom fighter and founding President of the Congress Socialist Party. After independence he led the Socialist Party and later the Praja Socialist Party. A.K. Gopalan Initially A. K. Gopalan was the Congress worker in Kerala lbut later he joined the Communist party of India and after its split in 1964 joined the CPI (M). He worked for strengthening the party and is respected as a parliamentarian. He became member of the Parliament in 1952. Briefly explain National Revolutionary Party. Plutarco Elias Calles was its founder. It was founded in 1929, as National Revolutionary Party and later renamed as the Institutional Revolutionary Party, the PRI (in Spanish), exercised power in Mexico for almost six decades. Its rule was described as 'the perfect dictatorship'. What role did the opposition play in the era of one-party dominance? Opposition parties were able to get a token representation in the Lok Sabha and state assemblies during the era of Congress Party, but they played a vital role in maintaining the democratic character of the system. These parties offered a constant criticism to the policies Congress party and kept democratic political alternative alive. These parties groomed the leaders who were to play a crucial role in shaping of our country. What were the results of the First General Elections? OR Write a short note on the First General Elections. The Lok Sabha elections and State elections took place together in the First General Elections of India. Congress had won 364 out of the 489 seats in the first Lok Sabha. The Communist Party of India won 16 seats and stood second in position. Congress won a majority of seats in all the states assemblies except Travancore, Cochin, Madras and Orissa. What was the role played by the opposition parties in the era of one party dominance? Opposition parties were able to get a token representation in the Lok Sabha and state assemblies during the era of Congress Party, but they played a vital role in maintaining the democratic character of the system. These parties offered a constant criticism of the Congress party and kept democratic political alternative alive. These parties gave the leaders who played a crucial role in shaping India. What do you understand by factions in a coalition? The Congress had a nature of coalition. If a group was not happy with the position of the party or with its share of power, it would remain inside the party and fight the other groups rather than leaving the party and becoming an opposition. These groups inside the party are called factions.
Write a brief note on the emergence of Swatantra Party? Swatantra party was formed in August 1959 after the Nagpur resolution of the congress which called for land ceilings, taking over of food grain trade by the state and the adoption of cooperative farming. The party was led by old congress men like Raja Gopalachari, K.M. Munshi, N.G. Ranga and Minoo Masani. Who was Rajkumari Amrit Kaur? Rajkumari Amrit Kaur (1889-1964) was a Gandhian and freedom fighter; and belonged to the royal family of Kapurthala. She had inherited Christian religion from her mother. She was a member of Constituent Assembly; Minister for Health in independent India's first ministry and continued as Health Minister till 1957. Who was Bhim Rao Ambedkar? Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar was born on April 14, 1891 in Mhow (presently in Madhya Pradesh). He is viewed as the messiah of Dalits and downtrodden people in India. He was the chairman of the drafting committee that was constituted by the Constituent Assembly in 1947 to draft a constitution for independent India. He played a seminal role in the framing of the constitution. Bhim Rao Ambedkar was also the first Law Minister of India. For his yeoman service to the nation, B.R. Ambedkar was bestowed with Bharat Ratna in 1990. When was Swatantra Party formed and how? Swatantra party was formed in August 1959 after the Nagpur resolution of the congress, which called for land ceilings, taking over of food grain trade by the state and the adoption of cooperative farming. Old congressmen like Raja Gopalachari, K.M. Munshi, N.G. Ranga and Minoo Masani led the party. Who was C. Rajagopalchari? Popularly known as "Rajaji," C. Rajagopalachari, the first Indian Governor General of India, was an ardent patriot, a pioneering social reformer, incisive thinker, profound scholar and author. He was also an eminent statesman and able administrator. He personified the ideal of simple living and high thinking. In the words of Jawaharlal Nehru, "Rajaji represents fundamentally the highest type of mind in India." He was the first recipient of the Bharat Ratna Award. He was the founder of Swatantra Party. 4 marks What were the various reasons for the dominance of the Congress? The reason for the dominance of Congress is: • Its identification with the freedom struggle for building national unity and solidarity. • Popular appeal of charismatic leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Pt. Nehru, Indira Gandhi etc. • A very broad based manifesto, which has something in it for every section of society. • Its role in consensus building, even in the remotest area. The First General Elections was the most difficult task. How? After setting up of the Election Commission of India in January 1950 there was an uphill task to conduct free and fair elections in India. Following difficulties came in its way: • The requirement of delimitation or drawing the boundaries of the electoral constituencies.
• It also required preparation of the electoral rolls of all the citizens eligible to vote. • There were 17 crore eligible voters, who had to elect about 3,200 MLAs and 489 Members of Lok Sabha. • To conduct elections the Election Commission trained over 3 lakh officers and polling staff. In what sense was the congress an ideological coalition? Mention the various ideological currents within the congress. OR Why was the congress known as ideological coalition? The wide social base of Congress brought several diverse parties, movements, groups such as peasants, labourer and industrialists, urban dwellers and villagers, all castes to come together and find space in the Congress. Many of these groups merged their identity within the congress. Several individuals held different beliefs were part of the Congress. In this sense the Congress was an ideological coalition. The various ideologies present within the Congress were the revolutionary and pacifist, conservative and radical, extremist and moderate and the rightist, leftist and the centrist. Which economic issues were raised by Swatantra party? The Swatantra Party ideology emphasised on economic issues. • The party wanted control free economy. • It believed that prosperity could come only through individual freedom. • It was critical of the development strategy of state’s involvement in the economy, centralised planning, nationalization and the public sector. • It favoured growth of a free private sector. • The Swatantra Party was against land ceilings in agriculture, and opposed cooperative farming and state trading. • It opposed tax regime and licensing regime. • It was detractor of the policy of non-alignment and maintaining friendly relations with the Soviet Union and advocated closer ties with the United States. Bring out three differences between Socialist Bhartiya Jana Sangh and Swatantra Party. Bhartiya Jan Sangh Party It emphasised the idea of one country, one culture and one nation and believed that the country could become modern, progressive and strong on the basis of Indian culture and traditions. It was a consistent advocate of India developing nuclear weapons especially after China carried out its atomic tests in 1964 It had nationalist view like reunion of India and “Akhand Bharat” Swatantra Party Its ideology was based over economic issues.
It was critic of non-alignment policy and ties with USSR and advocate of relation with USA. It was critical of the policy of nonalignment and maintaining friendly relations with the Soviet Union.
Write a short note on Bharatiya Jana Sangh. The Bharatiya Jana Sangh was formed in 1951 with Shyama Prasad Mukherji as its founder-President. The Jana Sangh emphasised a modern nation with Indian culture and traditions and also for the reunion of India and Pakistan as “Akhand Bharat”. The party
was in favour of Hindi as the official language of India and was also opposed to the granting of concessions to religious and cultural minorities. The party consistently advocated of India developing nuclear weapons. The party’s leaders included Shyama Prasad Mukherji, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya and Balraj Madhok. The Bharatiya Janata Party traces its roots to the Bharatiya Jana Sangh. Write a short note on the origin of socialist party? The roots of the Socialist Party can be traced back to the mass movement stage of the Indian National Congress in the pre-independence era. The Congress Socialist Party (CSP) was formed within the Congress in 1934 by a group of leaders like Lohia, Narendra Dev who wanted a more radical and egalitarian Congress. In 1948, the Congress amended its party constitution forced the socialists to form a separate Socialist Party. The socialists believed in the ideology of democratic socialism. They condemned the Congress for the pro-capitalists and pro-landlords and for ignoring the workers and the peasants. Write a short note on the Communist victory in Kerala? OR Describe the victory of Communist party in Kerala. The Communist party defeated the Congress in the assembly elections held in March 1957 in Kerala. The party won 60 out of 126 seats and had the support of five independents. The CPI had come to power on the promise of carrying out radical and progressive policy measures. It was the first Communist party government that had come to power through democratic elections under E. M. S. Namboodripad. The State Congress party soon began a ‘freedom struggle’ against the elected government. In 1959, the Congress government at the Centre dismissed the Communist government of Kerala under Article 356 of the Constitution which was very controversial decision. What is PRI? Explain. The Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) exercised power in Mexico for almost six decades. It represented the legacy of the Mexican revolution. Originally PRI was a mixture of various political and non- political parties and persons. Plutarco Elías Calles, the founder of PRI had captured the party and government. The elections were often rigged and manipulated by the ruling party. Its rule was described as ‘the perfect dictatorship’. But the tactics adopted by the PRI during the period of its dominance curtailed the principles of democracy. The citizens have yet to develop full confidence in the free and fair nature of elections. Write short note on Shyama Prasad Mukherji and Deen Dayal Upadhyaya. • Shyama Prasad Mukherji - He was leader of Hindu Mahasabha and the founder of Bhartiya Jana Sangha. Earlier he was the Minister in Nehru’s Cabinet, but resigned due to differences on Pakistan issue. He opposed autonomy to Jammu Kashmir. • Deen Dayal Upadhyaya - He was the member of RSS since 1942 and was the founder member of the Bhartiya Jana Sangha. He became its secretary earlier and later became its President. He had initiated the concept of integral humanism. 6 marks Describe the origin of socialist party? The roots of the Socialist Party can be traced back to the mass movement stage of the Indian National Congress in the pre-independence era. The Congress Socialist Party (CSP) was formed within the Congress in 1934 by a group of leaders like Lohia, Narendra Dev who wanted a more radical and egalitarian Congress. In 1948, the
Congress amended its party constitution forced the socialists to form a separate Socialist Party. The socialists believed in the ideology of democratic socialism. They condemned the Congress for the pro-capitalists and pro-landlords and for ignoring the workers and the peasants. The Socialist Party went through many splits and reunions leading to the formation of many socialist parties. These included Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party, Jayaprakash Narayan, S.M. Joshi were among the leaders of the socialist parties. Who was Rajkumari Amrit Kaur? • Rajkumari Amrit Kaur was born on 02 February 1889 in Lucknow. • Rajkumari had her higher education in England. • On her return to India she came in touch with Gopal Krishna Gokhale and later with Mahatma Gandhi. This was a turning point in her life, which had initiated her active career in politics. Her active participation in salt Satyagraha landed her in Bombay jail. • In public life her interest lay as much in social welfare as in politics. During 193133 she was the president of the women's association. • She testified before the Lothian Committee of Parliament (1932) on Indian franchise and constitutional reforms. • The year 1938 saw her as the president of All India Women's Conference. She was also the first woman member of Hindustani Talimi Sangh. • In 1945 (London) and 1946 (Paris), she participated in the UNESCO's conferences as a member of Indian delegation. • After India attained freedom in 1947 she joined the Central Cabinet as Minister for Health. • She spent most of her time for the uplift of women and the eradication of social evils. • She was a strong champion of female education and equally concerned with the upliftment of Harijans. A spinster all through her life, the patriotic Gandhian passed away in 1964. Who was Narendra Dev? • Narendra dev, also known as 'Acharya Narendra Dev' (1889-1956) was a freedom fighter and founding president of the Congress Socialist Party. • He was first drawn to nationalism around 1915 under the influence of B G Tilak and Aurobindo Ghosh. • He went to jail several times during the freedom movement. He after independence led the socialist party and later the Praja Socialist Party till death. • His democratic socialism renounced violent means as a matter of principle, and embraced the Satyagraha as a revolutionary tactic. • As a teacher, he became interested in Marxism and Buddhism. • He was also active in the Hindi language movement. • He was member of the Uttar Pradesh legislative assembly on various terms, and after 1948 served as Vice-Chancellor of Lucknow University. • Dev was active in the peasant movements also and served as president of the AllIndia Kisan Congress. • He was also an atheist, rejecting the glorification of God which, he argued, by implication denigrated humankind. Discuss about Congress’ dominance in the first three general elections? OR
Which party became the dominant force in the first general elections of India & how? The results of the first general elections were in favour of the Congress Party due to its legacy of the national movement. It was the only party to have an organisation spread all over the country. Jawaharlal Nehru, the most popular leader in the party and in the Indian politics led the Congress campaign and toured through the country. The party won 364 of the 489 seats in the first Lok Sabha and finished way ahead of any other challenger. The Communist Party of India that came next in terms of seats won only 16 seats. The state elections were held with the Lok Sabha elections. The Congress scored big victory in those elections as well. It won a majority of seats in all the states except Travancore-Cochin (part of today’s Kerala), Madras and Orissa but even in these states the Congress formed the government later. So the party ruled all over the country at the national and the state level. What were the difficulties involved in conducting the first General Elections? After setting up of the Election Commission of India in January 1950 there was an uphill task for it to conduct free and fair elections in India. Following difficulties came in its way: • The requirement of delimitation or drawing the boundaries of the electoral constituencies. • It also required preparation of the electoral rolls of all the citizens eligible to vote. • In the world before this, no election was conducted in this manner. In the beginning there were 17 crore eligible voters, who had to elect about 3,200 MLAs and 489 Members of Lok Sabha. • To conduct elections the Election Commission trained over 3 lakh officers and polling staff. • Till the first General Elections were conducted in India, democracy had existed only in some countries in Europe and North America. When India had conducted its first General Elections many countries in Europe had not given even voting rights to all women. This election is referred to as the 1952 election since most parts of the country voted in January 1952. See the given picture and tell what did the cartoonist want to say by it?
The given picture represents an important factor of the Indian politics of 1950s and 60s, the period of Congress dominance. The congress dominated the democratic elections of India because of its legacy of national movement and well organized party set-up. The Congress was seen as inheritor of the national movement. The Congress was already a very well organised party and by the time the other parties could even think of a strategy, the Congress had already started its campaign. Therefore, the Congress had the ‘first off the blocks’ advantage. By the time of Independence the party had not only spread across the length and breadth of the country but also had an organisational network down to the local level. The cartoonist showed the firmness of the Congress and weak opposition, which ultimately led to Congress dominance in the elections.
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