Joseph Stalin From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search "Stalin" redirects here.

For other uses, see Stalin (disambiguation). Generalissimo Joseph Stalin Russian: Georgian:

Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union In office 6 May 1941 ± 5 March 1953 Preceded by Succeeded by Vyacheslav Molotov Georgy Malenkov

General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (office abolished in October 1952)


In office 3 April 1922 ± 5 March 1953 Preceded by Established Nikita Khrushchev after vacancy

Succeeded by

People's Commissar for the Defense of the Soviet Union In office 19 July 1941 ± 25 February 1946 Premier Preceded by Himself Semyon Timoshenko Nikolai Bulganin after vacancy

Succeeded by


18 December 1878 Gori, Tiflis Governorate, Russian Empire 5 March 1953 (aged 74) Kuntsevo Dacha near Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili


Birth name (Georgian: ) Nationality Ethnicity Soviet Georgian, with some Ossetian roots[1]

Political party Communist Party of the Soviet Union Spouse(s) Children Alma mater Ekaterina Svanidze (1906±1907) Nadezhda Alliluyeva (1919±1932) Yakov Dzhugashvili, Vasily Dzhugashvili, Svetlana Alliluyeva, Konstantin Kuzakov Tiflis Theological Seminary


Military service


Allegiance Years of service Rank Commands Battles/wars

Soviet Union 1943±1953 Generalissimo of the Soviet Union All (supreme commander) World War II

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878[2] ± 5 March 1953) served as the first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953. Stalin assumed the leading role in Soviet politics after Vladimir Lenin's death in 1924, and gradually marginalized his opponents until he had become the unchallenged leader of the Soviet Union. Stalin launched a command economy, replacing the New Economic Policy of the 1920s with Five-Year Plans and launching a period of rapid industrialization and economic collectivization. The upheaval in the agricultural sector disrupted food production, resulting in widespread famine, including the catastrophic Soviet famine of 1932±1933 (known in Ukraine as the Holodomor).[3] During the late 1930s, Stalin launched the Great Purge (also known as the "Great Terror"), a campaign to purge the Communist Party of people accused of sabotage, terrorism, or treachery; he extended it to the military and other sectors of Soviet society. In practice, the purges were indiscriminate. Targets were often executed, imprisoned in Gulag labor camps or exiled. In the years which followed, millions of members of ethnic minorities were also deported.[4][5] In 1939 Stalin entered into a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, followed by the Soviet invasion of Poland, Finland, the Baltics, Bessarabia and northern Bukovina. After Germany violated the pact by invading the Soviet Union in 1941, the Soviet Union joined the Allies to play an important role in the Axis defeat, at the cost of the largest death toll for any country in the war (mostly due to the mass deaths of civilians in territories occupied by Germany). After the war, Stalin installed subservient communist governments in most countries in Eastern Europe, forming the Eastern bloc, behind what was referred to as an "Iron Curtain" of Soviet rule during the Cold War. Stalin's government was also the driving force in the removal of political killings from the 1948 Genocide Convention.[6][7] Following his death, Stalin and his regime have both been questioned and denounced on numerous occasions. In 1956, Stalin's successor, Nikita Khrushchev, denounced his legacy and drove the process of de-Stalinization of the Soviet Union.[8] In November 2010, the Russian State Duma approved a declaration blaming Stalin, amongst other officials, for having personally ordered the Katyn massacre.[9] Contents [hide]

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1 Early life 2 Revolution, Civil War, and Polish-Soviet War o 2.1 Role during the Russian Revolution of 1917 o 2.2 Role in the Russian Civil War, 1917±1919 o 2.3 Role in the Polish-Soviet War, 1919±1921 3 Rise to power 4 Changes to Soviet society, 1927±1939 o 4.1 Bolstering Soviet secret service and intelligence o 4.2 Cult of personality o 4.3 Purges and deportations  4.3.1 Purges  4.3.2 Population transfer o 4.4 Collectivization o 4.5 Famines  4.5.1 Ukrainian famine o 4.6 Industrialization o 4.7 Science


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4.8 Social services 4.9 Culture 4.10 Religion 4.11 Theorist 5 Calculating the number of victims 6 World War II, 1939±1945 o 6.1 Pact with Hitler o 6.2 Implementing the division of Eastern Europe and other invasions o 6.3 Hitler breaks the pact o 6.4 Soviets stop the Germans o 6.5 Soviet push to Germany o 6.6 Final victory o 6.7 Nobel Prize in Peace nominations o 6.8 Questionable tactics o 6.9 Allied conferences on post-war Europe 7 Post-war era, 1945±1953 o 7.1 The Iron Curtain and the Eastern Bloc o 7.2 Sino-Soviet Relations o 7.3 North Korea o 7.4 Israel o 7.5 Falsifiers of History o 7.6 Domestic support o 7.7 "Doctors' plot" 8 Death and aftermath o 8.1 Later analysis of death o 8.2 Reaction by successors o 8.3 Views on Stalin in Russian Federation 9 Personal life o 9.1 Origin of name, nicknames and pseudonyms o 9.2 Appearance o 9.3 Marriages and family o 9.4 Habits o 9.5 Religious beliefs and policies 10 Hypotheses, rumors and misconceptions about Stalin 11 Works 12 See also 13 References o 13.1 Notes o 13.2 Bibliography 14 Further reading 15 External links

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Early life Main article: Early life of Joseph Stalin


He became one of the Bolsheviks' chief operatives in the Caucasus. he received a scholarship to a Georgian Orthodox seminary. Though he performed well there. Yakov. counterfeiting operations and robberies. which permanently scarred his face. a cobbler. 1911[12] Shortly after leaving the seminary. 5 . who later gave birth to Stalin's first child. At the age of seven. Stalin married Ekaterina Svanidze. spreading propaganda and raising money through bank robberies. In the summer of 1906. in the town of Gori. age 16 ) on 18 December 1878[2] Stalin was born Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili (Georgian: to Ketevan Geladze and Besarion Jughashvili. At sixteen. ransom kidnappings. Stalin temporarily resigned from the party over its ban on bank robberies and his link to the 1907 Tiflis bank robbery. eventually joining Lenin's Bolsheviks in 1903. Stalin". Stalin discovered the writings of Vladimir Lenin and decided to become a Marxist revolutionary. he became a full-time revolutionary and outlaw. a large raid on a bank shipment in the crowded Yeveran Square that resulted in the deaths of 40 people and the injuring of 50 people. V. After being marked by the Okhranka (the Tsar's secret police) for his activities. ransom kidnappings and extortion.[11] The information card on "I. from the files of the Tsarist secret police in Saint Petersburg. circa 1894. organizing paramilitaries. inciting strikes. By the age of twelve. he began attending church school where the Georgian children were forced to speak Russian. he was expelled in 1899 after missing his final exams. The seminary's records suggest he was unable to pay his tuition fees.[13] and then fled to Baku. Georgia. where Ekaterina died of typhus. two horse-drawn carriage accidents left his left arm permanently damaged. where he rebelled against the imperialist and religious order. and conducted protection rackets. In Baku. including the murders of many "Black Hundreds" right-wing supporters of the Tsar. Stalin organized Muslim Azeris and Persians in partisan activities. At ten.Young Stalin. he contracted smallpox.[10] The official Soviet version states that he was expelled for reading illegal literature and forming a Social Democratic study circle.

Through his new allies. All three of them were "Old Bolsheviks"²members of the Bolshevik party before the Russian Revolution of 1917. to avoid a bloodbath.[12] After the jailed Bolsheviks were freed to help defend Saint Petersburg. Stalin imposed his influence on the military.[15] Thereafter. from the Russian word for steel. pitting Lenin's Red Army against the White Army. for which Stalin was 6 . the Winter Palace had been stormed and Kerensky's Cabinet had been arrested. from the Smolny Institute. He then took a position in favor of supporting Alexander Kerensky's provisional government. Trotsky's forces engaged with those of Polish commander W adys aw Sikorski at the Battle of Warsaw. and Polish-Soviet War Main article: Joseph Stalin in the Russian Revolution.[14] Revolution. which he used as an alias and pen name in his published works. Lenin and the rest of the Central Committee coordinated the coup against the Kerensky government²the so-called October Revolution.Stalin was captured and sent to Siberia seven times. in order to stem mass desertions on the Western front. Role in the Russian Civil War. After release from one such exile. but escaped most of these exiles. He eventually adopted the name "Stalin". Lenin dispatched Stalin to the city of Tsaritsyn. Vladimir Lenin.[15] Consequently. in October 1917.[15] Stalin challenged many of the decisions of Trotsky. Stalin ousted Vyacheslav Molotov and Alexander Shlyapnikov as editors of Pravda. Stalin and Pravda supported overthrowing the provisional government. in April 1912 in Saint Petersburg. Stalin was appointed People's Commissar for Nationalities' Affairs. However.[15] Role in the Polish-Soviet War.[12] On 7 November. Stalin had deserters and renegades publicly executed as traitors. During his last exile. ordered the besieged Bolsheviks to surrender. the Bolshevik Central Committee voted in favor of an insurrection.[15] Stalin was determined to take the Polish-held city of Lviv. Stalin was elected to the Bolshevik Central Committee. Stalin created the newspaper Pravda from an existing party newspaper. Civil War. Kliment Voroshilov and Semyon Budyonny. 1917±1919 Joseph Stalin. ordered the killings of many former Tsarist officers in the Red Army and counter-revolutionaries[15][16] and burned villages in order to intimidate the peasantry into submission and discourage bandit raids on food shipments. By 8 November. Stalin was conscripted by the Russian army to fight in World War I. Stalin helped Lenin evade capture and. but Stalin refused to redirect his troops from Lviv to help. As commander of the southern front. and Mikhail Kalinin meeting in 1919. In May 1918. At this conference. after Lenin prevailed at the April 1917 Party conference. a loose alliance of anti-Bolshevik forces. Russian Civil War. Upon seizing Petrograd. the Bolsheviks moved to establish a sphere of influence in Central Europe. but was deemed unfit for service because of his damaged left arm. which focused upon the capture of Warsaw further north.[15] In May 1919. Lenin formed a five-member Politburo which included Stalin and Trotsky. This conflicted with general strategy set by Lenin and Trotsky.[12] He smuggled Lenin to Finland and assumed leadership of the Bolsheviks. Kerensky left the capital to rally the Imperial troops at the German front. Stalin. civil war broke out in Russia. the battles for both Lviv and Warsaw were lost. After Lenin participated in an attempted revolution. and Polish-Soviet War Role during the Russian Revolution of 1917 After returning to Saint Petersburg from exile. starting with what became the Polish±Soviet War. 1919±1921 After their Russian Civil War victory.

With no serious opponents left in power. Stalin. including Bukharin. he decided to give Stalin more power. and was dismissed and later executed. Lenin still considered Stalin to be a loyal ally. a critical shortfall in grain supplies prompted Stalin to push for collectivisation of agriculture and order the seizures of grain hoards from kulak farmers. and suggested that Stalin should be removed from the position of General Secretary. Rykov was fired the following year.[15][16] Bukharin and Premier Rykov attacked these policies and advocated a return to the NEP. and had him purge the NKVD of veteran Bolsheviks.[15] At the Ninth Party Conference on 22 September. like Lenin.[15] Lenin died of a heart attack on 21 January 1924. and at Yalta. Rykov. believed that the KMT bourgeoisie would defeated the western imperialists in China and complete the revolution. The Northern Expedition in China became a point of contention over foreign policy by Stalin and Trotsky. centralist policies towards Soviet Georgia.[15] During Lenin's semi-retirement. 1927±1939 Bolstering Soviet secret service and intelligence 7 .[15] Lenin dictated increasingly disparaging notes on Stalin in what would become his testament. He criticized Stalin's rude manners. Lenin had Stalin appointed as General Secretary in 1922. Again. Kamenev and Zinoviev. but Trotsky was exiled from the Soviet Union.[17][18] Rise to power Main article: Rise of Joseph Stalin Stalin played a decisive role in engineering the 1921 Red Army invasion of Georgia. Trotsky. demand that Lviv be ceded by Poland to the Soviet Union. At the end of 1927. Kamenev and Zinoviev grew increasingly isolated. With the help of Lev Kamenev. putting them on rigged show trials and then having them executed or imprisoned in Siberian gulags. who believed that all the Soviet states should stand equal. Trotsky openly criticized Stalin's behavior. In December 1934. Stalin was to compensate for the disaster of 1920. establish the Soviet takeover of Eastern Europe. Trotsky wanted the Communist party to complete an orthodox proletarian revolution and opposed the KMT. Stalin followed a practical policy. secure Lviv in the Nazi-Soviet pact. and was replaced by Vyacheslav Molotov on Stalin's recommendation. acting as his intermediary with the outside world.[15] Later in his career.[19][20] This created a rift with Lenin. Stalin forged an alliance with Kamenev and Grigory Zinoviev against Leon Trotsky. and when he got mired in squabbles with Trotsky and other politicians. Changes to Soviet society.[22][23] Stalin pushed for more rapid industrialization and central control of the economy. and that his forces were to be utilized until squeezed for all usefulness like a lemon before being discarded. He told the Chinese Communist Party to stop whining about the lower classes and follow the Kuomintang's orders. He launched a massive purge against these internal enemies. These allies prevented Lenin's Testament from being revealed to the Twelfth Party Congress in April 1923. Stalin's disputes with Lev Kamenev and Zinoviev intensified. Thereafter. contravening Lenin's New Economic Policy. Stalin funded the KMT during the expedition. execute Polish veterans of the Polish-Soviet War in the Katyn massacre. which included the Georgian Affair of 1922 and other repressions. However. Stalin ended the purges in 1938. Stalin blamed Kirov's murder on a vast conspiracy of saboteurs and Trotskyites. Kamenev and Zinoviev helped to keep Lenin's Testament from going public. Stalin returned to Moscow in August 1920. ambition and politics. following which he adopted particularly hardline. that Chiang Kai-shek had funding from the rich merchants. Among these victims were old enemies.[15] Kamenev and Zinoviev were later readmitted. forcing him into semi-retirement in Gorki.[21] Stalin countered Trotskyist critisizm by making a secret speech in which he said that Chiang's right wing Kuomintang were the only ones capable of defeating the imperialists. Yezhov was held to blame for the excesses of the Great Terror.[15] The pair quarreled and their relationship deteriorated. the NKVD. excessive power. ignoring communist ideology. the popular Sergei Kirov was murdered. where he defended himself and resigned his military commission. Chiang quickly reversed the tables in the Shanghai massacre of 1927 by massacring the Communist party in Shanghai midway in the Northern Expedition. Stalin visited him often.[17] He would ensure the death of Trotsky.blamed. but the rest of the Politburo sided with Stalin and removed Bukharin from the Politburo in November 1929. and were eventually ejected from the Central Committee and then from the Party itself.[15] This post allowed Stalin to appoint many of his allies to government positions. Stalin made the loyal Nikolai Yezhov head of the secret police. Lenin suffered a stroke in 1922.

France. Under his guiding hand. communist political propaganda actions. and he began to integrate all of these activities within the 8 . Stalin saw no difference between espionage. and the United States. Japan. Great Britain. Soviet intelligence forces began to set up intelligence networks in most of the major nations of the world. including Germany (the famous Rote Kappelle spy ring).Main article: Chronology of Soviet secret police agencies Part of the Politics series on Stalinism Concepts[show] Stalinist figures[show] Parties[show] Related topics[show] Communism Portal Politics portal v · d · e Stalin vastly increased the scope and power of the state's secret police and intelligence agencies. and state-sanctioned violence.

[25] Trotsky criticized the cult of personality built around Stalin. to transform him into a superman possessing supernatural characteristics akin to those of a god. At the same time.[27][28] Those targeted by the purge were often expelled from the party. Stalin became the focus of literature. paintings and film. poetry. asking permission to execute 346 "enemies of the CPSU and of the Soviet authorities" who conducted "counter-revolutionary." "Father of Nations. Right: The Politburo's decision is signed by Secretary Stalin Stalin. right-Trotskyite plotting and spying activities" Middle: Stalin's handwriting: " " (support).[27][29][30] 9 . Nikita Khrushchev gave a denunciation of Stalin's actions: "It is impermissible and foreign to the spirit of Marxism-Leninism to elevate one person. It reached new levels during World War II. however more severe measures ranged from banishment to the Gulag labor camps. crediting Stalin with almost god-like qualities.g. Stalin made considerable use of the Communist International movement in order to infiltrate agents and to ensure that foreign Communist parties remained pro-Soviet and pro-Stalin." "Brilliant Genius of Humanity. as head of the Politburo.. justified as an attempt to expel 'opportunists' and 'counter-revolutionary infiltrators'. The Finnish communist Arvo Tuominen records a sarcastic toast proposed by Stalin at a New Year Party in 1935 in which he said "Comrades! I want to propose a toast to our patriarch. when he gave approval to the secret police to have Leon Trotsky assassinated in Mexico." Statues of Stalin depict him at a height and build approximating Alexander III."[8] Purges and deportations Purges Main article: Great Purge Left: Beria's January 1940 letter to Stalin. according to Nikita Khrushchev. Many personality cults in history have been frequently measured and compared to his. exhibiting fawning devotion." "Gardener of Human Happiness. with Stalin's name included in the new Soviet national anthem. Numerous towns. and I hope this is the first and last speech made to that genius this evening. He accepted grandiloquent titles (e." "Great Architect of Communism. "Coryphaeus of Science. and suggesting he single-handedly won the Second World War. villages and cities were renamed after the Soviet leader (see List of places named after Stalin) and the Stalin Prize and Stalin Peace Prize were named in his honor. It is debatable as to how much Stalin relished the cult surrounding him. life and sun. architect of socialism [he rattled off all the appellations applied to him in those days] ± Josef Vissarionovich Stalin. and helped rewrite Soviet history to provide himself a more significant role in the revolution.NKVD."[26] In a 1956 speech. One of the best examples of Stalin's ability to integrate secret police and foreign espionage came in 1940." and others).[24] Cult of personality Stalin created a cult of personality in the Soviet Union around both himself and Lenin. to execution after trials held by NKVD troikas. music. liberator of nations. while photographic evidence suggests he was between 5 ft 5 in and 5 ft 6 in (165±168 cm). consolidated near-absolute power in the 1930s with a Great Purge of the party. he insisted that he be remembered for "the extraordinary modesty characteristic of truly great people.

often proceeding to interrogation. ethnic Germans. and Chairman of Sovnarkom Vyacheslav Molotov.with sentencing carried out within 24 hours.[37] The repression of so many formerly high-ranking revolutionaries and party members led Leon Trotsky to claim that a "river of blood" separated Stalin's regime from that of Lenin. Following his death. 10 . which were to be investigated for no more than ten days. A total of 350.[36] Such retouching was a common occurrence during Stalin's rule. Stalin apparently became increasingly worried about the growing popularity of Sergei Kirov. efforts were made to rewrite the history in Soviet textbooks and other propaganda materials. the history of revolution was transformed to a story about just two key characters: Lenin and Stalin. Many military leaders were convicted of treason. Mass operations of the NKVD also targeted "national contingents" (foreign ethnicities) such as Poles. etc.[39] The only three "Old Bolsheviks" (Lenin's Politburo) that remained were Stalin. others were sent to prison camps or gulags. Kamenev and Zinoviev. walking with Stalin in the top photo from the 1930s. with no prosecution. while Stalin received 1. defense attorneys or appeals. the fewest of any candidate.[40] Concurrent with the purges. was shot in 1940.000 (144.[35] The flimsiest pretexts were often enough to brand someone an "enemy of the people".157 (110."[34] Thereafter. Stalin invented a detailed scheme to implicate opposition leaders in the murder. Yezhov was edited out of the photo by Soviet censors. this eliminated the last of Stalin's opponents among the former Party leadership. where he had lived in exile since January 1937. listing prohibited anti-Soviet activities as counterrevolutionary crime was applied in the broadest manner. followed by a sentence to be executed "quickly. The Russian word troika gained a new meaning: a quick. torture and deportation. if not death. Article 58 of the legal code.000 Poles) were executed. which may have been orchestrated by Stalin. Mikhail Kalinin.[34] Nikolai Yezhov.000 of them Poles) were arrested and 247. and a large scale purging of Red Army officers followed. Kirov received only three negative votes. including Trotsky.[38] In August 1940.[33] Stalin passed a new law on "terrorist organizations and terrorist acts".108 negative votes. Gradually. simplified trial by a committee of three subordinated to NKVD -NKVD troika. Notable people executed by NKVD were removed from the texts and photographs as though they never existed. but the procedures were replicated throughout the country. Koreans. At the 1934 Party Congress where the vote for the new Central Committee was held.[31] After the assassination of Kirov. starting the cycle of public persecution and abuse.In the 1930s. several trials known as the Moscow Trials were held. Trotsky was assassinated in Mexico.[32] The investigations and trials expanded.[16] Many Americans who had emigrated to the Soviet Union during the worst of the Great Depression were executed.

Karachays."[51] In addition. Robert Conquest suggests that the probable figure for executions during the years of the Great Purge is not 681.692. Collectivization Main article: Collectivization in the Soviet Union Stalin's regime moved to force collectivization of agriculture. Kalmyks.' Mongolian ruler Khorloogiin Choibalsan closely followed Stalin's lead.[4] Those who survived were forced to work without pay in the labour camps. to bring the peasantry under more direct political control.g.[50] At the time. Ignace Poretsky. peasants. although it was not until 1991 that the Tatars.[55] During Stalin's rule the following ethnic groups were deported completely or partially: Ukrainians. often by cattle truck.[56] In February 1956. homemakers. priests. Stalin reportedly muttered to no one in particular: "Who's going to remember all this riff-raff in ten or twenty years time? No one. Bulgarians.000 people. Rudolf Klement. Stalin conducted a series of deportations on a huge scale which profoundly affected the ethnic map of the Soviet Union. 11 . Poles. more than 14 million people passed through the Gulag from 1929 to 1953. Volga Germans.3 million[4] were deported to Siberia and the Central Asian republics. and hundreds of thousands of deportees died en route.[41] with the great mass of victims being "ordinary" Soviet citizens: workers. Finns. Large numbers of Kulaks. historians now estimate that nearly 700.074 in 1937 and 328. The memory of the deportations played a major part in the separatist movements in the Baltic States. Victims of such plots included Yevhen Konovalets. even today. pensioners. Chechens. and alienation from control of the land and its produce. beggars. Lithuanians. regardless of their nationality. Estonians.[42][43] Some experts believe the evidence released from the Soviet archives is understated. Crimean Tatars. Meskhetian Turks. Many of the deportees died of hunger or other conditions. Who remembers the names now of the boyars Ivan the Terrible got rid of? No one. Nikita Khrushchev condemned the deportations as a violation of Leninism.[53] Population transfer Main article: Population transfer in the Soviet Union Shortly before. rightly or wrongly.612 in 1938) were executed in the course of the terror. Greeks. with a further 7 to 8 million being deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union (including the entire nationalities in several cases). soldiers. Tatarstan and Chechnya. were resettled to Siberia and Central Asia.In light of revelations from the Soviet archives. Ingush. but some two and a half times as high. and Jews. Leon Trotsky and the POUM leadership in Catalonia (e. Latvians. Romanians. established a Mongolian version of the NKVD troika and unleashed a bloody purge in which tens of thousands were executed as 'Japanese Spies. The deportations had a profound effect on the peoples of the Soviet Union. while reviewing one such list. Andreu Nin).[44][45][46][47][48] For example.[52] During the 1930's and 40's the Soviet leadership sent NKVD squads into other countries to murder defectors and other opponents of the Soviet regime. teachers. resistance to Soviet rule and collaboration with the invading Germans were cited as the official reasons for the deportations. By some estimates up to 43% of the resettled population died of diseases and malnutrition. Balkars. Collectivization meant drastic social changes. Alexander Kutepov. during and immediately after World War II. Stalin dispatched a contingent of NKVD operatives to Mongolia. on a scale not seen since the abolition of serfdom in 1861. He believes that the KGB was covering its tracks by falsifying the dates and causes of death of rehabilitated victims. and reversed most of them. Meskhetians and Volga Germans were allowed to return en masse to their homelands. Individual circumstances of those spending time in German-occupied territories were not examined. It is estimated that between 1941 and 1949 nearly 3. ballerinas. and about 90% of these are confirmed to have been shot. musicians.[54] Separatism. and to make tax collection more efficient. the entire population of five of the small highland peoples and the Crimean Tatars ± more than a million people in total ± were deported without notice or any opportunity to take their possessions. This was intended to increase agricultural output from large-scale mechanized farms.000 people (353. Evgeny Miller. Koreans. and it faced violent reaction among the peasantry. incomplete or unreliable.[55] After the brief Nazi occupation of the Caucasus. Collectivization also meant a drastic drop in living standards for many peasants.[49] Stalin personally signed 357 proscription lists in 1937 and 1938 which condemned to execution some 40. According to official Soviet estimates. Deportations took place in appalling conditions.

Alec Nove claims that the Soviet Union industrialized in spite of. which is favored by some specialists in the field of genocide studies.[60] The worst crop failure of late tsarist Russia." but not to annihilate the Ukrainian peasantry as a whole. the court "dropped criminal proceedings over the suspects' deaths".2 million[69][70] to 4 to 5 million. Those officially defined as "kulaks. These peasants were about 60% of the population). and strictly enforced draconian new collective-farm theft laws in response. "Dizzy with success"[58] and "Reply to Collective Farm Comrades"[59]²is a prime example of his capacity for tactical political withdrawal followed by intensification of initial strategies.[52] The two-stage progress of collectivization²interrupted for a year by Stalin's famous editorials. but economist Michael Ellman argues that it could have been prevented if the government did not mismanage its grain reserves.[62] According to Alan Bullock." and later "ex-kulaks" were to be shot. while continuing to export grain. "the total Soviet grain crop was no worse than that of 1931 . the use of force to prevent starving peasants from fleeing the worst affected areas.[61] Most modern scholars agree that the famine was caused by the policies of the government of the Soviet Union under Stalin. with the successful harvest of 1933 ending the famine. On 28 November 2006. it is the worst in terms of mass casualties. The famine cost an estimated 1 to 1." "idlers. had caused 375. that cost the lives of as many as five million Ukrainian peasants.g.[74][75] Industrialization 12 . He also claims that.5 million lives as well as secondary population losses due to reduced fertility." and "thieves. placed into Gulag labor camps. He asserts that Soviet policies greatly exacerbated the famine's death toll (such as the use of torture and execution to extract grain (see Law of Spikelets). Famines Famine affected other parts of the USSR. Stalin blamed this unanticipated failure on kulaks (rich peasants). (However. he was convinced that the Ukrainian peasants had hidden grain away.[63][64] Other historians hold it was largely the insufficient harvests of 1931 and 1932 caused by a variety of natural disasters that resulted in famine.[50] Current estimates on the total number of casualties within Soviet Ukraine range mostly from 2. This is disputed by other historians. the "kulaks" that Stalin targeted included the slightly better-off peasants who took the brunt of violence from the OGPU and the Komsomol. it was not a crop failure but the excessive demands of the state. twenty six countries have officially recognized the Holodomor as such. and the refusal to import grain or secure international humanitarian aid to alleviate the suffering) and that Stalin intended to use the starvation as a cheap and efficient means (as opposed to deportations and shootings) to kill off those deemed to be "counterrevolutionaries. depending on the charge. ruthlessly enforced.In the first years of collectivization it was estimated that industrial production would rise by 200% and agricultural production by 50%.[57] but these estimates were not met.000 deaths. or deported to remote areas of the country. according to a more relaxed definition. implying it was engineered by the Soviet government. rather than by natural reasons. while this is not the only Soviet genocide (e.[71][72][73] A Ukrainian court found Josef Stalin and other leaders of the former Soviet Union guilty of genocide by "organizing mass famine in Ukraine in 1932±1933" in January 2010.. The Polish operation of the NKVD).8 million tonnes of it being exported during the height of the starvation²enough to feed 5 million people for one year. in 1892.201 people were executed during 1930.[67] While historians continue to disagree whether the policies that led to Holodomor fall under the legal definition of genocide. The death toll from famine in the Soviet Union at this time is estimated at between five and ten million people.000 to 400.[65] Soviet and other historians have argued that the rapid collectivization of agriculture was necessary in order to achieve an equally rapid industrialization of the Soviet Union and ultimately win World War II. its collectivized agriculture. the year of Dekulakization.[66] Ukrainian famine Main article: Holodomor The Holodomor famine is sometimes referred to as the Ukrainian Genocide. the Ukrainian Parliament approved a bill. rather than because of. The USSR also experienced a major famine in 1947 as a result of war damage and severe droughts. However. according to which the Soviet-era forced famine was an act of genocide against the Ukrainian people. specifically targeting the Ukrainian people to destroy the Ukrainian nation as a political factor and social entity." "kulak helpers. kulaks proper made up only 4% of the peasant population. with 1. who resisted collectivization.. Archival data indicates that 20.[68] Professor Michael Ellman concludes that Ukrainians were victims of genocide in 1932±33." Stalin refused to release large grain reserves that could have alleviated the famine.

[16] improving lives for women and families. owing to the free Soviet education system and state-financed research. and from workers training schemes.g. It is not disputed. Industrial output in 1922 was 13% of that in 1914. Stalin's government financed industrialization both by restraining consumption on the part of ordinary Soviet citizens to ensure that capital went for re-investment into industry. Under Stalin's direction.[77] Despite its costs. With seed capital unavailable because of international reaction to Communist policies. equal education and women had equal rights in employment. the industrialization effort allowed the Soviet Union to fight. Stakhanovites. The most notable foreign contractor was Albert Kahn's firm that designed and built 521 factories between 1930 and 1932. While it is generally agreed that the Soviet Union achieved significant levels of economic growth under Stalin. In 1933 workers' real earnings sank to about one-tenth of the 1926 level. As a rule. Some areas of physics were criticized. In spite of early breakdowns and failures.[83] Engineers were sent abroad to learn industrial technology. Workers who exceeded their quotas. 13 . to design new factories. effectively creating the first generation free from the fear of typhus. instruct workers and improve manufacturing processes. However. however.[76] According to Robert Lewis the Five-Year Plan substantially helped to modernize the previously backward Soviet economy.[78][79] However. which significantly increased the lifespan and quality of life of the typical Soviet citizen.[citation needed] Common and political prisoners in labor camps were forced to do unpaid labor. later a Nobel Prize winner. and hundreds of foreign engineers were brought to Russia on contract. although initially planned. These called for a highly ambitious program of state-guided crash industrialization and the collectivization of agriculture."[81] Scientific research was hindered by the fact that many scientists were sent to labor camps (including Lev Landau. received many incentives for their work. Russian and Western estimates gave lower figures of 5. that these gains were accomplished at the cost of millions of lives. World War II. The generation born during Stalin's rule was the first near-universally literate generation. Stalinist development also contributed to advances in health care. Millions benefitted from mass literacy campaigns in the 1930s. little international trade. which allowed a degree of market flexibility within the context of socialism. Some innovations were based on indigenous technical developments. and the scale and efficiency of existing production greatly increased. A recovery followed under the New Economic Policy. and malaria. cholera.8% and even 2. There was significant progress in "ideologically safe" domains.[82] Soviet women under Stalin were the first generation of women able to give birth in the safety of a hospital. increasing life spans by decades. The Soviet Union used numerous foreign experts. and virtually no modern infrastructure. Social services Main article: Soviet democracy Under the Soviet government people benefited from some social liberalization. with access to prenatal care. Indeed.[82] Transport links were improved and many new railways built. this was replaced by a system of centrally ordained "Five-Year Plans" in the late 1920s. the first two Five-Year Plans achieved rapid industrialization from a very low economic base.9%. who spent a year in prison in 1938±1939) or executed (e. Lev Shubnikov. others on imported foreign technology.[80] while Stalin personally and directly contributed to study in Linguistics. Science Main articles: Science and technology in the Soviet Union and Suppressed research in the Soviet Union Science in the Soviet Union was under strict ideological control by Stalin and his government. Official Soviet estimates stated the annual rate of growth at 13. and ultimately win.[16] Stalin's policies granted the Soviet people universal access to healthcare and education. along with art and literature. "Marxism and Linguistic Questions. in several cases the consequences of ideological pressure were dramatic²the most notable examples being the "bourgeois pseudosciences" genetics and cybernetics.[82] Education was also an example of an increase in standard of living after economic development. the precise rate of growth is disputed.9%.[82] The occurrences of these diseases dropped to record low numbers. and by ruthless extraction of wealth from the kulaks. factories were supplied with imported equipment. and communists and Komsomol members were frequently "mobilized" for various construction projects. New products were developed. one estimate is that Soviet growth became temporarily much higher after Stalin's death.The Russian Civil War and wartime communism had a devastating effect on the country's economy. supervise construction. shot in 1937). Girls were given an adequate.[83] they could afford to buy the goods that were mass-produced by the rapidly expanding Soviet economy. the principle work of which is a small essay.

Just days before Stalin's death. Thousands of parishes were reactivated until a further round of suppression in Khrushchev's time. shared similarities with Sergei Eisenstein's film. Islam. his government promoted atheism through special atheistic education in schools.[85] Stalin's role in the fortunes of the Russian Orthodox Church is complex. Famous figures were repressed. The Russian Orthodox Church Synod's recognition of the Soviet government and of Stalin personally led to a schism with the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia. Osip Mandelstam). monks and nuns were persecuted and killed. the first after the revolution. Small amounts of remnant of pre-revolutionary Russia survived[clarification needed]. active parishes numbered in the low hundreds (down from 54. Indeed this might be the only means in which it could be built in a hostile environment. Stalin's favorite novel Pharaoh. after the NKVD had recruited the new metropolitan. sacred monuments. Nikolai Gumilev. He held the Russians up as the elder brothers of the non-Russian minorities. the antireligious work of public institutions (especially the Society of the Godless). Buddhism. updated neoclassicism on a very large scale. Ivan the Terrible. In architecture. abstract art.000 in 1917). Uniats.000 were shot during the purges of 1937±1938. and tens of thousands of priests. Theorist Main article: Stalinism Stalin and his supporters have highlighted the notion that socialism can be built and consolidated by a country as underdeveloped as Russia during the 1920s. Stalin became a Russian nationalist and significantly promoted Russian history. especially for women. Anna Akhmatova. and Russian national heroes. language. has been the subject of discussion. Continuous persecution in the 1930s resulted in its nearextinction as a public institution: by 1939. Vsevolod Meyerhold. a Stalinist Empire Style (basically.[83] Culture Main article: Socialist Realism Although born in Georgia. synagogues. arguing that the 14 . Previously fashionable "revolutionary" expressionism. and also a terror campaign against religious believers. the Church was allowed a revival as a patriotic organization. etc. produced under Stalin's tutelage. By the late 1930s it had become dangerous to be publicly associated with religion. and avant-garde experimentation were discouraged or denounced as "formalism". though the politics of Korenizatsiya and forced development were possibly beneficial to the integration of later generations of indigenous cultures. as a secret agent. certain religious sects were outlawed and persecuted.[87] In 1933. tortured and executed. and hundreds of churches.The increase in demand due to industrialization and the decrease in the workforce due to World War II and repressions generated a major expansion in job opportunities for the survivors. drama and literature. temples. particularly during the 1930s and 1940s. sculpture. discriminatory laws. exemplified by the Seven Sisters of Moscow) replaced the constructivism of the 1920s.[84] During Stalin's reign the official and long-lived style of Socialist Realism was established for painting. Lev Gumilev) and "non-conformists" (for example. both "revolutionaries" (among them Isaac Babel. Baptists. To this end. underwent ordeals similar to the Orthodox churches in other parts: thousands of monks were persecuted. Stalin put forward the theory of aggravation of the class struggle along with the development of socialism. Over 100. Stalin's rule had a largely disruptive effect on indigenous cultures within the Soviet Union. The degree of Stalin's personal involvement in general. and in specific instances. Religion Main article: Religion in the Soviet Union Stalin followed the position adopted by Lenin that religion was an opiate that needed to be removed in order to construct the ideal communist society. monasteries and other religious buildings were razed. Judaism. many churches had been leveled.[86] During World War II. mosques. music. and many persecuted. Many religions popular in the ethnic regions of the Soviet Union including the Roman Catholic Church. massive amounts of anti-religious propaganda.

gulags. Stalin distinguished the stratum of intelligentsia. such as the those of ethnic deportations or of German population transfers in the aftermath of WWII.7 million out of 7. 5 million.[109] Others maintain that their earlier higher victim total estimates are correct. political repression was necessary." Calculating the number of victims Researchers before the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union attempting to count the number of people killed under Stalin's regime produced estimates ranging from 3 to 60 million.5 million. makes the following estimates: executions. deportations.000 prisoners under Stalin for either political or criminal offenses.[89] The official Soviet archival records do not contain comprehensive figures for some categories of victims. according to Nicolas Werth. 1 million ± a total of about 9 million victims of repression. deportations and other causes. as historians differ as to whether the famine was a deliberate part of the campaign of repression against kulaks and others. gulags.[16][97] Historians working after the Soviet Union's dissolution have estimated victim totals ranging from approximately 4 million to nearly 10 million. The concept of "non-antagonistic classes" was entirely new to Leninist theory.7 million deaths in the Gulags and some 390. has revised his original estimate of up to 30 million victims down to 20 million. citing much higher victim totals from executions. therefore. would yield a total of between 15 and 17 million victims. [90] By 1948. 1939±1945 Main article: Joseph Stalin in World War II 15 . the official statistics on Gulag mortality exclude deaths of prisoners taking place shortly after their release but which resulted from the harsh treatment in the camps. not including those who died in famines. In addition to these.[98] Russian writer Vadim Erlikman.[107] Adding 6±8 million famine victims to Erlikman's estimates above. a minimum of around 10 million deaths²6 million from famine and 4 million from other causes²are attributable to the regime. for example. meanwhile.[64][104][105] Accordingly.5 million deported.[94] Some historians also believe the official archival figures of the categories that were recorded by Soviet authorities to be unreliable and incomplete. Conquest states that while exact numbers may never be known with complete certainty. These corresponded to the two different forms of property over the means of production that existed in the Soviet Union: state property (for the workers) and collective property (for the peasantry). if famine victims are included. the various terror campaigns launched by the Soviet government claimed no fewer than 15 million lives." "Marxism and the National Question".[93] Also. 1. and the mass shootings of Red Army personnel (deserters and so-called deserters) in 1941. for example. The Soviets executed 158.[92] and the "blocking detachments" of the NKVD shot thousands more. around 1. and POWs and German civilians.000 soldiers for desertion during the war. Among Stalin's contributions to Communist theoretical literature were "Dialectical and Historical Materialism.[108] In his most recent edition of The Great Terror (2007).[50][100][101][102][103] or simply an unintended consequence of the struggle over forced collectivization.000 people deported from the Caucasus between 1943 and 1944 had reached 25%.[95][96] In addition to failures regarding comprehensive recordings. other killings in the newly occupied areas. the more acute forms of struggle will be used by the doomed remnants of exploiter classes in their last desperate efforts ± and that. the mortality rate of the 600. "Trotskyism or Leninism".000 deaths during kulak forced resettlement ± for a total of about 3 million officially recorded victims in these categories. Stalin announced that the society of the Soviet Union consisted of two non-antagonistic classes: workers and kolkhoz peasantry.[106] with a number of recent historians suggesting a likely total of around 20 million. Researcher Robert Conquest.[99] Some have also included deaths of 6 to 8 million people in the 1932±1933 famine as victims of Stalin's repression. and "The Principles of Leninism.[110][111] World War II. This categorization is controversial however.[91] Other notable exclusions from NKVD data on repression deaths include the Katyn massacre. Robert Gellately and Simon Sebag-Montefiore argue the many suspects beaten and tortured to death while in "investigative custody" were likely not to have been counted amongst the executed. evidence from the Soviet archives also became available. as one additional example. In 1936. containing official records of the execution of approximately 800. 1.further the country would move forward.[88] After the Soviet Union dissolved.

the German invasion of its agreed upon portion of Poland started World War II. Estonia.[122] Officially a non-aggression treaty only.[124] with Lithuania added in a second secret protocol in September 1939. Please improve the article by rearranging citations so they interrupt the text less frequently. divided the whole of eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence. Finland and part of Romania were recognized as parts of the Soviet sphere of influence. followed by co-ordination with German forces in Poland.[127][128] Eleven days later. while ceding most of Lithuania to the Soviet Union. Latvia.[112][113][114][115][116][117][118][119][120][121] on 23 August 1939. After a failed attempt to sign an anti-German military alliance with France and Britain[112][113][114] and talks with Germany regarding a potential political deal. allotting Germany a larger part of Poland. the Soviet Union entered into a nonaggression pact with Nazi Germany. the secret protocol of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was modified.[125] Stalin and Ribbentrop traded toasts on the night of the signing discussing past hostilities between the countries.[122] On 17 September the Red Army invaded eastern Poland and occupied the Polish territory assigned to it by the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.[123][124] The eastern part of Poland. an appended secret protocol. negotiated by Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop.Ribbentrop and Stalin at the signing of the Pact Pact with Hitler The frequent references in this article or section reduce readability.[129] Planned and actual territorial changes in Eastern and Central Europe 1939±1940 (click to enlarge) 16 . also reached on 23 August 1939.[126] Implementing the division of Eastern Europe and other invasions On 1 September 1939.

[16] Accounts by Nikita Khrushchev and Anastas Mikoyan claim that. pushing German troops back 40±50 miles from Moscow.[150] The British agreed to assistance but refused to agree upon the territorial gains.3 million casualties[148] and German forces had advanced 1. Molotov and Ribbentrop. Stalin was confident of an eventual Allied victory over Germany. 1941 After the Tripartite Pact was signed by Axis Powers Germany. the Soviet Union would gain the territories in countries that it had taken pursuant to its division of Eastern Europe with Hitler in the Molotov±Ribbentrop Pact.[140] Although Stalin had received warnings from spies and his generals. some documentary evidence of orders given by Stalin contradicts these accounts.[135] But in annexing northern Bukovina. the Soviets launched a counteroffensive. Stalin directed the Soviet annexation of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina. by June 1940. Stalin told British diplomats that he wanted two agreements: (1) a mutual assistance/aid pact and (2) a recognition that. in October 1940. to the more long-term goal of securing the southern Soviet Union to protect oil fields vital to a long-term German war effort. proclaiming this formerly Romanian territory part of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic. Hitler's troops had advanced to within 20 miles of the Kremlin in Moscow. leading some historians to speculate that Khruschev's account is inaccurate. the Soviet military had suffered 4. Stalin responded with a proposed written agreement for Axis entry which was never answered by Germany.[135][137] On 25 November. after the invasion. on 13 April 1941."[136] After a conference in Berlin between Hitler. Hitler broke the pact by implementing Operation Barbarossa. Germany presented the Molotov with a proposed written agreement for Axis entry.[147] By the end of 1941.[141] In the initial hours after the German attack commenced.After Stalin declared that he was going to "solve the Baltic problem". Stalin had gone beyond the agreed limits of the secret protocol.[134] In June 1940. the Wehrmacht's first significant defeat of the war.000 citizens of these states. Stalin took actions to bolster the Soviet military.[149] Soviets stop the Germans While the Germans pressed forward.[133] After this campaign.[138] Shortly thereafter. wanting to ensure that the German attack was sanctioned by Hitler.[138] In an effort to demonstrate peaceful intentions toward Germany. Hitler issued a secret directive on the eventual attempts to invade the Soviet Union.[150] By December. Stalin oversaw the signing of a neutrality pact with Axis power Japan. In September 1941. Latvia and Estonia were merged into the Soviet Union. Stalin considered this to be a flanking campaign in efforts to take Moscow. after repressions and actions therein brought about the deaths of over 160.[146] However.690 kilometers). which Stalin accepted months later as the military situation deteriorated somewhat in mid-1942.[153] During the 17 . modify training and improve propaganda efforts in the Soviet military.[129][130][131][132] After facing stiff resistance in an invasion of Finland.[139] Hitler breaks the pact During the early morning of 22 June 1941. with Stalin writing about entering an agreement regarding a "permanent basis" for their "mutual interests. rather than the unauthorized action of a rogue general. Stalin traded letters with Ribbentrop.[152] While Red Army generals saw evidence that Hitler would shift efforts south.[141][142][143][144][145] he felt that Germany would not attack the Soviet Union until Germany had defeated Britain. Lithuania. Japan and Italy. Hitler shifted his primary goal from an immediate victory in the East.[151] On 5 December. Stalin hesitated. the German invasion of Soviet held territories and the Soviet Union that began the war on the Eastern Front.[151] In 1942.[133] an interim peace was entered. after the war.050 miles (1. Stalin retreated to his dacha in despair for several days and did not participate in leadership decisions.[135] Stalin and Molotov on the signing of the Soviet±Japanese Neutrality Pact with the Empire of Japan. granting the Soviet Union the eastern region of Karelia (10% of Finnish territory).

S.[163] Final victory By April 1945. missing or captured (official figures 11. Roosevelt.[155] The Big Three: Stalin. Despite the Soviets' possession of Hitler's remains. Nazi Germany faced its last days with 1.9 million German soldiers in the East fighting 6.285 million). U.[171] One of every four Soviet citizens was killed or wounded in that war. after the war. Stalin was at times referred to as one of the most influential men in human history.[174][175] Nobel Prize in Peace nominations 18 .[158] In November 1943. the Soviet civilian death toll probably reached 20 million.[171] Although figures vary.4 million Red Army soldiers while 1 million German soldiers in the West battled 4 million Western Allied soldiers. President Franklin D.[160] Stalin insisted that. the Soviet Union should incorporate the portions of Poland it occupied pursuant to the MolotovRibbentrop Pact with Germany. Soviet push to Germany The Soviets repulsed the important German strategic southern campaign and. no plans were made by the Western Allies to seize the city by a ground operation. although 2.[172] Some 1. along with a separate invasion of southern France. Germany attempted an encirclement attack at Kursk. Stalin did not believe that his old nemesis was actually dead.7 million killed. the Soviet Union made significant advances across Eastern Europe toward Germany. Stalin met with Churchill and Roosevelt in Tehran. which had been burned at Hitler's directive.[162] including Operation Bagration.[156] Kursk marked the beginning of a period where Stalin became more willing to listen to the advice of his generals.[161] In 1944. Time Magazine named Stalin Time Person of the Year twice[154] and he was also one of the nominees for Time Person of the Century title. the Soviets occupied half of the territory taken by the Germans from 1941±1942. November 1943.war.710 towns and 70. a massive offensive in Belorussia against the German Army Group Centre. after Stalin successfully lobbied for Eastern Germany to fall within the Soviet "sphere of influence" at Yalta.[157] Soviet military industrial output also had increased substantially from late 1941 to early 1943 after Stalin had moved factories well to the East of the front.5 million Soviet casualties were suffered in that effort.000 villages were destroyed.[167] German forces surrendered a few days later. after which Soviet forces found their remains.[157] By the end of 1943. which Churchill tabled.[170] Soviet military casualties totaled approximately 35 million (official figures 28.[164] While initial talk existed of a race to Berlin by the Allies.[159] The parties later agreed that Britain and America would launch a cross-channel invasion of France in May 1944.[165][166] On 30 April. safe from German invasion and air attack. a belief that remained for years after the war. and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill at the Tehran Conference. it permitted the Soviets to take the offensive for most of the rest of the war on the Eastern Front.[173] Thereafter.[168][169] Fending off the German invasion and pressing to victory in the East required a tremendous sacrifice by the Soviet Union. which was successfully repulsed by the Soviets.2 million) with approximately 14. Hitler and Eva Braun committed suicide.

427. Stalin also directed employing a scorched earth policy of destroying the infrastructure and food supplies of areas before the Germans could seize them.[182][192] The Soviets did not admit responsibility until 1990.[177] Questionable tactics Part of 5 March 1940 memo from Lavrentiy Beria to Stalin proposing execution of Polish officers After taking around 300. such as Germany. villages and farms as being open to pillaging and looting. Romania and Hungary. such as Order No. The person actually nominated was Cordell Hull.910 soldiers were assigned to penal battalions.[195] Thereafter.[182][183] in what became known as the Katyn massacre.[196] From 1942 to 1945. However. he did not explicitly nominate any of them.[198] while others were deported east.[184][182][185] While Stalin personally told a Polish general they'd "lost track" of the officers in Manchuria.[201][202] In former Axis countries.In 1945. Soviet troops reportedly raped from tens of thousands to two million women. Red Army officers generally viewed cities. he was officially nominated for the Nobel Prize in Peace by Wladislav Rieger. which were sent to the most dangerous sections of the front lines.[196] In June 1941.[203] In the Soviet Occupation Zone of post-war Germany.[147] He also ordered the NKVD to murder around one hundred thousand political prisoners in areas where the Wermacht approached. or Nazi concentration camps such as Sachsenhausen (special 19 .[204] These "special camps" were former Stalags. and that partisans were to be set up in evacuated areas.[176] In 1948. pursuant to a note to Stalin from Lavrenty Beria.[178][179][179][180][181] 25.000 Polish prisoners in 1939 and early 1940.[200] and 50.700 Polish POWs were executed on 5 March 1940. weeks after the German invasion began. Stalin also conducted a purge of several military commanders that were shot for "cowardice" without a trial. requiring superiors to shoot deserters on the spot[194] while their family members were subject to arrest. 270.[197] The order also directed "blocking detachments" to shoot fleeing panicked troops at the rear. prisons. directing that commanders permitting retreat without permission to be subject to a military tribunal.[95][199] After the capture of Berlin.[186][187][188][188] Polish railroad workers found the mass grave after the 1941 Nazi invasion.000 during and after the occupation of Budapest.[190][191] with the Soviets eventually claiming that Germany committed the executions when the Soviet Union retook Poland in 1944. the Soviets set up ten NKVD-run "special camps" subordinate to the gulag.[195] Stalin issued Order No. 227.[193] Stalin introduced controversial military orders.[196] and soldiers guilty of disciplinary procedures to be forced into "penal battalions".[189] The massacre became a source of political controversy. he was mentioned by Halvdan Koht among seven candidates that were qualified for the Nobel Prize in Peace.

which drew protest from the West.867 were transferred to the authority of the NKVD for punishment.[212] The fraudulent Polish elections. Roosevelt (and later Harry Truman) to plan military strategy and. later. President Franklin D. Hungarians. Stalin promised a re-organization of the current Communist puppet government on a broader democratic basis in Poland.[208] 608.013 were civilians and 1.468 remained in the transit camps as reception personnel until the repatriation process was finally wound up in the early 1950s. held in January 1947 resulted in Poland's official transformation to undemocratic communist state by 1949. though some preliminary postwar reorganization discussion also occurred. some 580.000 never returned.[207] Soviet POWs and forced laborers who survived German captivity were sent to special "transit" or "filtration" camps to determine which were potential traitors. "65. 2. In 1944. including Germans. In 1943. the Red Army occupied much of Eastern Europe during these conferences and the discussions shifted to a more intense focus on the reorganization of postwar Europe.[211] After resistance by Churchill and Roosevelt. Very early conferences."[213] One month after Yalta.[211] Stalin also stated that the Polish government-in-exile demands for self-rule were not negotiable.[212] The parties at Yalta further agreed that the countries of liberated Europe and former Axis satellites would be allowed to "create democratic institutions of their own choice". Beginning in late 1944. which meant a transfer to the Gulag system. U.660. Stalin met with Churchill and Roosevelt in the Tehran Conference."[213] After the re-organization of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland. Stalin demanded a Soviet sphere of political influence in Eastern Europe.539. such as that with British diplomats in Moscow in 1941 and with Churchill and American diplomats in Moscow in 1942. Japanese. pursuant to "the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live. for alleged "crimes" and "diversions". of an estimated four million POWs taken by the Soviets.[208] Of the approximately 4 million to be repatriated 2.475 were former POWs.[208] Allied conferences on post-war Europe The Big Three: British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. the parties agreed that the new party shall "be pledged to the holding of free and unfettered elections as soon as possible on the basis of universal suffrage and secret ballot."[206] According to recent figures. February 1945.[211] Stalin eventually was convinced by Churchill and Roosevelt not to dismember Germany.[208][209][210] 89. focused mostly upon war planning and supply.S.906 were sent home and 801. at the conference at Yalta. to discuss Europe's postwar reorganization.[208] 272. and wanted the pro-Soviet Polish government installed. such that the Soviet Union would keep the territory of eastern Poland they had already taken by invasion with German consent in 1939. presumably victims of privation or the Gulags.095 were enrolled in the work battalions of the defense ministry."[213] The parties also agreed to help those countries form interim governments "pledged to the earliest possible establishment through free elections" and "facilitate where necessary the holding of such number 7) and Buchenwald (special camp number 2). Roosevelt and Stalin at the Yalta Conference.[211] He stated the new government's primary task would be to prepare elections.000 people died in those Soviet-run camps or in transportation to them. In February 1945. Stalin met in several conferences with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (and later Clement Attlee) and/or American President Franklin D. Stalin met with Churchill in the Moscow Conference. the Soviet NKVD arrested 16 Polish leaders wishing to participate in provisional government negotiations.152 were reconscripted into the armed forces. Romanians and others. 20 .[205] According to German government estimates.427.[208] Of the total.

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. if I had to pick a team for going into a conference room. At the Potsdam Conference from July to August 1945.S. instead of withdrawing Soviet forces from Eastern European countries.[215] By July 1945. and a clause was added permitting this to occur with some limitations. Czechoslovakia. and refugees were fleeing out of these countries fearing a Communist take-over. he was seldom even irritated. the British Foreign Secretary noted: "Marshal Stalin as a negotiator was the toughest proposition of all. Stalin pushed for "war booty". Stalin proved to be a formidable negotiator. who had already installed communist governments in the central European countries under his influence. He never stormed. Poland. He never wasted a word. The western allies. Indeed. Stalin would be my first choice. after something like thirty years' experience of international conferences of one kind and another. Stalin had not moved those forces. President Harry S. which would permit the Soviet Union to directly seize property from conquered nations without quantitative or qualitative limitation. At the beginning of the conference. and especially Churchill. 21 . U. Truman and Premiere Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference.[215] In addition to reparations.[217][218] The countries under Soviet control in Eastern and Central Europe were sometimes called the "Eastern bloc" or "Soviet Bloc". which worried Truman and Churchill who thought that Germany would become a financial burden for Western powers. were suspicious of the motives of Stalin. his first appearances on the world stage."[216] Post-war era. Stalin's troops effectively controlled the Baltic States. Of course the man was ruthless and of course he knew his purpose. July 1945. Churchill referred to the region as being behind an "Iron Curtain" of control from Moscow. Stalin repeated previous promises to Churchill that he would refrain from a "Sovietization" of Eastern Europe. Bulgaria and Romania. though Germany had surrendered months earlier. 1945±1953 The Iron Curtain and the Eastern Bloc After Soviet forces remained in Eastern and Central European countries. Anthony Eden. In these conferences. Hungary.[214] Stalin pushed for reparations from Germany without regard to the base minimum supply for German citizens' survival. with the beginnings of communist puppet regimes in those countries.

after citizens strongly rejected communist candidates in an election. when the Soviets installed a communist government. The blockade failed due to the unexpected massive aerial resupply campaign carried out by the Western powers known as the Berlin Airlift. took full control of domestic politics.[219] Property and industry were nationalized. imprisonment. increasingly. the major task of the ruling communist party in Germany was to channel Soviet orders down to both the administrative apparatus and the other bloc parties pretending that these were initiatives of its own. Rákosi employed "salami tactics". cut off from their traditional markets and suppliers in Western Europe. slicing up these enemies like pieces of salami. including Kimon Georgiev. Czechoslovakia. Hungary. Mátyás Rákosi. Stalin ordered these communist-dominated governments to pull out of the Paris Conference on the European Recovery Programme.[221][222][223] Following the forged referendum. and was dubbed the "bald murderer" for establishing one of the harshest dictatorships in Europe.[224] In Hungary.[230] The Soviet military commander in Sofia assumed supreme authority. the Soviet Union. the portion of Berlin not under Soviet control. Stalin conceded defeat and ended the blockade.[213] after an election failure in "3 times YES" elections.[230] In 1949. and Romania founded the Comecon in accordance with Stalin's desire to enforce Soviet domination of the lesser states of Central Europe and to mollify some states that had expressed interest in the Marshall Plan. and Poland had remained interested in Marshall aid despite the requirements for a convertible currency and market economies. In 1949. with a new constitution which enshrined socialism and gave the Soviet-controlled Socialist Unity Party ("SED") control. employed Stalinist political and economic programs. in Bulgaria.[227] to battle the initial postwar political majority ready to establish a democracy. who described himself as "Stalin's best Hungarian disciple"[225] and "Stalin's best pupil".[232] 22 . torture and even death.[228] During World War II. and the communists whom he instructed.[232] Czechoslovakia. the Polish economy started to become nationalized.[228] Rákosi.000 Hungarian officials and intellectuals were purged from 1948 to 1956. This has been described as "the moment of truth" in the post-World War II division of Europe.[228][229] Approximately 350. in June 1948. While Stalin had promised at the Yalta Conference that free elections would be held in Poland. Poland. the Red Army crossed the border and created the conditions for a communist coup d'état on the following night. the Soviet Union blockaded West Berlin. Hungary. In July 1947.[219] with deviations potentially leading to reprimands.[220] vote rigging was employed to win a majority in the carefully controlled poll. Bulgaria. In Berlin.The Eastern Bloc until 1989 In Soviet-controlled East Germany. cutting off all supply of food and other items.[226] took power.[231] and which were now.[219] The German Democratic Republic was declared on 7 October 1949.

Sino-Soviet Relations Stalin and Mao Zedong on Chinese Postage stamp In Asia. the relations with the Kuomintang deteriorated. accusing him of being blind to Soviet imperialism. Mao Zedong's Communist Party of China. war broke out with U. not surprisingly. Chiang Kai-Shek.-allied South Korea in 1950. and the United States viewed this with suspicion and rejected the offer. one of his last major foreign policy initiatives was the 1952 Stalin Note for German reunification and Superpower disengagement from Central Europe. though it had never held authority there. Stalin did conclude a new friendship and alliance treaty with Mao after he defeated Chiang. Mao did not follow Stalin's instructions though and started a communist revolution against Chiang. though receptive to minimal Soviet support. the Chinese Muslim Kuomintang General Bai Chongxi made a speech broadcast on radio to the entire Muslim world calling for a war against Russia. but Britain. claiming that the "imperialist ogre" leader Stalin was engineering World War III. Stalin extensively armed Kim Il Sung's North Korean army and air forces with military equipment (to include T34/85 tanks) and "advisors" far in excess of those required for defensive purposes) in order to facilitate Kim's (a former Soviet Officer) aim of conquering the rest of the Korean peninsula. There was friction between Stalin and Mao from the beginning. The People's Republic claimed Taiwan. although Stalin refrained from getting involved in Greece.In Greece. Stalin did not believe Mao would be successful so he was less than enthusiastic in helping Mao. Britain and the United States supported the anti-communists in the Greek Civil War and suspected the Soviets of supporting the Greek communists. 23 . which it regarded as a new ally. the Red Army had overrun Manchuria in the last month of the war and then also occupied Korea above the 38th parallel north. Even after the war Stalin concluded a non-aggression pact between the USSR and Chiang's Kuomintang (KMT) regime in China and instructed Mao and the Chinese communists to cooperate with Chiang and the KMT after the war. starting the Korean War. Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and China reached a high point with the signing of the 1950 Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance. dismissing the movement as premature. He generally put his alliance with Chiang against Japan ahead of helping his ideological allies in China in his priorities. During World War II Stalin had supported the dictator of China. Both countries provided military support to a new friendly state in North Korea. But there was still a lot of tension between the two leaders and resentment by Mao for Stalin's less than enthusiastic help during the civil war in China. In Stalin's last year of life. but Yugoslavia broke with the USSR in 1948. Albania remained an ally of the Soviet Union. as a bulwark against Japan and had turned a blind eye to Chiang's mass killings of communists. The Communists controlled mainland China while the Nationalists held a rump state on the island of Taiwan.[233][234] North Korea Contrary to America's policy which restrained armament (limited equipment was provided for infantry and police forces) to South Korea. After various Korean border conflicts. The USSR continued to maintain diplomatic relations with Chiang's KMT regime until 1949 when it became clear Mao would win. However.S. in Taiwan. France. and Bai also called upon Muslims to avoid the Indian leader Nehru. In 1951. The Soviet Union soon after recognized Mao's People's Republic of China. defeated the pro-Western and heavily American-assisted Chinese Nationalist Party in the Chinese Civil War.

[246] The plot is also viewed by many historians as an antisemitic provocation. The USSR was one of the first nations to recognize the new country. while deliberately encouraging Hitler to expand eastward. by Popov. Stalin personally edited and rewrote by hand sections of the cold war book Falsifiers of History.[239] and was subsequently published in numerous language and distributed worldwide.[238][241] It depicted the Soviet Union as striving to negotiate a collective security against Hitler. in part because the smarter party functionaries had learned caution. They think they're indebted to the Americans. Lithuania. Russian patriotism increased due to successful propaganda efforts. including that American bankers and industrialists provided capital for the growth of German war industries. but as a "secret" agreement that was a "a highly important phase in their policy aimed at goading the Hitlerite aggressors against the Soviet Union. crossing the 38th parallel behind a firestorm of artillery. By the end of the 1940s. memoirs and textbooks published in the Soviet Union used that depiction of events until the Soviet Union's dissolution. and Soviet trade with Hitler to counteract the expected French and British trade blockades.[citation needed] Israel Stalin originally supported the creation of Israel in 1948.The North Korean Army struck in the pre-dawn hours of Sunday. while being thwarted by double-dealing Anglo-French appeasers who. had no intention of a Soviet alliance and were secretly negotiating with Berlin.[238][239] which included the secret protocols of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and other secret GermanSoviet relations documents.[248] Thereafter. but never reached the extremes of the 1930s.[245] The prevailing opinion of many scholars outside the Soviet Union is that Stalin intended to use the resulting doctors' trial to launch a massive party purge.[237] Falsifiers was published in response to the documents made public in Nazi-Soviet Relations. His early cooperation with Hitler was forgotten.[235] During the Korean War. etc. For instance. despite appearances. after providing war materiel for Israel through Czechoslovakia. and Latvia. official accounts. "Doctors' plot" Main article: Doctors' plot The "Doctors' plot" was a plot outlined by Stalin and Soviet officials in 1952 and 1953 whereby several doctors (over half of whom were Jewish) allegedly attempted to kill Soviet officials. and the airplane."[243] The book also included the claim that. bourgeois. Stalin's internal repressive policies continued (including in newly acquired territories). Soviet pilots flew Soviet aircraft from Chinese bases against United Nations aircraft defending South Korea. Jewish nationalists think that their nation was saved by the United States (there you can become rich. he later changed his mind and came out against Israel."[249] To 24 . That cooperation included helping the German Army violate the Treaty of Versailles limitations.[241] It argues that "Western powers" aided Nazi rearmament and aggression. Stalin rejected Hitler's offer to share in a division of the world.[236] Golda Meir came to Moscow as the first Israeli Ambassador to the USSR that year. not just as AngloFrench short-sightedness or cowardice.[241] The book did not attempt to directly counter or deal with the documents published in Nazi-Soviet Relations[242] and rather.[241] It casts the Munich agreement.[244] Historical studies. Examples include the boiler. Among doctors. However. Stalin announced that "Every Jewish nationalist is the agent of the American intelligence service. the notorious Molotov-von Ribbentrop treaty which partitioned Poland giving the Soviet Union what is now part of Belarus and granted the Soviet Union a free hand in Finland. some inventions and scientific discoveries were claimed by Soviet propaganda. with training in the Soviet Union. 1939±1941: Documents from the Archives of The German Foreign Office. Post-Cold war research in Soviet Archives has revealed that the Korean War was begun by Kim Il-sung with the express permission of Stalin. by Mozhaysky. during the Pact's operation. reclaimed by father and son Cherepanovs. by Yablochkov and Lodygin. Estonia. without mentioning the Soviet offers to join the Axis. in a December Politburo session. the radio. Stalin was seen as a great wartime leader who had led the Soviets to victory against the Nazis.[244] Domestic support Domestically.[245] It followed on the heels of the 1952 show trials of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee[247] and the secret execution of thirteen members on Stalin's orders in the Night of the Murdered Poets. the electric light. Falsifiers of History In 1948.[238][240] Falsifiers originally appeared as a series of articles in Pravda in February 1948.). focused upon Western culpability for the outbreak of war in 1939. though this is disputed by North Korea. beginning their invasion of South Korea. 25 June 1950. there are many Jewish nationalists.

"[267] Death and aftermath On the early morning hours of 1 March 1953. His body was preserved in Lenin's Mausoleum until 31 October 1961. Nikolai Bulganin and Nikita Khrushchev where he retired to his bedroom to sleep. such as Kruschev. telling him that "the good workers at the factory should be given clubs so they can beat the hell out of those Jews. when his body was removed from the Mausoleum and buried next to the Kremlin walls as part of the process of de-Stalinization. Some historians have argued that Stalin was also planning to send millions of Jews to four large newly built labor camps in Western Russia[252][261] using a "Deportation Commission"[262][263][264] that would purportedly act to save Soviet Jews from an engraged Soviet population after the Doctors Plot trials. It has been suggested that Stalin was assassinated. the cause of death was listed as a cerebral hemorrhage."[254][255] Stalin also ordered falsely accused physicians to be tortured "to death". Pravda published stories with text regarding the purported "Jewish bourgeois-nationalist" plotters.[269][270] Lavrentiy Beria was informed and arrived a few hours afterwards. Stalin's personal physician Miron Vovsi (cousin of Solomon Mikhoels. who was assassinated in 1948 at the orders of Stalin)[248] was arrested within the frame of the plot. in order to set the stage for show trials.[251] Regardless of whether a plot to deport Jews was planned. but all he could get out of the Generalissimo was unintelligible responses that sounded like "Dzhh. At around 10 p. Stalin's Grave by the Kremlin Wall Necropolis Although his guards thought that it was odd for him not to rise at his usual time.. At dawn."[245][260] At the end of January 1953. and was embalmed on 9 March. having probably suffered a stroke that paralyzed the right side of his body.[245][257][258] and anti-Semitic trends in the Kremlin's policies were further fueled by the exile of Leon Trotsky.mobilize the Soviet people for his campaign. the Deputy Commandant of Kuntsevo. Officially.[253] Kruschev wrote that Stalin hinted him to incite anti-Semitism in the Ukraine. and the doctors only arrived in the early morning of 2 March in which they changed his bedclothes and tended to him. people who knew Stalin. he was discovered by Peter Lozgachev. after an all-night dinner and a movie[268] Stalin arrived at his Kuntsevo residence some 15 km west of Moscow centre with interior minister Lavrentiy Beria and future premiers Georgy Malenkov. What will happen without me? The country will perish because you do not know how to recognize enemies. The political memoirs of Vyacheslav Molotov. claimed that Beria had boasted to Molotov that he poisoned Stalin: "I took him out. that Stalin told the judge to beat confessions from the defendants[267] and had told Politburo members "You are blind like young kittens.[256] Regarding the origins of the plot. set up by Stalin". suggest that Stalin had long harbored negative sentiments toward Jews." Lozgachev frantically called a few party officials asking them to send good doctors. The bedridden Stalin died four days later. Stalin allegedly said privately that "every Jew is a potential spy.[2] at the age of 74." 25 .[250][251] including Stalin. they were under strict orders not to disturb him and left him alone the entire day. in his "Secret Speech" in 1956. on 5 March 1953. Vovsi was released by Beria after Stalin's death in 1953. A frightened Lozgachev asked Stalin what happened to him. the composer Mieczyslaw Weinberg.[262][265][266] Others argue that any charge of an alleged mass deportation lacks specific documentary evidence.[245][259] In 1946. Stalin did not emerge from his room. published in 1993. Stalin ordered TASS and Pravda to issue stories along with Stalin's alleged uncovering of a "Doctors Plot" to assassinate top Soviet leaders. who entered his bedroom to check up on him and recalled a horrifying scene of Stalin lying on the floor of his room wearing pyjama bottoms and an undershirt with his clothes soaked in stale urine.[252] The next month.m. Soviet Premier Nikita Kruschev stated that the Doctors Plot was "fabricated .. The ex-Communist exile Avtorkhanov argued this point as early as 1975. as was his son-inlaw.

Views on Stalin in Russian Federation Results of a controversial poll taken in 2006 stated that over 35% of Russians would vote for Stalin if he were still alive. Georgia until 2010 when it was demolished and moved to the Museum of Soviet Occupation. delivered to a closed session of the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. warfarin is a plausible weapon of murder.[271] Later analysis of death In 2003. In his "Secret Speech". Monument to Stalin stood in Gori. and then. The harshness with which Soviet affairs were conducted during Stalin's rule was subsequently repudiated by his successors in the Communist Party leadership. and his regime for "violation of Leninist norms of legality". Beria immediately stood and spat.[278] In a July 2007 poll 54% of the Russian youth agreed that Stalin did more good than bad while 46% 26 . gone about "spewing hatred against [Stalin] and mocking him".[274] Reaction by successors Grutas Park is home to a monument of Stalin. Khrushchev denounced Stalin for his cult of personality.Khrushchev wrote in his memoirs that Beria had. Since it is flavorless. most notably by Nikita Khrushchev's repudiation of Stalinism in February 1956. a Russian court in 2009. Novaya Gazeta.[275][276] Fewer than a third of all Russians regarded Stalin as a murderous tyrant. On the Personality Cult and its Consequences. ruling on a suit by Stalin's grandson. it is true that the Politburo did not summon medical attention for Stalin for more than a day after he was found. saying. The facts surrounding Stalin's death will probably never be known with certainty. a joint group of Russian and American historians announced their view that Stalin ingested warfarin. originally set up in Vilnius.[277] however. Beria claimed to have poisoned Stalin. Yevgeny Dzhugashvili. when Stalin showed signs of consciousness. dropped to his knees and kissed his hand." Whether Beria or anyone else was directly responsible for Stalin's death. When Stalin fell unconscious again. "I took him out. against the newspaper. who feared being swept away in yet another purge. ruled that referring to Stalin as a "bloodthirsty cannibal" was not libel. It is believed that Stalin felt Beria's power was too great and threatened his own.[272] His demise arrived at a convenient time for Lavrenty Beria and others. immediately after the stroke.[273] According to Molotov's memoirs. a powerful rat poison that inhibits coagulation of the blood and which predisposes the victim to hemorrhagic stroke (cerebral hemorrhage).

During Stalin's reign his nicknames included: y y y "Uncle Joe". y Appearance While photographs and portraits portray Stalin as physically massive and majestic (he had several painters shot who did not depict him "right"). mainly towards visiting statesmen. Stalin" sometime in 1912 as a pen name. "Little Father of the Peoples" or "Papa Stalin". After a carriage accident in his youth. by Aleksei Dikiy.[279] In December 2008 Stalin was voted third in the nationwide television project Name of Russia (narrowly behind 13th century prince Alexander Nevsky and Pyotr Stolypin. less frequently.[281] Only eight out of 385 assembly members voted against the resolution. Like other Bolsheviks. "Ivanov" and many others.[282] Personal life Origin of name.[284][285] "Kremlin Highlander" (Russian: ).[291]) His mustached face was pock-marked from small-pox during childhood.[280] On 3 July 2009. one of Nicholas II's prime ministers).[290] In movies. Truman. He said the mass extermination during the Stalin era cannot be justified. notably by Osip Mandelstam in his Stalin Epigram. while his right hand was thinner than his left and frequently hidden. nicknames and pseudonyms Stalin's original Georgian is transliterated as "Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili" (Georgian: ). described Stalin as "a little squirt". A common nickname in the USSR during his time in power. of which "Stalin" was only the last. agreed Stalin was a wise leader. a term from pre-Tsarist times. his left arm was shortened and stiffened at the elbow. aged from 16 to 19. in reference his Caucasus Mountains origin. Marriages and family 27 .[290] He could be charming and polite.[290] he was only five feet four inches high (160 cm). Prior nicknames included "Koba". he became commonly known by one of his revolutionary noms de guerre.[286][287][288][289] Vozhd' (Russian: . who stood only five feet nine inches himself.[290] (President Harry S.[281] In a Kremlin video blog posted on 29 October 2009. Stalin was often played by Mikheil Gelovani and. Half of the respondents. "Soselo". Russia's delegates walked out of an Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe session to demonstrate their objections to a resolution for a remembrance day for the victims of both Nazism and Stalinism. "the Chieftain"). as he was portrayed as the paternal figure of the Revolution.(of them) disagreed that Stalin was a cruel tyrant. during and after World War II. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev denounced the efforts of people seeking to rehabilitate Stalin's image. leading to accusations from Communist Party of the Russian Federation that the poll had been rigged in order to prevent him or Lenin being given first place. by western media.[283] Stalin is believed to have started using the name "K. The Russian transliteration of his name (Russian: ) is in turn transliterated to English as "Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili".

[298] Between places Stalin would travel by car or train. Historians also claim her death ultimately "severed his link from reality. but survived. They offered to exchange him for Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus. Stalin's first wife Stalin and Nadezhda Alliluyeva Stalin's son Yakov. A luxury villa near Gagri was given to him by Beria.Ekaterina "Kato" Svanidze. Either you free them all or my son will share their fate. whom he had with his first wife Ekaterina Svanidze. in the Valdai Hills. estates. running into an electric fence in Sachsenhausen concentration camp.[297] In March 2001 Russian Independent Television NTV interviewed a previously unknown grandson living in Novokuznetsk. Svetlana. Rosa Kaganovich. After the war he added dachas at Novy Alon. kept safe by security forces. but. near Sukhumi. well furnished and equipped. She died in 1932.[294] Yakov had a son Yevgeny. Another estate was near Zelyony Myss on the Black Sea. Yakov is said to have committed suicide.[292] Yakov served in the Red Army during World War II and was captured by the Germans. this is still in question. Yuri Davydov. never by air."[293] Afterwards. Stalin may have married a third wife. Beside his suite in the Kremlin. and at Lake Mitsa. the sister of Lazar Kaganovich. rarely for diplomatic purposes. officially of illness. but Stalin turned the offer down. She may have committed suicide by shooting herself after a quarrel with Stalin. Stalin had a son. Svetlana emigrated to the United States in 1967. stating "You have in your hands not only my son Yakov but millions of my sons. which apparently took place at a dinner in which Stalin tauntingly flicked cigarettes across the table at her. officially dying of alcoholism in 1962. he added dachas at Zuvalova and Kuntsevo (Blizhny dacha built by Miron Merzhanov). and were mainly used privately. Habits 28 . including one near Sochi.[295] According to A&E Biography. he flew only once when attending the 1943 Tehran conference. Stalin had numerous domiciles. with his second wife Nadezhda Alliluyeva. where he was being held. and palaces were staffed. and a daughter. and had at least four dachas in the south by 1937. All these dachas. He distinguished himself in World War II as a capable airman. was told to keep quiet because of the campaign against Stalin's cult of personality. shot himself because of Stalin's harshness toward him. who stated that his father had told him of his lineage. who is recently noted for defending his grandfather's legacy in Russian courts. Before WWII he added the Lipki estate and Semyonovskaya. who had surrendered after Stalingrad. however. leaving a suicide note which according to their daughter was "partly personal."[296] Vasiliy rose through the ranks of the Soviet air force. In 1919 he started with a country house near Usovo. In Abkhazia he maintained a mountain retreat. After this. there is also a belief among some Russians that Stalin himself murdered his wife after the quarrel. Vasiliy. partly political". Stalin said "He can't even shoot straight".

" 1924 "Dialectical and Historical Materialism. Another reason that may have motivated this greater tolerance after the war.[300] The movies. he became a closet atheist."[304] Shortly thereafter. and persecutions resumed at the end of the war.[303] One account states that Stalin's reversal on bans against the church during World War II followed a sign that he believed he received from heaven. the Church and its clergymen could be to his disposal in mobilizing the war effort. and after waking up summon high-ranking Soviet politicians to watch foreign movies with him in the Kremlin movie theater. rumors and misconceptions about Stalin There are conflicting accounts of Stalin's birth. which had been suspended since 1925. the inhabitants were astounded. "Had he seen the light? Had fear made him run to his Father? Had the Marxist God-Man simply decided to exploit belief in God? Or was it all of these things at once?." 1924 "Trotskyism or Leninism?. were given a running translation. hypotheses and popular rumors exist about Stalin's real father. One reason could have been to motivate the majority of the population who had Christian beliefs. For these reasons it is unlikely that Stalin had changed his atheistic rejection of religion during this last portion of his lifetime. this story fails on several obvious accounts. was the great failure of the persecutions of the 1920s and 1930s to actually achieve the intended result of eliminating religion. but could keep it under control.[301] One story reports that while he studied at a seminary.[300] Religious beliefs and policies Stalin had a complex relationship with religious institutions in the Soviet Union. On his orders many priests were brought back to the camps.[306] was made by the German writer and pacifist Erich Maria Remarque. Metropolitan Alexy and Metropolitan Nikolay to the Kremlin and proposed to reestablish the Moscow Patriarchate. who listed his birth year in various documents as being in 1878 before coming to power in 1922.[307] Some Bolsheviks and others have accused Stalin of being an agent for the Okhrana. On 4 September 1943. On 8 September 1943. The reasoning behind this is that by changing the official policy of the party and the state towards religion." 1913 "The Principles of Leninism.[299] Stalin preferred Georgian wine over Russian vodka."[304] Radzinsky asked.[300] After the movie had ended. Leningrad must not be surrendered. and uplifted. including Stalin's remaining religious. although on a lesser scale than had been existent in the 1930s. and thence to Stalingrad Tsaritsyn. In addition. after his mysterious retreat. he began making his peace with God. taken on to Moscow. Hypotheses.[2] The phrase "death of one man is a tragedy. Priests must be brought back from imprisonment.[300] He would often sleep until evening in his dacha. Stalin invited Metropolitan Sergius. being in foreign languages. The CPSU Central Committee continued to promote atheism and the elimination of religion during the remainder of Stalin's lifetime after the 1943 concordat. and elect the Patriarch.[302] However. Stalin's attitude changed and "Whatever the reason.[308] Works y y y y y "Anarchism or Socialism?. Stalin often invited the audience for dinner. to see wonder-working icon Our Lady of Kazan brought out into the streets and borne in procession. Metropolitan of the Lebanon Mountains.[305] Stalin's greater tolerance for religion after 1943 was limited."[304] During the Second World War Stalin reopened the Churches. Something happened which no historian has yet written about.[299] Khrushchev reports in his memoirs that Stalin was fond of American cowboy movies." 1907 "Marxism and the National Question. even though the clock was usually past midnight. In Leningrad. besieged by the Germans and gradually dying of hunger. claimed to receive a sign from heaven that "The churches and monasteries must be reopened throughout the country.[299] He would also often force those around him to join in the drinking. even pious. death of a million is a statistic". sometimes attributed to Stalin. Metropolitan Sergius was elected Patriarch." 1938 29 . but usually ate traditional Russian food. where a service should be held. for some years longer.Stalin enjoyed heavy drinking. but the sacred icon of Our Lady of Kazan should be carried around the city boundary.[304] Historian Edvard Radzinsky used recently discovered secret archives and noted a story that changed Stalin's attitude toward religion.[304] The story in which Ilya.

ISBN 9780297850687 ^ Simon Sebag Montefiore Young Stalin. 30 ." 1946 "Marxism and Problems of Linguistics. 4. 21 October 2003. after his coming to power in 1922. 1937±1949. ^ Olson and Cloud 2003 ^ Knight.R. Skrobach. The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective. UK: Cambridge University Press. 16. Statement by Pope John Paul II on the 70th anniversary of the Was the Ukrainian Famine of 1932±1933 Genocide?.ru. Knopf. ^ "Caucasian Knot: Analytics". 8. 11. Stalin's Genocides (Human Rights and Crimes against Humanity). ISBN 0691147841 ^ Robert Gellately & Ben Kiernan (2003). 15. Iosif Dzhugashvili is found in the records of the Uspensky Church in Gori. 130 ^ Pohl. pp. However.html.rin. 19. Young Stalin. 26 November 2010 ^ Montefiore. 2004 (ISBN 1-4000-4230-5) ^ a b "PBS. and all other surviving pre-Revolution documents. As late as 1921. http://www. 147±156 ^ a b c Boobbyer 2000. Soviet Studies. No. Eng. 9. ^ a b "Cult of Personality".html doi=10. ISBN 0313309213 ^ 2007. 6. That became the day his birthday was celebrated in the Soviet Union.faminegenocide. Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. p.kavkazuzel. pp. 4. Retrieved 19 July 2008. Retrieved 25 June 2010. Knopf.S. Ethnic Cleansing in the USSR. Let History Beria and the Cult of Stalin: Rewriting Transcaucasian Party History. Stalin himself listed his birthday as 18 December 1878 in a curriculum vitae in his own handwriting. ^ Findings of the Commission on the Ukraine Famine.. http://books. 29 ^ a b c d Simon Sebag Montefiore.1. BBC News. 267. p. Stalin: A Otto. pp. Vol. Gori Stalin Monument in Budapest Stalin Monument (Prague) List of places named after Joseph Stalin Stalin's antisemitism Stalin Bloc ² For the USSR Yanks for Stalin References Notes 1. 17."Prominent figures".com/books?id=k9Ro7b0tWz4C&lpg=PP1&dq=genocide&pg=PA267. http://state. 1950s/"Volume 14": Red Star Press.eng. 13. Answers . Young Stalin. 2007. Vol. State and Power in Russia. Ami W. Young Stalin. Retrieved 25 June 2010. 5. 1±11 ^ Montefiore.y y y y See also "The Questions of Leninism. 2. Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives regarding the man-made famine that occurred in Ukraine in 1932±1933. 21±25. Famine Genocide.html. Moscow. 43. 2010. ISBN 0521527503. Yaroslav [http://www. 2004. his extensive tsarist Russia police file. Stalin changed the date to 21 December 1879 (Old Style date 9 December 1879). Volume 1±13: Foreign Languages Publishing House. 18. Georgia as born on 18 December (Old Style: 6 December) 1878. 12. (1991). p. 14. ^ a b c d Although there is an inconsistency among published sources about Stalin's year and date of birth." 1952 Works.S. PBS. p. 19 April 1988. Issue 2. Norman M. Cambridge. 10. ISBN 978-0-330-41913-0 ^ a b c d e f g Simon Sebag Montefiore. Princeton University Press. p. ^ "Russian parliament condemns Stalin for Katyn massacre". a police arrest record from 18 April 1902 which gave his age as 23 years. Journal of Genocide Research. 749±763 3. This birth date is maintained in his School Leaving". pp. Bilinsky. 261 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Robert Service.kavkaz-uzel. London 1978 Index of Soviet Union-related articles y y y y y y y Stalinism Neo-Stalinism Stalin Society Anti-Stalinist left De-Stalinization Stalinist architecture Stalin Peace Prize y y y y y y y Joseph Stalin Museum. US House of ISBN 1400044650 Prologue: The Bank Robbery." 1950 "Economic Problems of Socialism in the U. 61 ^ Medvedev. 7.

Stalinism: Essays in Historical Interpretation. ^ Tim Tzouliadis. Vol.hawaii. ^ a b Hiroaki Kuromiya. p. This included three out of five Marshals. Yale University Press. http://books. 2 August 2008 See also: Retrieved 19 July 1974 (first Indian edition) 38. Retrieved 2011-01-01. ISBN 1400040051 29. ^ Tuominen. (1964) Hitler's War on Russia: The Story of the German Defeat in the East. p. p. Communism: A History (Modern Library Chronicles). ^ Tucker 1992. The Role of Leadership Perceptions and of Intent in the Soviet Famine of 1931±1934. pp. ^ "Joseph Stalin Height ± Stalin's". 826 54. 3. ISBN 1403901198. http://www. ISBN 08050-7461-9 28. 22. 1895-1949. p. 4 43. ^ Michael Ellman. ISBN 0300031203 31. 110 of 195 divisional commanders and 220 of 406 brigade commanders as well as all commanders of military districts. Knopf. ^ Overy 2004. China in war and revolution. Published in the New York Times on 5 January 1989. ^ Lenin. p. 7 (Nov. ^ Comment on Wheatcroft by Robert Conquest. p. Moshe Lewin. 205±6 33. and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Transaction Publishers. No. Retrieved 2011-01-01. ^ Soviet Readers Finally Told Moscow Had Trotsky Slain. ^ Quoted in Dmitri Volkogonov. ^ Brackman 2001. ISBN 1403901198. p. translated from German by Ewald Osers. ^ a b Orlando Figes The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin's Russia. 96. 1991). 44. National Review 50. 282. 1997). ^ Robert Carver North (1963).I. Arvo. ^ Leo Kuper. Yale University Press. ^ The scale of Stalin's purging of Red Army officers was exceptional²90% of all generals and 80% of all colonels were killed. No. 26. Kevin McDermott(eds) (4 February 2003). Stanford University Press. 55. Comparative Studies in Society and History. 4. 31. ^ Hiroaki Kuromiya. ^ Barry McLoughlin. Europe-Asia Studies. ^ Tucker. p. ± book reviews by Robert ^ Life and Terror in Stalin's Russia: 1934±1941. ^ John Keep. 42. 338 40. A history of Russia: Since 1855. http://books. p. p. 1996 45. p. ISBN 0874512492. 1999. ^ a b Overy 2004. Publications New Delhi. 1999 46. 2 53. Recent Writing on Stalin's Gulag: An Overview. Carell. Anthem Press. 37. Stalin's Terror: High Politics and Mass Repression in the Soviet Union. ISBN 0300123892 p. Vol. Forced Labour and Economic Growth in the 1930s. 48. Stalin: Triumph and Tragedy (New York. ISBN 0415364477. p. 49. pp. 300 30. ISBN 1843310341. ^ a b c Michael Ellman. 2005. and Deportation Death Rates". pp. 182 35. PDF file 51. No. Vol. Europe-Asia Studies. Stalin. (p. ^ "Newseum: The Commissar Vanishes". 409±424 21.celebheights. The Bells of the Kremlin. Stalinism in Post-Communist Perspective: New Evidence on Killings.newseum.html. Stalin's Terror: High Politics and Mass Repression in the Soviet Union. 584 48. No. 1317± 1319 states:"We are all inclined to accept the Zemskov totals (even if not as complete) with their 14 million intake to 31 . 6. ISBN 0300123892 p. p. ^ Walter Moss (2005).GIF. 24 December 2007. Tim. Camp. Stalinism and Nazism: Dictatorships in Comparison. Ethnicity in the Soviet Union: Analytical Perceptions and Political 162. American Council of Learned Societies Planning Group on Comparative Communist Studies. p. 663±693. Yale University Press 1982. 67 47. ^ Ian Kershaw. Stalin and the Soviet Famine of 1932±33 Revisited Europe-Asia Studies. Europe-Asia Studies. ^ Brackman 2001. http://books.210 52. June 2007. 2007. ^ Pipes. 2007. http://www. p. http://www. 57 of 85 Corps commanders. Retrieved 2011-01-01. Genocide: Its Political Use in the Twentieth Century.20. Psychology Press. ^ Applebaum 2003. ISBN 0521565219. 141. 456 36. 1996. 204 32. ^ Barry McLoughlin. ^ Brackman 2001. ^ a b Alan Bullock.TAB1B.. 6. The Voices of the Dead: Stalin's Great Terror in the 1930s. . Robert C. 2008 (ISBN 1594201684) 41. Moscow and Chinese Communists. 1997 23. Retrieved 4 October 2007 25. http://books. By Robert Gellately. Kevin McDermott(eds) (4 February 2003). 24. p. Vol. Nightmare in the workers paradise BBC. ^ Rosefielde.195. Retrieved 25 June 2010. 904±905 56. Teodor (July 1989). ^ Shanin. p. Richard. The Voices of the Dead: Stalin's Great Terror in the 1930s. ISBN The Penguin Press. 5 39. The Forsaken: An American Tragedy in Stalin's Russia. ^ "Soviet Transit. Cambridge University Press 1997. 13 out of 15 Army commanders. ISBN 0804704538. ^ Peter Gue Zarrow (2005). Palgrave Macmillan. ^ Robert Conquest in Victims of Stalinism: A Comment. Palgrave Macmillan. 24 December 2007. 207 34. Stephen. B.

63. See also: "Statement by Pope John Paul II on the 70th anniversary of the Famine".htm. Davies. Jacques Vallin Mortalité et causes de décès en Ukraine au XXè siècle + CDRom ISBN 2-7332-0152-2 CD online data (partially ± Ined.warwick. ^ Stalin. 2001.pdf. 73. ^ According to Ellman. 69. 74. Kyiv Post (13 January 2010) ^ Ukraine court finds Bolsheviks guilty of Holodomor genocide. p. Jacques Vallin France-Ukraine: Demographic Twins Separated by History. http://www.ece.overpopulation. Retrieved 19 July 2008. http://www2. or sent ^ Alan Bullock. 62. Marxism and the Quantum Controversy: Responding to Max Jammer's Question ^ Péter Szegedi Cold War and Interpretations in Quantum Mechanics ^ Ethan Pollock (2006)." Cambridge Journal of Economics 24 (2000): 603±30. S. History of Russia.faminegenocide. HistoryWorld." (On demographic evidence of the tragedy of the Soviet village in 1931±1833) http://web. Bloomberg.skrobach. http://ipn.1080/14623529908413948. to which must be added 4±5 million going to Gulag 'colonies'.cepr. 3 April 1930 ^ "Ukraine Irks Russia With Push to Mark Stalin Famine as Genocide". ^ Stanislav juin 2005 ^ ce Meslé. 19 April 1988. N°413. 76. 3. Hennadiy Yefimenko. 269 ^ a b "The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia" (PDF). Retrieved 28 December 2008. 3 January 2008 ^ "Overpopulation.ukemonde. Wheatcroft (1994). http://www. 75. "Ukraine Recognize Famine As Genocide". Retrieved 25 June 2010. these are surely 'high' figures. ^ Kyiv court accuses Stalin leadership of organizing famine. 2002. ^ France Meslé.html. to say nothing of the 3. ISBN 0691124671. 2004. 1 July Journal of Genocide Research 1 (2): 147± Retrieved 19 October 2008. PDF file ^ Findings of the Commission on the Ukraine Famine. 61.html. 59. Retrieved 23 August 2008. » The Soviet Famines of 1921 and 1932-3". Dizzy with success. Institute of History.html. http://www. 188. Profile Books. http://press. ^ Robert Lewis. ^ "Natural Disaster and Human Actions in the Soviet Famine of 1931±1933" (PDF). Palgrave Macmillan. " : 1927±1939 . ed. (13 January 2010) ^ Charles N. Times Online (London). 65. ^ Oliver Freire Jr. Famine Genocide. 2003 ^ . 2 ^ "The famine of 1932±33". Gilles Pison.pdf. Joseph. doi:10. However taken.timesonline.princeton. 58. government mismanagement of its grain reserves largely accounted for the population losses. " 1931²1933 .pdf.pdf.asp?HistoryID=ac14&ParagraphID=qxe#qxe. Retrieved 28 December 2008.W. http://www.G. Wheatcroft). ISBN 5-8243-0225-1. 21 October 2003. 79. Skrobach.artukraine. Gulag 'camps' alone. Natasha (28 November 2006). ^ "Ukraine's Holodomor". Stalin and the Soviet Science Wars. Princeton University Press. 1933 . Sustainable Development: Promoting Progress or Perpetuating Poverty?. . Retrieved 28 December 2008. 885.%20Natural%20Disaster%20and%20Human%20Actions. "Was the Ukrainian Famine of 1932±1933 Genocide?".archive. 67. Ukraine: Britannica. http://www. 1937 . Steele (2002) (PDF). Cambridge University US House of Representatives. Michael Ellman. 78.". : (Demographic consequence of Holodomor of 1933 in Ukraine. although the 1946 drought was severe.: . . Retrieved 19 July 2008. 32 .edu/history/Faculty/Tauger/Tauger. 80. http://www. 1930±1933 . Reply to Collective Farm Comrades. The all-Union census of 1937 in Ukraine). ^ Lisova. http://www. 70. Centre for Economic Policy Research. The Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies. Associated See also: Yaroslav Bilinsky (1999). See also: "Reassessing the Standard of Living in the Soviet Union" (PDF). 64. Joseph. See also: "Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives regarding the man-made famine that occurred in Ukraine in 1932±1933". 77." ^ "The rise of Stalin: AD1921±1924".htm. The Economic Transformation of the Soviet Union. p. http://www. . 'labour settlements'.5 million already in. 60. 2 March 1930 ^ Stalin.lexi.britannica. "The 1947 Soviet Famine and the Entitlement Approach to Famines. 68. Mark Harrison.Pravda. (Stephen G. Population and societies. Retrieved 23 August 2008.wvu.

" 97. 66. Steven.634397.473.Stalin. p. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Stalin (20 June 1950). ^ Vadim Erlikman (2004).tripod. http://books. 321±333. pp. ^ Joseph V. Pospielovsky. Moscow. A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia. 1993. 2. EM. Nauka. A History of Soviet Atheism in Theory and Practice. Zemskov. during 1937±52 there were 14. "Voprosy leninizma". No. ed. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Europe-Asia Studies. See also: Richard Pipes (2001). 215. ^ Snyder. Austin.060. Red Holocaust. ISBN 1400040051 p. Basic Books. Retrieved 19 July 2008. 5 April 2006 93. The Tsarist and Soviet Legacy. 402. Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. ISBN 0415777577 pg. Soviet Repression Statistics: Some Comments Europe-Asia Studies. ^ Naimark. 1997. 1973±1976 ISBN 0-8133-3289-3 89. W. and 286. "The Scale and Nature of German and Soviet Repression and Mass Killings. Stalin. Calvert (1982).269. camps and prisons. death penalties. 1.81. Stephen 87. Longmann Group Ltd (1995) ISBN 0-582-08922-0 84. "More light on the scale of repression and excess mortality in the Soviet Union in the 1930s" (PDF). the massive scope of the repression and killing. Documented Homicides and Excess Deaths: New Insights into the Scale of Killing in the USSR during the http://sovietinfo. Available online as Marxism and Problems of Linguistics including other articles and letters also published in Pravda soon after 8 February and 4 July 1950 82. London: Yale University Press. ^ Steven Rosefielde.pdf. 259 103. 649. pp. ISBN 0691009139 92. P. Eric D. Wheatcroft. gives the following numbers: During 1921±53. Lenin.tripod. excile. 413 104. Michael (09 2005). p. Communist and Post-Communist Retrieved 4 July 2008. ^ Robert Gellately. Michael. 1999). http://sovietinfo.973 for 2±5 years.pdf..942. ^ R. ^ "Russia". ^ Stephen Retrieved 28 December 2008. 2007 ISBN 1400040051 p. ^ Simon Sebag Montefiore. of whom 18 million had slaved in the Gulags. "The Role of Leadership Perceptions and of Intent in the Soviet Famine of 1931±1934" (PDF). ^ Dimitry V. ISBN 0753817667.5 million Soviet citizens of their lives. and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. 234: "My own many years and experience in the rehabilitation of victims of political terror 33 . Vol. by F. vol 2: Soviet AntiReligious Campaigns and Persecutions. Yale University Press. Soviet Studies. ISBN 0753817667. ^ "Soviet Studies". pp. and Alexander N. 589. p. and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. 2010. Russia.". other. ^ Andreev. Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. Princeton University Press. Wheatcroft: The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture. 315±345. Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. pp. Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. The Washington Post. pp. Konstantinov. Stalin's Genocides (Human Rights and Crimes against Humanity). See also: Robert Gellately. 101. Anthony. 2007. Knopf. 4. however. Autopsy for an Empire: The Seven Leaders Who Built the Soviet Regime. Paul (10 April 2004). Timothy. ^ a b c Acton. Princeton University Press. 2007. 1931±1933. 98 30. 256 98. ^ a b Applebaum 2003 96. Yakovlev. and Stephen Wheatcroft (1990). B.228 death penalties. ^ "A century of genocide: utopias of race and nation". Source: Europe-Asia Studies. Rittersporn. New York. 2nd ed. No. ISBN 0691147841 102. No. and the Believer. ISBN 5-93165-107-1. Paul (10 April 2004). See also: Dmitri Volkogonov.html. the number of sentences was (political convictions): sentences. 3. vii. ^ Alexander N. Communism: A History. 2009. 2 (Mar. Yale University Press. 100. Lenin. Other sentences were noncustodial 90. p. Pravda. 139: "Between 1929 and 1953 the state created by Lenin and set in motion by Stalin deprived 21. Routledge. ^ Ellman.erols. 28 million deported.1080/09668130500199392.611. among them 34. 2004 ISBN 0-33331107-8 105. Modern Library Chronicles. 413.795 for more than 10 years. 89 86. ISBN 0465002390 pp.637 sentences for 0±1 year. p. Moscow. Europe-Asia Studies (Routledge) 57 (6): 823±41. Norman M. "Victims of Stalinism and the Soviet Secret Police: The Comparability and Reliability of the Archival Data. p. 1151± 1172 95. Yakovlev.paulbogdanor. "Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Pre-war Years". 1939±1953". 165. Austin. New Heaven. Moscow. ^ Getty. Vol 54.etext. ISBN 0679640509. In addition.britannica. http://www. 4. ISBN 5-02-013479-1 106. 2006 (ISBN 0300112041). 2002. Stalin.". doi:10.753 non-political sentences. St Martin's Press. ^ "Twentieth Century Atlas ± Death Tolls". ^ ^ Simon Sebag Montefiore. Knopf. "Concerning Marxism in Linguistics". 99. ^ Rosefielde. Not the Last Word". http://sovietinfo. Edward.htm#Stalin. "Stalin's wars: from World War to Cold War. See also: Stephen Wheatcroft (1996). 91. ^ Joseph V.tripod. 584: "Anne Applebaum is right to insist that the statistics 'can never fully describe what happened. University of California 107. 134±135. Geoffrey. ^ a b c d Simon Sebag Montefiore. 85. Weitz (2003). p. (1951) "Istoricheskij materializm". 2010. "The Concept of Class". 1930± 45" (PDF). Anthony. New York (1988) p. http://users. ^ "Recording a Hidden History". http://web. A Century of Violence in Soviet ISBN 9780300103229. 2004 (ISBN 1-4000-4230-5) 83.066.306.' They do suggest. CT. Davies. Vol. See also: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn: The Gulag Archipelago 1918±1956. ISBN 0684834200.. 799. Moscow 2004: Russkai a panorama. 649: "Perhaps 20 million had been killed. Retrieved 28 December 2008. 51. 144±145 88. Knopf. 2. ^ Roberts.293 for 6±10 years. 1922±1991. Hollander. et al.362. Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza.pdf. 7. p.

".HTM. ^ Wettig 2008. 57 117. 539±30 118. 334. George (2005). ^ Sanford. xv 145.html?res=9E06E4D71638F931A25755C0A9639C8B63. German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact. Kenneth. 2007 ISBN 1400040051 p. 129. p. Amsterdam. 4: "U. p. The Black Book of Communism: Crimes. ^ Encyclopedia Britanica. ISBN 0415777577 p. 509±10 120. ^ a b Roberts 1992. ^ a b Roberts 2006.yale. "Stalin's Intelligence". executed 23 August 1939 125. 341 136. ISBN 0333801490. Caroline. 1999. 133. Knopf. http://books. Stalin's Cold War. 343 138. 30 122. ^ Brackman 2001. vary widely. 587±595 119. Routledge. 541 127. pp. ^ Fest 2002. New York. http://www. 1990 ISBN 0671728687. ^ a b Kennedy-Pipe. Alfred Erich. pp. ^ Simon Sebag Montefiore. 2009. ^ Roberts Justice And Memory. The Struggle For Germany. p. p. 2008 124. ^ Murphy 2006. ISBN 0700715991 126. ISBN 0300087608. but the total of deaths caused by the whole range of Soviet regime's terrors can hardly be lower than some fifteen million.nytimes. 2008 (ISBN 0977743330) Introduction online (PDF file): Estimations on the number of Stalin's victims over his twenty-five year reign. Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. The Great Terror: A Reassessment. New York. ISBN 0415338735.asp?isbn=0300103220. ^ Robert Conquest. ^ Yakovlev. ^ Roberts 2006. ^ a b Roberts 2006. ^ a b Roberts 2006. Harvard University Press. ^ Roberts 2006. Stalin. http://yalepress. Alexander. 89 147. p. Anthony Austin (2004). ^ a b Roberts 2006. 143. 2007. 146. and Robert Gellately. New Haven. 63 140. ^ Roberts 2006. Lithuania 1940 : revolution from above. New York: Routledge. ^ Roberts 2006. p. p. 2002. ^ Ferguson. Olli. Lenin. ^ Lionel Kochan. Inside the Stalin Archives: Discovering the New Russia. 57±78 123. and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. 58 137.J. 40th Anniversary Edition. ^ Ulam 1989. Terror Repression. Atlas & Co. 24±28 115. 584: "More recent estimations of the Soviet-on-Soviet killing have been more 'modest' and range between ten and twenty million. pp. Macmillan.: 20 million deaths. ^ a b Shirer 1990. Red Holocaust. 1963 116. p. Simon and Schuster. ^ Shirer. 43 128. pp. ^ a b Murphy 2006. 68 144. 67 142. and Steven Rosefielde. ^ a b c Brackman 2001. p. p.17: "We now know as well beyond a reasonable doubt that there were more than 13 million Red Holocaust victims 1929±53. 21" and Jonathan Brent.allow me to assert that the number of people in the USSR who were killed for political motives or who died in prisons and camps during the entire period of Soviet power totaled 20 to 25 million. 1995. ^ Roberts 90 148. William L. Historical Injustice and Democratic Transition in Eastern Asia and Northern Europe: Ghosts at the Table of Democracy.5 million during the civil war and more than 5 million during the 1930s. Connecticut: Yale University Press. 510±535 114.. 64 121. 53 135. ISBN 0719042011 134. p. p. ^ "Regimes murdering over 10 million people". 1914±1945. ^ Roberts 1992. ^ Robert Conquest.S. New York: Manchester University Press. 1991 (ISBN 0-19-507132-8) 109. and this figure could rise above 20 million. p. ^ How Many Did Stalin Really Murder? by Professor R." 110.S. pp. Rummel 112.hawaii. Oxford University Press. RoutledgeCurzon. 30±32 113. 2002. p. p. in Preface. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany. pp. from 1928 to 1953. but 20 million is now considered the minimum. ^ Christie.. 20 130. 111. 2007 ISBN 9789042022256 132. The Great Terror: A Reassessment." 108. ISBN 0753817667. Niall (12 June 2005). ^ Roberts 2006. pp. 82 141. Rodopi. ^ a b Wettig 2008. ^ Ericson 1999. p. And unquestionably one must add those who died of famine ± more than 5. Oxford University Press. ^ Roberts 2006. London. A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia. ISBN 9780300103229. pp. p." and Stéphane Courtois. p. The New York Times. p. Finland in the Second World War: Between Germany and Russia. xvi: "Exact numbers may never be known with complete certainty. Retrieved 7 May 2010. 116±7 34 . 59 139. p. Katyn and the Soviet Massacre Of 1940: Truth. ^ a b Text of the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact. ^ Senn. ^ Vehviläinen. ^ Erickson 2001. http://query.

186±7 162. 2001. ISBN 0-674-02178-9 171. ISBN 0393322521. 7 150. last accessed on 19 December 2005. . "Zbrodnia katynska" (PDF). ISBN 0415338735 pp. . http://euroheritage.. 2005. 1992 175. W. p. 13 172. 178. justice and memory. 114±115 151. p. Retrieved 19 July 2008. Ian. ^ George Sanford. p. ^ Roberts 2006. shooting order of 5 March 1940 Electronicmuseum. ISBN 0140135642. Retrieved 28 November 2006 179. p. Hitler. Harvard University Press. The Soviet-German War 1941±45: Myths and Realities: A Survey Essay. Michael H. 799±800 168. David. 185 161. Biuletyn IPNpages =4±21. 367. ^ "The World's Wasted Wealth 2: Save Our Wealth. ^ . Retrieved 25 June 2010. 9. "The Katyn Controversy: Stalin's Killing Field".cia. ^ Roberts 2006. ISBN 0670886955. ^ Roberts ^ Bullock. Berlin: The Downfall ^ Hart. 194±5 163. ^ (Polish) obozy jenieckie zolnierzy polskich (Prison camps for Polish soldiers) Encyklopedia PWN.php?action=show&showid=3323. 1936±1945: Nemesis. 159 158. Penguin Books. 180 160. p. ISBN 09624423-2-1 173. ^ Roberts 2006. ^ Excerpt from the minutes No. Official publication of the Polish government Agency of Combatants and Repressed 187.shtml. http://www. original in Russian with English translation 184. Winter 1999±2000 183. Melyukhov) 182. 186. 117±8 153. p. 155 156. ^ "Rulers and victims: the Russians in the Soviet Union". 1943 155. Norton & Company. pp. 11 October 2001. 163 159. ^ (Russian) V 31 « 250 . p. 11 October 2001.149. Penguin Books. 13 of the Politburo of the Central Committee meeting. ^ (Polish) Barbara Polak (2005). 1901±1956". Routledge. ISBN 0762105232.148 6/2003 on the occasion of the Year of General Sikorski. ^ Kershaw. David. 35 .pdf. ISNN 1734-6584. ^ a b Brackman 2001 ^ "Euroheritage. Abbott Gleason (2009). ^ Time Magazine. Nobel Foundation. pp. 199±201 Wiley-Blackwell. ^ Beevor. http://nobelprize. 88 152. Geoffrey A. W.242. 20-24 185. pp. (Official publication of the Polish Army) 180.aspx?logid=5&id=f4349d43-b13d-4c2c-a70d-056e8801493d. ^ a b Roberts 2006. p. ^ Roberts 2006. 2005. 1038±39 169. ^ (Russian) . p. Viking. ISBN 0340833971. ^ a b (Polish) Edukacja Humanistyczna w wojsku. http://nobelprize. D-Day to Berlin. 2004. Biuletyn ÄKombatant´ nr specjalny (148) czerwiec 2003 Special Edition of Kombatant Bulletin No. Save Our Environment". W. (Report of the Ukrainian and Belorussian fronts of the Red Army. Andrew (2005). ^ "Record from The Nomination Database for the Nobel Prize in Peace. ^ Roberts 2006. 310±1 167. ^ Glantz. p. 1901±1956".net". Retrieved 22 September 2007. 1/2005. pp. The Soviet-German War 1941±45: Myths and Realities: A Survey Essay. p. pp. ^ Roberts 2006. p. 124 154. 185±6 170. https://www. pp. pp. ISBN 1-4051-3560-3 174. The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. ^ (Polish) Various authors. p.» (Please provide translation of the reference title and publication data and means) 181. The Soviet-German War 1941±45: Myths and Realities: A Survey 176. Hitler: A Study in Tyranny. Smith (1994). ^ a b Roberts 2006. Nobel Foundation. ^ a b Roberts 2006. Antony. pp. David. pp. 4 Jan. 1991.ceeol. 156 157. 194 166. ^ Roberts 2006. ^ "A Companion to Russian History". 1962." ". ^ "Record from The Nomination Database for the Nobel Prize in Peace. Josef Stalin.php?action=show&showid=2754. ISSN 0042-9058 188. Hodder. ^ Roberts 2006. Hosking (2006). Dom wydawniczy Wojska Polskiego. ^ Glantz. ^ a b c Benjamin B. ^ "Stalin's Killing Field" (PDF). Alan. J. Robert. Retrieved 14 May 2010. 11 October 2001 Clemson. ^ Dolezal. ^ a b Glantz. Katyn and the Soviet massacre of 1940: truth. Revised and Updated for the Nineties New York: Citadel Press Book. Studies in 165. p. Readers Digest. 177. Retrieved 14 May 2010. ^ Roberts 2006.. ^ Williams. Euroheritage. Truth about History: How New Evidence Is Transforming the Story of the Past.

. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. August 2005. ^ Muller. Incorporated. 47±8 213. pp. Propyläen 2005. 1997.. 1 1945±1950". 2006. Johanna. C. ^ Robert Gellately. David. We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History. Knopf. ISBN 0-674-78405-7. 1945±1949. Berlin: The Downfall 1945. . ^ A brief history of Poland: Chapter 13: The Post-War Years. Peter F. ^ Poland ± The Historical Setting: Chapter 6: The Polish People's Republic. Explosion: The Hungarian Revolution of 1956. ^ Roberts 2006. p. p. 1±8 218.4 211. "The Marshall Cavendish Illustrated Encyclopedia of World War II". Lochner. 1998. ^ "Poland. pp. ^ Tom Buchanan. p. 66±69 221. pp. 2007. ^ Germans Find Mass Graves at an Ex-Soviet Camp New York Times. 205. Soames Grenville and Bernard Wasserstein. ISBN 3549072457 German) 204. 46±47. 1993. ^ Richard Overy. 155 200. Masters of Death: The SS-Einsatzgruppen and the Invention of the Holocaust. Marshall Cavendish." Foreign Affairs. On repatriation of Soviet citizens. No. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. ISBN 0-375-40900-9. Krivosheev. Europe's Troubled Peace. 2007. and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. 2002. ^ a b c d 11 February 1945 Potsdam Report. Lenin. 241±244 212. Istoriya SSSR. 71 191. ^ Sugar. Blackwell Publishing. ^ a b c Roberts 2006. . ISBN 0781811740. 1995. pp. "Remembering Rape: Divided Social Memory and the Red Army in Hungary 1944±1945". Memoirs: The Reckoning. 1999. Knopf. ISBN 0-670-88695-5. University of Missouri Press. 93±4 227. 2007 ISBN 1400040051 p. The Dictators Hitler's Germany. 2001 ISBN 041523798X 214. James. The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation.. p. 1990. 90±1 216. Helmut David.N. ^ a b Wettig 2008. Churchill's "Iron Curtain" Speech Fifty Years Later. 1949±1968 201. pp. ^ . 1994.7 / No. 32) 209.. The Goebbels Diaries (1942±1943). 212 194.568±569 208. (ISBN 1-55750-670-1). pp. 2004. ^ Matthews. Eddy. ^ Curp. 1985 192. Taylor & Francis. Retrieved 22 April 2009. Hippocrene Books. 4 (Zemskov V. Penguin Books. 1990. 1948 193. 391 199. Norman M. ^ Engel. ^ Mark. Katyn: Stalin's Massacre and the Seeds of Polish Resurrection. I.190. Antony. Past & Present ± Number 188. John. Boydell & Brewer. ^ a b c d Roberts 2006. Retrieved on 28 March 2007 224. ISBN 025320867X. ^ Bauer. Specific reports also include Report of the Swiss legation in Budapest of 1945 and Hubertus Knabe: Tag der Befreiung? Das Kriegsende in Ostdeutschland (A day of liberation? The end of war in Eastern Germany). ^ Richard Rhodes (2002). Stalin. ^ "The Soviet special camp No. ^ Anthony Eden (1965). A History of Hungary. http://www. 70±71 203. 133 202. John P. The Struggle of Hungarian Lutherans Under Communism. pp. University at Buffalo. ^ Gaddis. ^ Beevor. Indiana University Press. 217. ^ "Chronology 1990.stiftungbg. David. 1990. ^ Ex-Death Camp Tells Story Of Nazi and Soviet Horrors New York Times. 1944±1951 // . ISBN 0-80782069-5. Peter Hanak and Tibor Frank. p. ^ a b Wettig 2008. 24 September 1992 207. ^ Schissler. "Facing a Holocaust: The Polish Government-In-Exile and the Jews. Texas A&M University Press. ^ Text of Order No. 132 197. ISBN 1-58544-298-4 36 . 1945±2000: 1945±2000. 1996. 274±5 215. Polonia Today Online. pp. Joseph. 1945±1960. 95±100 220. p. 5. The First Domino: International Decision Making during the Hungarian Crisis of 1956. Oxford University Press. ^ a b c Wettig 2008. ^ (" 210. Stalin's Russia p. Doubleday & Company. pp. ^ Goebbels.htm. ^ a b c Granville. pp. Translated by Louis P. ISBN 1580462383. 375±77 226. 17 December 2001 206. pp. Naval Institute Press. 2005. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Texas A&M University Press. James W. Retrieved on 7 April 2007 222. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 198. Cambridge: Belknap. ^ G. ISBN 0198780710 219. ISBN 0631221638. p. Retrieved on 14 March 2007 225. New York: Alfred A. 98 196. 1945±1990. ^ Baer. 202 " ("Military-Historical Magazine"). Polish Academic Information Center. 16 228. p. reprinted in Potsdam Ashley. See also: Allen Paul. 1943±1945". A Clean Sweep?: The Politics of Ethnic Cleansing in Western Poland.84 223. The Major International Treaties of the Twentieth Century: A History and Guide with Texts. p. 270 195. ^ a b Roberts 2006. John Lewis. ^ Naimark." Encyclopædia Britannica.. ISBN 0826212476. ^ a b c d e f Roberts 2006. Hanna The Miracle Years: A Cultural History of West Germany. 2006 ISBN 1585444804.

295 262. Joseph Stalin. 1973 267. Miklós. ^ a b c Henig 2005. American Journal of International Law. Simon (4 June 2004). ^ Brent & Naumov 2004. Stalin's Planned Genocide. p. 620 237. http://www. ^ Kun. 634.html. ^ Stokesbury. p. 1984. The Soviet Government and the Jews 1948±1967: A Documented Study. 158 252. p. ^ Brackman 2001. p. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica. Stalin: An Unknown Portrait. 390 256. ^ Eisenstadt. ^ a b Kruschev. The Gulag Archipelago. 6 March 2002 265. Charles. 388 263. James L (1990). ^ Taubert 2003. 103±6 246. 50 231. http://pqasb. Philip Simon. 2005 271. 13 January 1953. BBC. ^ a b Gorlizki. Young Stalin. 47±48 & 295 287 259. ISBN 0714646199. 3 (Jul. 24±25 February 1956 268. ^ Germany (East).. Malyshev. ABC-CLIO. 288 251. Pravda. Closed session. 2008 247. 571 272. pp. Gosudarstvennyj antisemitizm v SSSR. ^ Department of State 1948. pp. ^ a b Roberts 2002. ^ " 270. 98 238. 235. Jews and Jewish Life in Russia and the Soviet Union. 2005. 80±358 241. Alexander. (Russian) 257. ^ Brent & Naumov 2004. p. 2003. Washington. e. ". p. 2008.html?dids=497978032:497978032&FMT=CITE&FMT S=CITE:AI&type=historic&date=Sep+24%2C+1951&author=&pub=Chicago+Tribune&desc=CHINESE+ASKS+AL L+MOSLEMS+TO+FIGHT+REDS&pqatl=google. ISBN 0688095135. p. ^ Brent & Naumov 2004 37 .cyberussr. ^ a b Nekrich. 1948). 184 261. Stalin. p. ^ "Moslems Urged To Resist Russia". 234. Library of Congress Country Study.pqarchiver. Nikita. p. ^ Brent & Naumov 2004. ^ Sebag Montefiore. pp. 100 243. p. 107±8 255. ^ a b Brackman 2001. Christian Science Monitor. pp. p. 461. ^ "CHINESE ASKS ALL MOSLEMS TO FIGHT REDS". ISBN 0822534215. ^ Brent & Naumov 2004. 384±5 248. 298±300 266. pp. Joseph Stalin: A Biographical Companion. Failed Illusions: Moscow. pp. Routledge. ^ From the diary of Vice-Chair of the Sovmin V.html?dids=275861742:275861742&FMT=CITE&F MTS=CITE:AI&date=Sep+25%2C+1951&author=&pub=Christian+Science+Monitor&desc=Moslems+Urged+To+Re sist+Russia&pqatl=google. Sourcebooks. Twenty-First Century Books. ^ "Stalin's torture: 'Beat them to death'".pqarchiver. Budapest. 97 242. 2008.telegraph. Benjamin. ^ Gati. The Doctors' Plot. See G.stm. ^ a b c d e Ro'i.html. 2003. http://news. 9±12 230. 462 250. p. 25 Sep 1951. ^ a b Bideleux & Jeffries 1998 233. Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. Retrieved 24 August 2010. 2005. Kostyrchenko. Simon Sebag. ^ a b c d Roberts 2002. 2005 ISBN 0195304209. 99±101 253. ^ Roberts 2002. A Short History of the Korean War. ^ Simon Sebag Montefiore. 269. New York: Harper Perennial. Yoram and Oleg Khlevniuk.229.. p. "The Recognition of Israel".com/chicagotribune/access/497978032. ^ Montefiore Sebag. pp. p. No. Yaakov. ^ "Vicious Spies and Killers under the Mask of Academic Physicians". 2004 (ISBN 14000-4230-5). p. ^ a b Stalin's Secret Pogrom: The Postwar Inquisition of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (introduction) by Joshua Rubenstein 249. ISBN 9639241199. ^ Roberts 2002. New York: Vintage. ISBN 0521247136. 24 Sep 1951. Helen. Ulam & Freeze 1997. p. Brown. Cold Peace: Stalin and the Soviet Ruling Circle 1945±1953. and the 1956 Hungarian Revolt. Inc. 2006 ISBN 0804756066. 42. ^ Brackman 2001. Central European University Press. pp. Moscow. Random House. Cambridge University Press. ^ Solzhenitzin. ^ Pinkus. ISBN 1400096138. Jeffrey. Yaacov. p. Vol. p. 67 239. 22 Adar 5762. ^ a b Wettig 2008. ^ a b Zuehlke. 318 244. 1999 ISBN 1576070840. 165 258. "Why Stalin loved Tarzan and wanted John Wayne shot". 202±205 245. 1995. The Daily Telegraph. pp. Stanford University Press. Appendix B: The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance 232. 254. ^ See.A. 236. Chicago Daily Tribune. Special Report to the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.. New York: Alfred A. ^ Montefiore. 96 240. ^ Rappaport. page297 260. Retrieved 1 March 2007. ^ Brent & Naumov 2004. Novaya Gazeta. http://www. 1971. Stalin and Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. Young Stalin (2007 Costa biography winner ed. Britain confronts the Stalin revolution: Anglo-Soviet relations and the Metro-Vickers's crisis. New Brunswick. USA: Pearson Education. 19±21. 291. ^ Rico. 287. ^ ´Stalin was µafraid of Beria¶. 507. Time.html. 294. "Greatest Russian poll". ^ Desmond Butler (December Retrieved 25 June 2010. 292. ^ a b "Resolution on Stalin riles Russia". ^ Schwartzenberg. Retrieved 25 June 2010. ^ Russian youth: Stalin good. "The Big Question: Why is Stalin still popular in Russia. ^ Galpin. Holt. 133. 354. 1 March allegedly from Stalin. William Morrow & Co. ^ David Lloyd Hoffmann (2003). Stalin. ISBN 1405874368. ^ Retrieved 25 June 2010.. Retrieved 7 May 2010. The superstar show of government. 35±37 299. Cornell University Press. ^ "YouTube ± Joseph Stalin Biography 1 of 2".00. Cf. ISBN 9780812052589. Martin (2008). 288. ISBN 9788482398051. ^ "Modern Poll ± Votes for Stalin".: Transaction Publishers. Salon.). "Rethinking Churchill".´.stm. ^ Nikolai Tolstoy. sensing that Beria was winning support. "Ex-Death Camp Tells Story of Nazi + Soviet Horrors". p. ^ that while Stalin was preparing Beria's downfall. ISBN 0030472660. 2004. by engineering a conflict with the West. 92. Gordon W. BBC News (5 March 2003) 278. Retrieved 23 August 2008. John V. 1917-1941. According to Radzinsky. 277. London: Guardian. the Russian edition. Wilfrid Laurier Univ. ISBN The head of security on that night gave the guards the order. Khrushchev remembers. BBC News. ibid. 1987 298. and Winston (1981).foreignaffairs. Retrieved 25 June 2010. Shaun (14 May 2008). p. Stalin intended to use the USSR's lead in the development of a hydrogen bomb to his advantage. In Denson. that they were not required and could go to bed. 276. The Costs of War: America's Pyrrhic Victories (1st ed. BBC News. ^ ISBN 0786868767. 281. Ediciones Palabra. This was advantageous for Beria since the purge²which had already started against the Jewish doctors²was scheduled to start moving up to current Politburo members including Beria and Khrushchev. ^ Koba the migrants must go: poll. ^ How Russia faced its dark past. pp. 1967 296. ISBN 9780889202504.html. µand would have been glad to get rid of him but didn¶t know how to do it. http://books. ISBN Retrieved 25 June 2010.. 2003.time. 311 274. he also cites pp. Retrieved 21 September 2008. Reuters (25 July 2007) 280. This. p. ISBN 0297850687. ^ a b c d Nikolai Tolstoy. despite the brutality of his regime?".. pp. ^ Simon Sebag ^ McCullough. N. London: The ISBN 9780743260299. ^ Jean-Jacques Marie (2003).html. p. 395.. ^ Tom Parfitt in Moscow (29 December 2008). (1 November 1995). University of California. Beria first had Stalin's head of security killed and this allowed Beria to interfere with the bodyguard arrangements for Stalin. ^ "The Human Monster. Richard (30 October 2009). A. 2001). http://books. Stalinist values: the cultural norms of Soviet modernity. O'Hehir. 283. indeed Molotov had already been deposed. Britain: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. http://www. ^ "Historical Notes: The Death of Stalin's Son". OCLC 250. http://books. The Wolf of the Kremlin. Next morning there was no activity from Stalin's room. 297. Knopf. ^ Walker. this was also the resumption of "the Terror": to ensure obedience of the nation in anticipation of a planned nuclear war. 290. New York. page=11 (ISBN 1-4000-4230-5). David (9 April 1952). Simon (2007). http://books. ISBN 1560003197. ^ Radzinsky notes in Stalin: The First In-Depth Biography Based on Explosive New Documents From Russia's Secret Archives. 103±105 of his daughter's book. Simon Sebag Montefiore. http://news.). 5 May 2005 285.J. "Epilogue".¶ Stalin himself confirmed this. Press.stm. p. "Medvedev blasts Stalin defenders".[citation needed] Stalin's Secret War. 282. could be achieved by building on the show trials of "the Jewish doctors". 38 . 289. 258. http://news. Retrieved 25 June 2010. p. he thought.." p. Retrieved 25 June 2010. ^ a b c McCauley. Ralph (31 May 1997).com. Stalin: The Man and His Era. ^ "Russia: Court Rejects Libel Claim by Stalin's Grandson" Associated Press article in The New York Times 13 October 2009 279. ISBN 0807070017. p. thought Khrushchev. 3 July 2009. 295. 284. Rinehart. Stalin. Simon and Schuster. Twenty Letters to a Friend. Nikita Khrushchev.html. http://www.nytimes. Roger-Gérard (7 February 2007). in a footnote he quotes the press announcement as speaking of her "sudden death". 4. and embracing an anti-semitic expulsion of "the Jews" to Siberia.independent. Stuart. 548.

Ulam. pp. (2002). Constantine Pleshakov. Wettig. 2008 (ISBN 0977743330) Introduction online 39 . A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change. "Economic Problems of Socialism in the USSR". Falsifiers of History (Historical Survey). ISBN 0742555429. ^ Avalos. Aleksandr Moiseevich. W. The Myth of Munich. ^ a b c d Khrushchev. ^ Robert Conquest Stalin: Breaker of Nations. II. p. 1928±1941. Columbia University Press. Ltd.ibiblio. Geoffrey (1992). Tucker. 4. Department of State (1948). Boobbyer. Pariahs. 272848. Routledge. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House. Robert. Harpercollins. ISBN W. Frank Cass Publishers.) 52 (4): 695±722. 1922±1941. ISBN 0231106769. New York (1987) p. ISBN 030011981X.The Young Stalin. Ian (1998). and Practice. Brackman. Naumov. Fighting Words: The Origins Of Religious Violence. Norton & Company. Partners. ISBN 0300112041. 1939±1941: Documents from the Archives of The German Foreign Office. Retrieved 19 October 2008.jstor. Overy. the Pact with Nazi Germany.300. ISBN 0674455312. Robert C. ISBN 3486566733. Edward Ellis. Religioustolerance. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ^ Smith.1080/713663077. The Stalin Era.html. Jonathan. http://www. and the Believer. Stalin and the Cold War in Europe. 1939±1953. Stalin.) 55 (2): 57±78. Norton & Company. Jeffries. http://www. 1948±1953. The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia. ^ a b c d e (Radzinsky 1996. 4. Straus and Giroux. W. 20 304.jstor. ISBN 0060933100. Yale University Press.. ^ Dimitry V. Retrieved 19 October 2008. Young Stalin. Rowman & Littlefield. 1967. ISBN 0767900561. Ltd. ^ "Was Prejevalsky really the father of Joseph Stalin?". ISBN 0393308693..71 306. Logoi. ^ "Mass crimes against humanity and genocide". 308. (1997). Hector. Roberts. Stalin's Wars: From World War to Cold War. Nekrich. that his works were influenced by a distinctly Biblical style" and "his atheism remained rooted in some vague idea of a God of nature. Hitler. Predators: German-Soviet Relations.logoi. http://www. however. Stalin's Last Crime: The Plot Against the Jewish Doctors. Nikita (2006). 325 302. St Martin's Press. (1992). J. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0271028610. HarperCollins. "The Soviet Decision for a Pact with Nazi Germany". Zubok and Pleshakov further state. Memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev. (2006).org. Freeze. Montefiore. ISBN 9780297850687. New York: Farrar. Geoffrey (2002). doi:10. Simon Sebag (2007). http://www. The Origins of the Second World War. Routledge. ISBN 0156027542. David Murphy. Roberts. http://www. 115±116. Europe-Asia Studies (Taylor & Francis. Fest. Brent. (2004). ISBN 0714650501. Yale University Press. ISBN 0393020304. Pospielovsky. Geoffrey (2006). Atlas & Co. Anne (2003). USA: Penn State Press. vol 1: A History of Marxist-Leninist Atheism and Soviet Anti-Religious Policies. Roman (2001).org/genocide0. by. 472±3) 305. Doubleday.htm. Bideleux. Soviet Studies (Taylor & Francis. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag. and the Origins of Postwar Soviet Diplomatic Ruth Beatrice (2005). 301. Gregory L. The Secret File of Joseph Stalin: A Hidden Life. "Many would later note. Fritz (2003)." 303. p. Further reading y y Anton Antonov-Ovseenko. What Stalin Knew: The Enigma of Barbarossa. Gerhard (2008). Gulag: A History. pp. Joachim C. Derek (2000). 1983 (ISBN 0060390271) Brent.religioustolerance. Routledge. Taubert.77 Bibliography y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Applebaum. Soviet Information Bureau (1948). Roberts. Stalin in Power: The Revolution from Above. ISBN 0767900561. p. A History of Soviet Atheism in Theory. The Time of Stalin: Portrait of a Tyranny. 1933±41. ^ Vladislav Zubok. 307. Inside the Kremlin's Cold War: From Stalin to Khrushchev. Department of State. Vladimir (2004). Watson. Jonathan. Nazi-Soviet Relations. Inside the Stalin Archives: Discovering the New Russia. ISBN 0415332621. "Molotov's Apprenticeship in Foreign Policy: The Triple Alliance Negotiations in 1939". p. vol. Henig. Adam Bruno. Phillip (2000).

Walter. Isaac Deutscher. Naumov. Litvin. Stalin. 1990 (ISBN 0684192039). 1999 (ISBN 0-7735-1811-8). Life and Death under Stalin: Kalinin Province. 1986 (ISBN 0-688-04730-0). and Their War. Keep. Edvard Radzinsky. 1±14. New York: Oxford University Press (U. 1996 (ISBN 0-385-47397-4). Harcourt Trade Publishers New York.H. Zhores Medvedev The Unknown Stalin: His Life. 40 . 1996 (ISBN 0275951138) Richard Pipes. Kingston. Stalin and the Shaping of the Soviet Union. as Stalin's Last Crime: The Doctor's Plot. 2003 (ISBN 0-7190-6377-9). UK: Longman. McDermott. and Legacy. Laqueur. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 1967 (ISBN 0-19-500273-3). Marius. Communism: A History. An excerpt. Stalin. Quebec. 1987 (ISBN 0688072917). London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Milovan ilas. 2010.). Robert Conquest. Palgrave Macmillan. 1929±53. Gill. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Houndmills. Stalin: A Political Biography. New York: Oxford University Press. Mawdsley. London: John Murray. Death. Modern Library Chronicles. Sarah.B.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Brent. Bullock. James E. 2004 (ISBN 1-4039-3443-6). Stalin: A New History. Harris. Edmonton. UK. Graeme. The Great Terror: A Reassessment. Famine in Ukraine 1932±1933: A Memorial Exhibition. 1941±1945. Conversations With Stalin. New York: Oxford University Press. Kees. Tauris. David E. 24 December 2007. edited by Roman Serbyn and Bohdan Krawchenko. 2001 (ISBN 0679640509) Priestland. Praeger Press. "The Man-Made Famine of 1933 in Soviet Ukraine". 2002. edited by Apor. 1962 (ISBN 0151225907) Orlando Figes. Stalinism (2nd ed. Alberta: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine. Alter L. 1991 (ISBN 0002154943). New York: Routledge. Barry and McDermott. Alan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2005 (ISBN 0-52185104-1). Chapter 1. ON: McGill-Queen's University Press. Robert Conquest. Vladimir Pavlovich. Power. the Russians. 2007 (ISBN 9780297850687). Michael. 2006 (ISBN 0-582-78479-4). 2003 (ISBN 0-06-019524-X). 1945±1953. New York: HarperCollins. Jan C. Montreal. Alex de. Allen Lane. and Terror in Inter-war Russia. Knopf.S. Kevin (eds). Broekmeyer. ISBN 0691147841 Richard Overy. 1948±1953. Polly Jones and E. The Lesser Evil: Moral Approaches to Genocide Practices (Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions).). pp. Young Stalin. London: HarperCollins. Rees. Stalin and the Politics of Mobilization: Ideas. What Stalin Knew: The Enigma of Barbarossa. Stalinism: Russian and Western Views at the Turn of the Millennium (Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions). 1990 (ISBN 0-19-5071328). London: I. 2005 (ISBN 0300107803). Hiroaki. Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia. Stalin's Terror: High Politics and Mass Repression in the Soviet Union. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Yale University Press. Simon Sebag Montefiore. Jonge. New York: Alfred A. ISBN 0300123892 The Leader Cult in Communist Dictatorships: Stalin and the Eastern Bloc. Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. The Lesser Terror: Soviet state security. Stalin. 2004 (ISBN 0-7195-6508-1). Balázs. 2006 (ISBN 0-333-71121-1). New York: Routledge. Lenin. WI: University of Wisconsin Press. New York: Scribner. 2005 (ISBN 1400076781). 2004 (ISBN 0-299-19590-2). Madison. Stalin: The Glasnost Revelations. James R. Mace. Kuromiya. 2004 (ISBN 0-415-35108-1) Kuromiya.A. Metropolitan Books. Princeton University Press. and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Stalin's Last Crime: The Plot Against the Jewish Doctors. Robert. Evan. New York: Vintage. 1998 (ISBN 0-312-17764-X). David. 2007 (ISBN 0805074619) Gellately. 2003 (ISBN 1-86064-768-5) Simon Sebag Montefiore. Norman Naimark Stalin's Genocides (Human Rights and Crimes against Humanity). Knopf. Parrish. The Stalin Years: The Soviet Union. John L. 2004 (ISBN 1-4000-42305). The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin's Russia. Davies. Jonathan. Kevin. Stalin: The First In-Depth Biography Based on Explosive New Documents from Russia's Secret Archives. 1990 (ISBN 0140135049). 2004 (ISBN 0-7146-5493-0).. Murphy. New York: William Morrow. Hiroaki. Doubleday. McLoughlin. August 2007 (ISBN 1400040051). The Voices of the Dead: Stalin's Great Terror in the 1930s. Yale University Press. 1986 (ISBN 0-19-505180-7). Boterbloem. 1986 (ISBN 0-920862-43-8). ISBN 1403901198 Roy Medvedev. 1939±1953. 2006 (ISBN 0-19-924513-4). 2004 (ISBN 0-393-32797-3). Behrends. Harlow. edited by Helmut Dubiel and Gabriel Motzkin. New York: Oxford University Press. London: Penguin Books. Stalin: Revolutionary in an Era of War (European History in Perspective).

Timothy Snyder. 1998 (ISBN 0684834200) Ward. Vol. Tucker Stalin in Power: The Revolution from Above. New York: Random House. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 2006 (ISBN 1-4039-4705-8). Harry H. Shagdariin. 2003 (ISBN 0-7146-5415-9). (Enigma Books: New York. ISBN 0813337100 Service. Kendall. Austin. 2002 (ISBN 0-7007-1749-8). 2. 2004 (ISBN 0-375-50632-2). Chris. New Heaven. London. (2006). ISBN 0465002390 Boris Souvarine. Geoffrey. Adam Bruno.) Dmitri Volkogonov (Author). Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev (Author). Translator). Tucker Stalin as Revolutionary.. London: Yale University Press. The Political Thought of Joseph Stalin: A Study in Twentieth-Century Revolutionary Patriotism. The Forsaken: An American Tragedy in Stalin's Russia. A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia. Ree. Shukman. Redefining Stalinism (Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions). 1994 (ISBN 1560001453). 1998 (ISBN 0-340-70640-6). 1973) online edition Robert C. MT: Kessinger Publishing. The Penguin Press. Red Holocaust. 2002 (ISBN 0300087608) External links Find more about Joseph Stalin on Wikipedia's sister projects: Definitions from Wiktionary Images and media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks y y y Stalin Library (with all 13 volumes of Stalin's works and "volume 14") Library of Congress: Revelations from the Russian Archives Electronic archive of Stalin's letters and presentations 41 . 36. A Secret Execution. Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Donald Rayfield. Rosefielde. Edited by Melanie Ilic and Stephen G. Tim. Journal of European Studies. 2009. The Murder of Maxim Gorky. 1990 (ISBN 0393-02881-X). pp. Robert C.: Transaction Publishers. Stalin and His Hangmen: The Tyrant and Those Who Killed for Him. The Stalinist Dictatorship. Poisoned Arrows: The Stalin-Choibalsan Mongolian Massacres.W. London: Arnold Publishers. (W. Cambridge. Anthony (Translator). New Brunswick. 2008 (ISBN 1594201684) Ulam. Stalin: A Critical Survey of Bolshevism. 1921±1941. Free Press. Wakeman. New York: Routledge Courzon. 2005 (ISBN 0-674-01697-1).J. Norton. Routledge. 1939±1953. 2006 (ISBN 0300112041). Wheatcroft. Robert. N. "Stalin Through Seventeenth-Century Eyes".W. Yale University Press. Autopsy for an Empire: the Seven Leaders Who Built the Soviet Regime. Whitefish. CT. 2005 (ISBN 1-41911307-0)Online. New York: W. N. Basic Books. Frederic E. ISBN 978-1929631-62-9. 1879±1929: A Study in History and Personality. Steven. (ISBN 0415777577) Rudolph Rummel Death By Government.J. Westview Press (October 1999). Ward. New York: Routledge. 1928±1941. 2010. edited by Harold Shukman. New Brunswick. 1989 (ISBN 0-8070-7005-X) Vaksberg. Chris. Arkady. Stalin: A Biography. No. Stalin's Terror Revisited. Harold (Editor. 1990 (ISBN 0887383335) Sandag. Norton. 2007. Tzouliadis. Roberts. Stalin: The Man and His Era. Stalin's Wars: From World War to Cold War. MA: Belknap Press.: Transaction Publishers. 181±200. Erik van. Boston: Beacon Press. Rudolph Rummel Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917.

J. A. 16 July 1953. 2006 ISBN 5983790420 ± estimates of the human cost of Stalin's rule Annotated bibliography for Joseph Stalin from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues "Secret documents reveal Stalin was poisoned" study by the Russian paper Pravda of events behind possible death by poisoning Over 2. Rummel Death of the Butcher by Hoover fellow Arnold Beichman A secret revealed: Stalin's police killed Americans (1997 Associated Press article) Stalin giving a speech in Russian with English subtitles The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine (1986) Authority control: LCCN: n80044789 Political offices Preceded by None People's Commissar of Nationalities of the RSFSR 1917±1923 Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union Council of People's Commissars until 1946 1941±1953 Minister of Defence of the Soviet Union People's Commissar until 1946 1941±1947 Chairman of the State Defense Committee 1941±1945 Party political offices Preceded by None General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 1922±1953 Military offices Preceded by None Generalissimo of the Soviet Union 1945±1953 Succeeded by None Succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev Succeeded by ? Preceded by Vyacheslav Molotov Succeeded by Georgy Malenkov Preceded by Semyon Timoshenko Preceded by None Succeeded by Nikolai Bulganin Succeeded by None 42 . Part One" and "Part Two" by Grover Furr.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Sovetika. Stalinka: The Digital Library of Staliniana Modern History Sourcebook: Stalin's Reply to Churchill. Death of Stalin. chapter from Demographic Modernization in Russia 1900±2000. How Many Did Stalin Really Murder? by Professor R. Khrushchev: The Secret Speech ² On the Cult of Personality. Progressive Labor Party website "The Revolution Betrayed" by Leon Trotsky Stalin and the 'Cult of Personality' Stalin Biography from Spartacus Educational A List of Key Documentary Material on Stalin "Stalin and the Struggle for Democratic Reform. G. Gregory "Demographic catastrophes of the 20th century".000 original German WWII soldier photographs from the Eastern Front Central Intelligence Agency. ed. 1956 The political economy of Stalinism: evidence from the Soviet secret archives / Paul R. Office of Current Intelligence. 1946 Modern History Sourcebook: Nikita ± A site about the Soviet era (Russian) "Another view of Stalin" [1][2][3] by Ludo Martens. Vishnevsky.

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