Joseph Stalin From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search "Stalin" redirects here.

For other uses, see Stalin (disambiguation). Generalissimo Joseph Stalin Russian: Georgian:

Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union In office 6 May 1941 ± 5 March 1953 Preceded by Succeeded by Vyacheslav Molotov Georgy Malenkov

General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (office abolished in October 1952)

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In office 3 April 1922 ± 5 March 1953 Preceded by Established Nikita Khrushchev after vacancy

Succeeded by

People's Commissar for the Defense of the Soviet Union In office 19 July 1941 ± 25 February 1946 Premier Preceded by Himself Semyon Timoshenko Nikolai Bulganin after vacancy

Succeeded by

Born

18 December 1878 Gori, Tiflis Governorate, Russian Empire 5 March 1953 (aged 74) Kuntsevo Dacha near Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili

Died

Birth name (Georgian: ) Nationality Ethnicity Soviet Georgian, with some Ossetian roots[1]

Political party Communist Party of the Soviet Union Spouse(s) Children Alma mater Ekaterina Svanidze (1906±1907) Nadezhda Alliluyeva (1919±1932) Yakov Dzhugashvili, Vasily Dzhugashvili, Svetlana Alliluyeva, Konstantin Kuzakov Tiflis Theological Seminary

Signature

Military service

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Allegiance Years of service Rank Commands Battles/wars

Soviet Union 1943±1953 Generalissimo of the Soviet Union All (supreme commander) World War II

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878[2] ± 5 March 1953) served as the first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953. Stalin assumed the leading role in Soviet politics after Vladimir Lenin's death in 1924, and gradually marginalized his opponents until he had become the unchallenged leader of the Soviet Union. Stalin launched a command economy, replacing the New Economic Policy of the 1920s with Five-Year Plans and launching a period of rapid industrialization and economic collectivization. The upheaval in the agricultural sector disrupted food production, resulting in widespread famine, including the catastrophic Soviet famine of 1932±1933 (known in Ukraine as the Holodomor).[3] During the late 1930s, Stalin launched the Great Purge (also known as the "Great Terror"), a campaign to purge the Communist Party of people accused of sabotage, terrorism, or treachery; he extended it to the military and other sectors of Soviet society. In practice, the purges were indiscriminate. Targets were often executed, imprisoned in Gulag labor camps or exiled. In the years which followed, millions of members of ethnic minorities were also deported.[4][5] In 1939 Stalin entered into a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, followed by the Soviet invasion of Poland, Finland, the Baltics, Bessarabia and northern Bukovina. After Germany violated the pact by invading the Soviet Union in 1941, the Soviet Union joined the Allies to play an important role in the Axis defeat, at the cost of the largest death toll for any country in the war (mostly due to the mass deaths of civilians in territories occupied by Germany). After the war, Stalin installed subservient communist governments in most countries in Eastern Europe, forming the Eastern bloc, behind what was referred to as an "Iron Curtain" of Soviet rule during the Cold War. Stalin's government was also the driving force in the removal of political killings from the 1948 Genocide Convention.[6][7] Following his death, Stalin and his regime have both been questioned and denounced on numerous occasions. In 1956, Stalin's successor, Nikita Khrushchev, denounced his legacy and drove the process of de-Stalinization of the Soviet Union.[8] In November 2010, the Russian State Duma approved a declaration blaming Stalin, amongst other officials, for having personally ordered the Katyn massacre.[9] Contents [hide]

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1 Early life 2 Revolution, Civil War, and Polish-Soviet War o 2.1 Role during the Russian Revolution of 1917 o 2.2 Role in the Russian Civil War, 1917±1919 o 2.3 Role in the Polish-Soviet War, 1919±1921 3 Rise to power 4 Changes to Soviet society, 1927±1939 o 4.1 Bolstering Soviet secret service and intelligence o 4.2 Cult of personality o 4.3 Purges and deportations  4.3.1 Purges  4.3.2 Population transfer o 4.4 Collectivization o 4.5 Famines  4.5.1 Ukrainian famine o 4.6 Industrialization o 4.7 Science

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4.8 Social services 4.9 Culture 4.10 Religion 4.11 Theorist 5 Calculating the number of victims 6 World War II, 1939±1945 o 6.1 Pact with Hitler o 6.2 Implementing the division of Eastern Europe and other invasions o 6.3 Hitler breaks the pact o 6.4 Soviets stop the Germans o 6.5 Soviet push to Germany o 6.6 Final victory o 6.7 Nobel Prize in Peace nominations o 6.8 Questionable tactics o 6.9 Allied conferences on post-war Europe 7 Post-war era, 1945±1953 o 7.1 The Iron Curtain and the Eastern Bloc o 7.2 Sino-Soviet Relations o 7.3 North Korea o 7.4 Israel o 7.5 Falsifiers of History o 7.6 Domestic support o 7.7 "Doctors' plot" 8 Death and aftermath o 8.1 Later analysis of death o 8.2 Reaction by successors o 8.3 Views on Stalin in Russian Federation 9 Personal life o 9.1 Origin of name, nicknames and pseudonyms o 9.2 Appearance o 9.3 Marriages and family o 9.4 Habits o 9.5 Religious beliefs and policies 10 Hypotheses, rumors and misconceptions about Stalin 11 Works 12 See also 13 References o 13.1 Notes o 13.2 Bibliography 14 Further reading 15 External links

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Early life Main article: Early life of Joseph Stalin

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Georgia. eventually joining Lenin's Bolsheviks in 1903. two horse-drawn carriage accidents left his left arm permanently damaged. After being marked by the Okhranka (the Tsar's secret police) for his activities. Stalin discovered the writings of Vladimir Lenin and decided to become a Marxist revolutionary. By the age of twelve. In the summer of 1906. and conducted protection rackets. V. ransom kidnappings and extortion. age 16 ) on 18 December 1878[2] Stalin was born Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili (Georgian: to Ketevan Geladze and Besarion Jughashvili. counterfeiting operations and robberies.[10] The official Soviet version states that he was expelled for reading illegal literature and forming a Social Democratic study circle. ransom kidnappings. he became a full-time revolutionary and outlaw. where Ekaterina died of typhus. At ten. 5 . he began attending church school where the Georgian children were forced to speak Russian. inciting strikes. 1911[12] Shortly after leaving the seminary. Though he performed well there. He became one of the Bolsheviks' chief operatives in the Caucasus. a large raid on a bank shipment in the crowded Yeveran Square that resulted in the deaths of 40 people and the injuring of 50 people. in the town of Gori. The seminary's records suggest he was unable to pay his tuition fees. he contracted smallpox. Stalin married Ekaterina Svanidze. he received a scholarship to a Georgian Orthodox seminary. At sixteen. including the murders of many "Black Hundreds" right-wing supporters of the Tsar. spreading propaganda and raising money through bank robberies.[11] The information card on "I. Stalin organized Muslim Azeris and Persians in partisan activities. who later gave birth to Stalin's first child. which permanently scarred his face. where he rebelled against the imperialist and religious order. Stalin". At the age of seven.[13] and then fled to Baku. Yakov. he was expelled in 1899 after missing his final exams. a cobbler. from the files of the Tsarist secret police in Saint Petersburg. In Baku. organizing paramilitaries. Stalin temporarily resigned from the party over its ban on bank robberies and his link to the 1907 Tiflis bank robbery.Young Stalin. circa 1894.

Kliment Voroshilov and Semyon Budyonny. in April 1912 in Saint Petersburg. in order to stem mass desertions on the Western front. the Winter Palace had been stormed and Kerensky's Cabinet had been arrested. As commander of the southern front. but was deemed unfit for service because of his damaged left arm. ordered the besieged Bolsheviks to surrender. Lenin and the rest of the Central Committee coordinated the coup against the Kerensky government²the so-called October Revolution. Russian Civil War. Trotsky's forces engaged with those of Polish commander W adys aw Sikorski at the Battle of Warsaw. He then took a position in favor of supporting Alexander Kerensky's provisional government. Vladimir Lenin. Upon seizing Petrograd. Role in the Russian Civil War. By 8 November. the Bolsheviks moved to establish a sphere of influence in Central Europe. After release from one such exile.[12] He smuggled Lenin to Finland and assumed leadership of the Bolsheviks. but Stalin refused to redirect his troops from Lviv to help. This conflicted with general strategy set by Lenin and Trotsky. starting with what became the Polish±Soviet War. Stalin was appointed People's Commissar for Nationalities' Affairs.Stalin was captured and sent to Siberia seven times. Civil War. Lenin formed a five-member Politburo which included Stalin and Trotsky. At this conference. 1919±1921 After their Russian Civil War victory. During his last exile. Stalin was elected to the Bolshevik Central Committee.[15] Role in the Polish-Soviet War. civil war broke out in Russia. Stalin ousted Vyacheslav Molotov and Alexander Shlyapnikov as editors of Pravda. After Lenin participated in an attempted revolution. All three of them were "Old Bolsheviks"²members of the Bolshevik party before the Russian Revolution of 1917. for which Stalin was 6 . and Polish-Soviet War Main article: Joseph Stalin in the Russian Revolution. Stalin. In May 1918. and Mikhail Kalinin meeting in 1919. Lenin dispatched Stalin to the city of Tsaritsyn.[15] Consequently.[15] Stalin was determined to take the Polish-held city of Lviv. pitting Lenin's Red Army against the White Army. after Lenin prevailed at the April 1917 Party conference. Kerensky left the capital to rally the Imperial troops at the German front. the battles for both Lviv and Warsaw were lost. 1917±1919 Joseph Stalin.[14] Revolution. Stalin imposed his influence on the military. Stalin and Pravda supported overthrowing the provisional government.[12] On 7 November. in October 1917. Stalin was conscripted by the Russian army to fight in World War I.[15] Stalin challenged many of the decisions of Trotsky. which he used as an alias and pen name in his published works.[15] In May 1919. Stalin created the newspaper Pravda from an existing party newspaper.[15] Thereafter. However. and Polish-Soviet War Role during the Russian Revolution of 1917 After returning to Saint Petersburg from exile. He eventually adopted the name "Stalin". a loose alliance of anti-Bolshevik forces. from the Russian word for steel. but escaped most of these exiles. the Bolshevik Central Committee voted in favor of an insurrection. ordered the killings of many former Tsarist officers in the Red Army and counter-revolutionaries[15][16] and burned villages in order to intimidate the peasantry into submission and discourage bandit raids on food shipments. from the Smolny Institute. Stalin had deserters and renegades publicly executed as traitors.[12] After the jailed Bolsheviks were freed to help defend Saint Petersburg. which focused upon the capture of Warsaw further north. Stalin helped Lenin evade capture and. Through his new allies. to avoid a bloodbath.

Stalin visited him often. Lenin had Stalin appointed as General Secretary in 1922. believed that the KMT bourgeoisie would defeated the western imperialists in China and complete the revolution. These allies prevented Lenin's Testament from being revealed to the Twelfth Party Congress in April 1923. Trotsky wanted the Communist party to complete an orthodox proletarian revolution and opposed the KMT. Kamenev and Zinoviev helped to keep Lenin's Testament from going public.[15] During Lenin's semi-retirement. and that his forces were to be utilized until squeezed for all usefulness like a lemon before being discarded. Trotsky. who believed that all the Soviet states should stand equal.[22][23] Stalin pushed for more rapid industrialization and central control of the economy.[15][16] Bukharin and Premier Rykov attacked these policies and advocated a return to the NEP. Kamenev and Zinoviev grew increasingly isolated. He launched a massive purge against these internal enemies. Stalin made the loyal Nikolai Yezhov head of the secret police. and when he got mired in squabbles with Trotsky and other politicians. centralist policies towards Soviet Georgia. Stalin blamed Kirov's murder on a vast conspiracy of saboteurs and Trotskyites. Among these victims were old enemies.[15] Lenin dictated increasingly disparaging notes on Stalin in what would become his testament.[15] This post allowed Stalin to appoint many of his allies to government positions. establish the Soviet takeover of Eastern Europe. forcing him into semi-retirement in Gorki. including Bukharin. the popular Sergei Kirov was murdered. secure Lviv in the Nazi-Soviet pact. Kamenev and Zinoviev. the NKVD. Thereafter. ambition and politics. and were eventually ejected from the Central Committee and then from the Party itself. demand that Lviv be ceded by Poland to the Soviet Union. and was dismissed and later executed.[15] Kamenev and Zinoviev were later readmitted. Changes to Soviet society. Yezhov was held to blame for the excesses of the Great Terror.[17][18] Rise to power Main article: Rise of Joseph Stalin Stalin played a decisive role in engineering the 1921 Red Army invasion of Georgia. 1927±1939 Bolstering Soviet secret service and intelligence 7 . However. Stalin. Stalin forged an alliance with Kamenev and Grigory Zinoviev against Leon Trotsky. Stalin funded the KMT during the expedition. that Chiang Kai-shek had funding from the rich merchants. Stalin's disputes with Lev Kamenev and Zinoviev intensified. With the help of Lev Kamenev. The Northern Expedition in China became a point of contention over foreign policy by Stalin and Trotsky.[15] Later in his career. Stalin followed a practical policy. and had him purge the NKVD of veteran Bolsheviks.[21] Stalin countered Trotskyist critisizm by making a secret speech in which he said that Chiang's right wing Kuomintang were the only ones capable of defeating the imperialists. which included the Georgian Affair of 1922 and other repressions. Trotsky openly criticized Stalin's behavior. following which he adopted particularly hardline. Stalin ended the purges in 1938. putting them on rigged show trials and then having them executed or imprisoned in Siberian gulags. He told the Chinese Communist Party to stop whining about the lower classes and follow the Kuomintang's orders. like Lenin. With no serious opponents left in power. Stalin returned to Moscow in August 1920. In December 1934.[15] At the Ninth Party Conference on 22 September. but Trotsky was exiled from the Soviet Union. Again. He criticized Stalin's rude manners. Lenin suffered a stroke in 1922.[15] The pair quarreled and their relationship deteriorated.[19][20] This created a rift with Lenin. Chiang quickly reversed the tables in the Shanghai massacre of 1927 by massacring the Communist party in Shanghai midway in the Northern Expedition. and at Yalta. Lenin still considered Stalin to be a loyal ally. contravening Lenin's New Economic Policy. a critical shortfall in grain supplies prompted Stalin to push for collectivisation of agriculture and order the seizures of grain hoards from kulak farmers.[15] Lenin died of a heart attack on 21 January 1924.[17] He would ensure the death of Trotsky. Rykov.blamed. where he defended himself and resigned his military commission. and suggested that Stalin should be removed from the position of General Secretary. acting as his intermediary with the outside world. and was replaced by Vyacheslav Molotov on Stalin's recommendation. execute Polish veterans of the Polish-Soviet War in the Katyn massacre. At the end of 1927. Rykov was fired the following year. excessive power. ignoring communist ideology. but the rest of the Politburo sided with Stalin and removed Bukharin from the Politburo in November 1929. he decided to give Stalin more power. Stalin was to compensate for the disaster of 1920.

France.Main article: Chronology of Soviet secret police agencies Part of the Politics series on Stalinism Concepts[show] Stalinist figures[show] Parties[show] Related topics[show] Communism Portal Politics portal v · d · e Stalin vastly increased the scope and power of the state's secret police and intelligence agencies. and he began to integrate all of these activities within the 8 . Japan. communist political propaganda actions. Great Britain. and the United States. and state-sanctioned violence. including Germany (the famous Rote Kappelle spy ring). Soviet intelligence forces began to set up intelligence networks in most of the major nations of the world. Under his guiding hand. Stalin saw no difference between espionage.

paintings and film. He accepted grandiloquent titles (e. to transform him into a superman possessing supernatural characteristics akin to those of a god. liberator of nations." "Gardener of Human Happiness."[8] Purges and deportations Purges Main article: Great Purge Left: Beria's January 1940 letter to Stalin. At the same time.[24] Cult of personality Stalin created a cult of personality in the Soviet Union around both himself and Lenin." "Father of Nations. The Finnish communist Arvo Tuominen records a sarcastic toast proposed by Stalin at a New Year Party in 1935 in which he said "Comrades! I want to propose a toast to our patriarch. and suggesting he single-handedly won the Second World War. crediting Stalin with almost god-like qualities. he insisted that he be remembered for "the extraordinary modesty characteristic of truly great people.g. and I hope this is the first and last speech made to that genius this evening.NKVD. It reached new levels during World War II.. exhibiting fawning devotion. according to Nikita Khrushchev. Stalin became the focus of literature." "Brilliant Genius of Humanity."[26] In a 1956 speech. life and sun. right-Trotskyite plotting and spying activities" Middle: Stalin's handwriting: " " (support)." "Great Architect of Communism. justified as an attempt to expel 'opportunists' and 'counter-revolutionary infiltrators'. asking permission to execute 346 "enemies of the CPSU and of the Soviet authorities" who conducted "counter-revolutionary. Many personality cults in history have been frequently measured and compared to his. It is debatable as to how much Stalin relished the cult surrounding him.[27][29][30] 9 .[27][28] Those targeted by the purge were often expelled from the party. consolidated near-absolute power in the 1930s with a Great Purge of the party. One of the best examples of Stalin's ability to integrate secret police and foreign espionage came in 1940. however more severe measures ranged from banishment to the Gulag labor camps.[25] Trotsky criticized the cult of personality built around Stalin. music." and others). while photographic evidence suggests he was between 5 ft 5 in and 5 ft 6 in (165±168 cm). architect of socialism [he rattled off all the appellations applied to him in those days] ± Josef Vissarionovich Stalin." Statues of Stalin depict him at a height and build approximating Alexander III. to execution after trials held by NKVD troikas. "Coryphaeus of Science. Numerous towns. and helped rewrite Soviet history to provide himself a more significant role in the revolution. villages and cities were renamed after the Soviet leader (see List of places named after Stalin) and the Stalin Prize and Stalin Peace Prize were named in his honor. Stalin made considerable use of the Communist International movement in order to infiltrate agents and to ensure that foreign Communist parties remained pro-Soviet and pro-Stalin. with Stalin's name included in the new Soviet national anthem. poetry. when he gave approval to the secret police to have Leon Trotsky assassinated in Mexico. as head of the Politburo. Nikita Khrushchev gave a denunciation of Stalin's actions: "It is impermissible and foreign to the spirit of Marxism-Leninism to elevate one person. Right: The Politburo's decision is signed by Secretary Stalin Stalin.

000 (144. The Russian word troika gained a new meaning: a quick. walking with Stalin in the top photo from the 1930s. Mikhail Kalinin. while Stalin received 1. Article 58 of the legal code. Notable people executed by NKVD were removed from the texts and photographs as though they never existed. Stalin invented a detailed scheme to implicate opposition leaders in the murder.000 Poles) were executed. Trotsky was assassinated in Mexico.[16] Many Americans who had emigrated to the Soviet Union during the worst of the Great Depression were executed. Yezhov was edited out of the photo by Soviet censors.[32] The investigations and trials expanded. where he had lived in exile since January 1937. A total of 350.In the 1930s. defense attorneys or appeals. followed by a sentence to be executed "quickly. often proceeding to interrogation. Mass operations of the NKVD also targeted "national contingents" (foreign ethnicities) such as Poles.108 negative votes."[34] Thereafter. At the 1934 Party Congress where the vote for the new Central Committee was held. and a large scale purging of Red Army officers followed.[38] In August 1940. Many military leaders were convicted of treason. etc.000 of them Poles) were arrested and 247. Following his death. starting the cycle of public persecution and abuse.[36] Such retouching was a common occurrence during Stalin's rule.[40] Concurrent with the purges. Kamenev and Zinoviev. Stalin apparently became increasingly worried about the growing popularity of Sergei Kirov. which may have been orchestrated by Stalin. if not death. and Chairman of Sovnarkom Vyacheslav Molotov. Kirov received only three negative votes. which were to be investigated for no more than ten days. was shot in 1940. this eliminated the last of Stalin's opponents among the former Party leadership. including Trotsky. 10 .[33] Stalin passed a new law on "terrorist organizations and terrorist acts".[35] The flimsiest pretexts were often enough to brand someone an "enemy of the people". Koreans.[31] After the assassination of Kirov. simplified trial by a committee of three subordinated to NKVD -NKVD troika. the history of revolution was transformed to a story about just two key characters: Lenin and Stalin. Gradually.157 (110. others were sent to prison camps or gulags. efforts were made to rewrite the history in Soviet textbooks and other propaganda materials. the fewest of any candidate. with no prosecution.[39] The only three "Old Bolsheviks" (Lenin's Politburo) that remained were Stalin. ethnic Germans. several trials known as the Moscow Trials were held.with sentencing carried out within 24 hours. listing prohibited anti-Soviet activities as counterrevolutionary crime was applied in the broadest manner. torture and deportation.[37] The repression of so many formerly high-ranking revolutionaries and party members led Leon Trotsky to claim that a "river of blood" separated Stalin's regime from that of Lenin. but the procedures were replicated throughout the country.[34] Nikolai Yezhov.

Meskhetians and Volga Germans were allowed to return en masse to their homelands. rightly or wrongly. and hundreds of thousands of deportees died en route. Individual circumstances of those spending time in German-occupied territories were not examined. Karachays.[55] After the brief Nazi occupation of the Caucasus."[51] In addition. the entire population of five of the small highland peoples and the Crimean Tatars ± more than a million people in total ± were deported without notice or any opportunity to take their possessions. teachers. Ignace Poretsky. and about 90% of these are confirmed to have been shot.[44][45][46][47][48] For example. The memory of the deportations played a major part in the separatist movements in the Baltic States. soldiers. Deportations took place in appalling conditions. often by cattle truck. historians now estimate that nearly 700.612 in 1938) were executed in the course of the terror. Greeks. regardless of their nationality. Poles. were resettled to Siberia and Central Asia. to bring the peasantry under more direct political control. incomplete or unreliable. during and immediately after World War II. Robert Conquest suggests that the probable figure for executions during the years of the Great Purge is not 681. beggars. but some two and a half times as high.[42][43] Some experts believe the evidence released from the Soviet archives is understated. peasants.000 people (353.' Mongolian ruler Khorloogiin Choibalsan closely followed Stalin's lead. Collectivization meant drastic social changes. Volga Germans. Stalin conducted a series of deportations on a huge scale which profoundly affected the ethnic map of the Soviet Union.[50] At the time.[49] Stalin personally signed 357 proscription lists in 1937 and 1938 which condemned to execution some 40. and alienation from control of the land and its produce. Ingush. Kalmyks.[52] During the 1930's and 40's the Soviet leadership sent NKVD squads into other countries to murder defectors and other opponents of the Soviet regime. priests. Many of the deportees died of hunger or other conditions.[54] Separatism. Large numbers of Kulaks. Koreans. Stalin dispatched a contingent of NKVD operatives to Mongolia. Rudolf Klement.In light of revelations from the Soviet archives.g. Who remembers the names now of the boyars Ivan the Terrible got rid of? No one. Balkars. Victims of such plots included Yevhen Konovalets. The deportations had a profound effect on the peoples of the Soviet Union. Meskhetian Turks. Estonians. Tatarstan and Chechnya. more than 14 million people passed through the Gulag from 1929 to 1953. resistance to Soviet rule and collaboration with the invading Germans were cited as the official reasons for the deportations. 11 . This was intended to increase agricultural output from large-scale mechanized farms. Stalin reportedly muttered to no one in particular: "Who's going to remember all this riff-raff in ten or twenty years time? No one.074 in 1937 and 328. He believes that the KGB was covering its tracks by falsifying the dates and causes of death of rehabilitated victims. Lithuanians. even today. with a further 7 to 8 million being deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union (including the entire nationalities in several cases). Leon Trotsky and the POUM leadership in Catalonia (e.[4] Those who survived were forced to work without pay in the labour camps. Romanians. By some estimates up to 43% of the resettled population died of diseases and malnutrition. while reviewing one such list.000 people. and to make tax collection more efficient. and Jews. established a Mongolian version of the NKVD troika and unleashed a bloody purge in which tens of thousands were executed as 'Japanese Spies. Finns.[53] Population transfer Main article: Population transfer in the Soviet Union Shortly before. although it was not until 1991 that the Tatars. It is estimated that between 1941 and 1949 nearly 3. Andreu Nin). According to official Soviet estimates. pensioners. and it faced violent reaction among the peasantry.[55] During Stalin's rule the following ethnic groups were deported completely or partially: Ukrainians. ballerinas. Latvians. Alexander Kutepov.692. Crimean Tatars. homemakers.[41] with the great mass of victims being "ordinary" Soviet citizens: workers. Bulgarians. Collectivization also meant a drastic drop in living standards for many peasants. Evgeny Miller. Collectivization Main article: Collectivization in the Soviet Union Stalin's regime moved to force collectivization of agriculture. musicians.[56] In February 1956.3 million[4] were deported to Siberia and the Central Asian republics. and reversed most of them. Nikita Khrushchev condemned the deportations as a violation of Leninism. Chechens. on a scale not seen since the abolition of serfdom in 1861.

that cost the lives of as many as five million Ukrainian peasants.[67] While historians continue to disagree whether the policies that led to Holodomor fall under the legal definition of genocide. The famine cost an estimated 1 to 1. Archival data indicates that 20.[65] Soviet and other historians have argued that the rapid collectivization of agriculture was necessary in order to achieve an equally rapid industrialization of the Soviet Union and ultimately win World War II." but not to annihilate the Ukrainian peasantry as a whole.8 million tonnes of it being exported during the height of the starvation²enough to feed 5 million people for one year. while continuing to export grain. rather than by natural reasons. it is the worst in terms of mass casualties.[71][72][73] A Ukrainian court found Josef Stalin and other leaders of the former Soviet Union guilty of genocide by "organizing mass famine in Ukraine in 1932±1933" in January 2010.201 people were executed during 1930." and later "ex-kulaks" were to be shot. He asserts that Soviet policies greatly exacerbated the famine's death toll (such as the use of torture and execution to extract grain (see Law of Spikelets).[57] but these estimates were not met. it was not a crop failure but the excessive demands of the state.. These peasants were about 60% of the population). However. Alec Nove claims that the Soviet Union industrialized in spite of. the Ukrainian Parliament approved a bill. implying it was engineered by the Soviet government. He also claims that. Famines Famine affected other parts of the USSR. rather than because of.[74][75] Industrialization 12 .[52] The two-stage progress of collectivization²interrupted for a year by Stalin's famous editorials. the "kulaks" that Stalin targeted included the slightly better-off peasants who took the brunt of violence from the OGPU and the Komsomol. the use of force to prevent starving peasants from fleeing the worst affected areas.000 to 400.[68] Professor Michael Ellman concludes that Ukrainians were victims of genocide in 1932±33. specifically targeting the Ukrainian people to destroy the Ukrainian nation as a political factor and social entity. "Dizzy with success"[58] and "Reply to Collective Farm Comrades"[59]²is a prime example of his capacity for tactical political withdrawal followed by intensification of initial strategies. or deported to remote areas of the country. depending on the charge. in 1892." Stalin refused to release large grain reserves that could have alleviated the famine.[66] Ukrainian famine Main article: Holodomor The Holodomor famine is sometimes referred to as the Ukrainian Genocide.[50] Current estimates on the total number of casualties within Soviet Ukraine range mostly from 2. and strictly enforced draconian new collective-farm theft laws in response.g.2 million[69][70] to 4 to 5 million. while this is not the only Soviet genocide (e. twenty six countries have officially recognized the Holodomor as such. which is favored by some specialists in the field of genocide studies.000 deaths.In the first years of collectivization it was estimated that industrial production would rise by 200% and agricultural production by 50%. its collectivized agriculture. had caused 375. (However. the court "dropped criminal proceedings over the suspects' deaths". with 1. The Polish operation of the NKVD). The USSR also experienced a major famine in 1947 as a result of war damage and severe droughts. Those officially defined as "kulaks. The death toll from famine in the Soviet Union at this time is estimated at between five and ten million people. who resisted collectivization. placed into Gulag labor camps. Stalin blamed this unanticipated failure on kulaks (rich peasants). ruthlessly enforced. and the refusal to import grain or secure international humanitarian aid to alleviate the suffering) and that Stalin intended to use the starvation as a cheap and efficient means (as opposed to deportations and shootings) to kill off those deemed to be "counterrevolutionaries. On 28 November 2006. "the total Soviet grain crop was no worse than that of 1931 .[60] The worst crop failure of late tsarist Russia." "idlers. but economist Michael Ellman argues that it could have been prevented if the government did not mismanage its grain reserves. according to a more relaxed definition. the year of Dekulakization.[61] Most modern scholars agree that the famine was caused by the policies of the government of the Soviet Union under Stalin. with the successful harvest of 1933 ending the famine. This is disputed by other historians. kulaks proper made up only 4% of the peasant population." "kulak helpers. he was convinced that the Ukrainian peasants had hidden grain away." and "thieves.. according to which the Soviet-era forced famine was an act of genocide against the Ukrainian people.5 million lives as well as secondary population losses due to reduced fertility.[63][64] Other historians hold it was largely the insufficient harvests of 1931 and 1932 caused by a variety of natural disasters that resulted in famine.[62] According to Alan Bullock.

World War II. one estimate is that Soviet growth became temporarily much higher after Stalin's death. The generation born during Stalin's rule was the first near-universally literate generation. These called for a highly ambitious program of state-guided crash industrialization and the collectivization of agriculture. the precise rate of growth is disputed. and from workers training schemes. and ultimately win. Some innovations were based on indigenous technical developments. Science Main articles: Science and technology in the Soviet Union and Suppressed research in the Soviet Union Science in the Soviet Union was under strict ideological control by Stalin and his government. along with art and literature.[16] improving lives for women and families. However. Some areas of physics were criticized. factories were supplied with imported equipment. Russian and Western estimates gave lower figures of 5. New products were developed. Stakhanovites."[81] Scientific research was hindered by the fact that many scientists were sent to labor camps (including Lev Landau. effectively creating the first generation free from the fear of typhus. the first two Five-Year Plans achieved rapid industrialization from a very low economic base.9%. The Soviet Union used numerous foreign experts.9%. with access to prenatal care. "Marxism and Linguistic Questions. however. It is not disputed.g. to design new factories. received many incentives for their work. and the scale and efficiency of existing production greatly increased. Stalin's government financed industrialization both by restraining consumption on the part of ordinary Soviet citizens to ensure that capital went for re-investment into industry. later a Nobel Prize winner.[80] while Stalin personally and directly contributed to study in Linguistics. Lev Shubnikov. instruct workers and improve manufacturing processes. and virtually no modern infrastructure. Millions benefitted from mass literacy campaigns in the 1930s. the industrialization effort allowed the Soviet Union to fight.[82] Soviet women under Stalin were the first generation of women able to give birth in the safety of a hospital. cholera. the principle work of which is a small essay. A recovery followed under the New Economic Policy. little international trade. others on imported foreign technology. and hundreds of foreign engineers were brought to Russia on contract.8% and even 2. and by ruthless extraction of wealth from the kulaks. Official Soviet estimates stated the annual rate of growth at 13. Workers who exceeded their quotas. In spite of early breakdowns and failures. and communists and Komsomol members were frequently "mobilized" for various construction projects.[77] Despite its costs.[82] Transport links were improved and many new railways built. shot in 1937). which allowed a degree of market flexibility within the context of socialism. Social services Main article: Soviet democracy Under the Soviet government people benefited from some social liberalization. which significantly increased the lifespan and quality of life of the typical Soviet citizen. While it is generally agreed that the Soviet Union achieved significant levels of economic growth under Stalin.[78][79] However.[76] According to Robert Lewis the Five-Year Plan substantially helped to modernize the previously backward Soviet economy. Industrial output in 1922 was 13% of that in 1914. Indeed. The most notable foreign contractor was Albert Kahn's firm that designed and built 521 factories between 1930 and 1932. that these gains were accomplished at the cost of millions of lives. and malaria. Stalinist development also contributed to advances in health care. Under Stalin's direction.[83] they could afford to buy the goods that were mass-produced by the rapidly expanding Soviet economy. 13 .The Russian Civil War and wartime communism had a devastating effect on the country's economy. There was significant progress in "ideologically safe" domains. In 1933 workers' real earnings sank to about one-tenth of the 1926 level. although initially planned.[82] Education was also an example of an increase in standard of living after economic development. equal education and women had equal rights in employment.[citation needed] Common and political prisoners in labor camps were forced to do unpaid labor. in several cases the consequences of ideological pressure were dramatic²the most notable examples being the "bourgeois pseudosciences" genetics and cybernetics.[16] Stalin's policies granted the Soviet people universal access to healthcare and education. As a rule. this was replaced by a system of centrally ordained "Five-Year Plans" in the late 1920s.[82] The occurrences of these diseases dropped to record low numbers. increasing life spans by decades. Girls were given an adequate.[83] Engineers were sent abroad to learn industrial technology. With seed capital unavailable because of international reaction to Communist policies. supervise construction. owing to the free Soviet education system and state-financed research. who spent a year in prison in 1938±1939) or executed (e.

Stalin's rule had a largely disruptive effect on indigenous cultures within the Soviet Union. the Church was allowed a revival as a patriotic organization. arguing that the 14 .[84] During Stalin's reign the official and long-lived style of Socialist Realism was established for painting. many churches had been leveled. Stalin put forward the theory of aggravation of the class struggle along with the development of socialism. Thousands of parishes were reactivated until a further round of suppression in Khrushchev's time. the first after the revolution. Continuous persecution in the 1930s resulted in its nearextinction as a public institution: by 1939. Over 100. Islam. his government promoted atheism through special atheistic education in schools. Many religions popular in the ethnic regions of the Soviet Union including the Roman Catholic Church.The increase in demand due to industrialization and the decrease in the workforce due to World War II and repressions generated a major expansion in job opportunities for the survivors. Just days before Stalin's death. The degree of Stalin's personal involvement in general. In architecture. synagogues. temples. Small amounts of remnant of pre-revolutionary Russia survived[clarification needed]. the antireligious work of public institutions (especially the Society of the Godless). exemplified by the Seven Sisters of Moscow) replaced the constructivism of the 1920s. has been the subject of discussion. mosques. tortured and executed. and many persecuted. after the NKVD had recruited the new metropolitan. Stalin became a Russian nationalist and significantly promoted Russian history. Theorist Main article: Stalinism Stalin and his supporters have highlighted the notion that socialism can be built and consolidated by a country as underdeveloped as Russia during the 1920s. monks and nuns were persecuted and killed. and also a terror campaign against religious believers. Religion Main article: Religion in the Soviet Union Stalin followed the position adopted by Lenin that religion was an opiate that needed to be removed in order to construct the ideal communist society. massive amounts of anti-religious propaganda. Nikolai Gumilev. Osip Mandelstam). certain religious sects were outlawed and persecuted. Anna Akhmatova. shared similarities with Sergei Eisenstein's film. drama and literature. music. as a secret agent. sacred monuments. and in specific instances.000 in 1917). Vsevolod Meyerhold.[83] Culture Main article: Socialist Realism Although born in Georgia. Previously fashionable "revolutionary" expressionism. active parishes numbered in the low hundreds (down from 54.[86] During World War II. a Stalinist Empire Style (basically. sculpture. Uniats. and tens of thousands of priests. abstract art. The Russian Orthodox Church Synod's recognition of the Soviet government and of Stalin personally led to a schism with the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia. and Russian national heroes. etc.[87] In 1933. Judaism. Stalin's favorite novel Pharaoh.000 were shot during the purges of 1937±1938. Famous figures were repressed. and avant-garde experimentation were discouraged or denounced as "formalism". especially for women. produced under Stalin's tutelage. underwent ordeals similar to the Orthodox churches in other parts: thousands of monks were persecuted. though the politics of Korenizatsiya and forced development were possibly beneficial to the integration of later generations of indigenous cultures. To this end. Baptists.[85] Stalin's role in the fortunes of the Russian Orthodox Church is complex. updated neoclassicism on a very large scale. monasteries and other religious buildings were razed. He held the Russians up as the elder brothers of the non-Russian minorities. discriminatory laws. Buddhism. Ivan the Terrible. particularly during the 1930s and 1940s. Indeed this might be the only means in which it could be built in a hostile environment. language. and hundreds of churches. both "revolutionaries" (among them Isaac Babel. Lev Gumilev) and "non-conformists" (for example. By the late 1930s it had become dangerous to be publicly associated with religion.

[64][104][105] Accordingly.[99] Some have also included deaths of 6 to 8 million people in the 1932±1933 famine as victims of Stalin's repression. for example. therefore. gulags. containing official records of the execution of approximately 800. Researcher Robert Conquest. the official statistics on Gulag mortality exclude deaths of prisoners taking place shortly after their release but which resulted from the harsh treatment in the camps. These corresponded to the two different forms of property over the means of production that existed in the Soviet Union: state property (for the workers) and collective property (for the peasantry). and POWs and German civilians.000 people deported from the Caucasus between 1943 and 1944 had reached 25%.[106] with a number of recent historians suggesting a likely total of around 20 million.[16][97] Historians working after the Soviet Union's dissolution have estimated victim totals ranging from approximately 4 million to nearly 10 million.[98] Russian writer Vadim Erlikman. for example. Stalin announced that the society of the Soviet Union consisted of two non-antagonistic classes: workers and kolkhoz peasantry.[94] Some historians also believe the official archival figures of the categories that were recorded by Soviet authorities to be unreliable and incomplete. not including those who died in famines.[89] The official Soviet archival records do not contain comprehensive figures for some categories of victims. and the mass shootings of Red Army personnel (deserters and so-called deserters) in 1941.000 prisoners under Stalin for either political or criminal offenses. This categorization is controversial however.[109] Others maintain that their earlier higher victim total estimates are correct.7 million deaths in the Gulags and some 390.[108] In his most recent edition of The Great Terror (2007).further the country would move forward.[50][100][101][102][103] or simply an unintended consequence of the struggle over forced collectivization.[92] and the "blocking detachments" of the NKVD shot thousands more.5 million. makes the following estimates: executions. and "The Principles of Leninism." Calculating the number of victims Researchers before the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union attempting to count the number of people killed under Stalin's regime produced estimates ranging from 3 to 60 million. the mortality rate of the 600. deportations. [90] By 1948. 5 million.[93] Also.[110][111] World War II. gulags. has revised his original estimate of up to 30 million victims down to 20 million. the various terror campaigns launched by the Soviet government claimed no fewer than 15 million lives.000 deaths during kulak forced resettlement ± for a total of about 3 million officially recorded victims in these categories. 1939±1945 Main article: Joseph Stalin in World War II 15 .[91] Other notable exclusions from NKVD data on repression deaths include the Katyn massacre.[88] After the Soviet Union dissolved. In 1936. as one additional example. such as the those of ethnic deportations or of German population transfers in the aftermath of WWII." "Marxism and the National Question". 1.7 million out of 7. Among Stalin's contributions to Communist theoretical literature were "Dialectical and Historical Materialism. if famine victims are included. political repression was necessary. the more acute forms of struggle will be used by the doomed remnants of exploiter classes in their last desperate efforts ± and that. Robert Gellately and Simon Sebag-Montefiore argue the many suspects beaten and tortured to death while in "investigative custody" were likely not to have been counted amongst the executed. The concept of "non-antagonistic classes" was entirely new to Leninist theory. evidence from the Soviet archives also became available. other killings in the newly occupied areas.[95][96] In addition to failures regarding comprehensive recordings. 1 million ± a total of about 9 million victims of repression.000 soldiers for desertion during the war. would yield a total of between 15 and 17 million victims. "Trotskyism or Leninism". around 1.5 million deported. as historians differ as to whether the famine was a deliberate part of the campaign of repression against kulaks and others. Stalin distinguished the stratum of intelligentsia.[107] Adding 6±8 million famine victims to Erlikman's estimates above. The Soviets executed 158. In addition to these. Conquest states that while exact numbers may never be known with complete certainty. deportations and other causes. a minimum of around 10 million deaths²6 million from famine and 4 million from other causes²are attributable to the regime. 1. citing much higher victim totals from executions. according to Nicolas Werth. meanwhile.

[124] with Lithuania added in a second secret protocol in September 1939.[125] Stalin and Ribbentrop traded toasts on the night of the signing discussing past hostilities between the countries. also reached on 23 August 1939.[122] On 17 September the Red Army invaded eastern Poland and occupied the Polish territory assigned to it by the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.[112][113][114][115][116][117][118][119][120][121] on 23 August 1939. divided the whole of eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence. followed by co-ordination with German forces in Poland. Finland and part of Romania were recognized as parts of the Soviet sphere of influence.[127][128] Eleven days later. Estonia. negotiated by Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop. the secret protocol of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was modified. the Soviet Union entered into a nonaggression pact with Nazi Germany. After a failed attempt to sign an anti-German military alliance with France and Britain[112][113][114] and talks with Germany regarding a potential political deal.[122] Officially a non-aggression treaty only. the German invasion of its agreed upon portion of Poland started World War II.[123][124] The eastern part of Poland. Latvia. an appended secret protocol.[126] Implementing the division of Eastern Europe and other invasions On 1 September 1939. Please improve the article by rearranging citations so they interrupt the text less frequently.[129] Planned and actual territorial changes in Eastern and Central Europe 1939±1940 (click to enlarge) 16 . while ceding most of Lithuania to the Soviet Union.Ribbentrop and Stalin at the signing of the Pact Pact with Hitler The frequent references in this article or section reduce readability. allotting Germany a larger part of Poland.

[16] Accounts by Nikita Khrushchev and Anastas Mikoyan claim that.[135] But in annexing northern Bukovina.[135] Stalin and Molotov on the signing of the Soviet±Japanese Neutrality Pact with the Empire of Japan.000 citizens of these states. Stalin traded letters with Ribbentrop.After Stalin declared that he was going to "solve the Baltic problem". Hitler broke the pact by implementing Operation Barbarossa. leading some historians to speculate that Khruschev's account is inaccurate.[149] Soviets stop the Germans While the Germans pressed forward.[151] In 1942.[152] While Red Army generals saw evidence that Hitler would shift efforts south. after repressions and actions therein brought about the deaths of over 160. wanting to ensure that the German attack was sanctioned by Hitler. Stalin took actions to bolster the Soviet military."[136] After a conference in Berlin between Hitler. after the war. In September 1941.[141][142][143][144][145] he felt that Germany would not attack the Soviet Union until Germany had defeated Britain. Stalin hesitated.690 kilometers). after the invasion.[150] By December. to the more long-term goal of securing the southern Soviet Union to protect oil fields vital to a long-term German war effort.[146] However. the Soviet Union would gain the territories in countries that it had taken pursuant to its division of Eastern Europe with Hitler in the Molotov±Ribbentrop Pact. modify training and improve propaganda efforts in the Soviet military.3 million casualties[148] and German forces had advanced 1. 1941 After the Tripartite Pact was signed by Axis Powers Germany. proclaiming this formerly Romanian territory part of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic. the Soviet military had suffered 4.[135][137] On 25 November. Germany presented the Molotov with a proposed written agreement for Axis entry. Stalin had gone beyond the agreed limits of the secret protocol.[134] In June 1940. Stalin directed the Soviet annexation of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina.[129][130][131][132] After facing stiff resistance in an invasion of Finland. some documentary evidence of orders given by Stalin contradicts these accounts.[133] After this campaign. by June 1940. Molotov and Ribbentrop.[138] In an effort to demonstrate peaceful intentions toward Germany.[150] The British agreed to assistance but refused to agree upon the territorial gains.050 miles (1.[133] an interim peace was entered. with Stalin writing about entering an agreement regarding a "permanent basis" for their "mutual interests.[138] Shortly thereafter. Stalin told British diplomats that he wanted two agreements: (1) a mutual assistance/aid pact and (2) a recognition that. the Wehrmacht's first significant defeat of the war. the German invasion of Soviet held territories and the Soviet Union that began the war on the Eastern Front. Stalin was confident of an eventual Allied victory over Germany. Hitler shifted his primary goal from an immediate victory in the East. pushing German troops back 40±50 miles from Moscow. Hitler issued a secret directive on the eventual attempts to invade the Soviet Union.[141] In the initial hours after the German attack commenced. the Soviets launched a counteroffensive. Lithuania. on 13 April 1941. in October 1940.[151] On 5 December. Stalin considered this to be a flanking campaign in efforts to take Moscow. Japan and Italy. Stalin retreated to his dacha in despair for several days and did not participate in leadership decisions. granting the Soviet Union the eastern region of Karelia (10% of Finnish territory).[147] By the end of 1941. Stalin oversaw the signing of a neutrality pact with Axis power Japan.[139] Hitler breaks the pact During the early morning of 22 June 1941.[140] Although Stalin had received warnings from spies and his generals. Latvia and Estonia were merged into the Soviet Union. rather than the unauthorized action of a rogue general. Hitler's troops had advanced to within 20 miles of the Kremlin in Moscow.[153] During the 17 . Stalin responded with a proposed written agreement for Axis entry which was never answered by Germany. which Stalin accepted months later as the military situation deteriorated somewhat in mid-1942.

Stalin met with Churchill and Roosevelt in Tehran.[160] Stalin insisted that.[171] One of every four Soviet citizens was killed or wounded in that war.285 million).[167] German forces surrendered a few days later. it permitted the Soviets to take the offensive for most of the rest of the war on the Eastern Front.[172] Some 1.[157] By the end of 1943.[161] In 1944. Despite the Soviets' possession of Hitler's remains. along with a separate invasion of southern France.[170] Soviet military casualties totaled approximately 35 million (official figures 28. safe from German invasion and air attack.[156] Kursk marked the beginning of a period where Stalin became more willing to listen to the advice of his generals. after the war. Soviet push to Germany The Soviets repulsed the important German strategic southern campaign and. no plans were made by the Western Allies to seize the city by a ground operation.[163] Final victory By April 1945. a belief that remained for years after the war.9 million German soldiers in the East fighting 6. Germany attempted an encirclement attack at Kursk. Roosevelt. Nazi Germany faced its last days with 1.[174][175] Nobel Prize in Peace nominations 18 . Stalin did not believe that his old nemesis was actually dead.S.[171] Although figures vary. the Soviet Union should incorporate the portions of Poland it occupied pursuant to the MolotovRibbentrop Pact with Germany.[173] Thereafter. the Soviet civilian death toll probably reached 20 million.000 villages were destroyed. although 2.[168][169] Fending off the German invasion and pressing to victory in the East required a tremendous sacrifice by the Soviet Union.2 million) with approximately 14. Stalin was at times referred to as one of the most influential men in human history. the Soviets occupied half of the territory taken by the Germans from 1941±1942. which had been burned at Hitler's directive. the Soviet Union made significant advances across Eastern Europe toward Germany. missing or captured (official figures 11.7 million killed. November 1943.[157] Soviet military industrial output also had increased substantially from late 1941 to early 1943 after Stalin had moved factories well to the East of the front. a massive offensive in Belorussia against the German Army Group Centre. which was successfully repulsed by the Soviets.[162] including Operation Bagration.[155] The Big Three: Stalin. after which Soviet forces found their remains.5 million Soviet casualties were suffered in that effort. U.war. President Franklin D.[165][166] On 30 April.[158] In November 1943. after Stalin successfully lobbied for Eastern Germany to fall within the Soviet "sphere of influence" at Yalta. and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill at the Tehran Conference.4 million Red Army soldiers while 1 million German soldiers in the West battled 4 million Western Allied soldiers. Time Magazine named Stalin Time Person of the Year twice[154] and he was also one of the nominees for Time Person of the Century title. Hitler and Eva Braun committed suicide.[164] While initial talk existed of a race to Berlin by the Allies. which Churchill tabled.710 towns and 70.[159] The parties later agreed that Britain and America would launch a cross-channel invasion of France in May 1944.

700 Polish POWs were executed on 5 March 1940.[193] Stalin introduced controversial military orders.000 during and after the occupation of Budapest.[182][183] in what became known as the Katyn massacre.[200] and 50. requiring superiors to shoot deserters on the spot[194] while their family members were subject to arrest. Red Army officers generally viewed cities.000 Polish prisoners in 1939 and early 1940.[197] The order also directed "blocking detachments" to shoot fleeing panicked troops at the rear. which were sent to the most dangerous sections of the front lines.[189] The massacre became a source of political controversy.[198] while others were deported east. he was mentioned by Halvdan Koht among seven candidates that were qualified for the Nobel Prize in Peace. Stalin also directed employing a scorched earth policy of destroying the infrastructure and food supplies of areas before the Germans could seize them.[182][192] The Soviets did not admit responsibility until 1990.[178][179][179][180][181] 25.910 soldiers were assigned to penal battalions. The person actually nominated was Cordell Hull. such as Germany. he was officially nominated for the Nobel Prize in Peace by Wladislav Rieger.[176] In 1948. However.[204] These "special camps" were former Stalags. pursuant to a note to Stalin from Lavrenty Beria.[95][199] After the capture of Berlin.[196] In June 1941.[196] and soldiers guilty of disciplinary procedures to be forced into "penal battalions". prisons.[177] Questionable tactics Part of 5 March 1940 memo from Lavrentiy Beria to Stalin proposing execution of Polish officers After taking around 300. 427.[203] In the Soviet Occupation Zone of post-war Germany. directing that commanders permitting retreat without permission to be subject to a military tribunal. 270.[195] Thereafter. Soviet troops reportedly raped from tens of thousands to two million women. he did not explicitly nominate any of them.[147] He also ordered the NKVD to murder around one hundred thousand political prisoners in areas where the Wermacht approached. 227. or Nazi concentration camps such as Sachsenhausen (special 19 . weeks after the German invasion began. Romania and Hungary.[196] From 1942 to 1945.[190][191] with the Soviets eventually claiming that Germany committed the executions when the Soviet Union retook Poland in 1944.[201][202] In former Axis countries.[186][187][188][188] Polish railroad workers found the mass grave after the 1941 Nazi invasion. villages and farms as being open to pillaging and looting.[195] Stalin issued Order No. such as Order No. the Soviets set up ten NKVD-run "special camps" subordinate to the gulag.[184][182][185] While Stalin personally told a Polish general they'd "lost track" of the officers in Manchuria. Stalin also conducted a purge of several military commanders that were shot for "cowardice" without a trial.In 1945. and that partisans were to be set up in evacuated areas.

the Soviet NKVD arrested 16 Polish leaders wishing to participate in provisional government negotiations.[211] After resistance by Churchill and Roosevelt.[212] The parties at Yalta further agreed that the countries of liberated Europe and former Axis satellites would be allowed to "create democratic institutions of their own choice". including Germans."[213] After the re-organization of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland. the Red Army occupied much of Eastern Europe during these conferences and the discussions shifted to a more intense focus on the reorganization of postwar Europe. Japanese. pursuant to "the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live.[211] He stated the new government's primary task would be to prepare elections. presumably victims of privation or the Gulags. U. Very early conferences.[208] 272. the parties agreed that the new party shall "be pledged to the holding of free and unfettered elections as soon as possible on the basis of universal suffrage and secret ballot. some 580. In February 1945. Stalin promised a re-organization of the current Communist puppet government on a broader democratic basis in Poland. President Franklin D.[205] According to German government estimates.468 remained in the transit camps as reception personnel until the repatriation process was finally wound up in the early 1950s. of an estimated four million POWs taken by the Soviets. Beginning in late 1944. Stalin met with Churchill and Roosevelt in the Tehran Conference. focused mostly upon war planning and supply. Stalin met in several conferences with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (and later Clement Attlee) and/or American President Franklin D.S. for alleged "crimes" and "diversions". held in January 1947 resulted in Poland's official transformation to undemocratic communist state by 1949. 2."[206] According to recent figures.539. Roosevelt (and later Harry Truman) to plan military strategy and. and wanted the pro-Soviet Polish government installed.[207] Soviet POWs and forced laborers who survived German captivity were sent to special "transit" or "filtration" camps to determine which were potential traitors.[211] Stalin also stated that the Polish government-in-exile demands for self-rule were not negotiable. Roosevelt and Stalin at the Yalta Conference.[208][209][210] 89. Stalin demanded a Soviet sphere of political influence in Eastern Europe.013 were civilians and 1. such as that with British diplomats in Moscow in 1941 and with Churchill and American diplomats in Moscow in 1942.[208] Of the approximately 4 million to be repatriated 2.475 were former POWs. 20 .[208] 608."[213] One month after Yalta.000 people died in those Soviet-run camps or in transportation to them.660."[213] The parties also agreed to help those countries form interim governments "pledged to the earliest possible establishment through free elections" and "facilitate where necessary the holding of such elections. "65.[208] Allied conferences on post-war Europe The Big Three: British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. such that the Soviet Union would keep the territory of eastern Poland they had already taken by invasion with German consent in 1939.000 never returned. later. to discuss Europe's postwar reorganization. which drew protest from the West. February 1945. In 1943. Romanians and others.camp number 7) and Buchenwald (special camp number 2). at the conference at Yalta. In 1944.867 were transferred to the authority of the NKVD for punishment.906 were sent home and 801. Stalin met with Churchill in the Moscow Conference.427. which meant a transfer to the Gulag system.152 were reconscripted into the armed forces. though some preliminary postwar reorganization discussion also occurred.[208] Of the total. Hungarians.[211] Stalin eventually was convinced by Churchill and Roosevelt not to dismember Germany.095 were enrolled in the work battalions of the defense ministry.[212] The fraudulent Polish elections.

1945±1953 The Iron Curtain and the Eastern Bloc After Soviet forces remained in Eastern and Central European countries. Truman and Premiere Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference. Stalin repeated previous promises to Churchill that he would refrain from a "Sovietization" of Eastern Europe. U. and a clause was added permitting this to occur with some limitations. Bulgaria and Romania. Indeed.[217][218] The countries under Soviet control in Eastern and Central Europe were sometimes called the "Eastern bloc" or "Soviet Bloc".[214] Stalin pushed for reparations from Germany without regard to the base minimum supply for German citizens' survival. which worried Truman and Churchill who thought that Germany would become a financial burden for Western powers. who had already installed communist governments in the central European countries under his influence. 21 . he was seldom even irritated. were suspicious of the motives of Stalin.British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Churchill referred to the region as being behind an "Iron Curtain" of control from Moscow. and especially Churchill. Poland. Stalin proved to be a formidable negotiator. He never stormed. Stalin would be my first choice.[215] In addition to reparations. the British Foreign Secretary noted: "Marshal Stalin as a negotiator was the toughest proposition of all. Stalin pushed for "war booty". Hungary. At the Potsdam Conference from July to August 1945. his first appearances on the world stage. President Harry S. with the beginnings of communist puppet regimes in those countries. instead of withdrawing Soviet forces from Eastern European countries. if I had to pick a team for going into a conference room.S. The western allies. and refugees were fleeing out of these countries fearing a Communist take-over. after something like thirty years' experience of international conferences of one kind and another. Of course the man was ruthless and of course he knew his purpose. which would permit the Soviet Union to directly seize property from conquered nations without quantitative or qualitative limitation. Anthony Eden. He never wasted a word. though Germany had surrendered months earlier.[215] By July 1945. At the beginning of the conference."[216] Post-war era. Stalin's troops effectively controlled the Baltic States. Czechoslovakia. July 1945. In these conferences. Stalin had not moved those forces.

In 1949. and the communists whom he instructed. with a new constitution which enshrined socialism and gave the Soviet-controlled Socialist Unity Party ("SED") control. the major task of the ruling communist party in Germany was to channel Soviet orders down to both the administrative apparatus and the other bloc parties pretending that these were initiatives of its own.[231] and which were now. employed Stalinist political and economic programs. in Bulgaria. Rákosi employed "salami tactics". when the Soviets installed a communist government. after citizens strongly rejected communist candidates in an election. The blockade failed due to the unexpected massive aerial resupply campaign carried out by the Western powers known as the Berlin Airlift.[226] took power. the Red Army crossed the border and created the conditions for a communist coup d'état on the following night. the Soviet Union blockaded West Berlin. imprisonment. took full control of domestic politics.[232] 22 .The Eastern Bloc until 1989 In Soviet-controlled East Germany.[227] to battle the initial postwar political majority ready to establish a democracy. the portion of Berlin not under Soviet control. in June 1948.000 Hungarian officials and intellectuals were purged from 1948 to 1956. Poland. slicing up these enemies like pieces of salami. and Poland had remained interested in Marshall aid despite the requirements for a convertible currency and market economies.[232] Czechoslovakia.[219] Property and industry were nationalized. and was dubbed the "bald murderer" for establishing one of the harshest dictatorships in Europe.[228] Rákosi.[228] During World War II. the Soviet Union. torture and even death. cutting off all supply of food and other items.[221][222][223] Following the forged referendum. cut off from their traditional markets and suppliers in Western Europe. Hungary.[219] The German Democratic Republic was declared on 7 October 1949. the Polish economy started to become nationalized.[220] vote rigging was employed to win a majority in the carefully controlled poll.[230] The Soviet military commander in Sofia assumed supreme authority. who described himself as "Stalin's best Hungarian disciple"[225] and "Stalin's best pupil". including Kimon Georgiev.[224] In Hungary. While Stalin had promised at the Yalta Conference that free elections would be held in Poland.[213] after an election failure in "3 times YES" elections. In July 1947. This has been described as "the moment of truth" in the post-World War II division of Europe. Bulgaria. Stalin conceded defeat and ended the blockade.[219] with deviations potentially leading to reprimands.[230] In 1949. In Berlin. and Romania founded the Comecon in accordance with Stalin's desire to enforce Soviet domination of the lesser states of Central Europe and to mollify some states that had expressed interest in the Marshall Plan. Mátyás Rákosi. Stalin ordered these communist-dominated governments to pull out of the Paris Conference on the European Recovery Programme. Czechoslovakia.[228][229] Approximately 350. increasingly. Hungary.

Both countries provided military support to a new friendly state in North Korea. but Yugoslavia broke with the USSR in 1948. one of his last major foreign policy initiatives was the 1952 Stalin Note for German reunification and Superpower disengagement from Central Europe. During World War II Stalin had supported the dictator of China. There was friction between Stalin and Mao from the beginning. Even after the war Stalin concluded a non-aggression pact between the USSR and Chiang's Kuomintang (KMT) regime in China and instructed Mao and the Chinese communists to cooperate with Chiang and the KMT after the war. and Bai also called upon Muslims to avoid the Indian leader Nehru. although Stalin refrained from getting involved in Greece. Chiang Kai-Shek. claiming that the "imperialist ogre" leader Stalin was engineering World War III. Stalin did not believe Mao would be successful so he was less than enthusiastic in helping Mao. Sino-Soviet Relations Stalin and Mao Zedong on Chinese Postage stamp In Asia. accusing him of being blind to Soviet imperialism. Mao Zedong's Communist Party of China. Mao did not follow Stalin's instructions though and started a communist revolution against Chiang. not surprisingly. in Taiwan. the Red Army had overrun Manchuria in the last month of the war and then also occupied Korea above the 38th parallel north.-allied South Korea in 1950. The USSR continued to maintain diplomatic relations with Chiang's KMT regime until 1949 when it became clear Mao would win. The People's Republic claimed Taiwan. the Chinese Muslim Kuomintang General Bai Chongxi made a speech broadcast on radio to the entire Muslim world calling for a war against Russia. France. Britain and the United States supported the anti-communists in the Greek Civil War and suspected the Soviets of supporting the Greek communists. defeated the pro-Western and heavily American-assisted Chinese Nationalist Party in the Chinese Civil War. and the United States viewed this with suspicion and rejected the offer.[233][234] North Korea Contrary to America's policy which restrained armament (limited equipment was provided for infantry and police forces) to South Korea. He generally put his alliance with Chiang against Japan ahead of helping his ideological allies in China in his priorities. though receptive to minimal Soviet support. Albania remained an ally of the Soviet Union. 23 . war broke out with U. After various Korean border conflicts. Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and China reached a high point with the signing of the 1950 Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance. The Communists controlled mainland China while the Nationalists held a rump state on the island of Taiwan. However. starting the Korean War. The Soviet Union soon after recognized Mao's People's Republic of China.In Greece. Stalin extensively armed Kim Il Sung's North Korean army and air forces with military equipment (to include T34/85 tanks) and "advisors" far in excess of those required for defensive purposes) in order to facilitate Kim's (a former Soviet Officer) aim of conquering the rest of the Korean peninsula. In Stalin's last year of life. the relations with the Kuomintang deteriorated. though it had never held authority there.S. But there was still a lot of tension between the two leaders and resentment by Mao for Stalin's less than enthusiastic help during the civil war in China. In 1951. as a bulwark against Japan and had turned a blind eye to Chiang's mass killings of communists. Stalin did conclude a new friendship and alliance treaty with Mao after he defeated Chiang. which it regarded as a new ally. dismissing the movement as premature. but Britain.

in a December Politburo session. and Latvia.[246] The plot is also viewed by many historians as an antisemitic provocation.[238][240] Falsifiers originally appeared as a series of articles in Pravda in February 1948. had no intention of a Soviet alliance and were secretly negotiating with Berlin. official accounts. despite appearances. focused upon Western culpability for the outbreak of war in 1939. the electric light.[241] The book did not attempt to directly counter or deal with the documents published in Nazi-Soviet Relations[242] and rather.[245] It followed on the heels of the 1952 show trials of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee[247] and the secret execution of thirteen members on Stalin's orders in the Night of the Murdered Poets. in part because the smarter party functionaries had learned caution. the radio.[244] Historical studies. Stalin personally edited and rewrote by hand sections of the cold war book Falsifiers of History. The USSR was one of the first nations to recognize the new country. Russian patriotism increased due to successful propaganda efforts.[235] During the Korean War. though this is disputed by North Korea.[241] It argues that "Western powers" aided Nazi rearmament and aggression. some inventions and scientific discoveries were claimed by Soviet propaganda. but as a "secret" agreement that was a "a highly important phase in their policy aimed at goading the Hitlerite aggressors against the Soviet Union. while being thwarted by double-dealing Anglo-French appeasers who. during the Pact's operation. there are many Jewish nationalists.[238][239] which included the secret protocols of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and other secret GermanSoviet relations documents. after providing war materiel for Israel through Czechoslovakia. Stalin rejected Hitler's offer to share in a division of the world. not just as AngloFrench short-sightedness or cowardice.). without mentioning the Soviet offers to join the Axis. reclaimed by father and son Cherepanovs. They think they're indebted to the Americans. bourgeois. Post-Cold war research in Soviet Archives has revealed that the Korean War was begun by Kim Il-sung with the express permission of Stalin. However. Stalin announced that "Every Jewish nationalist is the agent of the American intelligence service. by Mozhaysky. he later changed his mind and came out against Israel. Among doctors.[citation needed] Israel Stalin originally supported the creation of Israel in 1948. 1939±1941: Documents from the Archives of The German Foreign Office. Examples include the boiler. That cooperation included helping the German Army violate the Treaty of Versailles limitations. Jewish nationalists think that their nation was saved by the United States (there you can become rich. Estonia.[236] Golda Meir came to Moscow as the first Israeli Ambassador to the USSR that year.[238][241] It depicted the Soviet Union as striving to negotiate a collective security against Hitler."[249] To 24 . while deliberately encouraging Hitler to expand eastward. Soviet pilots flew Soviet aircraft from Chinese bases against United Nations aircraft defending South Korea. For instance. and the airplane. crossing the 38th parallel behind a firestorm of artillery. His early cooperation with Hitler was forgotten. with training in the Soviet Union. memoirs and textbooks published in the Soviet Union used that depiction of events until the Soviet Union's dissolution. etc. 25 June 1950. Falsifiers of History In 1948. "Doctors' plot" Main article: Doctors' plot The "Doctors' plot" was a plot outlined by Stalin and Soviet officials in 1952 and 1953 whereby several doctors (over half of whom were Jewish) allegedly attempted to kill Soviet officials. by Yablochkov and Lodygin.[245] The prevailing opinion of many scholars outside the Soviet Union is that Stalin intended to use the resulting doctors' trial to launch a massive party purge. beginning their invasion of South Korea.[237] Falsifiers was published in response to the documents made public in Nazi-Soviet Relations. but never reached the extremes of the 1930s. and Soviet trade with Hitler to counteract the expected French and British trade blockades. by Popov. the notorious Molotov-von Ribbentrop treaty which partitioned Poland giving the Soviet Union what is now part of Belarus and granted the Soviet Union a free hand in Finland.[244] Domestic support Domestically.The North Korean Army struck in the pre-dawn hours of Sunday. including that American bankers and industrialists provided capital for the growth of German war industries. By the end of the 1940s. Lithuania.[239] and was subsequently published in numerous language and distributed worldwide."[243] The book also included the claim that.[241] It casts the Munich agreement. Stalin's internal repressive policies continued (including in newly acquired territories).[248] Thereafter. Stalin was seen as a great wartime leader who had led the Soviets to victory against the Nazis.

The political memoirs of Vyacheslav Molotov.[269][270] Lavrentiy Beria was informed and arrived a few hours afterwards. he was discovered by Peter Lozgachev."[245][260] At the end of January 1953. they were under strict orders not to disturb him and left him alone the entire day. A frightened Lozgachev asked Stalin what happened to him. published in 1993. on 5 March 1953.[251] Regardless of whether a plot to deport Jews was planned. At dawn." Lozgachev frantically called a few party officials asking them to send good doctors. when his body was removed from the Mausoleum and buried next to the Kremlin walls as part of the process of de-Stalinization.[245][259] In 1946. Nikolai Bulganin and Nikita Khrushchev where he retired to his bedroom to sleep. Soviet Premier Nikita Kruschev stated that the Doctors Plot was "fabricated . Stalin allegedly said privately that "every Jew is a potential spy. such as Kruschev. in order to set the stage for show trials. set up by Stalin". claimed that Beria had boasted to Molotov that he poisoned Stalin: "I took him out." 25 .[253] Kruschev wrote that Stalin hinted him to incite anti-Semitism in the Ukraine. but all he could get out of the Generalissimo was unintelligible responses that sounded like "Dzhh. the Deputy Commandant of Kuntsevo. Stalin did not emerge from his room. Stalin's Grave by the Kremlin Wall Necropolis Although his guards thought that it was odd for him not to rise at his usual time. and the doctors only arrived in the early morning of 2 March in which they changed his bedclothes and tended to him. It has been suggested that Stalin was assassinated.[250][251] including Stalin. At around 10 p. who was assassinated in 1948 at the orders of Stalin)[248] was arrested within the frame of the plot. who entered his bedroom to check up on him and recalled a horrifying scene of Stalin lying on the floor of his room wearing pyjama bottoms and an undershirt with his clothes soaked in stale urine. Stalin's personal physician Miron Vovsi (cousin of Solomon Mikhoels. as was his son-inlaw. the cause of death was listed as a cerebral hemorrhage. Pravda published stories with text regarding the purported "Jewish bourgeois-nationalist" plotters. Vovsi was released by Beria after Stalin's death in 1953. Stalin ordered TASS and Pravda to issue stories along with Stalin's alleged uncovering of a "Doctors Plot" to assassinate top Soviet leaders.[262][265][266] Others argue that any charge of an alleged mass deportation lacks specific documentary evidence. What will happen without me? The country will perish because you do not know how to recognize enemies.[245][257][258] and anti-Semitic trends in the Kremlin's policies were further fueled by the exile of Leon Trotsky. The ex-Communist exile Avtorkhanov argued this point as early as 1975. suggest that Stalin had long harbored negative sentiments toward Jews. after an all-night dinner and a movie[268] Stalin arrived at his Kuntsevo residence some 15 km west of Moscow centre with interior minister Lavrentiy Beria and future premiers Georgy Malenkov.m. telling him that "the good workers at the factory should be given clubs so they can beat the hell out of those Jews. Officially. people who knew Stalin."[254][255] Stalin also ordered falsely accused physicians to be tortured "to death"..[252] The next month. Some historians have argued that Stalin was also planning to send millions of Jews to four large newly built labor camps in Western Russia[252][261] using a "Deportation Commission"[262][263][264] that would purportedly act to save Soviet Jews from an engraged Soviet population after the Doctors Plot trials.[2] at the age of 74.[256] Regarding the origins of the plot. and was embalmed on 9 March. the composer Mieczyslaw Weinberg. that Stalin told the judge to beat confessions from the defendants[267] and had told Politburo members "You are blind like young kittens. in his "Secret Speech" in 1956. having probably suffered a stroke that paralyzed the right side of his body. His body was preserved in Lenin's Mausoleum until 31 October 1961.mobilize the Soviet people for his campaign."[267] Death and aftermath On the early morning hours of 1 March 1953.. The bedridden Stalin died four days later.

ruled that referring to Stalin as a "bloodthirsty cannibal" was not libel. Monument to Stalin stood in Gori. a powerful rat poison that inhibits coagulation of the blood and which predisposes the victim to hemorrhagic stroke (cerebral hemorrhage). immediately after the stroke. It is believed that Stalin felt Beria's power was too great and threatened his own. Beria claimed to have poisoned Stalin. most notably by Nikita Khrushchev's repudiation of Stalinism in February 1956. it is true that the Politburo did not summon medical attention for Stalin for more than a day after he was found.[271] Later analysis of death In 2003.[275][276] Fewer than a third of all Russians regarded Stalin as a murderous tyrant. dropped to his knees and kissed his hand. a joint group of Russian and American historians announced their view that Stalin ingested warfarin. Novaya Gazeta. Beria immediately stood and spat. When Stalin fell unconscious again. Georgia until 2010 when it was demolished and moved to the Museum of Soviet Occupation.[272] His demise arrived at a convenient time for Lavrenty Beria and others.[273] According to Molotov's memoirs. and then.[277] however.[278] In a July 2007 poll 54% of the Russian youth agreed that Stalin did more good than bad while 46% 26 . against the newspaper. "I took him out. originally set up in Vilnius. The harshness with which Soviet affairs were conducted during Stalin's rule was subsequently repudiated by his successors in the Communist Party leadership. delivered to a closed session of the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. when Stalin showed signs of consciousness." Whether Beria or anyone else was directly responsible for Stalin's death.Khrushchev wrote in his memoirs that Beria had. saying. ruling on a suit by Stalin's grandson. a Russian court in 2009. Khrushchev denounced Stalin for his cult of personality. and his regime for "violation of Leninist norms of legality".[274] Reaction by successors Grutas Park is home to a monument of Stalin. who feared being swept away in yet another purge. Yevgeny Dzhugashvili. In his "Secret Speech". Views on Stalin in Russian Federation Results of a controversial poll taken in 2006 stated that over 35% of Russians would vote for Stalin if he were still alive. The facts surrounding Stalin's death will probably never be known with certainty. warfarin is a plausible weapon of murder. Since it is flavorless. On the Personality Cult and its Consequences. gone about "spewing hatred against [Stalin] and mocking him".

[286][287][288][289] Vozhd' (Russian: . "Soselo". Stalin was often played by Mikheil Gelovani and. mainly towards visiting statesmen.[290] (President Harry S. while his right hand was thinner than his left and frequently hidden. described Stalin as "a little squirt".(of them) disagreed that Stalin was a cruel tyrant. nicknames and pseudonyms Stalin's original Georgian is transliterated as "Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili" (Georgian: ). a term from pre-Tsarist times. "Ivanov" and many others.[279] In December 2008 Stalin was voted third in the nationwide television project Name of Russia (narrowly behind 13th century prince Alexander Nevsky and Pyotr Stolypin. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev denounced the efforts of people seeking to rehabilitate Stalin's image. he became commonly known by one of his revolutionary noms de guerre. agreed Stalin was a wise leader. aged from 16 to 19. by Aleksei Dikiy. A common nickname in the USSR during his time in power.[280] On 3 July 2009.[281] In a Kremlin video blog posted on 29 October 2009. one of Nicholas II's prime ministers). in reference his Caucasus Mountains origin. Like other Bolsheviks. He said the mass extermination during the Stalin era cannot be justified. his left arm was shortened and stiffened at the elbow. of which "Stalin" was only the last.[284][285] "Kremlin Highlander" (Russian: ). Half of the respondents. The Russian transliteration of his name (Russian: ) is in turn transliterated to English as "Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili".[290] he was only five feet four inches high (160 cm). Russia's delegates walked out of an Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe session to demonstrate their objections to a resolution for a remembrance day for the victims of both Nazism and Stalinism. Truman. who stood only five feet nine inches himself.[281] Only eight out of 385 assembly members voted against the resolution. leading to accusations from Communist Party of the Russian Federation that the poll had been rigged in order to prevent him or Lenin being given first place.[290] He could be charming and polite.[282] Personal life Origin of name. "Little Father of the Peoples" or "Papa Stalin". Prior nicknames included "Koba". After a carriage accident in his youth. "the Chieftain").[291]) His mustached face was pock-marked from small-pox during childhood. y Appearance While photographs and portraits portray Stalin as physically massive and majestic (he had several painters shot who did not depict him "right"). as he was portrayed as the paternal figure of the Revolution. by western media. notably by Osip Mandelstam in his Stalin Epigram. Marriages and family 27 . During Stalin's reign his nicknames included: y y y "Uncle Joe". during and after World War II.[290] In movies. less frequently. Stalin" sometime in 1912 as a pen name.[283] Stalin is believed to have started using the name "K.

All these dachas. officially dying of alcoholism in 1962.[295] According to A&E Biography. After this. Yuri Davydov. officially of illness. the sister of Lazar Kaganovich. Either you free them all or my son will share their fate. Yakov is said to have committed suicide. and were mainly used privately. A luxury villa near Gagri was given to him by Beria. partly political". whom he had with his first wife Ekaterina Svanidze. but Stalin turned the offer down. who stated that his father had told him of his lineage. Another estate was near Zelyony Myss on the Black Sea. with his second wife Nadezhda Alliluyeva. he flew only once when attending the 1943 Tehran conference. this is still in question. where he was being held. he added dachas at Zuvalova and Kuntsevo (Blizhny dacha built by Miron Merzhanov). but survived. and palaces were staffed. shot himself because of Stalin's harshness toward him."[293] Afterwards. rarely for diplomatic purposes. She died in 1932. and had at least four dachas in the south by 1937. however. and a daughter. In 1919 he started with a country house near Usovo. there is also a belief among some Russians that Stalin himself murdered his wife after the quarrel. who had surrendered after Stalingrad. including one near Sochi. She may have committed suicide by shooting herself after a quarrel with Stalin. and at Lake Mitsa.[298] Between places Stalin would travel by car or train. leaving a suicide note which according to their daughter was "partly personal. which apparently took place at a dinner in which Stalin tauntingly flicked cigarettes across the table at her. They offered to exchange him for Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus. After the war he added dachas at Novy Alon. Before WWII he added the Lipki estate and Semyonovskaya. Rosa Kaganovich. estates.Ekaterina "Kato" Svanidze. Historians also claim her death ultimately "severed his link from reality.[292] Yakov served in the Red Army during World War II and was captured by the Germans. Stalin may have married a third wife. In Abkhazia he maintained a mountain retreat. near Sukhumi. Stalin said "He can't even shoot straight". never by air. Beside his suite in the Kremlin. Svetlana. Habits 28 . Stalin's first wife Stalin and Nadezhda Alliluyeva Stalin's son Yakov. in the Valdai Hills. well furnished and equipped. stating "You have in your hands not only my son Yakov but millions of my sons. Svetlana emigrated to the United States in 1967. Stalin had numerous domiciles. Vasiliy. was told to keep quiet because of the campaign against Stalin's cult of personality."[296] Vasiliy rose through the ranks of the Soviet air force.[294] Yakov had a son Yevgeny. but. running into an electric fence in Sachsenhausen concentration camp. He distinguished himself in World War II as a capable airman. kept safe by security forces.[297] In March 2001 Russian Independent Television NTV interviewed a previously unknown grandson living in Novokuznetsk. who is recently noted for defending his grandfather's legacy in Russian courts. Stalin had a son.

taken on to Moscow. besieged by the Germans and gradually dying of hunger. but could keep it under control.[305] Stalin's greater tolerance for religion after 1943 was limited. after his mysterious retreat. and persecutions resumed at the end of the war.[304] Historian Edvard Radzinsky used recently discovered secret archives and noted a story that changed Stalin's attitude toward religion.[301] One story reports that while he studied at a seminary. where a service should be held. On 4 September 1943.[300] Religious beliefs and policies Stalin had a complex relationship with religious institutions in the Soviet Union. Stalin invited Metropolitan Sergius. The CPSU Central Committee continued to promote atheism and the elimination of religion during the remainder of Stalin's lifetime after the 1943 concordat.[300] After the movie had ended. For these reasons it is unlikely that Stalin had changed his atheistic rejection of religion during this last portion of his lifetime. this story fails on several obvious accounts. but the sacred icon of Our Lady of Kazan should be carried around the city boundary." 1924 "Trotskyism or Leninism?.[2] The phrase "death of one man is a tragedy. being in foreign languages." 1924 "Dialectical and Historical Materialism." 1938 29 . rumors and misconceptions about Stalin There are conflicting accounts of Stalin's birth. were given a running translation. Something happened which no historian has yet written about. even pious. In Leningrad. Leningrad must not be surrendered."[304] Radzinsky asked. which had been suspended since 1925. for some years longer.Stalin enjoyed heavy drinking. Priests must be brought back from imprisonment."[304] Shortly thereafter.[300] The movies. although on a lesser scale than had been existent in the 1930s. "Had he seen the light? Had fear made him run to his Father? Had the Marxist God-Man simply decided to exploit belief in God? Or was it all of these things at once?.[307] Some Bolsheviks and others have accused Stalin of being an agent for the Okhrana. and thence to Stalingrad Tsaritsyn." 1907 "Marxism and the National Question.[299] Stalin preferred Georgian wine over Russian vodka. Metropolitan of the Lebanon Mountains. he began making his peace with God. including Stalin's remaining religious. Another reason that may have motivated this greater tolerance after the war. who listed his birth year in various documents as being in 1878 before coming to power in 1922.[299] He would also often force those around him to join in the drinking. On his orders many priests were brought back to the camps. to see wonder-working icon Our Lady of Kazan brought out into the streets and borne in procession. Hypotheses. In addition. but usually ate traditional Russian food. and after waking up summon high-ranking Soviet politicians to watch foreign movies with him in the Kremlin movie theater. the Church and its clergymen could be to his disposal in mobilizing the war effort. claimed to receive a sign from heaven that "The churches and monasteries must be reopened throughout the country. Metropolitan Sergius was elected Patriarch.[299] Khrushchev reports in his memoirs that Stalin was fond of American cowboy movies. the inhabitants were astounded. On 8 September 1943. sometimes attributed to Stalin."[304] During the Second World War Stalin reopened the Churches. Metropolitan Alexy and Metropolitan Nikolay to the Kremlin and proposed to reestablish the Moscow Patriarchate. and uplifted. and elect the Patriarch.[304] The story in which Ilya.[302] However.[300] He would often sleep until evening in his dacha." 1913 "The Principles of Leninism. death of a million is a statistic".[306] was made by the German writer and pacifist Erich Maria Remarque. even though the clock was usually past midnight. he became a closet atheist.[308] Works y y y y y "Anarchism or Socialism?. hypotheses and popular rumors exist about Stalin's real father. One reason could have been to motivate the majority of the population who had Christian beliefs. Stalin's attitude changed and "Whatever the reason. The reasoning behind this is that by changing the official policy of the party and the state towards religion. was the great failure of the persecutions of the 1920s and 1930s to actually achieve the intended result of eliminating religion. Stalin often invited the audience for dinner.[303] One account states that Stalin's reversal on bans against the church during World War II followed a sign that he believed he received from heaven.

ru. UK: Cambridge University Press. Soviet Studies. Young Stalin.html. 2004. 10. Retrieved 25 June 2010. Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. Bilinsky. Ethnic Cleansing in the USSR. http://books.S. 30 . and all other surviving pre-Revolution documents.pbs. ISBN 9780297850687 ^ Simon Sebag Montefiore Young Stalin. Stalin changed the date to 21 December 1879 (Old Style date 9 December 1879). Famine Genocide. ^ "Caucasian Knot: Analytics". http://www.y y y y See also "The Questions of Leninism. Gori Stalin Monument in Budapest Stalin Monument (Prague) List of places named after Joseph Stalin Stalin's antisemitism Stalin Bloc ² For the USSR Yanks for Stalin References Notes 1. Eng. 26 November 2010 ^ Montefiore.faminegenocide. ISBN 1400044650 Prologue: The Bank Robbery. Princeton University Press.com.ru/cgi-bin/persona_e. http://www." 1952 Works. Young Stalin. BBC News. p. 7. after his coming to power in 1922.1. (1991). Stalin: A Biography. a police arrest record from 18 April 1902 which gave his age as 23 years. 1±11 ^ Montefiore. 4. Skrobach. 4. Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives regarding the man-made famine that occurred in Ukraine in 1932±1933. PBS. ^ Findings of the Commission on the Ukraine Famine. 2010.ru/analyticstext/enganalytics/id/634124. Otto. As late as 1921.google. Young Stalin. 5." 1950 "Economic Problems of Socialism in the U. pp. 19 April 1988. ISBN 0691147841 ^ Robert Gellately & Ben Kiernan (2003). 147±156 ^ a b c Boobbyer 2000. ^ a b c d Although there is an inconsistency among published sources about Stalin's year and date of birth.. 61 ^ Medvedev. Retrieved 25 June 2010. Statement by Pope John Paul II on the 70th anniversary of the Famine. 16. US House of Representatives. 14.pl?id=4140&id_subcat=6&r=8. Knopf. However. 6. That became the day his birthday was celebrated in the Soviet Union. ^ "Russian parliament condemns Stalin for Katyn massacre". p. p. This birth date is maintained in his School Leaving Certificate. 18. 2. pp. Retrieved 19 July 2008.answers. ^ Olson and Cloud 2003 ^ Knight. Volume 1±13: Foreign Languages Publishing House. 1999. ISBN 0313309213 ^ Naimark. 261 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Robert Service. Stalin himself listed his birthday as 18 December 1878 in a curriculum vitae in his own handwriting. 17. 13. Vol. Iosif Dzhugashvili is found in the records of the Uspensky Church in Gori. 11." 1946 "Marxism and Problems of Linguistics.org". Moscow. Yaroslav [http://www. Norman M. http://www. his extensive tsarist Russia police file. State and Power in Russia. Beria and the Cult of Stalin: Rewriting Transcaucasian Party History. ISBN 978-0-330-41913-0 ^ a b c d e f g Simon Sebag Montefiore.kavkaz-uzel. Stalin's Genocides (Human Rights and Crimes against Humanity). 29 ^ a b c d Simon Sebag Montefiore.rin.com/topic/cult-of-personality-2.kavkazuzel.org. 2004 (ISBN 1-4000-4230-5) ^ a b "PBS. Issue 2. Let History Judge. pp.eng. 15.S. 267. pp. Journal of Genocide Research. 1.org/behindcloseddoors/about/index. http://state. 43. ^ a b "Cult of Personality". 9.com/resources/bilinsky. Answers . Cambridge. 749±763 3.html. Vol.R. Georgia as born on 18 December (Old Style: 6 December) 1878. 2007. 19. 130 ^ Pohl.1080/14623529908413948 Was the Ukrainian Famine of 1932±1933 Genocide?. 2007. 12."Prominent figures". 1950s/"Volume 14": Red Star Press. London 1978 Index of Soviet Union-related articles y y y y y y y Stalinism Neo-Stalinism Stalin Society Anti-Stalinist left De-Stalinization Stalinist architecture Stalin Peace Prize y y y y y y y Joseph Stalin Museum. Knopf. 1937±1949. 21±25. 21 October 2003. ISBN 0521527503. 8. p. The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective.com/books?id=k9Ro7b0tWz4C&lpg=PP1&dq=genocide&pg=PA267. p.html doi=10. Ami W. No.

p. No. ^ Peter Gue Zarrow (2005). A history of Russia: Since 1855. p. 42.. 37. ^ Life and Terror in Stalin's Russia: 1934±1941. 24. ^ Soviet Readers Finally Told Moscow Had Trotsky Slain. PDF file 51. 55. Genocide: Its Political Use in the Twentieth Century. ISBN 0300123892 p. Published in the New York Times on 5 January 1989. Stanford University Press. ISBN 1403901198. ISBN 0300031203 31. 1974 (first Indian edition) 38. Kevin McDermott(eds) (4 February 2003). 48.com/s/Joseph-Stalin-3210. ^ Leo Kuper. http://books. ^ Tim Tzouliadis. p. ^ Michael Ellman. ISBN 08050-7461-9 28. pp. 1999 46. ^ Overy 2004. This included three out of five Marshals. ISBN 1400040051 29. Routledge. Psychology Press. http://books. Nightmare in the workers paradise BBC. 182 35. ^ Robert Carver North (1963). 7 (Nov. p. Robert C.html. The Bells of the Kremlin.195. http://books. 23. ^ Barry McLoughlin. 300 30. Forced Labour and Economic Growth in the 1930s. pp. Yale University Press. 2 August 2008 See also: Tzouliadis. http://books. 282. ^ The scale of Stalin's purging of Red Army officers was exceptional²90% of all generals and 80% of all colonels were killed. The Penguin Press. ^ Robert Conquest in Victims of Stalinism: A Comment. Arvo. ^ "Newseum: The Commissar Vanishes".google. The Voices of the Dead: Stalin's Great Terror in the 1930s. pp. ± book reviews by Robert Conquest. Retrieved 25 June 2010. ISBN 0765804832. Publications New Delhi. No. Stalinism in Post-Communist Perspective: New Evidence on Killings. p. B. Europe-Asia Studies. 96. Retrieved 4 October 2007 25. ^ a b Overy 2004. No. 233. ISBN 0804704538. 67 47. No. 6.newseum. p. 2005. Stalin: Triumph and Tragedy (New York.com/books?id=OCI3gnzsYc0C&pg=PA233. Ethnicity in the Soviet Union: Analytical Perceptions and Political Strategies. ISBN 0874512492. ^ a b Orlando Figes The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin's Russia. Transaction Publishers.TAB1B. ^ Tucker 1992. Stalinism and Nazism: Dictatorships in Comparison. ISBN 0300123892 p. p.org/berlinwall/commissar_vanishes/vanishes. p. ^ Shanin. 2 53. . Vol. ISBN 1403901198.I. ^ Rosefielde.google. Comparative Studies in Society and History. ^ Pipes. Communism: A History (Modern Library Chronicles). The Forsaken: An American Tragedy in Stalin's Russia.hawaii. Vol. 205±6 33. ^ "Soviet Transit. By Robert Gellately. Retrieved 19 July 2008. 5 39. 409±424 21. Palgrave Macmillan. 4. ^ Brackman 2001. 110 of 195 divisional commanders and 220 of 406 brigade commanders as well as all commanders of military districts. http://books. 13 out of 15 Army commanders.GIF. Moscow and Chinese Communists. China in war and revolution. 6.com/books?id=yMwdWFtgV0QC&pg=PA282. 338 40. ^ Quoted in Dmitri Volkogonov. 663±693. 4 43.edu/powerkills/USSR. ISBN 1843310341. ^ John Keep.htm. Richard. ^ Tucker. Yale University Press. http://www. Cambridge University Press 1997. p. Stalinism: Essays in Historical Interpretation. Carell. 826 54. ^ Brackman 2001. p. Teodor (July 1989). Stalin.google. 26. (p. Palgrave Macmillan. translated from German by Ewald Osers.celebheights. 24 December 2007. 57 of 85 Corps commanders. ^ Hiroaki Kuromiya.google. Retrieved 2011-01-01.com/?id=8yorTJl1QEoC&pg=PA6. p. Stalin's Terror: High Politics and Mass Repression in the Soviet Union. Stalin's Terror: High Politics and Mass Repression in the Soviet Union. ^ Ian Kershaw. 1895-1949. p. p. Retrieved 2011-01-01. 1997). 162.com/books?id=wjCsAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA96. The Voices of the Dead: Stalin's Great Terror in the 1930s. Vol.google. Vol. 584 48. 22. Europe-Asia Studies.210 52. 2008 (ISBN 1594201684) 41. National Review 50.20. 31. 49. 1991). p. http://www. Yale University Press 1982. Recent Writing on Stalin's Gulag: An Overview. ^ Brackman 2001. (1964) Hitler's War on Russia: The Story of the German Defeat in the East. 141. ^ Applebaum 2003. American Council of Learned Societies Planning Group on Comparative Communist Studies. ISBN 0415364477. 59. ^ a b Hiroaki Kuromiya. 1997 49. Kevin McDermott(eds) (4 February 2003). 1996. Knopf. 27. ^ a b Alan Bullock. 2007. pp. p. Stalin and the Soviet Famine of 1932±33 Revisited Europe-Asia Studies. Stephen. ^ a b c Michael Ellman. and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. 456 36. 1996 45. Europe-Asia Studies. ^ Barry McLoughlin. 207 34. p. Tim. http://www. Moshe Lewin. June 2007. 1999. P. ISBN 0521565219. 2007. Anthem Press. p. 24 December 2007. ^ Tuominen. ^ Comment on Wheatcroft by Robert Conquest. 904±905 56. Camp. 204 32. The Role of Leadership Perceptions and of Intent in the Soviet Famine of 1931±1934. Retrieved 2011-01-01. ^ Walter Moss (2005).com/?id=8yorTJl1QEoC&pg=PA141. 1317± 1319 states:"We are all inclined to accept the Zemskov totals (even if not as complete) with their 14 million intake to 31 . 44. ^ Lenin. 3. ^ "Joseph Stalin Height ± Stalin's". and Deportation Death Rates".

htm. 188. ^ Lisova. 885. Joseph. 2002. ^ France Meslé.org/meets/wkcn/7/753/papers/brainerd.timesonline. However taken. 'labour settlements'. 59. 269 ^ a b "The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia" (PDF). p. ^ Alan Bullock.57. ^ Kyiv court accuses Stalin leadership of organizing famine. Stalin and the Soviet Science Wars.co. 2 ^ "The famine of 1932±33".5 million already in. Steele (2002) (PDF). Gilles Pison. The Economic Transformation of the Soviet Union.Pravda. The Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies. 78. 2004. although the 1946 drought was severe. Journal of Genocide Research 1 (2): 147±156. The all-Union census of 1937 in Ukraine).W. .Com » The Soviet Famines of 1921 and 1932-3". 1930±1933 . 2 March 1930 ^ Stalin. 72.ac. Mark Harrison." ^ "The rise of Stalin: AD1921±1924".com. 32 . or sent to. Sustainable Development: Promoting Progress or Perpetuating Poverty?. doi:10. ^ Robert Lewis. ^ Oliver Freire Jr. Jacques Vallin France-Ukraine: Demographic Twins Separated by History. 68. 63. Retrieved 23 August 2008.edu/history/Faculty/Tauger/Tauger.pdf. 67. http://www. http://www.warwick. Retrieved 28 December 2008.net/images/uploaded/12-402934626c558--charles_steele_chapter6.G. Retrieved 23 August 2008.%20Natural%20Disaster%20and%20Human%20Actions.edu/chapters/s8283. Skrobach. Marxism and the Quantum Controversy: Responding to Max Jammer's Question ^ Péter Szegedi Cold War and Interpretations in Quantum Mechanics ^ Ethan Pollock (2006). http://press.faminegenocide. Population and societies. 3.com/EBchecked/topic/612921/Ukraine/30078/Soviet-Ukraine#ref=ref404577. Centre for Economic Policy Research.com/faq/famine/the-soviet-famines-of-1921and-1932-3/. "Was the Ukrainian Famine of 1932±1933 Genocide?". PDF file ^ Findings of the Commission on the Ukraine Famine. ^ Stalin. Kyiv Post (13 January 2010) ^ Ukraine court finds Bolsheviks guilty of Holodomor genocide. 64.org/web/20080202145721rn_1/www.artukraine. ^ According to Ellman. 19 April 1988. 75.as.princeton." Cambridge Journal of Economics 24 (2000): 603±30. S.". Dizzy with success. Retrieved 25 June 2010. 73. Retrieved 19 July 2008. Wheatcroft). Joseph. 66. : (Demographic consequence of Holodomor of 1933 in Ukraine.html.com/ukrhol. ISBN 0691124671. 71.fr ^ Stanislav Kulchytsky. " 1931²1933 . these are surely 'high' figures.historyworld. Retrieved 28 December 2008. See also: "Reassessing the Standard of Living in the Soviet Union" (PDF). Michael Ellman. Ukraine: Britannica. " : 1927±1939 . 65. 3 April 1930 ^ "Ukraine Irks Russia With Push to Mark Stalin Famine as Genocide".faminegenocide.lexi. Associated Press. Bloomberg. See also: "Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives regarding the man-made famine that occurred in Ukraine in 1932±1933". to say nothing of the 3. ed. Times Online (London). 62. http://www.pdf. http://www.pdf. Palgrave Macmillan. 2001. Cambridge University Press.html. 76. http://www2. http://ipn. 2003 ^ . . .archive. http://www. ^ "Natural Disaster and Human Actions in the Soviet Famine of 1931±1933" (PDF). 58.html.com/resources/bilinsky. 1933 . Princeton University Press.htm.com/resources/findings.1080/14623529908413948.: .overpopulation. R. http://www.uk/fac/soc/economics/staff/faculty/harrison/reviews/davies-wheatcroft2004. See also: "Statement by Pope John Paul II on the 70th anniversary of the Famine". History of Russia. Wheatcroft (1994). Hennadiy Yefimenko. Pravda. Retrieved 19 October 2008. ^ "Ukraine's Holodomor".html.pdf.ukemonde. Retrieved 28 December 2008. 69. http://www. ISBN 5-8243-0225-1.com. Jacques Vallin Mortalité et causes de décès en Ukraine au XXè siècle + CDRom ISBN 2-7332-0152-2 CD online data (partially ± Ined. p. to which must be added 4±5 million going to Gulag 'colonies'. "The 1947 Soviet Famine and the Entitlement Approach to Famines. 80. (Stephen G. 77. Reply to Collective Farm Comrades. Retrieved 19 July 2008. 79. 70. (13 January 2010) ^ Charles N. Gulag 'camps' alone. N°413.uk/tol/comment/letters/article4243813.cepr.britannica." (On demographic evidence of the tragedy of the Soviet village in 1931±1833).wvu.skrobach. http://www.com/holodomor/index. Kiev. "Ukraine Recognize Famine As Genocide". Famine Genocide. 61. Profile Books. government mismanagement of its grain reserves largely accounted for the population losses. 1937 .ece.asp?HistoryID=ac14&ParagraphID=qxe#qxe. Davies.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories. US House of Representatives. juin 2005 ^ ce Meslé. http://www. http://web.com/famineart/uscongr4. 1 July 2008. 60. 21 October 2003. HistoryWorld. Institute of History. Natasha (28 November 2006). 74. 3 January 2008 ^ "Overpopulation. http://www. See also: Yaroslav Bilinsky (1999).

pp. during 1937±52 there were 14.pdf. ISBN 0684834200. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik.com/?id=ChRk43tVxTwC&pg=PA165. "Voprosy leninizma". vii. Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. (1951) "Istoricheskij materializm".paulbogdanor.htm#Stalin. 5 April 2006 93. and Stephen Wheatcroft (1990). "More light on the scale of repression and excess mortality in the Soviet Union in the 1930s" (PDF). 1. Yale University Press. 234: "My own many years and experience in the rehabilitation of victims of political terror 33 . See also: Robert Gellately. ISBN 0691147841 102. 2004 ISBN 0-33331107-8 105. Hollander. et al. Princeton University Press. 4. A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia. pp. The Tsarist and Soviet Legacy. ISBN 9780300103229. http://www. 315±345. 413 104. and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. the massive scope of the repression and killing. 99. excile. 165. http://sovietinfo. ^ Naimark.pdf. Stalin's Genocides (Human Rights and Crimes against Humanity). 321±333.362. Anthony. 413. vol 2: Soviet AntiReligious Campaigns and Persecutions.". 98 94. http://books. 1931±1933. and the Believer. http://sovietinfo. http://users. p.753 non-political sentences. Retrieved 28 December 2008. ISBN 0753817667.. No. ^ Joseph V. http://sovietinfo. B. by F. Retrieved 4 July 2008. 1993. death penalties.com/mwhite28/warstat1. 30. and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia. 28 million deported. http://web. "Concerning Marxism in Linguistics". "The Concept of Class".306. 87.tripod. ^ Ellman. Wheatcroft: The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture. ^ Ellman. Konstantinov.81. Retrieved 19 July 2008.473. Pospielovsky. Soviet Studies. 1999).060. ^ Andreev. EM.org/web/20080611064213/http://www.942. 4. 85. Modern Library Chronicles. ^ Steven Rosefielde. ISBN 0679640509. Zemskov.269. ^ Simon Sebag Montefiore. 1939±1953".com/WCR-German_Soviet.com/WCR-Scale_Repression.293 for 6±10 years. ^ "Recording a Hidden History". Stalin. Retrieved 28 December 2008. Austin. Stephen G. ISBN 1400040051 p. Edward.". Calvert (1982). Available online as Marxism and Problems of Linguistics including other articles and letters also published in Pravda soon after 8 February and 4 July 1950 82. See also: Stephen Wheatcroft (1996). Communism: A History. 134±135. Hollander. St Martin's Press. 584: "Anne Applebaum is right to insist that the statistics 'can never fully describe what happened. Moscow. pp. "Stalin's wars: from World War to Cold War. 402. ^ Snyder. 101. Steven. "The Scale and Nature of German and Soviet Repression and Mass Killings.634397. Knopf. Moscow. Vol 54. 1930± 45" (PDF). ^ "A century of genocide: utopias of race and nation". 649: "Perhaps 20 million had been killed. ^ Vadim Erlikman (2004). "Victims of Stalinism and the Soviet Secret Police: The Comparability and Reliability of the Archival Data. Lenin.Stalin.tripod. ^ R. Knopf. University of California 107. New Heaven. 91. ^ "Soviet Studies". Vol. Source: Europe-Asia Studies. ISBN 0691009139 92. Paul (10 April 2004). Documented Homicides and Excess Deaths: New Insights into the Scale of Killing in the USSR during the 1930s. 89 86. Nauka. London: Yale University Press. "Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Pre-war Years". Austin. among them 34. 2006 (ISBN 0300112041). ^ "Twentieth Century Atlas ± Death Tolls". In addition. p.637 sentences for 0±1 year. Basic Books. Wheatcroft. 799. Yakovlev.82. ^ a b Applebaum 2003 96..pdf. ^ Simon Sebag Montefiore. 1151± 1172 95. Lenin. A History of Soviet Atheism in Theory and Practice. Michael (09 2005).' They do suggest. Russia. 649. See also: Dmitri Volkogonov. Michael. Paul (10 April 2004).org/Politics/Staljin/Staljin/articles/AHR/AHR." 97. ^ Robert Gellately. ^ a b c Acton. p. p. 1973±1976 ISBN 0-8133-3289-3 89. Autopsy for an Empire: The Seven Leaders Who Built the Soviet Regime. Anthony. the number of sentences was (political convictions): sentences. ISBN 0753817667. New York (1988) p.etext. 2nd ed. Geoffrey. 2004 (ISBN 1-4000-4230-5) 83. Red Holocaust. 2007. http://www. ^ Dimitry V. See also: Richard Pipes (2001). Communist and Post-Communist Studies. New York. ^ Alexander N. Stalin. 2007. 144±145 88. 3. Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin.5 million Soviet citizens of their lives. Soviet Repression Statistics: Some Comments Europe-Asia Studies. Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. No. and 286.html. other. Europe-Asia Studies.512.britannica. Yale University Press. 2010. ^ Roberts. Not the Last Word". 589. and Alexander N. 100.erols. Other sentences were noncustodial 90. Norman M. Longmann Group Ltd (1995) ISBN 0-582-08922-0 84. Timothy. Weitz (2003).google. 51. 2. 139: "Between 1929 and 1953 the state created by Lenin and set in motion by Stalin deprived 21. Knopf. p. ISBN 0465002390 pp.tripod. Stalin (20 June 1950). p. Eric D. W. 2002.com/EBchecked/topic/513251/Russia.archive.973 for 2±5 years. Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza. 215. CT. Yakovlev. Europe-Asia Studies (Routledge) 57 (6): 823±41. Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. 7. ^ Rosefielde. 2010. ed. 66. pp. ISBN 0415777577 pg. Moscow 2004: Russkai a panorama. of whom 18 million had slaved in the Gulags. p. ^ "Russia".com/. p. p. ^ Stephen G.com/left/soviet/famine/ellman. Rittersporn. doi:10. 2 (Mar.066. pp. ISBN 5-93165-107-1. Pravda. camps and prisons. Moscow. P. ^ a b c d Simon Sebag Montefiore. however. 2009. 259 103. 256 98. 1997.611. The Washington Post. Routledge. 2. ^ Getty. gives the following numbers: During 1921±53.795 for more than 10 years. No. 2007 ISBN 1400040051 p. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.1080/09668130500199392. Vol. ^ Joseph V. "The Role of Leadership Perceptions and of Intent in the Soviet Famine of 1931±1934" (PDF). See also: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn: The Gulag Archipelago 1918±1956.228 death penalties. ISBN 5-02-013479-1 106. Davies. Princeton University Press. 1922±1991.

p. 343 138. ^ Roberts 2006. 2002. p.5 million during the civil war and more than 5 million during the 1930s. ^ Murphy 2006. Justice And Memory.J. Knopf. http://books. ^ Roberts 2006. Terror Repression. 2008 (ISBN 0977743330) Introduction online (PDF file): Estimations on the number of Stalin's victims over his twenty-five year reign. pp. p.com/?id=ChRk43tVxTwC&pg=PA234. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany. 63 140. and this figure could rise above 20 million. 20 130. 90 148. 53 135. Alfred Erich. ^ Roberts 2006. Connecticut: Yale University Press. 1991 (ISBN 0-19-507132-8) 109. Historical Injustice and Democratic Transition in Eastern Asia and Northern Europe: Ghosts at the Table of Democracy. 116±7 34 .google.17: "We now know as well beyond a reasonable doubt that there were more than 13 million Red Holocaust victims 1929±53. 1990 ISBN 0671728687. 146. New York: Manchester University Press. Lithuania 1940 : revolution from above. 334. pp. p. 82 141. 1999. p. xv 145. A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia. ISBN 0719042011 134. 4: "U. 539±30 118. The Great Terror: A Reassessment. http://query. Macmillan. ^ a b Murphy 2006. Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. p. 2007 ISBN 9789042022256 132. p. 341 136. ISBN 0415338735. ^ a b Roberts 2006. Amsterdam. ^ Robert Conquest. 64 121. in Preface." and Jonathan Brent. New York. ^ a b Roberts 2006. p. ISBN 0300087608. 67 142. Oxford University Press. p. The Black Book of Communism: Crimes. New York: Routledge. ^ How Many Did Stalin Really Murder? by Professor R. ^ a b Wettig 2008. from 1928 to 1953.HTM." 110. ^ Roberts 2006. 24±28 115. ^ Lionel Kochan. German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact. Kenneth. ^ Fest 2002." 108. The Struggle For Germany. Olli. ^ a b Roberts 1992. 57 117. Simon and Schuster. p. p. pp. 1963 116. 2007. Finland in the Second World War: Between Germany and Russia. p. Anthony Austin (2004). Stalin's Cold War. 2008 124. ^ Ulam 1989.".." and Stéphane Courtois.html?res=9E06E4D71638F931A25755C0A9639C8B63. ^ Simon Sebag Montefiore. 30 122. pp. 143. ^ Roberts 2006.. 57±78 123. 21 131.allow me to assert that the number of people in the USSR who were killed for political motives or who died in prisons and camps during the entire period of Soviet power totaled 20 to 25 million. And unquestionably one must add those who died of famine ± more than 5. "Stalin's Intelligence". ^ Roberts 1992. ^ Ericson 1999. ^ a b Shirer 1990. Atlas & Co. ^ Erickson 2001. and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. New Haven. William L. and Steven Rosefielde.asp?isbn=0300103220. Alexander. ^ Sanford.S. ^ Yakovlev. Inside the Stalin Archives: Discovering the New Russia. ^ "Regimes murdering over 10 million people". ^ a b Kennedy-Pipe. but the total of deaths caused by the whole range of Soviet regime's terrors can hardly be lower than some fifteen million. Oxford University Press. 40th Anniversary Edition. Caroline. xvi: "Exact numbers may never be known with complete certainty. p. vary widely. 541 127. 584: "More recent estimations of the Soviet-on-Soviet killing have been more 'modest' and range between ten and twenty million. New York. The New York Times. ^ Robert Conquest. 89 147. Katyn and the Soviet Massacre Of 1940: Truth. p. ^ a b Roberts 2006. p. ^ Ferguson. Harvard University Press. Lenin. 1914±1945. ^ Roberts 2006. 59 139. Niall (12 June 2005).yale. ISBN 0415777577 p. p. p. p. Routledge.hawaii.S. 1995. 129. 587±595 119. p. and Robert Gellately.edu/powerkills/MEGA. 111. ^ Shirer. Rodopi. ^ Senn. ^ Wettig 2008. Stalin.edu/yupbooks/book. ^ Roberts 2006. 30±32 113. pp. ^ a b c Brackman 2001. ^ a b Roberts 2006. Red Holocaust. pp. ^ Vehviläinen. 2007 ISBN 1400040051 p.nytimes. 509±10 120. 68 144. ISBN 0700715991 126. Rummel 112. ^ Roberts 2006. ^ Brackman 2001. ^ Christie. ISBN 0333801490. 510±535 114. Retrieved 7 May 2010. 2009.R. 58 137. http://www. ^ Encyclopedia Britanica. ISBN 0753817667. but 20 million is now considered the minimum. 2002.: 20 million deaths. http://yalepress. The Great Terror: A Reassessment. p. London. ^ a b Text of the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact. 43 128. George (2005). ISBN 9780300103229. RoutledgeCurzon. p.com/gst/fullpage. pp. pp. 133. p. executed 23 August 1939 125.

p. 4 Jan.204. . ^ (Polish) Barbara Polak (2005). 7 150. . David. Retrieved 25 June 2010. Josef Stalin. W. ^ a b Brackman 2001 189. 114±115 151. pp. 194±5 163. 185 161. 156 157. shooting order of 5 March 1940 Electronicmuseum.shtml. 1901±1956". Retrieved 19 July 2008. Abbott Gleason (2009). ^ "Record from The Nomination Database for the Nobel Prize in Peace. 163 159.242. p. Hosking (2006).pdf.net. pp. p. 1038±39 169. Wiley-Blackwell. Truth about History: How New Evidence Is Transforming the Story of the Past. 2001. ^ "Record from The Nomination Database for the Nobel Prize in Peace. ^ Excerpt from the minutes No. 367. p. Biuletyn IPNpages =4±21. Save Our Environment". Nobel Foundation.cia. ISBN 0340833971. ^ Hart. 180 160. 1992 175. ^ "Rulers and victims: the Russians in the Soviet Union". ISBN 09624423-2-1 173. pp. (Report of the Ukrainian and Belorussian fronts of the Red Army. Retrieved 14 May 2010. p. Ian. 2005. p. p. ISBN 0670886955. Norton & Company. 194 166. ^ (Russian) . ^ (Russian) V 31 « 250 . David. https://www.. ISBN 0762105232. ^ Glantz. ^ Roberts 2006. 11 October 2001 Clemson. pp. Katyn and the Soviet massacre of 1940: truth. The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. 2004. ^ "A Companion to Russian History". last accessed on 19 December 2005. Michael H. ^ Bullock. Hitler. Smith (1994). Melyukhov) 182. The Soviet-German War 1941±45: Myths and Realities: A Survey Essay. Andrew (2005). pp. ISBN 0-674-02178-9 171. ^ Williams.ceeol. The Soviet-German War 1941±45: Myths and Realities: A Survey Essay.edu 165. 199±201 164. ^ a b c Benjamin B.com/aspx/getdocument. Alan. ^ (Polish) obozy jenieckie zolnierzy polskich (Prison camps for Polish soldiers) Encyklopedia PWN. ^ a b (Polish) Edukacja Humanistyczna w wojsku. 9. 178. Viking. Hodder. pp. D-Day to Berlin. 1962. ^ Roberts 2006. 1901±1956". p. 1/2005. Biuletyn ÄKombatant´ nr specjalny (148) czerwiec 2003 Special Edition of Kombatant Bulletin No. p. Retrieved 22 September 2007. 310±1 167. Readers Digest. W. ISBN 0393322521. ^ . ISBN 1-4051-3560-3 174. 35 . http://nobelprize. Dom wydawniczy Wojska Polskiego. ^ Roberts 2006. 1943 155.» (Please provide translation of the reference title and publication data and means) 181. Harvard University Press.148 6/2003 on the occasion of the Year of General Sikorski. 2005. ^ a b Roberts 2006. W.org/nobel_prizes/peace/nomination/nomination. 13 172. 1991. ^ Roberts 2006. pp. Nobel Foundation.php?action=show&showid=2754. ISSN 0042-9058 188. ^ (Polish) Various authors. http://nobelprize.149. J. Fischer. Retrieved 28 November 2006 179. ^ "Euroheritage. Penguin Books. ^ a b Roberts 2006.409. 1936±1945: Nemesis. 185±6 170. ^ Time Magazine. p. Official publication of the Polish government Agency of Combatants and Repressed 187. 117±8 153. Euroheritage.net".org/nobel_prizes/peace/nomination/nomination. ^ Glantz. (Official publication of the Polish Army) 180. pp. Studies in Intelligence. ^ Beevor. ISBN 0415338735 pp. The Soviet-German War 1941±45: Myths and Realities: A Survey Essay. 20-24 185. 155 156. "Zbrodnia katynska" (PDF). p. 176. Penguin Books. Retrieved 14 May 2010. 799±800 168. ^ Roberts 2006. 186±7 162. ^ Roberts 2006. p. ^ a b Glantz. p.aspx?logid=5&id=f4349d43-b13d-4c2c-a70d-056e8801493d. ^ "Stalin's Killing Field" (PDF).php?action=show&showid=3323. ^ a b Roberts 2006. 186. original in Russian with English translation 184. p. 159 158. Robert. ^ Roberts 2006. Hitler: A Study in Tyranny. Berlin: The Downfall 1945. 11 October 2001. 124 154. Routledge. ^ Kershaw. p. justice and memory. Winter 1999±2000 183. 11 October 2001. 13 of the Politburo of the Central Committee meeting. ISNN 1734-6584.. ISBN 0140135642. Revised and Updated for the Nineties New York: Citadel Press Book." ". "The Katyn Controversy: Stalin's Killing Field". pp.net/stalinshomegallery. Geoffrey A. http://www. ^ Dolezal.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kentcsi/vol43no3/pdf/v43i3a06p. 88 152. David. 177.ca. ^ George Sanford. Antony. ^ Roberts 2006. http://euroheritage. ^ Roberts 2006. ^ "The World's Wasted Wealth 2: Save Our Wealth. ^ Roberts 2006.

568±569 208. ISBN 0-375-40900-9. ISBN 0-670-88695-5. 133 202. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 0-674-78405-7. "Remembering Rape: Divided Social Memory and the Red Army in Hungary 1944±1945". Specific reports also include Report of the Swiss legation in Budapest of 1945 and Hubertus Knabe: Tag der Befreiung? Das Kriegsende in Ostdeutschland (A day of liberation? The end of war in Eastern Germany). John Lewis. Churchill's "Iron Curtain" Speech Fifty Years Later. pp. 1996. 1993. "Facing a Holocaust: The Polish Government-In-Exile and the Jews. Boydell & Brewer. Indiana University Press. ^ a b Wettig 2008. pp. ISBN 025320867X. Soames Grenville and Bernard Wasserstein. ^ Goebbels. 1990. 2007. ^ a b c Granville. 47±8 213. ^ Engel. ^ a b c Wettig 2008. 1 1945±1950". ^ a b c Roberts 2006. . ^ Bauer. Marshall Cavendish. ^ Baer. 1949±1968 201. 2004. ^ a b c d 11 February 1945 Potsdam Report. p. pp. ^ Richard Overy. ^ A brief history of Poland: Chapter 13: The Post-War Years. Europe's Troubled Peace. Istoriya SSSR. Incorporated. ^ Ex-Death Camp Tells Story Of Nazi and Soviet Horrors New York Times. ISBN 0781811740. pp. Retrieved on 7 April 2007 222. Lochner. 2006.N. James W. 217. ISBN 0-80782069-5. ^ G.84 223. University of Missouri Press. John.. 1±8 218. p. 212 194. 1944±1951 // . Blackwell Publishing. ^ Curp. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 198. ^ Mark. pp. Eddy. ^ Roberts 2006. Norman M. Cambridge: Belknap." Foreign Affairs. ISBN 0826212476. p. Hippocrene Books. ^ Gaddis.4 211. ^ a b Wettig 2008. 1999.stiftungbg. 1945±1990. . I. ^ Text of Order No. . A History of Hungary. Doubleday & Company. The First Domino: International Decision Making during the Hungarian Crisis of 1956.. Texas A&M University Press. 2007. Propyläen 2005. pp. 71 191. http://www. ^ Tom Buchanan. 46±47." Encyclopædia Britannica. The Goebbels Diaries (1942±1943). David. ^ Anthony Eden (1965). The Major International Treaties of the Twentieth Century: A History and Guide with Texts. James. ^ Matthews. The Struggle of Hungarian Lutherans Under Communism. 93±4 227.htm. 32) 209. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0198780710 219.7 / No. p. Helmut David. Lenin. Memoirs: The Reckoning. ^ a b c d Roberts 2006. p. 375±77 226. University at Buffalo. 241±244 212. 1945±2000: 1945±2000. 90±1 216. 1995. Polish Academic Information Center. 391 199. 1990. Retrieved on 14 March 2007 225. Retrieved 22 April 2009. 1998. Krivosheev. pp. 66±69 221.190. ^ Muller. 1990. A Clean Sweep?: The Politics of Ethnic Cleansing in Western Poland. 1945±1960. 1943±1945". pp. 1948 193. ^ "The Soviet special camp No. Oxford University Press. ^ Robert Gellately. 1985 192. We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History. 5. C. 70±71 203. ^ Beevor. Johanna. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. Katyn: Stalin's Massacre and the Seeds of Polish Resurrection. See also: Allen Paul. Stalin. 16 228. p. Penguin Books. 155 200. 2007 ISBN 1400040051 p. 132 197. ISBN 3549072457 German) 204. 24 September 1992 207. ^ "Chronology 1990. 1997. ^ a b c d e f Roberts 2006. p. No.. 95±100 220. Polonia Today Online. ^ Sugar. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. "The Marshall Cavendish Illustrated Encyclopedia of World War II". 202 " ("Military-Historical Magazine"). 4 (Zemskov V. David. John P. August 2005. pp. 205. Stalin's Russia p. Past & Present ± Number 188. ^ Naimark. ^ Germans Find Mass Graves at an Ex-Soviet Camp New York Times. p. ^ (" 210. ^ "Poland. Masters of Death: The SS-Einsatzgruppen and the Invention of the Holocaust. 274±5 215. ^ Poland ± The Historical Setting: Chapter 6: The Polish People's Republic. Peter F. ^ Richard Rhodes (2002). ISBN 1580462383.de/gums/en/geschichte/speziallager/spezial01. ISBN 0631221638. 2005. reprinted in Potsdam Ashley. The Dictators Hitler's Germany. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. 2002. Peter Hanak and Tibor Frank. Explosion: The Hungarian Revolution of 1956. 17 December 2001 206. 270 195. ^ . 2006 ISBN 1585444804. 1945±1949. Retrieved on 28 March 2007 224. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1-58544-298-4 36 . ^ Schissler. Translated by Louis P. pp. Hanna The Miracle Years: A Cultural History of West Germany. Antony. Joseph. Berlin: The Downfall 1945. pp. ^ a b Roberts 2006. 2001 ISBN 041523798X 214. 98 196. Knopf. (ISBN 1-55750-670-1). 1994. The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation.. p. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. p. and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. On repatriation of Soviet citizens.

New York: Vintage. Simon (4 June 2004). Routledge. Stanford University Press. 2008. 234. Moscow. Simon Sebag. ^ a b c d Roberts 2002. Jews and Jewish Life in Russia and the Soviet Union. 1973 267. p. p.com/rus/vrach-ubijca-e. Nikita. 318 244. ^ Brent & Naumov 2004 37 . 99±101 253. Closed session. Christian Science Monitor. Central European University Press. ^ a b Kruschev. ^ Brent & Naumov 2004. ^ Simon Sebag Montefiore. p.pqarchiver. Appendix B: The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance 232. 6 March 2002 265. pp. e.g.html. ^ Montefiore. 67 239. pp. pp. 269. 390 256. BBC. 2008. ^ a b Roberts 2002. 202±205 245. pp. ^ Brackman 2001. Twenty-First Century Books. 42. ^ Solzhenitzin. pp. ^ Roberts 2002. Vol. 98 238. 80±358 241. 2005. p.com/chicagotribune/access/497978032. 100 243. Yaacov. Gosudarstvennyj antisemitizm v SSSR. 24±25 February 1956 268.html?dids=275861742:275861742&FMT=CITE&F MTS=CITE:AI&date=Sep+25%2C+1951&author=&pub=Christian+Science+Monitor&desc=Moslems+Urged+To+Re sist+Russia&pqatl=google. 24 Sep 1951. ^ Brent & Naumov 2004. ^ Brent & Naumov 2004. The Doctors' Plot.co. 2005 271. 461. Retrieved 1 March 2007. ^ a b Nekrich. ^ From the diary of Vice-Chair of the Sovmin V.html?dids=497978032:497978032&FMT=CITE&FMT S=CITE:AI&type=historic&date=Sep+24%2C+1951&author=&pub=Chicago+Tribune&desc=CHINESE+ASKS+AL L+MOSLEMS+TO+FIGHT+REDS&pqatl=google.stm. Yoram and Oleg Khlevniuk. 2003. Library of Congress Country Study. The Daily Telegraph. Budapest.uk/culture/3618310/Why-Stalin-loved-Tarzan-and-wanted-John-Wayne-shot. p. ^ a b Bideleux & Jeffries 1998 233. pp. Kostyrchenko. ^ Sebag Montefiore. Joseph Stalin: A Biographical Companion. ^ "Vicious Spies and Killers under the Mask of Academic Physicians". p. page297 260. pp.. ^ a b Brackman 2001. ^ Brackman 2001. Joseph Stalin. 184 261. p. 47±48 & 295 264.bbc. See G. ISBN 9639241199. Inc. p. 107±8 255. http://www.com/csmonitor_historic/access/275861742. ^ Eisenstadt. Stalin: An Unknown Portrait. ^ " 270.229. Benjamin. 388 263. ^ Montefiore Sebag. 165 258. 254. 2005. p.html. Yaakov. Young Stalin. Knopf. ^ a b Wettig 2008. ^ a b Gorlizki. Inc. 1995. pp. 288 251. New York: Harper Perennial. ^ Germany (East). ^ Brent & Naumov 2004. 236. ^ "CHINESE ASKS ALL MOSLEMS TO FIGHT REDS". Cold Peace: Stalin and the Soviet Ruling Circle 1945±1953. Ulam & Freeze 1997. ABC-CLIO. p. 298±300 266. 384±5 248. "The Recognition of Israel". 235. Novaya Gazeta. Pravda. Simon. The Soviet Government and the Jews 1948±1967: A Documented Study. 1984. ^ Brent & Naumov 2004.cyberussr. ^ Stokesbury. Cambridge University Press. Miklós. Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. ^ a b c d e Ro'i. A Short History of the Korean War. p. p. 1999 ISBN 1576070840. 295 262. p. 97 242. Sourcebooks. ISBN 0688095135. pp. ^ Rappaport. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica. James L (1990). 287 259. 2004 (ISBN 14000-4230-5). Alexander. American Journal of International Law. ^ "Moslems Urged To Resist Russia". pp. Chicago Daily Tribune. Stalin. ^ Taubert 2003.co.. Helen. Failed Illusions: Moscow. 2006 ISBN 0804756066. 571 272. http://news. Special Report to the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. 620 237. p.telegraph. ISBN 0521247136. ^ Kun. Random House. Philip Marshall. p. Jeffrey. (Russian) 257. 2003. p. ^ a b Stalin's Secret Pogrom: The Postwar Inquisition of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (introduction) by Joshua Rubenstein 249. 3 (Jul. http://pqasb. No. Retrieved 24 August 2010. ". ISBN 0822534215. 13 January 1953. Washington. ^ "Stalin's torture: 'Beat them to death'". 2008 247. ^ Gati. ^ See. 2005 ISBN 0195304209. 22 Adar 5762. 96 240. Stalin's Planned Genocide. http://www. ^ Pinkus. 158 252. 103±6 246. p. http://pqasb. ISBN 1400096138. 462 250. and the 1956 Hungarian Revolt.. 50 231.uk/hi/russian/press/newsid_2796000/2796261. 634. 9±12 230. The Gulag Archipelago. ISBN 0714646199.A. p. New York: Alfred A. ^ Roberts 2002. ^ a b Zuehlke. Brown. "Why Stalin loved Tarzan and wanted John Wayne shot". 25 Sep 1951. 1948). Charles. ^ a b c Henig 2005. ^ Department of State 1948. Malyshev.pqarchiver.

http://www. 311 274. 38 . ^ Rico. http://www. Stalin intended to use the USSR's lead in the development of a hydrogen bomb to his advantage.com/watch?v=K2sugMM9y3Q. 287.com. 276.uk/world/2008/dec/29/stalin-name-of-russia. Martin (2008). pp. N. University of California.com/?id=8fp1A2s6aQwC&pg=PA507. Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. ISBN 9780801488214. Retrieved 25 June 2010." p. ^ "The Human Monster. Next morning there was no activity from Stalin's room. http://books.bbc.941216.. Retrieved 25 June 2010. "Ex-Death Camp Tells Story of Nazi + Soviet Horrors". ^ Koba the Dread. Holt. despite the brutality of his regime?". 60.¶ Stalin himself confirmed this.google. ISBN 1405874368. ISBN 0030472660.. 286. thought Khrushchev. 250. 35±37 299. http://books. ISBN 0786868767. "Epilogue". http://www. ^ Nikolai Tolstoy. ^ Radzinsky notes in Stalin: The First In-Depth Biography Based on Explosive New Documents From Russia's Secret Archives. ^ McCullough. John V. ISBN 9788482398051. Wilfrid Laurier Univ. 2004.com/?id=MIf8mrJg8AC&pg=PA60.com/?id=f_ocAAAAIAAJ&q=little+father+stalin&dq=little+father+stalin&cd=4. http://www. p. ^ "YouTube ± Joseph Stalin Biography 1 of 2". Salon.guardian. ^ Galpin. Simon and Schuster.co. he also cites pp. µand would have been glad to get rid of him but didn¶t know how to do it. http://www. New Brunswick.uk/2/hi/europe/8133749. ISBN 0807070017.independent. ISBN 9780889202504. Stalinist values: the cultural norms of Soviet modernity.. 19±21. migrants must go: poll.co. http://books. 258. New York.com/?id=WbJNNPgcrykC&pg=PA258. that while Stalin was preparing Beria's downfall. ibid. Simon (2007).com/time/magazine/article/0. Richard (30 October 2009). 293.google.html.bbc. ^ Kahan. According to Radzinsky. the Russian edition. ^ David Lloyd Hoffmann (2003).google. USA: Pearson Education. indeed Molotov had already been deposed. ^ Montefiore. this was also the resumption of "the Terror": to ensure obedience of the nation in anticipation of a planned nuclear war. and Winston (1981). 283. "Greatest Russian poll". ^ Russian youth: Stalin good. p.com/2001/12/17/world/ex-death-camp-tells-story-of-nazi-and-soviet-horrors. 289. http://books.com/?id=z1dKz5rxeG8C&pg=PA157.org/20060101facomment85101/sarah-e-mendelsontheodore-p-gerber/failing-the-stalin-test. ^ Walker. that they were not required and could go to bed. Khrushchev remembers.co. http://news. by engineering a conflict with the West. 507. Cf. Stuart. 290. 548. ^ a b c d Nikolai Tolstoy. Retrieved 23 August 2008. O'Hehir. p. and embracing an anti-semitic expulsion of "the Jews" to Siberia. ^ Schwartzenberg. This was advantageous for Beria since the purge²which had already started against the Jewish doctors²was scheduled to start moving up to current Politburo members including Beria and Khrushchev.). Time. ^ a b c McCauley. 5 May 2005 285. David (9 April 1952).google. ISBN 0297850687. Young Stalin (2007 Costa biography winner ed. 1967 296. London: The Independent. page=11 (ISBN 1-4000-4230-5). Retrieved 21 September 2008. 282. Britain: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.html. 354. The Costs of War: America's Pyrrhic Victories (1st ed. Ediciones Palabra. "Rethinking Churchill". 1 March 1968. p. Knopf.com/?id=sUkG92pQ5kC&pg=PA922.foreignaffairs. 2001). in a footnote he quotes the press announcement as speaking of her "sudden death".google.time. pp. 1987 298.youtube. 4. Retrieved 25 June 2010. Press. Truman. 2003. 92. 295. 103±105 of his daughter's book.uk/news/world/europe/the-big-question-why-is-stalinstill-popular-in-russia-despite-the-brutality-of-his-regime-827654. ^ Desmond Butler (December 17. ^ "Modern Poll ± Votes for Stalin". Gordon W. ^ ´Stalin was µafraid of Beria¶. The head of security on that night gave the guards the order. "Medvedev blasts Stalin defenders". ISBN 1560003197. ^ Jean-Jacques Marie (2003).J. Roger-Gérard (7 February 2007). ^ "Russia: Court Rejects Libel Claim by Stalin's Grandson" Associated Press article in The New York Times 13 October 2009 279. Retrieved 25 June 2010. BBC News.stm. http://books.html. Retrieved 25 June 2010.00.stm.google. Britain confronts the Stalin revolution: Anglo-Soviet relations and the Metro-Vickers's crisis. Stalin and Stalinism.html. Beria first had Stalin's head of security killed and this allowed Beria to interfere with the bodyguard arrangements for Stalin. BBC News (5 March 2003) 278. p. Reuters (25 July 2007) 280. http://www.co. Retrieved 25 June 2010. ^ How Russia faced its dark past. 297. Stalin: The Man and His Era. Simon Sebag Montefiore. 288. OCLC 36011765. 281. p. ISBN 9780812052589. 133. sensing that Beria was winning support.uk/2/hi/europe/8334009. 294. p. 291. allegedly from Stalin. 277. BBC News. William Morrow & Co.: Transaction Publishers. 292. ISBN 0-03-047266-0. A. Stalin. ^ Tom Parfitt in Moscow (29 December 2008). pp. Ralph (31 May 1997). ISBN 9780743260299. ^ "Historical Notes: The Death of Stalin's Son". Stalin's Secret War.273. could be achieved by building on the show trials of "the Jewish doctors". 3 July 2009. 284. Rinehart. 1971. ^ Simon Sebag Montefiore.´. Nikita Khrushchev. ^ a b "Resolution on Stalin riles Russia".9171. Stalin. London: Guardian.. ^ Morrell. 395.). he thought. http://news.[citation needed] 275. http://books. Retrieved 7 May 2010. Twenty Letters to a Friend. Shaun (14 May 2008). "The Big Question: Why is Stalin still popular in Russia. The Wolf of the Kremlin.. Cornell University Press. p. (1 November 1995).nytimes. This. Retrieved 25 June 2010. The superstar show of government. In Denson. 1917-1941.

org/pha/nsr/nsr-preface. http://www." 303. Tucker.71 306. A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change. Predators: German-Soviet Relations. Simon Sebag (2007). 1948±1953. Stalin's Last Crime: The Plot Against the Jewish Doctors. p. Roberts. The Stalin Era. Nekrich. Logoi. Routledge. Stalin's Wars: From World War to Cold War. by. Doubleday. Straus and Giroux.org/stable/153322.com.. ^ a b c d e (Radzinsky 1996. Young Stalin. 1967. 1983 (ISBN 0060390271) Brent. Hitler. Brackman. The Secret File of Joseph Stalin: A Hidden Life.ibiblio. (1997).) 55 (2): 57±78. ^ Dimitry V. Henig. pp. Joachim C. Pospielovsky. the Pact with Nazi Germany. Further reading y y Anton Antonov-Ovseenko. Roman (2001). ISBN 0714650501. Montefiore. Jonathan. Brent. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House. 1922±1941. Gregory L. 272848. p.jstor. Overy. Geoffrey (2002). ISBN 0231106769. Fritz (2003). 308. II. Routledge. Department of State. "The Soviet Decision for a Pact with Nazi Germany". 1939±1953. Rowman & Littlefield. that his works were influenced by a distinctly Biblical style" and "his atheism remained rooted in some vague idea of a God of nature. 1939±1941: Documents from the Archives of The German Foreign Office. Europe-Asia Studies (Taylor & Francis. Anne (2003). New York (1987) p.jstor.logoi. David E. ISBN 0271028610. Vladimir (2004). 325 302.. ISBN 0767900561. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0742555429. "Molotov's Apprenticeship in Foreign Policy: The Triple Alliance Negotiations in 1939". Nikita (2006). Retrieved 19 October 2008. Memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev. ISBN 030011981X. St Martin's Press. Bideleux. Jonathan. W. Soviet Studies (Taylor & Francis. The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia. USA: Penn State Press. ISBN 0060933100. 2008 (ISBN 0977743330) Introduction online 39 . 472±3) 305. Fest. http://www. and the Believer. ISBN 9780203050248. W. J. ^ Smith. A History of Soviet Atheism in Theory. http://www. Soviet Information Bureau (1948). vol 1: A History of Marxist-Leninist Atheism and Soviet Anti-Religious Policies. 115±116. ISBN 0674455312. The Time of Stalin: Portrait of a Tyranny. Pariahs. "Many would later note. Ltd. Fighting Words: The Origins Of Religious Violence. ISBN 3486566733. Naumov. Phillip (2000). ^ Avalos. Hector. Religioustolerance.htm. ^ "Was Prejevalsky really the father of Joseph Stalin?". Derek (2000). ISBN 0415332621.html.) 52 (4): 695±722. ^ a b c d Khrushchev. Ulam. Nazi-Soviet Relations. Stalin in Power: The Revolution from Above. Gulag: A History. Gerhard (2008). 1933±41. Ltd.org/stable/152247. (2002). Constantine Pleshakov. (2004). 1928±1941. Routledge.religioustolerance. 301.org. Ian (1998). pp.The Young Stalin. Inside the Stalin Archives: Discovering the New Russia. Frank Cass Publishers. Inside the Kremlin's Cold War: From Stalin to Khrushchev. ISBN 0393308693. Partners. ^ "Mass crimes against humanity and genocide". (2006).html.300.com/notes/prejevalsky_stalin. p. 4. http://www. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. New York: Farrar. and Practice. Geoffrey (2006). Falsifiers of History (Historical Survey). Robert. Boobbyer. Aleksandr Moiseevich. ISBN 0767900561. Ruth Beatrice (2005). Department of State (1948). ISBN 9780297850687. 4. R. ISBN 0393020304. Robert C. 307. Roberts. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag. W. W. Murphy. Freeze. (1992). What Stalin Knew: The Enigma of Barbarossa. Harpercollins. ^ Vladislav Zubok.org/genocide0. Taubert. Retrieved 19 October 2008.1080/713663077. and the Origins of Postwar Soviet Diplomatic Historiography. Edward Ellis. Geoffrey (1992). Atlas & Co. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Jeffries. Watson. Yale University Press. Roberts. vol. ^ Robert Conquest Stalin: Breaker of Nations. doi:10. p. however. "Economic Problems of Socialism in the USSR". Stalin. Wettig. The Myth of Munich. ISBN 0156027542. HarperCollins.77 Bibliography y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Applebaum. The Origins of the Second World War. Yale University Press. Adam Bruno. ISBN 0300112041. Stalin and the Cold War in Europe. Norton & Company. Zubok and Pleshakov further state. http://www. 20 304. Norton & Company.

1945±1953. Stalin: A New History. pp. Boterbloem.S. Walter. New York: Alfred A. Parrish. Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia. as Stalin's Last Crime: The Doctor's Plot. Stalin: The First In-Depth Biography Based on Explosive New Documents from Russia's Secret Archives. Hiroaki. Knopf. Graeme. 2010. Modern Library Chronicles. Broekmeyer. Harlow. ON: McGill-Queen's University Press. London: Penguin Books. Stalin: A Political Biography. 1±14. and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Doubleday. Barry and McDermott. 1990 (ISBN 0-19-5071328). Allen Lane. 2001 (ISBN 0679640509) Priestland. London: HarperCollins. Jonge. David. Kuromiya. the Russians. Harcourt Trade Publishers New York. London: John Murray. and Legacy. Edmonton. Zhores Medvedev The Unknown Stalin: His Life. Gill.. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 2007 (ISBN 0805074619) Gellately. Chapter 1. edited by Roman Serbyn and Bohdan Krawchenko. Robert. Bullock. 1948±1953. 1929±53. Alberta: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. Litvin. 2004 (ISBN 0-7195-6508-1). The Stalin Years: The Soviet Union. Vladimir Pavlovich.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Brent. New York: Scribner. Stalin: Revolutionary in an Era of War (European History in Perspective). The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine. Palgrave Macmillan. 1990 (ISBN 0684192039).A. David E. Hiroaki. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0691147841 Richard Overy. 1939±1953. Stalin. and Terror in Inter-war Russia. Madison. Mawdsley. 2004 (ISBN 0-299-19590-2). 2006 (ISBN 0-582-78479-4). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. New York: Oxford University Press. 1991 (ISBN 0002154943). 2002. Edvard Radzinsky. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. New York: HarperCollins. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. Stalin's Last Crime: The Plot Against the Jewish Doctors. Stalinism: Russian and Western Views at the Turn of the Millennium (Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions). Balázs. An excerpt. 1986 (ISBN 0-19-505180-7). 2006 (ISBN 0-333-71121-1). 1987 (ISBN 0688072917). Famine in Ukraine 1932±1933: A Memorial Exhibition. Robert Conquest. New York: Oxford University Press. The Great Terror: A Reassessment.). Princeton University Press. Mace. and Their War. Lenin. Keep. McDermott. Milovan ilas. ISBN 1403901198 Roy Medvedev. James R. Michael. Houndmills. Young Stalin. 2004 (ISBN 1-4000-42305). Tauris. Rees. WI: University of Wisconsin Press. Life and Death under Stalin: Kalinin Province. Jonathan. 1962 (ISBN 0151225907) Orlando Figes. 1986 (ISBN 0-920862-43-8). 2004 (ISBN 0-393-32797-3). Alex de. Davies. Sarah. The Lesser Terror: Soviet state security. edited by Apor. Stalin: The Glasnost Revelations. Kingston. Montreal. Behrends. New York: William Morrow. Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. Stalinism (2nd ed. Communism: A History. Simon Sebag Montefiore.B. Polly Jones and E. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 2005 (ISBN 0-52185104-1). 1999 (ISBN 0-7735-1811-8). Conversations With Stalin. 2003 (ISBN 0-06-019524-X). John L. Marius. 1996 (ISBN 0275951138) Richard Pipes. Stalin. Kees. What Stalin Knew: The Enigma of Barbarossa. Manchester: Manchester University Press. New York: Routledge. Alter L. Yale University Press. 2004 (ISBN 0-415-35108-1) Kuromiya. 1986 (ISBN 0-688-04730-0). Kevin. London: I. The Lesser Evil: Moral Approaches to Genocide Practices (Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions). 2004 (ISBN 1-4039-3443-6). Knopf. ISBN 0300123892 The Leader Cult in Communist Dictatorships: Stalin and the Eastern Bloc. edited by Helmut Dubiel and Gabriel Motzkin. Jan C. Alan. Kevin (eds). Praeger Press. 2007 (ISBN 9780297850687). 2004 (ISBN 0-7146-5493-0). Metropolitan Books. UK. Stalin and the Politics of Mobilization: Ideas. Harris. 1990 (ISBN 0140135049). "The Man-Made Famine of 1933 in Soviet Ukraine". New York: Oxford University Press. Death. Evan. The Voices of the Dead: Stalin's Great Terror in the 1930s. Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives. 40 . 1967 (ISBN 0-19-500273-3). 1941±1945. 2003 (ISBN 0-7190-6377-9). Robert Conquest. New York: Vintage. Quebec. Power. Murphy. 1998 (ISBN 0-312-17764-X). Stalin. The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin's Russia. 24 December 2007. Yale University Press. New York: Oxford University Press (U. Stalin and the Shaping of the Soviet Union. 2006 (ISBN 0-19-924513-4). James E. 2005 (ISBN 0300107803). Laqueur. Naumov. UK: Longman. Isaac Deutscher.). August 2007 (ISBN 1400040051). Norman Naimark Stalin's Genocides (Human Rights and Crimes against Humanity). 2005 (ISBN 1400076781). Stalin's Terror: High Politics and Mass Repression in the Soviet Union. 2003 (ISBN 1-86064-768-5) Simon Sebag Montefiore. McLoughlin. 1996 (ISBN 0-385-47397-4).H.

ISBN 0813337100 Service. ISBN 978-1929631-62-9.: Transaction Publishers. Tucker Stalin in Power: The Revolution from Above. Tim. 1879±1929: A Study in History and Personality. The Murder of Maxim Gorky.W. 1990 (ISBN 0393-02881-X). Free Press. Redefining Stalinism (Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions). Timothy Snyder. 2002 (ISBN 0300087608) External links Find more about Joseph Stalin on Wikipedia's sister projects: Definitions from Wiktionary Images and media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks y y y Stalin Library (with all 13 volumes of Stalin's works and "volume 14") Library of Congress: Revelations from the Russian Archives Electronic archive of Stalin's letters and presentations 41 . CT. Tzouliadis. Steven. 2003 (ISBN 0-7146-5415-9). (2006). Basic Books. A Secret Execution. Edited by Melanie Ilic and Stephen G.. Austin. Tucker Stalin as Revolutionary. 1928±1941. Stalin's Terror Revisited. A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia. Kendall. Wakeman. 2009. Adam Bruno. Chris.J. Harry H. ISBN 0465002390 Boris Souvarine. MA: Belknap Press.W. Norton. 1989 (ISBN 0-8070-7005-X) Vaksberg. Geoffrey. New York: Routledge Courzon. Poisoned Arrows: The Stalin-Choibalsan Mongolian Massacres. Stalin: The Man and His Era. Harold (Editor. Rosefielde. Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. 1998 (ISBN 0-340-70640-6). Boston: Beacon Press. Robert C. 2002 (ISBN 0-7007-1749-8). 2005 (ISBN 0-674-01697-1). Roberts. New York: Routledge.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Donald Rayfield. London: Yale University Press. N. Stalin's Wars: From World War to Cold War.: Transaction Publishers. Autopsy for an Empire: the Seven Leaders Who Built the Soviet Regime. Whitefish. Red Holocaust. (ISBN 0415777577) Rudolph Rummel Death By Government. pp. Yale University Press. Journal of European Studies. 2006 (ISBN 1-4039-4705-8). London: Arnold Publishers. (W. New York: W. 2008 (ISBN 1594201684) Ulam. N. Anthony (Translator). Rudolph Rummel Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917. (Enigma Books: New York. Stalin: A Critical Survey of Bolshevism. 2. Arkady. 2006 (ISBN 0300112041). Frederic E. 2007. Robert. 1921±1941. New Heaven. The Political Thought of Joseph Stalin: A Study in Twentieth-Century Revolutionary Patriotism. Routledge. Vol. The Forsaken: An American Tragedy in Stalin's Russia. 1990 (ISBN 0887383335) Sandag. Stalin: A Biography. The Stalinist Dictatorship. 36. Norton. Ree. 1939±1953. edited by Harold Shukman. Westview Press (October 1999). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Shukman. The Penguin Press. Wheatcroft. New York: Random House. 2010. 2005 (ISBN 1-41911307-0)Online. Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev (Author). 1973) online edition Robert C. Cambridge. Shagdariin. Stalin and His Hangmen: The Tyrant and Those Who Killed for Him. Chris.) Dmitri Volkogonov (Author). 1998 (ISBN 0684834200) Ward. New Brunswick. 181±200. MT: Kessinger Publishing.J. Ward. "Stalin Through Seventeenth-Century Eyes". New Brunswick. No. Translator). London. 2004 (ISBN 0-375-50632-2). Erik van. 1994 (ISBN 1560001453).

Death of Stalin. Office of Current Intelligence. A. Stalinka: The Digital Library of Staliniana Modern History Sourcebook: Stalin's Reply to Churchill. How Many Did Stalin Really Murder? by Professor R. 1956 The political economy of Stalinism: evidence from the Soviet secret archives / Paul R. Vishnevsky. Gregory "Demographic catastrophes of the 20th century".000 original German WWII soldier photographs from the Eastern Front Central Intelligence Agency. ed. Rummel Death of the Butcher by Hoover fellow Arnold Beichman A secret revealed: Stalin's police killed Americans (1997 Associated Press article) Stalin giving a speech in Russian with English subtitles The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine (1986) Authority control: LCCN: n80044789 Political offices Preceded by None People's Commissar of Nationalities of the RSFSR 1917±1923 Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union Council of People's Commissars until 1946 1941±1953 Minister of Defence of the Soviet Union People's Commissar until 1946 1941±1947 Chairman of the State Defense Committee 1941±1945 Party political offices Preceded by None General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 1922±1953 Military offices Preceded by None Generalissimo of the Soviet Union 1945±1953 Succeeded by None Succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev Succeeded by ? Preceded by Vyacheslav Molotov Succeeded by Georgy Malenkov Preceded by Semyon Timoshenko Preceded by None Succeeded by Nikolai Bulganin Succeeded by None 42 . 1946 Modern History Sourcebook: Nikita S. 2006 ISBN 5983790420 ± estimates of the human cost of Stalin's rule Annotated bibliography for Joseph Stalin from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues "Secret documents reveal Stalin was poisoned" study by the Russian paper Pravda of events behind possible death by poisoning Over 2. chapter from Demographic Modernization in Russia 1900±2000. G. Progressive Labor Party website "The Revolution Betrayed" by Leon Trotsky Stalin and the 'Cult of Personality' Stalin Biography from Spartacus Educational A List of Key Documentary Material on Stalin "Stalin and the Struggle for Democratic Reform. Part One" and "Part Two" by Grover Furr. Khrushchev: The Secret Speech ² On the Cult of Personality.J. 16 July 1953.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Sovetika.ru ± A site about the Soviet era (Russian) "Another view of Stalin" [1][2][3] by Ludo Martens.

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