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**A. Cardoso, J. Henriques and A. Dourado
**

CISUC - Centro de Informática e Sistemas da Universidade de Coimbra Departamento de Engenharia Informática Pólo II da Universidade, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030 COIMBRA PORTUGAL Email: { alberto, jh, dourado}@dei.uc.pt Phone: +351 39 790000 Fax: +351 39 701266

Abstract

Solar power plants are characterised by the fact that the primary energy source, the solar radiation, varies throughout the day causing changes in plant dynamics which leads to distinct several main operating points. Therefore it is difficult to obtain an acceptable performance over the total operating range with a fixed controller. This paper presents the investigation of a fuzzy switching supervisor PID control strategy to the distributed collector field of a solar power plant at the Plataforma Solar de Almería (Spain). The fuzzy supervisor technique, using measured actual data available from the plant, provides a way to switch between several fixed PID controllers, a priori tuned with a neural network strategy. To deal with the effects of fast and unexpected deviations on inlet oil temperature the introduction of a feedforward compensator is also investigated. Simulation and experimental results are presented showing the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Solar power plants; Fuzzy supervisor; Switching PID control; Neural networks.

1. INTRODUCTION

The main control requirement in a solar power plant is to maintain the outlet oil temperature of the collector field at a constant pre-specified value, to be used for power production. The fundamental feature of the plant is that its primary energy source, the solar radiation, can not be influenced by the control system. Moreover, since the solar radiation changes substantially during the plant operation, due to the daily solar cycle, atmospheric conditions, such as a cloud cover, humidity and air transparency, it is seen that significant variations in the dynamic characteristics (e.g., the response rate and the time delay) of the field, corresponding to different operation conditions, occur. Therefore, it is difficult to obtain a satisfactory performance over the total operating range with a fixed controller. To deal with these difficulties some authors have proposed the use of adaptive control techniques (Camacho et al., 1992; Pickhardt and Unbehauen, 1994; Pickhardt and Silva, 1998; Coito et al., 1997). Others have suggested intelligent control techniques, like neural networks, fuzzy systems or linguistic controllers (Arahal et al., 1997; Rubio et al., 1995; Berenguel et al., 1997; Juuso et al., 1997). Another possible alternative could be the commissioning of a switching controller using different models of the plant for the different operating points (Rato et al, 1997). A similar strategy is followed here. There are several ways to design a controller for each local model. Traditional PID controllers have some well known advantages. They are simple to implement, they can successfully regulate many industrial processes with various specifications in some nominal operating conditions and they can assure reliability based on possible stability studies (French et al., 1992; He et al., 1993). To improve the performance of the PID controllers, several strategies have been proposed, such as adaptive and supervising techniques. One can consider the following main reasons for using a supervisor (Ketata et al., 1995): (i) firstly, adaptive

controllers are able to cope with the most of the cases that leave the PID under-optimal, but they require specialised design methods using some a priori model structure knowledge (Oliveira et al., 1991); PID supervisors are easier to implement because they need very little knowledge about the process; (ii) secondly, the combination of a linear PID control law with a supervisory strategy can lead to a highly non-linear control law, increasing the robustness of the control system (Babuska and Horacek, 1992). One possibility to implement the supervisor is the fuzzy logic methodology which has been considered as an effective tool to deal with disturbances and uncertainties in terms of vagueness, ignorance, and imprecision. In this work a control strategy based on the PID control design with a fuzzy logic switching supervisor is presented. The supervisor is built upon a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy to implement the on-line switching between each PID controller, according to the actual measured conditions. The local PID controllers have been previously off-line tuned, with a neural network approach, that combines a dynamic recurrent non-linear NN model with a pole placement control design. The number of local controllers, to be employed by the supervisor, was reduced, using the c-Means clustering technique. Since the main disturbances are accessible, they can be applied to improve the controller performance. In some of the previous work a feedforward compensation term, assessed through the static behaviour of the plant, is suggested to compensate the effects of the radiation and the inlet oil temperature (Camacho et al., 1992; Berenguel et al., 1997). Coito et al. (1997) show experimental results for the case when these disturbances are included in the design of a predictive MUSMAR-controller. In this work a dynamical term to compensate the effects of inlet oil temperature is investigated. The paper is organised as follows: in section 2 the fuzzy switching supervisor and the feedforward technique are

2 5 and SI ( i) and ST (i) define. The output. µT(T ref ) Very Small Small Normal 1. µ I ( I rad ) I rad ∈ I } (4) . . V ery L arg e } SI = respectively. is drawn in Figure 4. N ormal .M 2 . it is assumed that a nominal controller C i . 2 5 . where X and Y are fuzzy sets in the antecedent. Fuzzy Switching Supervisor I rad Ci C1 T in The inputs. . 270 C ] ] ) A N D ( T ref is S T ( i ) ) (1) (2) T H E N α i = µ I (i) (I rad )*µ T (i) ( T ref ) (7) where i =1. are shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3. CONTROL METHODOLOGY 2. SM .0 260. The aggregation of the consequents of the fired rules. can also be designed. Small .0 250. The fuzzy supervisor consists of three stages: the fuzzification. and the reference temperature. that reduces the number of candidate controllers and the neural network approach employed to design the PID controllers.C Figure 3 . where each Pi is called a nominal model.. The universes of discourse I and T . is the index that identifies the select controller.Fuzzy Supervisor To formulate the design problem it is assumed that it is possible to represent the plant dynamics by a number of characteristics behaviours M 1 .. . which chooses among rules that have been fired simultaneously. The selected controller is obtained by the defuzzification part. that defines the strategy of how to do the switching between controllers. For each variable five linguistic terms are considered (3): { V S .Fuzzification RB . determine { I rad . L arg e . In general a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system (Takagi and Sugeno. M N and that. .Defuzzification 230. 1000 W / m 2 [ 230 C . The main conclusions are summarised in section 4. Rule i: IF ( x is X ) A N D ( y is Y ) T H E N z = ϕ( x . respectively for the solar radiation and reference temperature.Rule Base D . µI(I rad ) Very Small Small Normal 1. assumed to characterise the actual nominal condition of the solar plant.W/m 2 Figure 2 .0 Large Very Large 2. The variables µ I ( i ) ( I r a d ) and The fuzzy sets SI and S T are defined as a set of ordered pairs by (4) and (5). The overall structure of the fuzzy switching supervisor PID control is shown in Figure 1. The first one converts the numerical values of the solar radiation. The rule base. . a corresponding model Pi may be derived..0 700. . N O . into linguistic variables. The fuzzy rule base defines the switching control strategy. µ T ( T ref ) T ref ∈ T } (5) The membership functions. ϕ is a general nonlinear function and z is a crisp value. ST = {T ref . the linguistic values of variables I r a d and T ref for the i th (3) rule.0 Large Very Large Tref . which mainly define the nominal operating points. L A . considered triangular. for each M i . I ≡ The switching supervisor rule.Switching Supervisor Rule Base. are the solar radiation and the reference temperature.Solar Radiation Membership function. In section 3 some simulations and experimental results are presented in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.0 600. A classification technique.0 Irad . 1985) is described by a set of rules (6). Solar Radiation (W/m VS SM NO LA 2 ) VL Irad Tref VS 600 230 240 250 260 270 C1 C6 C11 C16 C21 700 C2 C7 C12 C17 C22 800 C3 C8 C13 C18 C23 900 C4 C9 C14 C19 C24 1000 C5 C10 C15 C20 C25 Reference Temperature (C) SM NO LA VL Irad Figure 4 . T ref F RB D F . depicted in Figure 4.Schematic diagram of fuzzy switching supervisor PID control.0 270. In order to obtain a desired performance when the plant is operating under conditions M i . µ T ( i ) ( T ref ) define the respective membership degree.0 240. I r a d . V L }= { V ery Small .0 900. T ref .Reference Temperature Membership function.presented. are also described in this section.0 1 000.1 . can be translated into a Takagi-Sugeno type by (7) Rule i : IF ( I rad is SI (i) [ 600 W /m T ≡ 2 . C i i =1.0 800. the fuzzy rule base and the inference procedure. y ) (6) T ref - e C2 Q in T out CN PID Controllers Acurex Field Figure 1 . are defined by (1) and (2).

1995) to approximate a discrete time non-linear system is employed to obtain each nominal model Pi . An Elman network is described by the equations (8).1 . such that Figure 5 – Simplified Supervisor Rule Base. Solar Radiation (W/m2) Tout 250 Tref 12..2 5 . with respect to the input Q in . n . The selected controller. computed by the fuzzy supervisor.e.5 240 250 260 270 Figure 6 . n = 2 . (9) and (10) it is possible to derive a linear model by computing the derivatives from the output. decreases the values as they are fed back. is considered). Q in = 0 . 1993). 1981) is applied here to group the controllers which have parameters with similar values. is given by the following expression (12): ∆Q in ( q −1 ) ∆T in ( q −1 ) where G (q −1 = G ( q −1 ) F ( q −1 ) D ( q −1 ) (12) are locally recurrent and a multiplicative constant. the PID parameters can be easily computed from a pole placement law. This first simulation intended to show the behaviour under several changes in the points of operation. W W y u ) = 0 .n and F( q −1 ) = and D(q −1 ) = q -9 (14) ∈ ℜ n . T out .. 2 5 . the solar radiation and inlet oil temperature.4 8 5( T ref −1 5 15 ) − 8 0 .4 . Based on this linear model. . which defines the supervision task. In this work. 2. developed at the University of Sevilla (Berenguel.5 100 5 600 230 Reference Temperature (C) C5 C5 C7 C7 C6 700 C5 C1 C5 C2 C7 800 C2 C5 C1 C4 C1 900 C6 C2 C4 C3 C4 1000 C6 C2 C2 C4 C3 50 10 11 12 13 14 Hours 2. what really happens. a discrete time linear model can be derived in the form of a standard discrete time state space equations (a second order system. From the non-linear neural model. (9) and (10): x h(t) = σ c {W x x c ( t ) + W u Q in ( t −1) c } (8) (9) (10) x (t ) = x ( t −1) + λ x ( t −1) h y h Tout (t) = W x (t ) where t is a particular discrete time. The data set to be classified is the parameters of the nominal PID controllers C i . RESULTS 3.Clustering The purpose of clustering is to classify a given data set into homogeneous groups of data. are evaluated from the truncated Werbos’ backpropagation through time algorithm (Werbos. extracting the actual linearised parameters (Henriques 3. T ref −T in (11) 2. The feedforward term is calculated based on the static feedforward relationship (11) (Berenguel et al. 1990). i =1. how long a given value fed to the context unit will be remembered. . are measurable. et al.Feedforward Control The distributed solar collector field is a particular process where the main disturbances. λ .2 . The interconnection matrices. 1998). which identifies the controller to be selected. 1995). i. 2.. ..PID Tuning with Neural Networks Neural networks (NN) have been successfully applied for modelling non-linear systems (Jin et al.. 1993)..5 200 10 150 Qin 7. and the solar radiation are shown in Figure 7. equations (8). input-hidden layer and hidden-output layer respectively.7 .Simulation using the switching strategy. It can be concluded that it performs according to its design: it has to select the adequate controller for each operating point. the ability of a recurrent Elman network (Pham and Xing.α i = α m a x = m a x { α1 . The context units h The dynamical feedforward compensator. ( T ref −T in ) −1 f1 + f 2 q −1 1+ g1 q 2 (13) ∈ℜ 1.3 . σ( ⋅) is a hyperbolic tangent non-linear function. This constant determines the memory depth.1 – Fuzzy Supervisor Simulation The effectiveness of the developed approach was tested using the non-linear distributed parameter model of the Acurex field. is now on Figure 5 .K. i =1. From the results shown in Figure 6 it can be seen that the proposed strategy is able to perform well with these nominal conditions variations. The c-Means clustering algorithm (Bezdek.7 8 6 9 I r a d − 0 . . the number of clusters (distinct controller classes) considered was 7. i . The final rule base. C l/s and Dourado. x c ( t ) is the context unit and x ( t ) can be seen as an estimated state.α2 5 } .4 8 5 ( T ref −1 5 15 ) −8 0 . W x ∈ℜ n .7 8 6 9 I r a d −0 . Following this approach. . which define the interconnection paths for the context-hidden layer.7 . includes a low-pass filter and a delay term. Since the supervisor strategy takes into account to the solar radiation values only the compensation of the inlet oil temperature disturbances is considered here.

5 650 11 12 13 14 15 Hours Figure 8 . The results can be seen in Figure 10 and Figure 11. respectively. The disturbance rejection capabilities of the controller were also acceptable (note that the feedforward term was not introduced.1 .0 750 Tin 700 175 50 10 11 12 13 14 15 Hours 2. 1998. 3.Experimental Results The experimental results shown here.Solar radiation and inlet oil temperature.5 Figure 10 . In Figure 12 the same situation is reproduced (in simulation). 1996). a change in the inlet oil temperature was introduced at instant 13h25m. Figure 8. Figure 9 . Figure 8 and Figure 9 show the experimental results obtained on 6th of July.6th of July . The response presents almost no oscillations neither overshoot and settles for the new value of the reference temperature in about 15 minutes. This simulation intends to verify the improvement of the system’s performance with this compensation. 1998. Observing the experiment 1. The dynamic feedforward term was not considered in the experiments . The controller was implemented in C code and operates over a software developed at PSA (López. T1out and represents.Experiment 2 .4 a strategy for compensate inlet oil temperature disturbances is presented.5 850 800 200 100 5.). In the experiment the sampling time considered was 15 seconds and the output temperature considered. T o u t .7th of July. 1998. also in C code. 3. As can bee seen the behaviour is quite good. The results are very acceptable in face of the different operating points and the addition/suppression of a collector loop.Solar radiation and selected controller. W/m2 C Tref T out 10 200 950 900 Irad Q in 150 7.Solar radiation and inlet oil temperature. After an initial phase the outlet oil temperature achieves the reference temperature. In order to show the rejection capabilities of the proposed switching control. the simulation output Q1in oil . were carried out in the Acurex Solar Collectors Field of the Plataforma Solar de th th Almería (PSA). C 250 l/s The experiment 2 was carried out on 7th of July. on 6 and 7 of July. At instant 14h55m a collector loop were suppressed from the field and added again at instant 15h12m.W/m2 800 700 C7 Ci Irad 7 6 W/m 2 C Irad 750 600 500 400 300 200 100 10 11 C1 C1 C2 C5 C5 C4 C5 T in 700 175 5 4 3 600 2 1 550 10 11 12 13 14 15 Hours 650 150 12 13 14 Hours Figure 7 . is the average of the temperature at the outlet of the loops. an inlet oil temperature disturbance was introduced at instant 13h25m.Simulation with the Feedforward Term In section 2.Experiment 1 .5 100 5.0 50 11 12 13 14 15 Hours 2. C 250 Tref Tout l/s 200 10 150 Q in 7.3 . Figure 11 .

an improvement in the performance of the closed loop system has been achieved. 3 (4).ECC97 . June 18-18. Internal Report. E. 4. Netherlands. who was nominated to take care of this project. IEE Proc. 40 (7). Z. Geest. Symposium on Artificial Intelligence in Real-Time Control. P. C. Gibraltar. Horacek (1992). Berenguel. IEEE. Netherlands. 144 (6). E. A. Pre-prints of the IFAC/IFIP/IMACS International Symposium of Artificial Intelligence in Real Time Control. Int. Rato.ECC97 . 113-229. L. Unbehauen (1994). J. M. L. Bulsari. Neves da Silva (1998). Jin. Dourado (1998). M. French. Approximation of discrete time state space trajectories using dynamic recurrent networks. Tan. 1550-1560. 1-4 July. this response confirms the expected disturbance rejection capabilities of the controller. Linguistic Equation controller applied to a solar collectors field . Henriques. in particular Pedro Balsa. Mosca (1997).Bruxels. Lemos and P.. A. M.. and plant characteristics. Intelligent tuning of P+I controllers for bioprocess application. Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing. Werbos. Oliveira. I. 50 C in the inlet oil temperature. J. J. 697-702. M. 78. Bezdek... 12 (2). 71. Coito. Control Theory and Applications.. An indirect adaptive predictive controller for linear and non-linear plants. G. For a variation of c. P. evaluation. F. Fuzzy Sets and Systems. 15. Lima. Titli (1995). Wang (1993). Camacho (1995). Pickhardt. This work was partially supported by the Portuguese Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT). Gupta (1995). E. Arahal. 118-121. Camacho. R. F. (1990). Ketata. Balsa and K..I. 116-132. 596-604. Acknowledgements The experiments described in this paper were carried out within the project “Innovative Training Horizons in Applied Solar Thermal and Chemical Technologies”. 25852589. F.4 13. Chap. Takagi. PID selftuning control using a fuzzy adaptive mechanism. R. N.. Xing (1995). Camacho. T. Plenum. A set of different PID controllers has been designed using a neural network methodology. Acurex Filed D. Willis. Fuzzy identification of systems and its application to modeling and control.. 327-342. 9-12 June 1998.S.. Cox.a. reference temperature. Brussels. (1981). Camacho. Sentiero (1991).8 14 Hours Figure 12 . Xu. 11 (4).A. The authors would like to express their gratitude to the personnel of the Plataforma Solar de Almería. Rubio. IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems. Neural Networks for Chemical Engineers. Backpropagation trough time: what it does and how do it. F. R. J. Sugeno (1985). F. As can be seen the behaviour is quite good. Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Control Applications.. Rubio. A Multivariable adaptive control using a recurrent neural network. York. Borreli. He. Grenoble. Gutierrez (1988). Automatic Control. Trieste. M.. Modelling and Control Applications. P. EANN98 Engineering Applications of Neural Networks. E. E. REFERENCES . Internal Report 08/96. under program PRAXIS XXI. Proceedings of the American Control Conference. 1266-1270. P. ERBFMGECT950023. M. Pham. Incremental fuzzy PI control of a solar power plant.. J. Z. Berenguel and E. 1-4 July. J.temperature and input oil flow without the feedforward term and T out and Q in the respectively variables when the feedforward term is introduced. P. Adaptive control of a solar energy plant: Exploiting accessible disturbances. R. H. S.. Modelling and simulation of a Solar Power Plant with distributed collector system. Nikiforuk. R. Lemos. Babuska. IEEE. European Control Conference . CONCLUSIONS A fuzzy switching supervisor strategy of PID controllers and a feedforward compensator. N. Cybernetics. IEEE Control Systems Magazine. López. R. Luk (1997). E. 708713. L. Rubio. Mosca. M. Simulation Software Package for the Acurex. D. J. N. Plataforma Solar de Almería.. France. L. D. Rubio (1993). 572-591. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed switching strategy. Simulations studies have been presnetd in the presence inlet oil temperature disturbances.Bruxels. 263-268. R. Leviska (1997). Camacho (1997). F. P. IEEE Trans. So. ºC 2 2 240 T2out Tref 220 T1 out 200 180 Tin 160 140 l/s 8 Q 2 in 7 6 5 Q 1in 4 3 13 13. off-line trained. Silva. Pickhardt. Dynamic System Identification Using Elman and Jordan Networks. M. M.European Control Conference ECC91. H. F. and Control System. F. A. Application of a nonlinear predictive controller to a solar power plant. 1-4 July. Berenguel. Editor A... Montague (1992).Simulation with the feedforward term. E. 459-468. Laboratory evaluation of fuzzy controllers. Fuzzy logic control of a solar power plant. Camacho. E. Hughes (1992). D. Fuzzy controller: design.European Control Conference .. Balsa (1997).ECC97 . Fuzzy Supervision on Intelligent Control Systems .Bruxels. Man.2 13. Pattern Recognition with Fuzzy Objective Functions Algorithms. Self-Tuning control of a solar power plant with a distributed collector field. using accessible disturbances. Musmar based switching control of a solar collector field. (1996). R. R. 1226-1231. IEE Trans. D. Juuso. the outlet temperature holds within a narrow band of variation.de Sevilla. P. Delft. Rubio. depending on the changes in dynamics caused by variations of the solar radiation. R. IFAC Symposium Power Systems. E. S. 23. Berenguel. A.6 13. Pre-prints of the IFAC/IFIP/IMACS Internat. parallel and hierarchical combination with a PID controller. Nonlinear neural model based-predictive control of a solar plant European Control Conference . F. 72-78. By introducing a feedforward term.S. were presented to the distributed collector field of a solar power plant The process is characterised by different operating conditions. supported by the European Union Program “Training and Mobility of Researchers” and promoted by CIEMAT-IER. Delf.. Proc. J..

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