Writing Skills: Section 5

Writing Skills Question 1

Choice (D) is correct. It avoids the predication error of the original sentence by providing an appropriate noun phrase (“the use of vibrant colors”) to serve as subject complement after the verb “is”. Choice (A) produces a predication error. The verb “is” is improperly followed by an independent clause (“he uses vibrant colors”) instead of a noun or noun phrase. Choice (B) produces a pronoun error. The singular pronoun “it” does not agree with its apparent antecedent, the plural noun phrase “Akira Kurosawa’s later films.” Choice (C) produces a predication error. The verb “is” is improperly followed by a subordinate clause (“when they use vibrant colors”) instead of a noun or noun phrase. Choice (E) produces a predication error. The verb “is” is improperly followed by a prepositional phrase (“by using vibrant colors”) instead of a noun or noun phrase.

2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. All Rights Reserved.

Writing Skills Question 2

Choice (C) is correct. It avoids the subordination error of the original sentence by using the relative pronoun “that” (instead of the conjunction “while”) to introduce the subordinate clause. Choice (A) produces improper subordination. The concessive conjunction “while” is inappropriately used to subordinate a clause (“it may soon make videotapes obsolete”) that does not contrast with the sentence’s main clause (“The DVD is a recent invention”). There is no logical opposition between the idea that the DVD is a recent invention and the idea that it may soon make videotapes obsolete. Choice (B) produces wordiness. The words “Being that it is” constitute an awkward and unnecessary addition to the sentence “A recent invention, the DVD may soon make videotapes obsolete.” Choice (D) produces a pronoun error. The pronoun “they” has no plural antecedent in the sentence and is, in any case, grammatically unnecessary: the verb “may” already has “The DVD” as its subject. Choice (E) produces a coordination error. The conjunction “and” improperly joins two expressions of unequal grammatical status: a prepositional phrase (“Because the DVD is new”) and an independent clause (“it may soon make videotapes obsolete”).

2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. All Rights Reserved.

Writing Skills Question 3

Choice (C) is correct. It avoids the error of the original sentence by using a participial phrase (“Having come as far as the Great Salt Lake”) to modify the subject (“the homesteaders”) of the sentence’s main clause. Choice (A) produces improper coordination. The conjunction “and” improperly joins two expressions of unequal grammatical status: a noun phrase (“The homesteaders having come as far as the Great Salt Lake”) and an independent clause (“they did not want to turn back without establishing land claims”). Choice (B) produces wordiness. The pronoun “they” is grammatically unnecessary: the verb phrase “did not want to turn back” already has the noun phrase “the homesteaders” as its subject. Choice (D) produces a verb form error. The infinitive phrase “To come as far as the Great Salt Lake” is improperly used instead of a participial phrase (“Having come as far as the Great Salt Lake”) to express an action occurring before the action of the sentence’s main verb (“did not want”). Choice (E) produces a sentence fragment. The sentence consists of three subordinate clauses (introduced by “When” and “so” and “even though”); it lacks the independent clause needed in a grammatically complete sentence.

2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. All Rights Reserved.

The conjunction “because” is inappropriately used (instead of “that”) to complement the noun “reason.” 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board.” Choice (D) produces an idiom error. Choice (A) produces wordiness. The participle “being” is needlessly inserted between the noun “reason” and the conjunction “that.” Choice (C) produces an idiom error.” and the relative clause “he wrote” unnecessarily specifies information implicit in the noun phrase “the original work.” Choice (E) produces wordiness. All Rights Reserved. The preposition “of” is inappropriately used (instead of the conjunction “that”) to complement the noun “reason. It avoids the wordiness of the original sentence by eliminating unnecessary phrases. The phrase “in length” unnecessarily specifies information implicit in the adjective “shorter. .Writing Skills Question 4 Choice (B) is correct.

Choice (C) produces a comma splice. The relative pronoun “whom” is appropriately used after the preposition “of” to refer to “powerful entertainment-industry figures. out of many. The expression “that. . .Writing Skills Question 5 Choice (A) is correct. . Two independent clauses (“In 1968 the singer Eartha Kitt spoke . Two independent clauses (“In 1968 the singer Eartha Kitt spoke . . Choice (E) produces improper subordination. Choice (D) produces a pronoun error. figures” and “many of these people blacklisted her for several years”) are improperly joined by only a comma. The pronoun “which” is improperly used (instead of “who”) to refer to humans.” Choice (B) produces a comma splice.” 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board.” is an unidiomatic and confusing variant of “many of whom. figures” and “many of them blacklisted her for several years”) are improperly joined by only a comma. All Rights Reserved. .

The comparative adjectival phrase “more colorful” is improperly used (instead of the superlative “most colorful”) in a comparison of more than two things (“many deserts”). . The positive adjective phrase “strangely beautiful” is improperly used (instead of the superlative phrase “the most strangely beautiful”) after the prepositional phrase “Of the many deserts in the United States. All Rights Reserved.” 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. Choice (B) produces a modification error. Choice (E) produces a modification error. The comparative adjectival phrase “more colorful” is improperly used (instead of the superlative “most colorful”) in a comparison of more than two things (“many deserts”). The comparative adjectival phrase “more colorful” is improperly used (instead of the superlative “most colorful”) in a comparison of more than two things (“many deserts”). Choice (A) produces a modification error.Writing Skills Question 6 Choice (C) is correct. It avoids the modification error of the original sentence by using the superlative adjectival phrase “most colorful” in a comparison of more than two things (“many deserts”). Choice (D) produces a modification error.

.” Choice (A) produces an idiom error.” Choice (D) produces diction and idiom errors. .” Choice (E) produces an idiom error within a weak passive construction.” Choice (B) produces an idiom error. As the object of the verb “prevented. by Schubert” is an awkward and unidiomatic variant of the noun phrase “Schubert’s completion. The preposition “of” is inappropriately used to complement the verb “having completed.” the gerund phrase “the completing . It avoids the idiom error of the original sentence by using the prepositional phrase “from completing” to complement the verb “prevented. The preposition “from” is needed before the gerund phrase “being completed” in a clause that makes very awkward use of the passive voice.Writing Skills Question 7 Choice (C) is correct. 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. . All Rights Reserved. An infinitive (“to complete”) is inappropriately used to complement the verb “prevented.

Choice (B) produces a dangling modifier.” The sentence illogically suggests that the four articles were a clerk at the Swiss Patent Office. Two independent clauses (“In 1905 . The phrase “while still a clerk at the Swiss Patent Office” does not logically modify the subject of the sentence’s main clause. All Rights Reserved.” The sentence illogically suggests that the four articles were a clerk at the Swiss Patent Office. . It avoids the modification error of the original sentence by making “Albert Einstein” the subject of the sentence’s main clause. Choice (C) produces a dangling modifier. The phrase “while still a clerk at the Swiss Patent Office” does not logically modify the subject of the sentence’s main clause.Writing Skills Question 8 Choice (D) is correct. Albert Einstein wrote four articles” and “they laid the foundation of modern physics”) are joined by only a comma. “four articles written by Albert Einstein.” The sentence illogically suggests that the four articles were a clerk at the Swiss Patent Office. “four articles. . Choice (A) produces a dangling modifier. 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. “four articles that Albert Einstein wrote. The phrase “while still a clerk at the Swiss Patent Office” does not logically modify the subject of the sentence’s main clause. . Choice (E) produces a comma splice.

help”) in the second clause.Writing Skills Question 9 Choice (C) is correct. . . Choice (A) produces a tense sequence error. . All Rights Reserved. It avoids the tense sequence error of the original sentence by using the present tense (“keep”) in the first clause.” Choice (E) produces a pronoun error. The plural pronoun “they” does not agree with its apparent antecedent. Choice (B) produces a tense sequence error. The use of a past perfect construction (“had kept”) in the first clause is inconsistent with the use of a future construction (“will . help”) in the second clause. Choice (D) produces a pronoun error. . the singular noun phrase “what you experience.” 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. which is consistent with the use of a future construction (“will . . The plural pronoun “they” does not agree with its apparent antecedent. The use of a past construction (“could have kept”) in the first clause is inconsistent with the use of a future construction (“will . help”) in the second clause. . the singular noun phrase “what you experience. .

Choice (B) produces a pronoun error.Writing Skills Question 10 Choice (C) is correct. . The participle “becoming” appears where a finite verb (“become”) is needed to create a grammatically complete sentence. Choice (A) produces a dangling modifier. The participial phrase “Constrained by the small amounts typically available to them for study” does not logically modify the subject of the sentence’s main clause. The sentence logically suggests that scientists were constrained by the small amounts of pheromones available for them to study. Choice (D) produces redundancy. All Rights Reserved.” The sentence illogically suggests that the analysis of pheromones is constrained by the small amounts of something available for pheromones to study. “the analysis of pheromones. Choice (E) produces a sentence fragment. 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board.” which already has the noun “scientists” as its subject. The pronoun “they” is unnecessary before the verb “are. There is no noun phrase in the sentence to which the pronoun “this” can logically refer. It avoids the modification error of the original sentence by making “scientists” the subject of the sentence’s main clause.

Writing Skills Question 11 Choice (C) is correct. The phrase “by being” is awkward and unnecessary before “unlike. All Rights Reserved. Choice (B) produces wordiness and an illogical comparison.” 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board.” and the sentence illogically compares the wings of bats with birds rather than with the wings of birds. The participle “being” is awkward and unnecessary before “unlike.” and the sentence illogically compares bat wings with birds rather than with bird wings. .” so that the wings of bats are logically compared with the wings of birds. It avoids the logical comparison error of the original sentence by making “bats’ wings” the subject of the clause and “birds’ wings” the object of “unlike. The conjunction “and” improperly joins two expressions of unequal grammatical status: a noun phrase (“bats’ wings”) and an adjectival phrase (“unlike birds’ wings”). Choice (D) produces a coordination error. Choice (A) produces wordiness and an illogical comparison. The verb phrase “do not contain hollow bones” is improperly joined to the verb phrase “are unlike bird wings” by a comma rather than by the conjunction “and. Choice (E) produces improper coordination.

Writing Skills Question 12 Choice (D) is correct. The plural pronoun “their” does not agree with its apparent antecedent.” 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. the singular noun phrase “The blue whale.” Choice (B) produces a pronoun error. the singular noun phrase “The blue whale. It avoids the pronoun error of the original sentence by using the singular pronoun “its” to refer to the singular noun phrase “The blue whale. . All Rights Reserved. the singular noun phrase “The blue whale. The conjunction “and” is improperly used to join two expressions of unequal grammatical status: a noun phrase (“a long. The plural pronoun “their” does not agree with its apparent antecedent. Choice (E) produces a pronoun error. The plural pronoun “their” does not agree with its apparent antecedent.” Choice (C) produces a coordination error.” Choice (A) produces a pronoun error. streamlined body”) and an independent clause (“almost one-fourth of the total length of its body is its head”).

The sentence illogically suggests that the National Academy of Sciences was a time when climate modeling was in its infancy. Choice (D) produces wordiness. Choice (B) produces a comma splice. The participial phrase “being when climate modeling was still in its infancy” does not logically modify the subject (“The National Academy of Sciences”) of the sentence’s main clause. The words “it being” are unnecessarily placed before the appositive phrase “a time when climate modeling was still in its infancy. 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board.” Choice (A) produces a comma splice.Writing Skills Question 13 Choice (C) is correct. Two independent clauses (“The National Academy of Sciences undertook its first rigorous study of global warming in the late 1970s” and “this was a time when climate modeling was still in its infancy”) are improperly joined by only a comma. All Rights Reserved. . It avoids the comma-splice error of the original sentence by replacing the second independent clause with the appositive noun phrase “a time when climate modeling was still in its infancy. Two independent clauses (“The National Academy of Sciences undertook its first rigorous study of global warming in the late 1970s” and “it was a time when climate modeling was still in its infancy”) are improperly joined by only a comma.” Choice (E) produces a dangling modifier.

The word “both” is improperly placed immediately before “advocating” rather than immediately before “the abolition of slavery.Writing Skills Question 14 Choice (A) is correct. The verbs “was” and “advocated” cannot serve as main verbs because they are embedded in a subordinate clause.” the apparent subject of the sentence. The verb “advocated” cannot serve as the main verb because it is embedded in a subordinate clause. It appropriately uses the relative pronoun “who” without a comma to introduce a restrictive subordinate clause (“who advocated both the abolition of slavery and the advancement of women’s rights”).” the apparent subject of the sentence. the sentence illogically suggests that Sojourner Truth was the advancement of women’s rights rather than advocating the advancement of women’s rights. Choice (E) produces a sentence fragment. There is no main verb to accompany “Sojourner Truth. the sentence illogically suggests that Sojourner Truth was the advancement of women’s rights rather than an advocate of the advancement of women’s rights. The word “both” is improperly placed immediately before “an advocate” rather than immediately before “the abolition of slavery.” As a result.” As a result. Choice (C) produces a misplaced modifier. . 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. Choice (D) produces a sentence fragment. Choice (B) produces a misplaced modifier. There is no main verb to accompany “Sojourner Truth. All Rights Reserved.

. for” is an unidiomatic variant of “have been used to treat.” Choice (B) produces an idiom error. . The present participle “treating” does not logically modify “Some African plants.” the subject of the sentence’s main clause. Choice (E) produces a subject-verb disagreement. The singular verb phrase “has been used” does not agree with the plural antecedent (“plants”) of its subject (“which”). 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. Choice (A) produces an idiom error. . The phrase “have been treatment .Writing Skills Question 15 Choice (D) is correct. The preposition “by” is inappropriately used (instead of “with”) to indicate the instrument with which ailments were treated. The sentence illogically suggests that the African plants were themselves treating ailments rather than being used by humans to treat ailments. Choice (C) produces a dangling modifier. It avoids the idiom error of the original sentence by replacing an awkward relative clause (“that have been treatment for centuries for common ailments locally ”) with a passive participial phrase (“used locally for centuries to treat common ailments”) that logically modifies the sentence’s subject. The sentence illogically suggests that the African plants were themselves treating ailments rather than being used by humans to treat ailments. All Rights Reserved.

The sentence illogically suggests that the decades of the 1970s and 1980s ordered vegetarian dishes. The sentence illogically suggests that the decades of the 1970s and 1980s ordered vegetarian dishes. The conjunction “than” correlates “Restaurant patrons in the 1990s” and “the 1970s and 1980s.” so that restaurant patrons in the 1990s are inappropriately compared with the decades of the 1970s and 1980s (rather than with restaurant patrons in the 1970s and 1980s). Choice (B) produces an illogical comparison. . Choice (A) produces an illogical comparison. The sentence illogically suggests that the foods of the 1970s and 1980s ordered vegetarian dishes. The conjunction “than” correlates “Restaurant patrons in the 1990s” and “the 1970s and 1980s.” so that restaurant patrons in the 1990s are inappropriately compared with the decades of the 1970s and 1980s (rather than with restaurant patrons in the 1970s and 1980s). All Rights Reserved. The conjunction “than” correlates “Restaurant patrons in the 1990s” and “the foods of the 1970s and 1980s. It avoids the logical comparison error of the original sentence by allowing the conjunction “than” to correlate “Restaurant patrons in the 1990s” and “restaurant patrons in the 1970s and 1980s. 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. Choice (D) produces a correlation error. The conjunction “than” inappropriately correlates two expressions of unequal grammatical status: a noun phrase (“Restaurant patrons in the 1990s” and a prepositional phrase (“with the restaurant patrons in the 1970s and 1980s”).” so that restaurant patrons of one period are logically compared with those of another period.” so that restaurant patrons in the 1990s are inappropriately compared with the foods of the 1970s and 1980s.Writing Skills Question 16 Choice (E) is correct. Choice (C) produces an illogical comparison.

. is appropriately compared with a nonexistent thing rather than a nonexistent person. Choice (A) produces an illogical comparison and an idiom error. Bruce’s departure”). Moreover. the preposition “like” is in this context an unidiomatic substitute for “as much as. the preposition “like” is improperly used to introduce a subordinate clause (“Mr. A nonexistent person (“No one”) is inappropriately compared with an action (“Mr.” Choice (B) produces an illogical comparison and an idiom error. 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. A nonexistent person (“No one”) is inappropriately compared with an action (“Mr.Writing Skills Question 17 Choice (E) is correct. Bruce’s departure. All Rights Reserved. An action. Bruce’s departure”). Bruce’s departure will”). Moreover. It avoids the logical comparison and idiom errors of the original sentence by providing an appropriately impersonal pronoun (“Nothing” instead of “No one”) as subject of the main clause and using a proper conjunction (“as” instead of “like”) to subordinate the clause of comparison.” Choice (D) produces a vague pronoun. Choice (C) produces an idiom error. The referent of the pronoun “any” is unclear. Mr. The expression “like none other” is an unidiomatic substitute for “as nothing else will” or “as no one else’s will.

The verb “had” cannot serve as the sentence’s main verb because it is embedded in a subordinate clause.Writing Skills Question 18 Choice (B) is correct. the singular noun phrase “Every building within a twenty-mile radius of the downtown business district. Choice (E) produces a sentence fragment. the singular noun phrase “Every building within a twenty-mile radius of the downtown business district.” Choice (A) produces a pronoun error. The plural pronoun “their” does not agree with its apparent antecedent. The resulting expression is a long noun phrase. .” Choice (C) produces a pronoun error. 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. All Rights Reserved. The plural pronoun “their” does not agree with its apparent antecedent. It avoids the pronoun error of the original sentence by using the singular pronoun “its” to refer to the singular noun phrase “Every building within a twenty-mile radius of the downtown business district. lacking the main verb needed to form a grammatically complete sentence. lacking the main verb needed to form a grammatically complete sentence. The resulting expression is a long noun phrase. The verb “interrupted” cannot serve as the sentence’s main verb because it is embedded in a subordinate clause.” Choice (D) produces a sentence fragment.

The use of a noun (“letters”) after the conjunction “than” breaks the pattern of infinitive phrases (“to send e-mails” and “make phone calls to colleagues and friends”) established earlier in the sentence.” continuing the pattern of infinitive phrases (“to send e-mails” and “make phone calls to colleagues and friends”) established earlier in the sentence. Choice (D) produces a modification error. Choice (E) produces a misplaced modifier. The prepositional phrase “instead of letters” is illogically placed after the noun phrase “colleagues and friends” rather than after “emails. An infinitive phrase (“to write letters”) is improperly used as the object of a preposition (“instead of”). 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. All Rights Reserved.” the noun it logically modifies. . The expression “rather than written letters” is illogically placed after the noun phrase “colleagues and friends” rather than after “emails. It avoids the parallelism error of the original sentence by placing the infinitive phrase “write letters” after “than. Choice (B) produces a misplaced modifier.Writing Skills Question 19 Choice (C) is correct.” the noun it logically modifies. Choice (A) produces a lack of parallelism.

” It is likewise acceptable to place a comparative adjectival phrase (“more eloquent”) before the noun phrase (“a speaker”) that it modifies .” Choice (D) produces a modification error. Choice (C) produces a diction error. The expression “Although far more eloquent a speaker” is an acceptable shortening of the subordinate clause “Although he was far more eloquent a speaker. 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. Choice (B) produces a comma splice. . The complex preposition “In contrast to” is inappropriately used in place of the simple preposition “Despite. Two independent clauses (“As a speaker he was more eloquent” and “the incumbent made fewer concrete proposals in his campaign speech than the challenger did in hers”) are improperly joined by only a comma. A nonpossessive pronoun with a participial modifier (“him being”) is inappropriately used instead of a possessive pronoun with a gerund (“his being”) or unmodified gerund (“being”) as the object of the preposition “Despite. Two independent clauses (“He was a far more eloquent speaker” and “the incumbent made fewer concrete proposals in his campaign speech than the challenger did in hers”) are improperly joined by only a comma.” Choice (E) produces a comma splice.Writing Skills Question 20 Choice (A) is correct. All Rights Reserved.

” Corrected sentence: After she earned her pilot’s license in 1921. Bessie Coleman traveled from Paris to the United States.” There is no error at (D).Writing Skills Question 21 The error occurs at (A). The conjunction “where” is appropriately placed immediately after its logical antecedent. .” There is no error at (B). The expression “before large crowds” begins a prepositional phrase that appropriately modifies the verb “performed. 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. The use of the present tense (“is traveling”) in the sentence’s main clause is inconsistent with the use of the past tense (“earned”) in a clause introduced by “After. The preposition “as” is idiomatically used to complement the verb “performed. “the United States. where she performed as a stunt pilot before large crowds of admirers. All Rights Reserved.” There is no error at (C).

” and the adjective “such” has an appropriate antecedent in “Westerns. The noun “Much” is properly used with “of” before the mass noun “success.” Corrected sentence: Much of the success of Anthony Mann and John Ford as directors of Westerns has been attributed to their knowledge of the technical work necessary to make such films. . 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. The use of the singular noun phrase “a director of Westerns” (instead of “directors of Westerns”) is inconsistent with the use of the plural noun phrase “Anthony Mann and John Ford” earlier in the sentence. The preposition “to” is idiomatically used to complement the participle “attributed.” There is no error at (D).” There is no error at (C). The infinitive “to make” is idiomatically used to complement the adjective “necessary.Writing Skills Question 22 The error occurs at (B). There is no error at (A). All Rights Reserved.

All Rights Reserved. is receiving accurate information from the airlines. 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. The preposition “as” is properly used to continue the comparative construction begun by “as important.” Corrected sentence: Customer surveys reveal that a major concern of airline passengers.Writing Skills Question 23 The error occurs at (A). . There is no error at (C).” and the gerund “arriving” is parallel to the gerund “receiving” later in the sentence. there is no main verb to accompany the sentence’s apparent subject.” There is no error at (B). almost as important as arriving safely and on time. The use of the participle “revealing” (instead of the finite verb “reveal”) creates a sentence fragment. The conjunction “and” is properly used to coordinate two adverbial elements: “safely” and “on time. The singular verb phrase “is receiving” agrees with its singular subject. “a major concern of airline passengers.” There is no error at (D). “Customer surveys.

” There is no error at (D). “Calcium. The plural verb “appear” does not agree with its singular subject. The relative pronoun “whose” is appropriately placed after its antecedent (“Calcium”) and immediately before the noun phrase it modifies (“role in metabolism”).” There is no error at (A). All Rights Reserved. The conjunction “when” is properly used to subordinate an elliptical clause in which “consumed” stands for “it [calcium] is consumed.” Corrected sentence: Calcium. “whose role in metabolism. . 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. appears to stoke the body’s fat-burning furnace when consumed daily in recommended amounts. whose role in metabolism is not yet fully understood by nutritionists.Writing Skills Question 24 The error occurs at (C). The singular verb “is” agrees with its singular subject. There is no error at (B).

“the catalog of the exhibit” or “the museum guide.” which is properly used to modify the verb “explained. the adverb “thoroughly. The infinitive “to satisfy” is idiomatically used to complement the adverb “enough. The verb “explained” is well suited to either of its alternative subjects.” Correct sentence: Neither the catalog of the exhibit nor the museum guide explained the technical aspects of Picasso’s paintings thoroughly enough to satisfy inquisitive art students. 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board.Writing Skills Question 25 The correct answer is (E). There is no error in the sentence. All Rights Reserved. . The conjunction “Neither” is properly used with its correlative “nor” to coordinate two noun phrases. There is no error at (A). “the catalog of the exhibit” and “the museum guide.” There is no error at (C).” There is no error at (B).” There is no error at (D). The adverb “enough” is properly placed after the word it modifies.

2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. Neither the singular pronoun “his” nor the singular pronoun “her” agrees with its apparent antecedent. . the plural “employees.” There is no error at (C).” There is no error at (A). The singular verb “draws” agrees with its singular subject. The infinitive “to sit” is idiomatically used to complement the noun phrase “a chance.” Corrected sentence: Because the Silver Key restaurant draws such large crowds. employees there are extremely busy and seldom have a chance to sit and rest their feet.Writing Skills Question 26 The error occurs at (D). “the Silver Key restaurant. The adverb “there” is properly placed after the noun “employees” to create the noun phrase “employees there. All Rights Reserved.” There is no error at (B).

2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. and even influences everyday language. The expression “such as” is appropriately used to cite an example. There is no error at (C).” There is no error at (B). such as the arts. “Political leadership in many countries. The plural verb phrase “have had” does not agree with its singular subject. The adverb “even” is properly placed before the verb phrase (“influences everyday language”) that it is intended to emphasize. .Writing Skills Question 27 The error occurs at (A). and the adjective “some” is appropriately placed immediately before the noun phrase (“nonpolitical areas”) that it modifies. The preposition “in” is idiomatically used with the noun “areas” as object. There is no error at (D). Corrected sentence: Political leadership in many countries has had an impact in some nonpolitical areas. All Rights Reserved.

The insertion of the words “the case with” before “Andrea” creates a faulty comparison. The adjective “tired” provides an appropriate subject complement after “was. who was tired after working all weekend.” and the pronoun “I” is properly cast in the nominative case to serve as subject of the sentence. All Rights Reserved.” There is no error at (C). Corrected sentence: Unlike Andrea. The noun phrase “all weekend” functions adverbially. There is no error at (D).” and the use of the preposition “after” is consistent with the use of the past tense “was. The infinitive “to hear” is appropriately used to express purpose. The human author of the sentence is illogically contrasted with an abstraction (the case with Andrea) rather than with another human (Andrea herself). 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. I wanted to go to the state capitol building to hear the governor’s speech. .Writing Skills Question 28 The error occurs at (A). appropriately modifying the gerund “working. There is no error at (B).

” There is no error at (B). The plural verb phrase “have been practicing” agrees with its plural subject. and the preposition “on” is idiomatically used with “occasion” as object.” There is no error at (D). “Members of the debate team. There is no error in the sentence. Corrected sentence: Members of the debate team. The plural pronoun “their” agrees with its plural antecedent.Writing Skills Question 29 The correct answer is (E). 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board.” There is no error at (C). determined to hone their skills in argumentation. The participle “competing” is properly coordinated with “practicing” earlier in the sentence. The prepositional phrase “in argumentation” appropriately modifies the noun “skills. “Members of the debate team. All Rights Reserved. have been practicing each day and competing on every possible occasion. . There is no error at (A).

there was not enough time for the teacher to explain clearly the assignment for the following week.” Corrected sentence: Because he [she] had not been carefully watching the clock. The adjective “enough” is appropriately placed before “time. There is no error at (C).” the noun it modifies. “Not carefully watching the clock” cannot modify the nonreferential expletive “there.” There is no error at (D). The sentence has no referential subject for the initial participial phrase to modify.Writing Skills Question 30 The error occurs at (A). The infinitive “to explain” is idiomatically used to complement the noun phrase “enough time. The adverb “clearly” properly modifies the verb “to explain. . 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. All Rights Reserved.” There is no error at (B).” and it cannot logically modify the noun phrase “enough time.

Writing Skills Question 31 The error occurs at (C). . The expression “Even though” is properly used to introduce a contrasting clause. The conjunction “than” is properly used to subordinate an elliptical clause of comparison in which “comedy” stands for “comedy has been taken. been taken. . All Rights Reserved. tragedy has usually been taken more seriously than comedy.” There is no error at (A). . The auxiliary verb “been” is properly used as a marker of the passive voice in the verb phrase “has . There is no error at (B). . .” There is no error at (D). 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. The adjective “serious” is improperly used (instead of the adverb “seriously”) to modify the verb phrase “has . been taken.” Corrected sentence: Even though comedy can convey profound messages about humankind.

There is no error at (B). The conjunction “as” is properly used to introduce the second element of a comparison begun by “as meticulously prepared. Corrected sentence: Although the work schedule had been as meticulously prepared as it was supposed to be.” There is no error at (D). . The plain verb form “suppose” is improperly used (instead of the past participle “supposed”) to create a verb phrase in the passive voice.Writing Skills Question 32 The error occurs at (C). 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. The conjunction “Although” is appropriately used to introduce a contrasting clause. the completion of the job was delayed by the unexpected resignations of several workers. The adjective “unexpected” is properly placed immediately before the noun phrase (“resignations of several workers”) that it modifies. There is no error at (A). All Rights Reserved.

There is no error at (D). . The past participle “preserved” is properly coordinated with the past participle “created.” and the preposition “by” is properly used to indicate the agent (i.” There is no error at (A). The singular verb “lies” does not agree with its plural subject. Corrected sentence: In the Indian Ocean off the eastern coast of Africa lie Madagascar and the Seychelles.” There is no error at (C). The past participle “created” is properly combined with “were” to form a verb phrase in the passive voice.e..Writing Skills Question 33 The error occurs at (B). 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. what performs the action) of the passive verb phrase. “Madagascar and the Seychelles. which were created and preserved by continental shifts. All Rights Reserved. The prepositional phrase “off the eastern coast of Africa” is an appropriate adverbial complement for the verb “lie.

“many ways.” There is no error at (B).Writing Skills Question 34 The error occurs at (A). only one method will bring about the desired result. There is no error at (D). The auxiliary “will” is properly combined with the plain form of the phrasal verb “bring about” to create a future construction that is consistent with the use of the present tense (“seems”) in the subordinate clause.” There is no error at (C). 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. Corrected sentence: Although there seem to be many ways to solve the puzzle. The infinitive “to solve” is idiomatically used to complement the noun “ways. The past participle “desired” is appropriately placed immediately before the noun (“result”) that it modifies. All Rights Reserved. . The singular verb “seems” does not agree with its plural subject.

it is an eighteenth-century travelogue.” The pronoun “it” needlessly duplicates the reference of “The book. historians like the book because it is an eighteenth-century travelogue.” The transitional phrase “In other words” suggests that the sentence paraphrases the previous sentence. Adding “The book being historical” to the beginning of sentence 2 would produce an ungrammatical sentence: “The book being historical.” which is awkwardly modified by the participial phrase “based on history.” which is awkwardly modified by the participial phrase “being historical. of historical import. it is an eighteenth-century travelogue. of historical import. 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board.” to the beginning of sentence 2 would produce an ungrammatical sentence: “It should be noted that the book. All Rights Reserved.” The pronoun “it” needlessly duplicates the reference of “The book.” Choice (E) is unsatisfactory. it is an eighteenth-century travelogue.” Choice (C) is unsatisfactory. . Adding “It should be noted that the book. when in fact sentence 1 says nothing about historians or their reasons for liking the book.” Choice (B) is unsatisfactory. historians like the book because” to the beginning of sentence 2 would produce a misleading sentence: “In other words. Adding “In other words. Choice (A) is unsatisfactory. It produces a grammatical sentence (“The book is of historical importance because it is an eighteenth-century travelogue”) that effectively develops a point made in sentence 1.Writing Skills Question 35 Choice (D) is correct.” The pronoun “it” needlessly duplicates the reference of “The book. Adding “The book based on history” to the beginning of sentence 2 would produce an ungrammatical sentence: “The book based on history.

the vague pronoun “they” would remain uncorrected. Changing “they were reading widely” to “was popular” effectively eliminates the vague pronoun “they” from sentence 4. All Rights Reserved. Changing “at the time” to “then” would not alter the essential meaning or structure of the sentence.Writing Skills Question 36 Choice (C) is correct. the vague pronoun “they” would remain uncorrected. Moreover. 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. Choice (B) is unsatisfactory. Moreover. Choice (D) is unsatisfactory. Substituting “that is” for “however” would suggest that the sentence rephrases a thought the author had just expressed. the vague pronoun “they” would remain uncorrected. the vague pronoun “they” would remain uncorrected. Choice (E) is unsatisfactory. Choice (A) is unsatisfactory. Deleting “however” would eliminate a helpful indication that the point made in sentence 4 (about the book’s importance as a combination of spiritual autobiography and slave narrative) contrasts with the point made in sentence 1 (about the book’s importance as a historical and literary work). . Moreover. Moreover. Deleting “which some say Equiano invented” would eliminate a pertinent and interesting piece of information. when in fact sentence 4 moves on to a new and contrasting point.

2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. which should join two independent clauses. It appropriately uses the conjunction “but” to coordinate contrasting clauses and eliminates the awkward and unnecessary “of that” that appeared after “instead” in the original sentence 9.” The use of “instead” to signal a contrast is ineffective here because it is unclear what alternative that word refers to. It produces an ungrammatical sentence. Choice (D) is unsatisfactory. It introduces a confusing shift of tense. . It introduces a confusing shift of tense. The use of the present tense (“does”) to continue the narrative is inconsistent with the use of the past tense (“found”) in sentence 7. It fails to signal the contrast between the two clauses with an adversative connector such as “but” or “even though.Writing Skills Question 37 Choice (B) is correct. is improperly used to join an awkwardly constructed independent clause (“Becoming a man of virtue was what he was seeking”) and an improperly punctuated subordinate clause (“although. All Rights Reserved. many other people would become corrupted”). The use of the present tense (“seeks”) to continue the narrative is inconsistent with the use of the past tense (“found”) in sentence 7. Choice (A) is unsatisfactory. Choice (E) is unsatisfactory. Choice (C) is unsatisfactory. A semicolon.

so a distinction between the slave trade as practiced in England and the slave trade as practiced elsewhere would not be directly relevant. . Choice (E) is unsatisfactory. A survey of examples of eighteenth-century travel writing would have no direct relevance to the discussion of Equiano’s changing views of slavery in the third paragraph. Choice (D) is unsatisfactory.Writing Skills Question 38 Choice (A) is correct. Choice (C) is unsatisfactory. Geographic details about the places to which Equiano traveled would not be pertinent to the third paragraph’s discussion of Equiano’s changing views of slavery. The third paragraph concerns Equiano’s attitude toward slavery as a general practice. 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. All Rights Reserved. The third paragraph simply indicates that Equiano initially accepted slavery but then came to be critical of it. Choice (B) is unsatisfactory. so it would be appropriate for the writer to elaborate on Equiano’s changing views of slavery. An explanation of the conditions on board British ships would not further the discussion of Equiano’s changing views of slavery in the third paragraph.

Choice (A) is unsatisfactory. this sentence would occur long before the first use of the term “spiritual autobiography” in sentence 4. A sentence explaining the meaning of an unfamiliar term should occur immediately after the term is first used. A sentence explaining the meaning of an unfamiliar term should occur immediately after the term is first used. the first sentence in which the term is used. this sentence would occur long after the first use of the term “spiritual autobiography” in sentence 4. A sentence explaining the meaning of an unfamiliar term should occur immediately after the term is first used. If placed immediately before sentence 8. Choice (C) is unsatisfactory. 2010 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explantations © 2010 The College Board. If placed immediately after sentence 10.Writing Skills Question 39 Choice (B) is correct. this sentence would occur long after the first use of the term “spiritual autobiography” in sentence 4. A sentence explaining the meaning of “spiritual autobiography” would best be placed immediately after sentence 4. . If placed immediately after sentence 13. this sentence would occur well after the first use of the term “spiritual autobiography” in sentence 4. Choice (E) is unsatisfactory. Choice (D) is unsatisfactory. A sentence explaining the meaning of an unfamiliar term should occur immediately after the term is first used. If placed before sentence 1. All Rights Reserved.

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