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First of all, I would like to say Alhamdulillah, for giving me the strength and health to do this project work.

Not forgotten my parents Encik Suhaimi and Puan Khairiah for providing everything, such as money, to buy anything that are related to this project work and their advise, which is the most needed for this project. Internet, books, computers and all that. They also supported me and encouraged me to complete this task so that I will not procrastinate in doing it.

Then I would like to thank my teacher, Puan Siti Shamsiah Binti Sheikh Bakar for guiding me and my friends throughout this project. We had some difficulties in doing this task, but he taught us patiently until we knew what to do. He tried and tried to teach us until we understand what we supposed to do with the project work.

Last but not least, my friends who were doing this project with me and sharing our ideas. They were helpful that when we combined and discussed together, we had this task done.

additional mathemathics project two

1

OBJECTIVE

The aims of carrying out this project work are: to apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies to solve problems to improve thinking skills to promote effective mathematical communication to develop mathematical knowledge through problem solving in a way that increases students¶ interest and confidence to use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely to provide learning environment that stimulates and enhances effective learning to develop positive attitude towards mathematics

additional mathemathics project two

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Part One additional mathemathics project two 3 .

Older children and teenagers can use more sophisticated math to solve baking dilemmas. Practicing math while baking not only improves your math skills. such as fractions and ratios. such as how to make a cake recipe larger or smaller or how to determine what size slices you should cut. in a real-world context. additional mathemathics project two 4 . Hari Raya. Cakes are treasured not only because of their wonderful taste but also in the art of cake baking and cake decorating Baking a cake offers a tasty way to practice math skills.INTRODUCTION Cakes come in a variety of forms and flavours and are among favourite desserts served during special occasions such as birthday parties. weddings and others. it helps you become a more flexible and resourceful baker. such as counting ingredients and setting the oven timer. provide basic math practice for young children. Many steps of baking a cake.

and the less "inside" there will be. you end up with a certain volume. the cake becomes too tall. To avoid having a rock-hard outside in this case. For a very large. it will take a long time for the heat to penetrate to the center. to estimate volume of cake to be produced When making a batch of cake batter. thick item. The baker must then choose the appropriate size and shape of pan to achieve the desired result. additional mathemathics project two 5 . and we would have a hard time scraping them into the batter. If the pan is too big. We mix ingredients in round bowls because cubes would have corners where unmixed ingredients would accumulate. to assist in designing and decorating cakes that comes in many attractive shapes and designs. compared to the volume. the faster the item will bake. If the pan is too small. the cake becomes too short.MATHEMATICS IN CAKE BAKING AND CAKE DECORATING GEOMETRY : To determine suitable dimensions for the cake. The ratio of the surface area to the volume determines how much crust a baked good will have. determined by the recipe. the baker will have to lower the temperature a little bit and bake for a longer time. The more surface area there is. This leads into the next situation.

or max. In this case. When the diameter decreases. to estimate min. When the diameter of the first layer of the cake is 8´ and the diameter of second layer of the cake is 6´. amount of cream needed for decorating. So we can say that it used arithmetic progression. to estimate min. We can also use ratio. to estimate total amount of cream for decoration. That is the way how the cake is balance to prevent it from smooch. For example when we make a cake with many layers.CALCULUS (DIFFERENTIATION) : To determine minimum or maximum amount of ingredients for cake-baking. then the diameter of the third layer should be 4´. PROGRESSION : To determine total weight/volume of multi-storey cakes with proportional dimensions. or max. we use arithmetic progression where the difference of the diameter is constant that is 2. we can use fraction to devide the cake according to the total people that will eat the cake. because when we prepare the ingredient for each layer of the cake. we need to decrease its ratio from lower layer to upper layer. we must fix the difference of diameter of the two layers. the weight also decreases. Size of cake produced. additional mathemathics project two 6 . to estimate total ingredients needed for cake-baking. When we cut the cake.

Two Part additional mathemathics project two 7 .

142) = ( )² 863.784 cm 2) The inner dimensions of oven: 80cm length.0 cm.872 = ( )² = 29. V = 19000 is: 19000 = (3. Diagram 1 1) If a kilogram of cake has a volume of 38000cm3.142)( )²h = ² = d² d= additional mathemathics project two 8 .Best Bakery shop received an order from your school to bake a 5 kg of round cake as shown in Diagram 1 for the Teachers¶ Day celebration.142)( )² x 7 (3.392 d = 58. 45cm height a) The formula that formed for d in terms of h by using the formula for volume of cake. and the height of the cake is to be 7. the diameter of the baking tray to be used to fit the 5 kg cake ordered by your school 3800 is Volume of 5kg cake = Base area of cake x Height of cake 3800 x 5 = (3. 60cm width.

0 3. Furthermore. making it less attractive. The same process is also used. An equation which is suitable and relevant for the graph: 19000 = (3. d = 54.0 4. because it can fit into the oven.d 155. c) i) The same formula in 2(a) is used.55 63. that is 19000 = (3.99 51.99cm.53 109.0 7.Height. ii) The most suitable dimensions (h and d) for the cake is h = 8cm.0 Table 1 Diameter.142)( )²h.78 54.0 10.0 6.h 1.142)( )²h = ² = d² d= d= log d = log d = log h + log 155.0 8.79 77. and the size is suitable for easy handling.0 9.84 49.98 89. the cake would be too short and too wide.53 additional mathemathics project two 9 .0 5.76 69. because the resulting diameter produced is too large to fit into the oven.0 2.49 58. make d the subject. that is.18 b) i) h < 7cm is NOT suitable.

0 3.70 0.19 2.00 0.78 0.95 1.49 58.0 6.30 0.0 9.53 109.78 54.98 89.74 1.60 0.95 1.89 1.04 1.0 4.d 155.85 0.0 10.0 2.55 63.0 8.0 5.h 1.84 1.0 7.69 additional mathemathics project two 10 .84 49.18 Table 2 Log h 0.48 0.0 Log d 2.80 1.77 1.99 51.53 Height.0 Diameter.Table of log d = log h + log 155.71 1.76 69.90 0.79 77.

Graph of log d against log h additional mathemathics project two 11 .

5cm h = 10. we don't decorate the bottom part of the cake Volume of cream at the top surface = Area of top surface x Height of cream = (3. log h = 1.140.23 cm³ )(8) x 1 )² x 1 additional mathemathics project two 12 .680.ii) Based on the graph: a) d when h = 10. amount of fresh cream = 2375 + 1382.142)( = 2375 cm³ Volume of cream at the side surface = Area of side surface x Height of cream = (Circumference of cake x Height of cake) x Height of cream = 2(3. h = 13.99cm Amount of fresh cream = volume of fresh cream needed (area x height) Amount of fresh cream = volume of cream at the top surface + volume of cream at the side surface The bottom surface area of cake is not counted. log d = 1.23 = 3757.80cm 3) The cake with fresh cream. Obviously. d = 54.5cm. log d = 1. with uniform thickness 1cm is decorated a) The amount of fresh cream needed to decorate the cake. using the dimensions I've suggested in 2(b)(ii) My answer in 2(b)(ii) ==> h = 8cm.23 cm³ Therefore. because we're decorating the visible part of the cake only (top and sides).623.021. log h = 1. d = 47.142)( = 1382.86cm b) h when d = 42cm d = 42cm.

5. width = 47.b) Three other shapes (the shape of the base of the cake) for the cake with same height which is depends on the 2(b)(ii) and volume 19000cm³. 2375 = 50 x 47. My answer (with h = 8cm. The volume of top surface is always the same for all shapes (since height is same). and volume of cream on top surface = = 2375 cm³): 1 ± Rectangle-shaped base (cuboid) height width length 19000 = base area x height base area = length x width = 2375 By trial and improvement.5 (length = 50. volume of cream = 2(Area of left and right side surface)(Height of cream) + 2(Area of front and back side surface)(Height of cream) + volume of top surface = 2(50 x 8)(1) + 2(47.5 x 8)(1) + 2375 = 3935 cm³ additional mathemathics project two 13 . height = 8) Therefore.

23 Therefore.2 ± Triangle-shaped base width slant height 19000 = base area x height base area = base area = 2375 x length x width = 2375 length x width = 4750 By trial and improvement.68 cm³ additional mathemathics project two 14 . width = 50) Slant length of triangle = ¥(95² + 25²)= 98.23 x 8)(1) + 2375 = 4346. amount of cream = Area of rectangular front side surface(Height of cream) + 2(Area of slant rectangular left/right side surface)(Height of cream) + Volume of top surface = (50 x 8)(1) + 2(98. 4750 = 95 x 50 (length = 95.

of top surface = 5(19 x 8) + 2375 = 3135 cm³ c) Based on the values above. since it requires only 3135 cm³ of cream to be used. the shape that require the least amount of fresh cream to be used is: Pentagon-shaped cake. 475 = 25 x 19 (length = 25. additional mathemathics project two 15 . amount of cream = 5(area of one rectangular side surface)(height of cream) + vol.3 ± Pentagon-shaped base width 19000 = base area x height base area = 2375 = area of 5 similar isosceles triangles in a pentagon therefore: 2375 = 5(length x width) 475 = length x width By trial and improvement. width = 19) Therefore.

Part Three additional mathemathics project two 16 .

104 = r³ r = 18.142)r ± ( ² ² ) =0 0 = 2(3. The minimum height. Method 1: Differentiation Two equations for this method: the formula for volume of cake (as in 2(a)).22 Sub.142)r = r³ 6047. r = 18. d is calculated by using the differentiation and function.142)r² + 38000r-1 ( ) = 2(3. therefore = 2(3. d = 2r = 2(18.When there's minimum´ or maximum´.22 therefore. (3) into (2): V = (3. there's differentiation and quadratic functions.142)r² + ( ) ² ) V = (3. 19000 = (3.142)r² + 2(3.142)r( V = (3. h = 18.142)rh From (1): h = ² (3) Sub.142)r ± ( ² ) -->> minimum value. well. and the formula for amount (volume) of cream to be used for the round cake (as in 3(a)).22cm.22 into (3): h= h = 18.142)r² + 2(3.142)r²h (1) (2) V = (3.22) = 36. h and its corresponding minimum diameter.44cm ² additional mathemathics project two 17 .

104 h = 18.142)hr = (3.142) = (3. r = radius of round cake: 19000 = (3. h = 18. Let f(r) = volume of cream.22 therefore. but only the formula for amount of cream is the main equation used as the quadratic function.22) r² = 331. such cakes are difficult to handle easily. d = 2r = 2(18.142).142)[ (r + h)² ± h² ] = (3. min.142)r²h From (2): f(r) = (3.894 r = 18.22 Sub.142)(--h)²h h³ = 6047.142)(r + h)² ± (3. with a = (3.142) (positive indicates min. h = 18.22) = 36. value = f(r) = ±(3. additional mathemathics project two 18 .142)(r² + 2hr) -->> factorize (3.142)h² (a = (3.44 cm I would choose not to bake a cake with such dimensions because its dimensions are not suitable (the height is too high) and therefore less attractive.22 into (1): 19000 = (3. value).Method 2: Quadratic Functions Two same equations as in Method 1.22 cm. b = 2h and c = 0 (1) (2) f(r) = (3.142)r²(18.142)h².142)r² + 2(3. Furthermore. r = --h into (1): 19000 = (3.142)[ (r + )² ± ( )² ] -->> completing square. corresponding value of x = r = --h) Sub.

Further Exploration additional mathemathics project two 19 .

a) By using the formula for volume V = (3. The height of each cake is 6. Volume of 1st. Radius of 3rd cake = 25.585 volume of 3rd cake = (3. « (it is a geometric progression with first term. with h = 6 to get the volume of cakes. Radius of 4th cake = 22. volume of 1st cake = (3.11.772 volume of 2nd cake = (3.Diagram 2 Best Bakery received an order to bake a multi-storey cake for Merdeka Day celebration.0 cm and the radius of the largest cake is 31.142)r²h.142)(22. 11886. as shown in Diagram 2. the radius of the third cake is 10% less than the radius of the second cake and so on.9. 14674. a = 18116. and 4th cakes: Radius of 1st cake = 31. 22.142)(25.0 cm. The radius of the second cake is 10% less than the radius of the first cake. 3rd.11)²(6) 11886.11.9)²(6) 14674. « a = 31.414. Radius of 2nd cake = 27.9.142)(31)²(6) = 18116.599)²(6) 9627.772 and ratio. Given: height. 9627.585. 27.599.81) additional mathemathics project two 20 . 25. r = T2/T1 = T3 /T2 = « = 0. h of each cake = 6cm radius of largest cake = 31cm radius of 2nd cake = 10% smaller than 1st cake radius of 3rd cake = 10% smaller than 2nd cake 31.772.995 The volumes form number pattern: 18116.414 volume of 4th cake = (3. r = V = (3.995.599.142)(27.142)r²h. 2nd.

772(1 ± (0.59779 0.81 0.b) The total mass of all the cakes should not exceed 15 kg ( total mass < 15 kg.772 and r = 0. a = 18116.81) = 54305. n = 4 is suitable) additional mathemathics project two 21 . n § 4 Verifying the answer: When n = 5: S5 = (18116.81)5)) / (1 ± 0.40221 = 0.81) = 62104.81n = 0.772(1 ± (0.81n og0.767 < 57000 (Sn < 57000.443 > 57000 (Sn > 57000.81)4)) / (1 ± 0. so the maximum number of cakes that needs to be baked is Sn = Sn = 57000. change to volume: total volume < 57000 cm³).81 57000 = 1 ± 0.40221 = n n= n = 4.322 therefore. n = 5 is not suitable) When n = 4: S4 = (18116.

Reflection additional mathemathics project two 22 .

TEAM WORK IS IMPORTANT BE HELPFUL ALWAYS READY TO LEARN NEW THINGS BE A HARDWORKING STUDENT BE PATIENT ALWAYS CONFIDENT additional mathemathics project two 23 .

Say you have y = x^2. An arithmetic progression (AP) or arithmetic sequence is a sequence of numbers such that the difference of any two successive members of the sequence is a constant A geometric progression. additional mathemathics project two 24 . also known as a geometric sequence.Conclusion Geometry is the study of angles and triangles. area and volume.) at any point along the curve. "rise over run". The equation y' = 2x will give you the gradient of y at any point along that curve. It differs from algebra in that one develops a logical structure where mathematical relationships are proved and applied. perimeter. is a sequence of numbers where each term after the first is found by multiplying the previous one by a fixed non-zero number called the common ratio Differentiation is essentially the process of finding an equation which will give you the gradient (slope. etc.

Reference Wikipedia www.one-school net additional mathematics textbook form 4 and form 5 additional mathemathics project two 25 .

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