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BROADCASTING HOUSE, ALL INDIA RADIO, PRASAR BHARATI, NEW DELHI
Submitted By: TANVI DHINGRA
SHAHEED RAJGURU COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCES FOR WOMEN
This is to certify that this Project Report is the Bonafide work of: TANVI DHINGRA From: SHAHEED RAJGURU COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCES FOR WOMEN who have successfully carried out their Summer Training of SIX WEEKS under my supervision and guidance and I found them sincere towards their industrial summer training.
(Trainer In-Charge) Mr. S. C. PACHAURI Assistant Station Engineer ALL INDIA RADIO, PRASAR BHARATI
This report is outcome of SIX WEEKS .Practical training which I received at Prasar Bharati (ALL INDIA RADIO), New Delhi. It includes the Structure, Procedure, function & performance of the station. Through this project report I would like to thank numerous people whose consistent support and guidance has been the standing pillar in architecture of this project. The SIX Week Training Curriculum contained the study of following substations: 1. CES/STL 2. BH Recording, Editing, Dubbing & Website Management 3. Master Switching Room (MSR) To begin with, my sincere thanks to Mr. S. C. Pachauri (Astt. Station Engineer), who provide me with the opportunity to undergo training in their reputed organization. I would also like to thank and all the staff members who guiding me through the path of practically experiencing the art of broadcasting in A.I.R. Last but not the least, I would like to extend my heartiest gratitude to all Teaching Staff, who took our classes and clarified the basic concepts, practical implementation of the technologies and were patient enough to answer all our doubts and queries apart from emphasizing upon the necessity of doing things on our own.
3 Master Switcher and Matrix Management 5.6 Dubbing Room 4.4 DSNG Vans 3. MASTER SWITCHING ROOM (MSR) 5. BROADCAST HOUSE (BH) STUDIOS 4.2 2.5 Outside Broadcasting (OB) 4 |Page 1 .1 Control Room 5.7 Console Tape Recorder (CTR) 4.2 Master Switching Facility 5. OVERVIEW 1.8 ALL INDIA RADIO Website 5.5 Recording Room 4. Introduction History of AIR CAPTIVE EARTH STATION (CES) 2.2 Studio Acoustic 4.2 Radio Networking Terminal 2.3 Up-Link/Down-Link Chain 2.1 List of Equipment’s in studio 4.1 Architecture of a Satellite Communication System 2.4 Software Tools used in MSR 5.3 Studio Chain 4.1 1.CONTENTS 1.4 Sound Mixing 4. STUDIO TRANSMITTER LINK (STL) 4.
the national television broadcaster. per day.V.e. Regional and Local) was originally conceived as the first stage i. But for various reasons the channel was limited to nighttime service taking the National programs and covering 65% of area and 76% of population of the country. Akashvani Bhavan houses the drama section. All India Radio is one of the largest radio networks in the world. The word Akashvani was coined by Professor Dr. The headquarters is at the Akashvani Bhavan. an autonomous corporation of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. The National Channel of the All India Radio in radio’s 3 tier system (National. officially known as Akashvani is the radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India). the FM section and the National service. M. The Doordarshan Kendra (Delhi) is also located on the 6th floor of Akashvani Bhavan. New Delhi. Gopalaswamy for his radio station in Mysore during 1936.1 INTRODUCTION All India Radio (Abbreviated as AIR). Presently it broadcasts programs of entertainment and music with hourly News Bulletins for the entire 5 |Page .OVERVIEW 1. it is the sister service of Prasar Bharati’s Doordarshan. Established in 1936. Government of India. National system with a broadcast of an 18 hrs. today.
with clear objective to inform. serving 99. Lucknow and Triuchirapalli with a total complement of 18 transmitters. AIR today has a network of 232 broadcasting centers with 149 frequency (MW). The coverage is 91. In External services. as a government organization. Chennai.six on the medium wave and the remaining on short wave. Kolkata. educate and entertain the masses. Radio listening on medium wave was confined to urban limits of these cities.2 HISTORY OF ALL INDIA RADIO Sound broadcasting started in India in 1920s with the proliferation of radio clubs. AIR covers 24 languages and 146 dialects in home services. The coverage was 2.79% of the area. 17 national and 10 foreign languages. 6 |Page . When India became independent. The radio club of Mumbai broadcast the first radio program in India in June 1923. 1. Mumbai. the AIR network had only six stations located at Delhi.country.5% of the area and just 11% of the population. It was followed by the setting up of a Broadcasting Service that began broadcasting in India in July 1927 on an experimental basis at Mumbai and Kolkata simultaneously under an agreement between Government of India and private company called the Indian Broadcasting Company Ltd. 54 high frequency (SW) and 171 FM transmitters. This is the only channel available after most of the stations closed down. The operations of All India Radio began formally in 1936.14% of the people in the largest democracy of the world. it covers 27 languages.
Satellite can be used for two way communication or broadcast purpose with the covered area. Penetration of frequencies beyond 30 Mega Hertz through ionosphere force people to think that if an object (Reflector) could be placed in the space above ionosphere then it could be possible to use complete spectrum for communication purpose. it is possible to establish one way or two way communication between any two points. Normally any satellite can accommodate about 500 MHz in C Band. Satellites are capable of handling very high bandwidth.2 CAPTIVE EARTH STATION (CES) Satellite Communication is the outcome of the desire of man to achieve the concept of global village. For example the bandwidth of INSAT-I is 480 MHz in C - 7 |Page . Within the coverage area. Advantages of satellite Communication The following are the advantages of satellite communication This is only means which can provide multi access two way communication. The cost of transmitting information through satellite is independent of distance involved.
this is the down link. The satellite in turn transmits to the receiving earth stations . 2. The quality of a radio link is specified by its carrier-to-noise ratio. Satellite can provide signal to terrestrial uncovered pockets like valleys and mountainous regions. and this is determined by the quality of the up link and that of the down link. telemetry and command stations (TT&C) together with the Satellite control centre where all the operations associated with station-keeping and checking the vital functions of the satellite are performed. from station to station. Ground Segment Space Segment The Space Segment The space segment contains the Satellite and all terrestrial facilities for the control and monitoring of the Satellite. In our case it is Master Control Facility (MCF) at Hassan. 8 |Page . Satellites can provide uniform signals for urban areas or rural areas unlike terrestrial service which will lay more signal to urban areas (where the transmitters are located) as compared to rural areas. The important factor is the quality of the total link. Basically it comprises two elements : a. It is easy and quicker to establish new satellite link using SNG terminal or VSAT terminal from any point to any other point as compared to any other means. INSAT-II has a bandwidth of 720 MHz in C Band and 80 MHz in S Band. The radio waves transmitted by the earth stations are received by the satellite .1 Architecture of a Satellite Communication System Figure 1 shows the various components of a Satellite Communication System. this is called the up link.- - Band and 80 MHz in S Band. For example Geostationary satellite can cover about 42% of earth surface using global beam. This includes the tracking. b. It is possible to provide large coverage using satellite.
The quality of the total link determines the quality of the signals delivered to the end user in accordance with the type of modulation and coding used. The largest are equipped with antenna of 30 m diameter (Standard A of the INTELSAT network). these are most often connected to the end-user’s equipment by a terrestrial network or. The smallest have 0. television or data). VSAT). Fixed. directly connected to the end-user’s equipment. in the case of small stations (Very Small Aperture Terminal. Architecture of a Satellite communication system The Ground Segment The ground segment consists of all the earth stations . Others are only 9 |Page . Stations are distinguished by their size which varies according to the volume of traffic to be carried on the space link and the type of traffic (telephone. Some stations are both transmitters and receivers. transportable and mobile stations can also be distinguished. Fig.6 m antenna (direct television receiving stations).
directed towards the centre of the earth and the centrifugal force associated with the curvature of the satellite’s trajectory. due to the earth’s gravitation. this is the case. These are the force of attraction. The satellite moves more slowly in its trajectory as the distance from the earth increases. 10 | P a g e . for example with receiving stations for a satellite broadcast system or a distribution system for television or data signals. The trajectory is within a plane and shaped as an ellipse with a maximum extension at the apogee and a minimum at the perigee.receivers . Space Geometry Types of Orbits: The orbit is the trajectory followed by the satellite in equilibrium between two opposing forces.
The elevation angle of earth stations. Interference 2.Factors deciding the selection of Orbit: The choice of orbit depends on the nature of the mission. In order to link Delhi and capital stations with other AIR stations.2 RADIO NETWORKING TERMINAL Introduction The various All India Radio stations spread throughout the nation are required to relay certain programmes which are originating from Delhi. The block diagram of S-band RN terminal. the acceptable interference and the performance of the launchers : • • • • The extent and latitude of the area to be covered. Thus RNT acts as the ground terminal for satellite signal reception. 11 | P a g e . Similarly there are certain programmes which are originating from capital stations are relayed by the other stations in that region. The programmes thus received after processing are fed to the transmitter for broadcast purposes. RN through INSAT is not only cost effective but also provide the good technical quality as compared to DOT lines and SW linkage. Transmission duration and delay. The Radio Networking terminal located at AIR stations receive S-Band or C Band transmissions.
Fig. • Audio Demodulator • Power Supply. Chicken mesh parabolic antenna and feed unit. • Synthesized Translator. Antenna 12 | P a g e . • Active Translator Unit (FTA). • Low noise Amplifier (LNA) • Front End Converter (FEC). Block Diagram of S-Band RN Receive Terminal (RNT) The RNT system consists of the following units : i) Outdoor Unit • 12 ft. ii) Indoor Unit • Passive Translator Unit (FTP).
3 Up-Link/Down-Link Chain 13 | P a g e .Antenna is usually a metallic device (as a rod or a wire) used for radiating or receiving electromagnetic waves. The receiving antenna picks up the radio waves and delivers useful signal at the input of a receiver for reception of signals. The transmitting and receiving antennae are reciprocal in the sense. 2. This travels in the free space in the form of radio waves (electromagnetic waves). any characteristics of the antenna in general applies equally to both. The radio frequency power developed at the final stage of a transmitter is delivered through cables/feeders. without themselves consuming any power to the transmitting antenna.
Digital Modulation supplanted Analog Modulation giving rise to the newer technology of Digital Satellite News Gathering (DSNG).2. The earliest SNG equipment used Analog Modulation. During 1990s. Fly Away DSNG 2. similar to conventional Television and Radio.4 DSNG VANS Satellite News Gathering is the use of Mobile Communication Equipment for the purpose of World Wide News Casting through Geostationary Satellites. Drive Away DSNG 14 | P a g e 3 . Two Types of DSNG’s are generally used: 1.
a VHF service channel in duplex mode is provided at both the ends for voice communication between the AIR studio and 15 | P a g e . STL-02 and STL-05. 02 and 05 describe the number of base band (50 Hz . GENERAL DESCRIPTION The Studio Transmitter Link (STL) system consists of a transmitting system (STL-TX) housed in the studio premises and a receiving system (STL-RX) housed in the AIR transmitting centre. STL-01 is taken up for discussion.15 kHz) channels that could be transported.STUDIO TRANSMITTER LINK (STL) The high quality sound programs from AIR studio centers are normally transported to the AIR transmitting centers with the help of Department of Tele-communications land lines. the variations of STL-02 mainly in the base band. These gave way to VHF-FM transmit/receive systems in some of the AIR centers. AIR has introduced the new generation microwave studio-transmitter link (STL) for better reliability and quality. as it is existing at number of stations. interface units and the measurements are also described in this article. The numbers 01. In addition. A low loss cable connects the STL TX/RX to the two-metre dia microwave dish antenna usually mounted on a 50 m self-supporting tower at either end. The description of the STL-01 system. AIR is having three types of STL called STL-01. Now.
This unit takes 230 V . vi) Two identical (1+1) dc-dc power supplies. i) A single audio input transformer (LT 11) which splits the audio input into two equal audio outputs for (1+1) system. STUDIO TRANSMITTER LINK . iii) The radio frequency unit (1+1) which generates the carrier.transmitter ends through a multi-element Yagi antenna mounted on the top of the tower. The STL system is meant to operate unattended round the clock. iv) An antenna change over unit which selects one of the (1+1) RF outputs for feeding to the antenna. The STL TX/RX is powered by an external power supply unit kept adjacent to the STL rack with floating batteries. 50 Hz AC and supplier + 24 DC to STL Tx/Rx. vii) Two identical (1+1) monitoring (CM-01) and Alarm inter-face units. viii) One each of logic (LO 11) and parameter control card (PC 02) which selects one of the RF outputs to be connected to the transmitting antenna II STUDIO TRANSMITTER LINK – RECEIVER (STL-RX) The STL receiver essentially consists of the eight sections similar to STL transmitter. I. and a base band interface unit GT 01 which is a 15 kHz low pass filter. 16 | P a g e .TRANSMITTER (STL-TX) The STL transmitter essentially consists of eight sections. FM modulates and generates microwave (RF) power. (L1RF-Tx). (DC-11). The need for the service channel arises from the fact that there is no RF monitoring facility of the transmitted sound program at STL-TX. v) A low loss cable connected to a microwave dish antenna at suitable height above the ground. ii) The base band unit (1+1) consisting of a music amplifier AT 01. (L1 TR SR04 A/B). (AI 01). The service channel is energized by another external power supply unit placed over that of STL TX/RX.
a unity gain card EK 11 is provided to match coder/decoder to the base band interface unit GT01/GR01. It is a VHF (68-88 MHz) trans-receiver. These have no redundancy. The noise unit monitor filter (BPF) – NF 42 in the carrier monitor unit CM 01 Rx used for evaluating S/N ratio of the received signal has a bandwidth of 100 kHz in STL 01 and STL 02. III VARIATIONS IN STL 02 SYSTEM In STL 02. iv) The base band unit (1+1) consisting of base band interface unit (GR 01) and the music amplifier (AR 01) and the muting switch (AS 11) which disconnects audio under squeltch operation. The cut off frequency of the low pass filter in the base band interface unit of the transmitter (GT 01)/receiver (GR 01) is 250 kHz instead of 15 kHz in STL 01. The 17 | P a g e . iii) The radio frequency receiver unit (1+1) which recovers the base band signal from the modulated RF carrier.i) 2 m dia microwave dish antenna mounted on a tower of suitable height and a low loss cable connects the received RF power into the receiving system. viii) One each of Logic (LO 11) and parameter control card (PC-02) which selects one of the audio outputs. IV. the music amplifier AT 01 of the transmitter and AR 01 of the receiver are not present. SERVICE CHANNEL (RT 33) The service channel is mounted at the top of the transmitter and receiver racks. Instead. vii) Two identical (1+1) monitoring (CM 01) and alarm interface units (AI 01). vi) Two identical (1+1) DC-DC power supply units. Base band equipment is a stereo coder/stereo decoder made by Rhode and Schwarz for the transmitter/receiver respectively. ii) Antenna filter and RF hybrid divider unit. v) A single audio line transformer which provides the audio output.
Buzzer alarm sounds if battery draws more current. The performance can be monitored. power supply unit from IMEC.transmitter output power is 15 watts. In such a case for STL-01 one would require equipment like audio oscillator. However. DNL meter etc. This can change a set of floating batteries besides supplying the STL Tx/Rx for which suitable terminals are provided at the rear of the unit. Yagi antenna mounted at the top of the towers on either end is used for the service channel.C. MEASUREMENTS ON THE LINK The basic minimum measurements that are required to be made on STL links are : Frequency response Harmonic distortion Signal to noise ratio Linearity check (level response) These are not new to the AIR installations. none of the above can be carried out at the transmitter in isolation. This antenna may be used both in horizontal and vertical polarizations. The external d. 18 | P a g e . These units can be removed from the racks and kept at any other convenient location at either end. Ahmedabad operates from the main supply to provide regulated 24V d. Normally vertical polarization is used. M/s Meltron has developed an interface unit with which telephone facilities can be extended to the transmitter site with this service channel without the use of land lines. it is possible at the receiver end. output at 5 to 7 A.c.c. The current drawn can be boosted between 5 and 7 A with the help of a potentiometer etc. But in the STL links. fuse provided can take care of the battery. V. POWER SUPPLY FOR STL TX/RX. The hand set with a press to talk (PTT) switch is employed at either end for voice communication. EXTERNAL D.
when the system is handed over after installation.) Front panel attenuator at 0 dB –14 dBm across 75 ohms.which are normally available in AIR stations besides a microwave signal generator. Input to GR 01 – (Rx) –20 dBm across 75 ohms. Read the output of the receiver with a selective level meter. manufacturers have already made certain adjustments in various units. 19 | P a g e . 14 kHz and 15 kHz. SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO Feed 820 Hz at 0 dBm across 600 ohms at the transmitter input. Normally. Input at the LT 11 audio input transformer 0 dBm across 600 ohms at 10 kHz Output of GT 01 (Tx. Output of audio output transformer 0 dBm across 600 ohms Front panel attenuator at ‘0’ dBm position. 820 Hz. However it is worth while to mention them here. To carry out such measurements on STL 02/STL 05. The frequency response shall be within + 1 dB. Switch off the signal and measure the noise. one would require microwave signal generator with stereo/PCM modulation capabilities. 6. Therefore.3 kHz. One is therefore not required to make any specific adjustments during the measurements. 125 Hz. 1 kHz. the simplest way in the practical station situation is to take overall measurements from the studio centre to the transmitting centre. - - FREQUENCY RESPONSE Feed 0 dBm across 600 ohms to the input of the transmitter and measure the output at the receiving end at various frequencies like 50 Hz. The signal to noise ratio should be better than 60 dB. RF signal level at receiver input shall be better than –60 dBm. This will require co-ordination with the studio end.
4 BROADCAST HOUSE (BH) STUDIOS 4.1 LIST OF EQUIPMENTS IN STUDIO EQUIPMENT Console 20 | P a g e MAKE Studer 1000 . Determine the cross talk level in the wanted channel below its normal level. CROSS TALK Feed normal level at studios on 1kHz and note the output level of any wanted channel.DISTORTIONS Feed 820 kHz at 0 dBm across 600 ohms at the input of the transmitter. Four such measurements indicate the cross talk of other channels on any one wanted channel. This should be better than S/N ratio. Repeat the same with tone in all the other channels. Measure the noise level in the wanted channel. Measure the distortion at the output of the receiver. it should be less than 1%. Repeat the same at any low and high frequencies also. Remove the tone from this channel and feed it in any other channel.
Monitor 7500 Keyboard Mouse CPU CD player R-DAT CTR Monitoring Amp. A-mike stands audio UPS (1KV) Intercom Speaker Amplispeaker Wall Clock Sync DA Digital DA Compaq Compaq Compaq Compaq Tascam Tascam Meltron Comcon Technica APC Usha DX 2000 JBL 4200 series Electro dyne Yamaha Leitch Sonyfex Studer 21 | P a g e .
22 | P a g e . we enjoy the program by virtue of the superb qualities of our sensory organs namely ears. the conditions are entirely different. However.4. Whenever any musician sings and we sit in front of a performing musician to listen to him. when we listen to the same program over the broadcast chain at our home though domestic receivers.2 STUDIO ACOUSTIC Introduction A broadcasting studio is a room in studio complex which has been specially designed and constructed to serve the purpose of originating broadcasting programs. We as broadcasters are continuously engaged in the task of ensuring the maximum pleasure for the listener at home when the artists are performing inside the studios.
Acoustic Treatment Good acoustics is a pre-requisite of high quality broadcasting or recording. 60 dB. after the source has stopped. These sound waves are subject to reflection.In order to achieve our goal we must thoroughly understand the characteristic of the different components involved in the broadcast chain. i. The science of sound is often called ‘Acoustics’. is called ‘reverberation’ and the time taken for the sound to decay to one millionth of its initial value. control rooms.e. a) Propagation of Sound Waves Sound waves emanating from a sound source are propagated in all directions. absorption and refraction on encountering an obstacle. It would be thus prudent to understand the field of acoustics as applied to broadcasting. and in this process we must preserve the original quality of sound produced by the artists inside the studio. In this section problems and design aspects of internal acoustics of a broadcast studio are explained. b) Reverberation Time(R/T) In any enclosed room when a sound is switched off. is termed ‘Reverberation Time’(R/T). the sound would be reflected and re-reflected till the intensity weakens and it dies down. and also on the frequency of sound waves. The ‘hanging-on’ of the sound in a room after the exciting signal has been removed. and other technical areas in order to achieve the acoustic conditions which have been found from experience to be suitable for the various types of programmes’. Acoustic treatment is provided in studios. it takes a finite length of time to decay to inaudibility. Extent to which each of these phenomenon takes place depends upon the structure and shape of the obstacle. In close rooms. c) Factor Covering Reverberation Time 23 | P a g e .
ft. S2……. An open window absorbs/allows to pass all of the sound energy striking it and reflects none. S n α n + S1 + S 2 + .049 V − S × ln (1 − α ) Where R/T = V S α Reverberation time in seconds Volume in cubic ft.. therefore.) of different materials provided. should be controlled.....ft. • Reverberation results in prolongation of sound inside the room. It influences the audio programs in following ways:Volume of program increases due to reverberation of sound. too much of reverberation may impair the quality of program and. α 2 ……α n are the absorption coefficients of these materials.. the R/T can be derived by Eyring’s formula R/T = 0. d) Effects of Reverberation on Programme Reverberation is the most important single parameter of a room. however. This leads to ‘blending of one sound with the next and produces a very pleasant continuity in the flow of music.. Too much of 24 | P a g e ... and α 1 ... This is a desirable feature.. S n + Where S1..Sn are the areas (in sq. Thus it has α of unity. For a room of given volume and surface area.. Average absorption coefficient = = = Average absorption coefficient ( α ) is given by α = S1α 1 + S 2 α 2 + .R/T of a room depends upon shape and size of room and on the total absorption offered on boundary surfaces. α of acoustic material is defined as the ratio of absorbed sound to the total incident energy of sound. Total surface area of room in Sq.
may create loss in intelligibility of program due to decrease in clarity. 25 | P a g e . These values have been decided after detailed study and subjective listening tests. studio. This effect can be used judiciously for desirable qualities. High R/T at mid and high frequencies leads to increased ‘liveness’ and that at low frequencies increases ‘warmth’. Reverberation time of a room is dependent on frequency. whereas for music. it modifies the frequency characteristics of the total sound field inside the room. 2) are followed in AIR. Optimum Reverberation Time e) R/T value at each frequency of sound is fixed for most desirable results for different type of programmes. however. Therefore. Morris & Nixon’s recommendations (Fig. Volume Optimum R/T values at other audio frequencies are dependent mainly on the type of programme for which the studio will be used. the optimum R/T is taken as an average of talks and music values at each frequency.• prolongation. 1 Reverberation Time vs. For drama programmes. Optimum R/T for talk studio is generally flat. Fig.
1000. doors. Calculations are generally made at six spot frequencies of 125. Computer aided design for the same has also been evolved. For the balance requirement sound absorbing materials are provided on walls and ceiling surfaces. 2 Recommendation – MORRIS & NIXON f) Acoustic Absorbers absorbers are provided on the inner surfaces of the room to optimum R/T characteristics. 500. This is calculated by Eyring’s Formula.Fig. Different absorbers have absorption characteristics. Thereafter these acoustic materials are 26 | P a g e . 250. some of the absorption is offered by windows. Quantities of materials of known absorption coefficients are selected by trial and error method so that R/T requirements are met within +5% of the optimum R/T at all these frequencies. 2000 and 4000 Hz. flooring and artists inside the studio. Acoustic achieve different provides g) Design of Room Acoustic Design for correct reverberation time consists of estimating the total absorption which must be present in the studio. No single absorber generally uniform absorption over the complete frequency spectrum.
such as commentary of cricket match etc. In some cases. microphones. Simplified block schematic of broadcasting chain Studio Centre 27 | P a g e . All these programmes are then selected and routed from studio to transmitting centre through broadcast quality telephone lines or studio transmitter microwave/VHF links. Fig. telephone lines / STL and Transmitter. A simplified block schematic showing the different stages is given in Fig.distributed on various surfaces for proper diffusion of sound in the studio. the programme can be from OB spot. switching console. 4. Normally the programmes originate from a studio centre located inside the city/town for the convenience of artists. Programmes that are to be relayed from other Radio Stations are received in a receiving centre and then sent to the studio centre or directly received at the studio centre through RN terminal/telephone line. The programme could be either “live” or recorded”.3 STUDIO CHAIN Introduction The broadcast of a programme from source to listener involves use of studios. announcer console.
The number of studios and facilities provided in each type are different. recording and dubbing room. The studio centers in AIR are categorized as Type I. tape library. III and IV. So the studios are to be specially treated to give an optimum reverberation time and minimum noise level. For example a type I studio has a transmission studio. waiting room. Studio Operational Requirements Many technical requirements of studios like minimum noise level. switch gear room. etc. Type II has one additional drama studio. are normally met at the time of installation of studio. music studio with announcer booth.The Studio Centre comprises of one or more studios. mixing and cueing facilities are provided. II. Outside of every studio entrance. there is a warning lamp. The studios have separate announcers booths attached to them where first level fading. The size of such a centre and the number of studios provided depend on the programme activities of the station. a control room and other ancillary rooms like battery room. the microphone which is the first equipment that picks up the sound is not able to distinguish between wanted and unwanted signals and will pick up the sound not only from the artists and the instruments but also reflections from the walls marring the quality and clarity of the programme. a. optimum reverberation time etc. However for operational purposes. service room. a talk’s studio with announcer booth. Broadcast Studio A broadcast studio is an acoustically treated room. The entry to the studios is generally through sound isolating lobby called sound lock. It is necessary that the place where a programme for broadcast purposes is being produced should be free of extraneous noise.c. which glows ‘Red’ when the studio is ‘ON-AIR’. certain basic minimum technical facilities are required for smooth transmission of programmes and for proper control. The other types have more studios progressively. This is possible only if the area of room is insulated from outside sound. one recording/dubbing room and a Read Over Room. These are as follows: 28 | P a g e . DG room. R/C room. Further. rooms.
4. The Control Console in the control room performs this function. • Tape decks which may provide a level of 0 dBm. • If the programmes from various studios are to be fed to more than one transmitter. we require a facility to further mix/select the programmes. a master switching facility is also required. • Before feeding the programmes to the transmitter. Announcer console does this function. It is also called switching console. So a facility for selection of output of any of these equipments at any moment is necessary. • Facility for aural monitoring to check the quality of sound production and sound meters to indicate the intensity (VU meters). • Turntable which provides an output of 0 dBm. or a turntable or a compact disc or a R-DAT. • For routing of programmes from various studios/OB spots to a central control room. various equipments are available in a studio to generate programme as given below: • Microphone. which normally provides a level of –70 dBm. • Facility to fade in/fade out the programme smoothly and control the programme level within prescribed limits. 29 | P a g e . the response of the programme should be made flat by compensating HF and LF losses using equalised line amplifiers.4 SOUND MIXING As already mentioned.• Programme in a studio may originate from a microphone or a tape deck.(This is applicable in case of telephone lines only) • Visual signalling facility between studio announcer booth and control room should also be provided. • CD and R-DAT will also provide a level of 0 dBm.
as we see.The first and foremost requirement is that we should be able to select the output of any of these equipments at any moment and at the same time should be able to mix output of two or more equipments. However. the level from microphone is quite low and need to be amplified. 30 | P a g e . This is not commonly used now days. so as to bring it to the levels of tape recorder/ tape decks. Fig. This is called low level mixing (Fig.). Low level mixing ii) Low-level output of each equipment is pre-amplified and then mixed. This is called high level mixing. 3). (Fig. Audio mixing is done in following two ways: i) Required equipments are selected and then outputs are mixed before feeding to an amplifier.
5 RECORDING ROOM A block schematic of a typical recording room is shown in figure . Outputs from various studios and switching consoles have been given to multiple pads 1. 4. Noise level at the input of best designed pre-amplifier is of the order of –120 dBm and the output levels from low level equipment –70 dBm. In low level mixing. there is signal loss of about 10 to 15 dB in mixing circuits.Fig. Therefore. All India Radio employs High level mixing.2. but quality of sound suffers in this system as far as S/N ratio is concerned. Outputs from the multiple pads are wired to PB switches. Transformers T1 and T2 transform the output impedance of the cassette recorder 31 | P a g e . the S/N ratio achieved in low level mixing is 35 to 40 dB only. High level mixing system requires one pre-amplifier in each of the low level channels but ensures a S/N of better than 50 dB.3 and 4. 3 High Level Mixing Low level mixing system may look economical since it requires one single pre-amplifier for all low level inputs. Three numbers of receptacles for cassette outputs have been provided. Two numbers of CTRs and two numbers of Push Button switches have been shown.
32 | P a g e . The output of CTR # 1 is wired to PB switch # 2 through MP # 6. With this arrangement output of CTR # 1 can be recorded on CTR # 2.6 DUBBING ROOM A block schematic of a typical dubbing room is shown in figure 11. This arrangement allows mixing of programmes. Red and green lamps are provided on the control panel for indications from and to control room and studios. 4.to 600 ohm. Please carefully note the impedances and levels at various points. The arrangement is similar to the recording room except that an additional tape deck and a mixer unit have been provided.
Similarly there is a terminal screw provided for ring and sleeve connection. However. A patch cord consists of a hollow brass sleeve. A small thin rod connects the tip and is carred back through insulated bushing to the body of plug where a terminal screw is provided for connection. These jacks are wired in such a way that for normal set up no patching is needed.) 33 | P a g e . ring is also insulated from sleeve.) which is a single or double row of jack strips mounted on insulated material. Tip is insulated from ring and sleeve and similarly. Block schematic of Recording / Dubbing Room JACK FIELDS All the inputs to control panel are routed through a jack field (fig. Tip and rings are connected to live balanced line while sleeve is connected to ground (see fig.Fig. hollow ring and tip. for by passing any equipment and for changing the equipment from normal setup patching with patch cord is necessary.
Break & CONSOLE 34 | P a g e . When patch cord plug is inserted inside the jack.). Normally jacks are used in pairs one is called ‘Break Jack’ and the other is called ‘Make Jack’. Tip-Ring-Sleeve Fig. The inners of the two are permanently connected while outers are connected as shown in Figure . Balanced Jack Make Jacks Fig. Fig. tip rests on one swinger and ring rests on other swinger there by breaking the contact with normal springs (fig. Jack-Field Patch Chord Fig.Normal springs are also called as inners and swingers as outers.
This is also used for transmission of programmes either live or recorded. two turn tables for playing the gramophone records and two playback decks or tape recorders for recorded programmes on tapes. Audio block schematic of transmission studio is shown in Fig. The technical facilities provided in a typical announcer booth. The Announcer Console is used for mixing and controlling the programmes that are being produced in the studio using artist microphones.Most of the studios have an attached booth. This is also acoustically treated and contains a mixing console called Announcer Console. Recently CD and Rotary Head Digital Audio Tape Recorder (R-DAT) are also included in the Transmission Studio. besides an Announcer Console are one or two microphones for making announcements. tape playback decks and turn tables/CD players. which is called transmission booth or Announcer booth or play back studio. 35 | P a g e .
Fig. Block diagram of Announcer Console COMPACT DISK PLAYER 36 | P a g e .
the disc is placed on the spindle by hand. and clamp is attached to the lid so that it operates as the lid is closed. is LSI chip developed by Sony and also by Phillips. which converts the read out waveform into data. Power loading is usually implemented on the players where the disc is placed in a drawer. audio samples. there is very little hazard in a CD pick up. The data path consists of the data separator. The lid or drawer mechanism has safety switch to prevent the lower operating when the machine is open.A block diagram giving essential components of a CD player is shown in Fig. Fig. The separated output consists of sub code bytes. Block Diagram of CD Player Showing the Data Path (Board Arrow) and Control / Servo System Then the drawer is pulled into the machine. Actually. This is because the beam is focused a few milli meters away from the objective lens and beyond the focal point the beam diverges and the intensity falls rapidly. time base correction and de-interleaving and error-correction process followed by error-concealment mechanism. In simpler top loading machines. redundancy and a 37 | P a g e . the disc is lowered on to the drive spindle and clamped at the center and this process is known as “chucking”. The data separator. It is almost impossible to position an eye at the focal point when the pickup is mounted in the player.
If the time base corrector functions properly. The data stream and the clock will contain speed variations due to disc run out and chucking tolerances. which removes speed variations from the samples. Writing into the memory is done using clocks from the data separator whose frequency rises or falls with run-outs. where as reading is done using a crystal controlled clock. giving the memory a ring structure as shown below in fig. and these have to be removed by a time base corrector. and makes wow and flutter un-measurable. the long-term data rate from disc is equal to the crystal-clock rate. the disc speed is controlled. The disc speed can be controlled by two methods. To ensure this. The time base corrector is a memory addressed by counters which are arranged to overflow.clock. 38 | P a g e .
Fig. 13 Block Diagram Compact Disc Player CD02A
Introduction Microphone plays a very important role in the art of sound broadcasting. It is a device which converts acoustical energy into electrical energy. In the professional broadcasting field microphones have primarily to be capable of giving the highest fidelity of reproduction over audio bandwidth. Microphone Classification Depending on the relationship between the output voltage from a microphone and the sound pressure on it, the microphones can be divided into two basic groups. Pressure Operated Type In such microphones only one side of the diaphragm is exposed to the sound wave. The output voltage is proportional to the sound pressure on the exposed face of the diaphragm with respect to the constant pressure on the other face. Moving coil, carbon, crystal and condenser microphones are mostly of this type. In their basic forms, the pressure operated microphones are Omni-directional. Velocity or Pressure Gradient Type In these microphones both sides of the diaphragm are exposed to the sound wave. Thus the output voltage is proportional to the instantaneous difference in pressure on the two sides of the diaphragm. Ribbon microphone belongs to this category and its polar diagram is figure of eight.
39 | P a g e
Types of Microphones There are many types of microphones. But only the most common types used in broadcasting have been described here. Dynamic or Moving Coil Microphone
Output leads Magnet
Fig. Dynamic Microphone (Moving Coil)
Ribbon/ Velocity Microphone
Mg e a n ts
C rru a d o g te rib o bn
T n fo e ra s rm r
O tp t u u
Fig. Ribbon Microphone
40 | P a g e
Electrostatic or Condenser Microphone
Insulator Very high resistance Phantom power Phantom power
Output Transformer DC blocking capacitor Earthed back-plate Head Amplifier Output
Fig. Condenser Microphone Electret ‘Microphone’ It is a modified form of condenser microphone in which the polarizing voltage is avoided. In fact a plastic polymer containing metallic dust keeps the metal particles permanently charged within the plastic insulation and such a polymer within the diaphragm foil or fixed plate delivers the electrical signal on the principle of the condenser mike. The hissing noise gets avoided since there is no external polarizing resistor as a load. The microphone has high impedance and is generally having FET pre-amplifier. The microphone costs very little but develops excellent quality designs in many forms. Lip Ribbon Microphone It is also called noise-cancelled mike since the ribbon even if held close, does not pick up breathing noises due to a guard in between. The stainless steel mesh acts as a wind shield. The design and other features resemble the ribbon mike. Lapel Microphone
41 | P a g e
It is normally placed close to the source of sound.Both carbon and ribbon types are available.7 CONSOLE TAPE RECORDER 42 | P a g e . Contact Microphone It is generally a dynamic microphone of lower sensitivity. (short gun and long gun). Gun Mike It has two forms. 4. This microphone is useful when sound from a distant spot is to be picked up. when it is not supposed to pick up other stray noises. The quality suffers but is intelligible. It is most suitable for running commentary or in a lecture. A dynamic mike placed at the end of a perforated tube extends its directivity in the front. An example is the picking of the sound of bat hitting a cricket ball. The short gun about 18” long can pick up a talk from about 10 feet distance and a long gun with a tube of about 3 feet length can pick up sound from a distance of about 20 to 25 feet. The microphone is very small and light.weight and is suspended around the neck keeping the mike just below the chin.
This can also be done electronically. which makes it unique in Sound Broadcasting. the capstan motor. Television and Computer field. the magnetic tape can be used again and again after erasing the previous recordings. The System The magnetic tape recording system may be studied under three subsystems : The magnetic system comprising the magnetic tape plus record. Recording Principles 43 | P a g e . without physically cutting the tape. The editing is simple and accurate. which generally takes place along with the recording of the new programme.e. the brake mechanism and the control cum interlock system. The recording medium i. These are instant and simultaneous replay during recording. Tape transport system comprising the two spooling motors.. replay and erase heads.Magnetic tape recording system has got many special features. The electronic system comprising the amplifiers equalizers and power supplies etc. These facilities combined with excellent quality and reliability has made magnetic recording system very popular in the field of entertainment and all direct recordings are first done on magnetic tape.
fillers etc. will be recorded as magnetic intensity variations along the tape length. 44 | P a g e .6 mils) on to a PVC backing (1. coercively of about 300 to 500 oersteds. This magnetic coated tape has a remanance of about 500 to 1000 gausses. For a fixed frequency audio signal pure tone. we really record wavelengths and from a recorded wavelength any frequency signal can be obtained by running the tape at play back speeds different from the one at the time of recording. This tape gets magnetized when it comes in contact with a recording head with audio frequency signal currents flowing through the head windings. and as it passes on forward. even and thin coating (0. the magnetic conditions on the so magnetized tape can be approximately depicted in the form of recorded wave lengths condition of an array of half wave bar magnets placed end to end along with the tape length as shown in figure . and applied in the form of an extremely smooth. the signal current variations in time. and the signal current is of frequency "f" Hz.5 mils thick). f So in tape recording. retains the magnetism induced. Thus a single cycle will be recorded on a tape length V/f cm.4 to 0. Normally. due to the magnetic properties of remanance and coercively. This is called recorded wavelength and will be given by λ= v . the record and replay speeds are exactly the same for a faithful reproduction of the recorded signal.The magnetic material used in recording is magnetic oxide of iron Fe2O3 and Fe2O4 or a suitable mixture of the two with small quantities of the oxides of Nickel and Cobalt. The permeability is rather low (5 to 10).0 to 1. This is mixed with suitable adhesives. Thus if the tape is moved across the head at a constant speed of V cm/sec. plasticizers.
set up of tape recorder The Erase Process Erasing the previously recorded signal is essential for using the tape repeatedly. starting from low value at the start of the gap. 6). A satisfactory method for this is to feed the erase head with a high amplitude signal of about 100 kHz and the tape passes over this erase head before it passes on to the record head (see fig. In this arrangement every part of the tape passes the erase head gap (about 15 mil) and is subjected to about 200 cycles of alternating magnetic field.Fig. 45 | P a g e .
as the tape leaves the gap.increasing to saturation value in the middle of the gap and again steadily dropping to low value of the field. The curve showing the relation between remanant magnetism (Br) and magnetising field (H). These repeated magnetising cum de-magnetising cycles erase the signal completely and leave the tape in completely unmagnetised form similar to a virgin tape without a magnetic history. indicates that the relation is non-linear in 46 | P a g e . The Recording Process Magnetic recording is made possible due to magnetism remaining behind after the magnetising force is removed.
so the tape moves forward under a small reverse drag to keep the tape taut. the R/W motor is given full voltage and 47 | P a g e .M. Therefore a signal recorded as such will have a high component of harmonic distortion of the wave form as shown in the Fig. bias does give a fairly satisfactory quality of recording but the noise and distortion in the reproduced signal leaves much to be desired. Both halves of the Br-h curves are utilized. overriding the in step non-linear portion of the I. The rewind and forward motors are ordinary induction motors.C. This above method of D. the tape has to pass across the heads. A standard tape transport format used in all professional machines is shown below. Their torque depends on the voltage applied. This H. A greater improvement in recording quality was achieved during forties when the high frequency bias. bias to avoid the instep of the initial Magnetisation curve (I. flux recorded is high.C.F.8 and is not useful. bias.C.C) and shifting the operating point to a more linear middle region as shown in the fig. In rewind mode.the beginning. This can be partially improved by using D. sufficiently that they settle down to the flux value. This method of D. This is diagrammatically depicted in Fig. corresponding to the superimposed signal current. signal to noise ratio is good and distortion is low as a result of H. The Tape Transport System During record or replay. a fraction of it. the F/F mode is supplied full voltage and the R/W motor.F.M. a tap off from the erase head was also applied to the record head along with the audio signal to be recorded. bias recording is still used in cheaper version or cassette recorders for domestic use. In fast forward mode. bias current agitates the magnetic particles on the tape.C. The rewind and F/F motors freely rotate in opposite direction as indicated. Also it may be seen that only one half of the Br-H used suggesting scope of further improvement. Also there should be provision for spooling fast rewind.
This is achieved by the capstan motor and pinch roller combination. The pinch roller engages with the capstan shaft in record/replay mode only and in shuttling mode. this remains disengaged and as such capstan motor though running continuously does not play any part in tape shuttling. if freed from the capstan motor pinch roller. the motors are given equal voltage and about half the full voltage. 48 | P a g e .5 inches/sec. This simply means that if the nominal tape speed is 7. The tape should not only move forward 7. no. The brake system used is invariably of differential braking type where the braking torque depends upon the direction of rotation of the shuttling motors. of revolutions per second. Also the speed should remain constant and not vary around a mean average speed. During record/replay mode the tape must move with constant speed.5 inches/sec but also 7.the F/F motor a small voltage. Its speed of rotation i. as otherwise the frequency reproduced will be different from the one recorded. The tape rewinds fast under a small reverse drag. The capstan motor is heavy duty. are synchronous to the power supply frequency. the supply is switched off to the motors by pressing the stop button and simultaneously applying the brakes to kill the movement of the shutting motors due to inertia. Thus the tape speed is maintained constant as short duration frequency variations mains power supply frequency (frequency fluctuations) are rare. depending upon the pair pole windings.e. The tape as such remains taut and should not move in any direction. Voltage variations have no effect on sub multiple of it. The tape is pinched between the capstan motor shaft and pinch roller and can move forward only when the capstan shaft rotates at the precise rate of 'd' inches per rotation where 'd' is the capstan shaft circumference. In play back mode. under loaded synchronous motor. Brake Mechanism For stopping the tape from any transport mode. It may be noted that the capstan motor is not switched off.5 mili inches every milisecond to say.
metering and monitoring amplifier etc. Worn out brake bands and pinch rollers need replacement as and when necessary. Capstan Pinch roller pressure. in addition to amplification and preequalisation. correct amount of HF boost is provided to pre compensate for the HF record process losses as described earlier. HF bias oscillator. The individual circuit details vary from model to model and detailed study should be done from the particular equipment manual. Also. These should be checked at least once a week and adjustments carried out if the measured values are not within the tolerance limits specified. However.Measurements and Adjustments In the tape transport system following quantities are specified by the manufacturers. amplified. it converts constant voltage input into constant current output. This is required because the record head is a current operated device and the magnetic flux is proportional to the current flowing in the record head coil. the input may be from a microphone or from a high level controlled. Rewind and F/Forward motor torques in all the three modes separately in pulling and release form. THE ELECTRONIC SYSTEM The electronic system in tape recorders comprises of power supplies. 49 | P a g e . recording amplifier chain including equalizing circuits. The Recording Chain As is evident from the above block diagram. F/Forward reel brake torque-clock and anti clockwise. the circuits are quite conventional. The measurements and adjustments are : Rewind reel brake torque-clock and anti clockwise. playback amplifier chain with play back equalizer.
the equipment will not be compatible for programme exchange. Head to avoid hum pick up. Electronic System Alignment It is obviously necessary that for every machine the overall record replay chain response versus frequency should be flat. Also the head output cord is kept small and shielded and the first amplifier stage is placed close to the head to minimise hum pick up. Equalising is incorporated after one or two stages of preamplification. However. For this reason.The Playback Chain The output of the PB head is rather low and rising with frequency.B. Therefore. great care is taken in electrically and magnetically shielding the P. This can be achieved in various ways by complementary equalisation in the recording and replay chains.e. a standard recorded flux characteristic is generally specified keeping in view the best signal to noise ratio and minimum 50 | P a g e . This means that the output at lower frequencies is rather very low as compared to mid range frequencies. such machines will not reproduce satisfactorily the recording made on other machines i.
to a reading of -10 dB and left undisturbed. The record head azimuth adjusted for maximum and stable output from the play back chain. Now when the recording input gain control is so adjusted that the play back chain output reads zero ensures that the recorded level on the tape is 10 dB below reference level or 32 m Maxwell. which was earlier azimuth.5 dB. 51 | P a g e . The Standard Tape: The CCIR standard tape for 7. The tape is played and the play head azimuth adjusted for maximum quite constant i. This completes azimuth alignment of the complete record replay chain.distortion. The average or normal recorded level is 10 dB below this maximum level.e. For chain alignment the playback output attenuator is set at -20 dB mark and play back amplifier gain control adjusted to give 0 dB reading on the VU meter. Head Azimuth Section This section has 10 kHz signal recorded on the standard tape with a record head having true azimuth. Now a 10 kHz signal is given to the record chain. output variations not more than 0. The CCIR characteristics is followed by large number of countries all over the world including India and the recording machines are standardised using the standard tape and then the recording chain is standardised using the standard play back chain as reference.5 inches/sec. This is the maximum permissible level recorded on present day commercially available tapes and such tapes should give a total harmonic distortion of 3% or less when reproduced from a standard playback chain. The PB head is left undisturbed. standardized with standard tape.e. (10 cm/sec) speed has three sections as discussed below: Level Section This section has 1 kHz signal recorded on it at a recorded flux level of 32 mili Maxwell/mm recorded track length. The attenuator is advanced by 10 dB i.
Maxwell/mm. Residual elongation should not be more than 0. Magnetic Anchorage Plasticity 52 | P a g e The magnetic layer should show no evidence of anchorage failure. the play back chain is standardized for level.050 mm + 0.3% for a steady load of 1 Kg. azimuth and equalization.Frequency Response Section This section of the standard tape has recordings on it. falling from a height of 250 mm. various frequencies from 60 Hz to 100 kHz corresponding to the specified recorded flux versus frequency characteristic. The tape should fall against a sharp edge . 0. as per the CCIR specified impedance Vs. frequency characteristic of an RC parallel connected network of 70 micro second time constant. MAGNETIC TAPE Tensile Strength The tape should stand a steady pull of 3. The reference flux at 1 kH being 10 dB below the maximum specified flux of 32 mili.015 mm min. Overall Chain Response By the above procedure using standard tape. This standard tape section is played and play back equalization adjusted to obtain flat frequency response within permissible limits as given below in Fig. and impulse load test of 100 gm. Wt. Elastic Elongation Overall Thickness Coating Thickness Max. when an adhesive tape of 1" length is stuck and pulled away.01 mm.5 Kg. Now for over all chain response.005 mm. 0. Wt. for 24 hours. 0. a set of specific frequencies from 50 Hz to 10 kHz are fed to the recording chain at constant level and record equalization adjusted till the output monitored at the play back chain output is flat within specified limits as above.
1 watt. . Moving Coil or dynamic loudspeaker: It consists of a permanent magnet and a voice coil for carrying audio signals. It is attached to a peper that radiates sound. Most headphones used for high quality applications are either moving coil or electrostatic. At the maximum recorded level of 32 mili Maxwell/mm at 1 kHz. The coil is suspended with the help of “spider”. Specifications of a stereo headphone type EM 6201 (Philips) are given below : Frequency range Matching impedance Maximum input 53 | P a g e 20 to 20 kHz 4 to 32 ohms 0. i. Voice coil is having a few turns of wire. Distortion LOUD SPEAKERS A loudspeaker performs an opposite function to a microphone. wound on paper. made of flexible material. with headphones the acoustical loading is achieved by intimacy of the ear units to the ears. Thus even very small units are capable of providing very good bass performance. it converts electrical signal into sound wave. Spider permits forward backward motion but no lateral motion. However.e. plastic or aluminium former. Headphone impedances range from 4 to 1000 ohms. the total distortion should be less than 1%. Erasability When a recording at maximum record level is passed through an erase field of 1000 oersteds.under its own weight of 5 cm length. the total harmonic distortion should not be more than 3% and at 10 dB below the above. HEADPHONE Headphones basically work on the same principles which are applicable to loudspeakers. the residual signal level should be 60 dB below the recorded level.
stereo and four channel headphones according to the number of channels. Headphones are classified into mono. 4.8 ALL INDIA RADIO Website 5 54 | P a g e .For checking levels on a studio chain headphones with higher impedance should be used.
live broadcast from recording studio.MASTER SWITCHING ROOM (MSR) 5. other satellite based relays. O. Broad functions of switching console in control room are as follows • Switching of different sources for transmission like News. 55 | P a g e . Such control console is known as switching console. there would be a provision for further mixing which is provided by a control console manned by engineers.Bs. • Level equalisation and level control.1 CONTROL ROOM Studio #1 B c S h m tic o C n l B o lo k c e a f o tro o th D igital C onsole #1 D igital DA Studio #2 Digital DA Studio #3 Clock Sync Tim e Sync Switcher Base Device Studio #4 D igital C onsole #2 Studio #5 D igital DA Digital DA Studio #6 FO C To M SR Clock Sync Tim e Sync For two or more studios set up.
• Quality monitoring. Block Schematic of Control Room 5. • Communication link between control room and different studios.2 MASTER SWITCHING FACILITY 56 | P a g e . Fig. • Signalling to the source location.
an example of feeding of two transmitters from any one of six sources.3 MASTER SWITCHER AND MATRIX MANAGEMENT 57 | P a g e . To understand the requirements of a Master Switching console.If a single transmitter is to be supplied with a programme. a switching facility becomes necessary and is provided by Master Switching Console. 5. facility for master switching is not required. however when many transmitters are simultaneously being supplied with different programmes or the programmes to be fed to a single transmitter is periodically changing.
3. Different users have access to different modules. editing. DALETPLUS SOFTWARE:. scheduling for various works. Integrated editing applications let you modify the content of audio. image. based on access rights.for recording and dubbing DALETPLUS OVERVIEW DALETPLUS is a professional and industry-recognized line of software that offers a full suite of applications for multi-media editing and digital asset management for professional TV and Radio broadcasters. Customizable workspaces allow users to organize their desktop so that only the relevant modules are visible at each stage of their work. These are: 1. broadcast scheduling to ONAIR applications. recording. without leaving your workstation. 58 | P a g e . 2. editing. With DALETPLUS. audio. you'll find intuitive playout applications. routing of program. video. and contacts – from a single standard desktop PC connected to your company's network. cataloguing. and video files that you want to prepare for broadcast or publication.for execution of switching ASPA SOFTWARE:. In the role of a studio technician or presenter.main software NEXUS SOFTWARE:. Web publishing and Archiving. you'll be able to search and access a wide range of media – newswires. Intuitive collaboration tools make it extremely easy to share your work and distribute it.for scheduling the program ADOBE AUDITION AND SOUND FORGE:. 4. dubbing. text. DALETPLUS lets you optimize the workflow and media processing in your organization – from media ingest. With its integrated set of full-featured modules.5. web l inks.4 SOFTWARE In the AIR we us basically some software for networking. DALETPLUS MODULES DALETPLUS integrates several software modules in a single collaborative work environment. texts.
sports events etc. In this case. ii) Spot Recordings Most of the OB programmes are recorded at the OB spot with the help of a portable. 59 | P a g e .The DALETPLUS modules cover the following functionality: A) B) C) D) E) F) G) H) I) J) Browser Asset Manager Search Media Production Tools Audio Recorder Trackfiler Plus Newswires Editing Audiosurfer Activelog Transcription Player 5. One for feeding the programme to CR. are generally radiated as Live programme. cultural and national important and other such programmes that originate from outside the broadcast studio are covered as OBs. depending on their importance are recorded at the studio end. important functions of political.5 OUTSIDE BROADCAST’s (OB) Outside Broadcasts (abbreviated as OBs) form a substantial portion of programmes radiated from a Radio Station. Normally three such lines are booked. Major events that occur at different parts of a country. such as sports events. and one as a standby programme line. Some programmes. Different Types of OBs OBs can be classified into two types : i) Live Broadcast Events of national importance such as Independence Day Celebrations. from the OB spot to CR. battery operated OB amplifier and or an Ultra Portable Tape Recorder (UPTR) or a cassette tape recorder. one for inter communication between the OB spot and CR using a magneto telephone. it is necessary to book telephone lines.
can be mixed and controlled by this unit. the sound is to be picked up from a distance and hence we require a microphone with a narrow acceptance angle.EQUIPMENTS NORMALLY USED IN OB’s i) OB Amplifier An OB amplifier is a portable mixing unit. in windly conditions. Use of Wind shields When microphones are used out of doors. insensitive to wind noise and popping effects. Radio microphones are best suited for these locations. Different Types of Microphones used are: Omni directional Microphones Omni-directional microphones are sensitive to sound from all directions equally. The microphones used in OBs must be robust. ii) Microphones The choice of the correct type of microphone and its proper handling and placement is very important for the success of an OB. there may be situations such as in a big stadium where different athletic events take place simultaneously where it is not possible to lay cables. are covered by spot recordings done with Ultra Portable Tape Recorders (UPTRs) and cassette tape recorders. Radio/Wireless Microphones In sports coverages. 60 | P a g e . Short Gun Microphones In OB situations such as cricket test match or athletics coverages. iii) Tape Recorders Spot interview and glimpses of the various events taking place in a particular city. Normally four low level microphone inputs and one high level input from a PTR or UPTR. and having a good front to back ratio to avoid feedback. wind shields are used.
editing and dubbing etc.OB Van AIR has acquired a few OB Vans recently. Provision is available to meet most of the requirements of production. The vans are of the size of a matador vehicle and incorporate equipment of latest technology. The van can also meet the requirements of a live coverage. Provision will be kept for installing a VHF/FM transmitter and a video camera along with a monitor inside the van in case these are required for certain types of coverage. Each van has been provided with a 6 channel audio mixer 3 UPTRs and a Public Address Amplifier. recording. 61 | P a g e .