Clutch Inplant Training Report | Clutch | Transmission (Mechanics)

INTRODUCTION

:

History
1973: Established CEEKAY AUTOMOTIVE PRODUCTS LTD. 1975: Concluded T.A.A with EXEDY (ex Daikin Manufacturing) 1977: Established and started Aurangabad Plant 1987: Obtained 25% common stocks by EXEDY and changed company name to CEEKAY DAIKIN LTD (CDL) 1999: Established Noida Plant 2000: EXEDY increased shareholding ratio to 32% 2002: Obtained ISO/TS 16949 certification 2004: Obtained ISO 14001 certification 2007: Obtained OHSAS 18001 certification 2008: Start supply of one-way clutch for motorcycle. 2010: Jun. EXEDY increased shareholding ratio to 50.19% by preferential allotment. Oct. Exedy shareholding raised to 69.14% by open offer Nov. Changed company name to EXEDY India Ltd. (EIL)

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PRODUCTS:
1. Clutch Disc Assembly 2. Clutch Cover Assembly

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VISION:
The objective of production manufacturing unit is to produce the desired product by specified methods so that the optimal utilization of available resources is met with. Hence the production management is responsible to proper planning, the manpower, material and processes. Production management must see that it will deliver right goods of right quantity at right price. When the above objective is achieved, we say that we have effective production management system .

MISSION:
Zero Accidents, 0-defects,0-breakdown,100%production, in bare minimum cost.

Department and their function:
1. Engineering:
1. Determines how product will be made 2. Assesses what technical equipment is needed 3. Checks on standard of raw material

2. Planning
1. Identifies when production will take place 2. Estimates length of production 3. Ensure raw materials are delivered on time

3. Controlling
1. Ensure production plan is being followed 2.Maintains quality standards 3. Monitors timescale BHARATH UNIVERSITY, CHENNAI
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INRODUCTION OF CLUTCH: 
A clutch is a mechanism for transmitted rotation, which can be engaged and disengaged.  Clutches are useful in devices that have two rotating shafts. In these devices, one shaft is typically driven by a motor or pulley, and the other shaft drives another devices.  The clutch connects the two shafts so that they can either be locked together and spin at the same speed (engaged),or be decoupled and spin at different speeds(disengaged).  In a car the clutch is operated by the left most pedal using hydraulics or a cable connection from the pedal to the clutch mechanism.  No pressure on the pedal means that clutch plates are engaged (driven) , While dispersing the pedal disengages the clutch plates, allowing the driver to shift gears or coast.

TYPES OF CLUTCH:
1. 2. 3. 4. Single plate clutch Multi plate clutch Cone clutch Centrifugal clutch

REQUIRENENTS OF CLUTCH: 
Torque Transmission: Clutch should be able to transmit maximum
torque of engine under all conditions. 

Gradual Engagement: The clutch should positively take the drive
gradually without occurrence of sudden jerk and without any slip. 

Heat Dissipation: The proper design of clutch should ensure proper
ventilation or cooling system for heat dissipation.

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Vibration Damping: Suitable mechanism should be incorporated for
vibration damping and eliminating the noise during transmission. 

Size: The size should be smaller as possible so as to occupy minimum
space. 

Inertia: The rotating parts should have minimum inerti a. 

Easy to operate: Mechanism should not be very complex, it should be
easy to operate and maintenance. 

Dynamically Balanced: This is necessary in high speed clutches.

VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS VISITED AT EXEDY INDIA LTD.

(CEEKAY-DAKIN LTD):
1. PSMS-1 2. PSMS-2 3. ASSEMBLY 4. DESIGN 5. HEAT TREATMENT 6. TOOL ROOM 7. QUAILITY ASSURANCE 8. MAINTENANCE 9. PLANNING 10. INWARD STORE, MARKETING
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ORGANIZATION CHART

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PLANT INFORMATION PLANT LAYOUT PSMS-1

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PSMS-2

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LIST OF MACHINES AND EQUIPMENTS: PRESS MACHINE SHOP-1:
Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Name of machine Mechanical press Mechanical press Hydraulic press Hydraulic press Hydraulic press Hydraulic press Capacity of m/c 800T 250T 100T 60T 40T 25T Quantity 1 2 4 6 6 4

OTHER MACHINES:
Sr. No.

Name of machine
Broaching m/c Broach Repass m/c ABRO Balancing m/c SPM Machine NITTO Riveting Laser Marking

Capacity of m/c
Single station,3 station

Quantity
3 1 6 2 6 1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

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PRESS MACHINE SHOP-2:
SR. NO.

NAME OF MACHINE Mechanical press Mechanical press Mechanical press

CAPACITY OF M/C 250T 100T 60T

QUANTITY 1 2 4 1 1 3 6 2 1 2 3

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Mechanical press (old type) 63T Wire ring forming machine CNC Machine Ace Auto Lathe Mini chucker Twin Turn Machine Expansion Testing Machine Grinder

TOOL ROOM & MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT: SR.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. MACHINE NAME SURFACE GRINDING TOOL &CUTTER GRINDING CYLINDERICAL GRINDING RIN TURN LATHE M/C HMT LATHE MACHINE EDM WIRE CUT M/C RADIAL DRILLING M/C UNIVERSAL MILLING M/C SHAPING MACHINE
BROACH RESHARPENING M/C

CAPACITY

QUANTITY 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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HEAT TREATMENT DEPARTMENT: 1. ECM 2. Induction hardening furnace 3. General purpose ceramic lined furnace(GPC) 4. Sealed Quench Furnace (SQF) 5. Tempering furnace 6. Hot washing 7. Pit Furnace 8. Zinc Phosphate 9. Nickel plating 10. Shot Blasting 11. Shot peening m/c 12. Compressive strength checking m/c.

QUALITY & INSPECTION DEPARTMENT: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. CMM(Co Ordinate measuring machine) UTM(Universal testing machine) Torsion testing machine Micro hardness tester Surface roughness tester Stroke durability tester

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LIST OF RAW MATERIAL SUPPLIER: 
SHEET METALS (MS PLATE): 1. LAXMI MECHANICAL WORKS (LMW) 2. TATA STEEL  STEEL SHEET (CUSHION PLATES): 1. BHUSHAN PLATE 2. TELCO STEELS 3. STEEL COPRATION  TORSION SPRING: 1. BCL SPRING 2. VIJAY SPRING 3. SSS LTD.(BANGLORE) FORGING COMPONENTS: 1. PRACHI FORGE 2. RAMAN ENTERPRISES 3. M.K. (NASIK)  FRICTION FACING: 1. BRAKEWEL AUTOMOTIVE (NOIDA) 2. HINDUSTAN COMPOSITES 3. EXCEDY COPRATION (JAPAN) 4. VALEO AUTOMOTIVE  RIVETS:
1. PEARL INDUSTRIES 2. TKW FASTENERS 

STUD PIN:
1. SUDHIR AUTOMOTIVE 

WASHER:
1. SANJAY PLASTIC

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WIRE RINGS:
1. MG METALIC BANGLORE 2. SSS LTD. 3. CEEKAY(SELF PRODUCTION) 

TOOLS:
1. INDO GERMAN TOOL ROOM 

PRESSURE PLATE(CASTING):
1. 2. 3. 4. ASHWIN AUTO CAST (AHMADABAD) HIGH CAST INDUSTRY SIDDHA ENGINEERING KOLHAPUR KAIZEN

CUSTOMERS OF COMPONY: a. Maruti Udyog LTD. b. Mahindra & Mahindra c. Bajaj Tempo Ltd. d. Scooter India Ltd. e. Ford & Escort f. Ashoka Leyland g. Tata motors h. Lombardini i. Ghatage Patil Transport j. PAE Ltd.(Pune) k. TVS Sundaram l. Madras Auto Services m. Swaraj Mazda n. PAE KOLKATA

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Manufacturing of clutches: 1] Clutch disc assembly,

The clutch is an often overlooked part of a manual transmission. Without a clutch the vehicle would have no way to disengage the power to the drivetrain enabling the vehicle to stop, start, or to even shift gears. The clutch is located inside housing between the engine and the transmission. The housing is shaped like a bell so it's called the Bell housing. The clutch is attached to the engines fly wheel and the output shaft from the transmission then is inserted into the clutch disc to allow the engine to turn the shaft when the clutch is disengaged .

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Pressure Plate: The pressure plate assembly is secured to the flywheel via bolts connecting the cover stamping to the flywheel. During engagement, the pressure plate assembly clamps the disc assembly against the flywheel, transmitting engine power to the transmission. During disengagement, power flow is interrupted when the pressure plate no longer clamps the disc against the flywheel. Instead, the pressure plate lifts away from the flywheel, creating a gap large enough for the disc to disengage from the flywheel, enabling the driver to shift gears.

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Clutch Disc: The disc assembly is mounted to the input shaft, between the pressure plate assembly and the flywheel. During engagement, the disc slides forward on the input shaft and becomes solidly clamped, or ³engaged´, between the flywheel and the pressure plate assembly. During disengagement, the disc is no longer engaged. Although the pressure plate assembly and flywheel continue rotating, the input shaft and disc are no longer being rotated by the engine.

Pilot Bushings: Pilot bearings and bushings serve as a guide and seat for the transmission input shaft during engagement and disengagement when the flywheel and pressure plate assembly turn at speeds different than the input shaft and disc assembly, the pilot bearing rotates.

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Throw-out Bearing: Release bearings are designed to pivot forward and compress the pressure plate levers, which disengages the clutch system. Although release bearings are all designed for the same basic function, they come in many shapes and sizes because they must work in conjunction with a variety of actuation systems .

For example, angular contact bearings are matched with hydraulic systems, and are designed to remain in ³constant contact´ with the clutch diaphragm spring fingers. As a result, these bearings utilize a self cantering feature that compensates for misalignment by cantering the bearing equally on the diameter of the diaphragm spring fingers. This reduces noise, heat, vibration, and bearing wear while increasing the life of the clutch system. Standard release bearings, by comparison, aren¶t designed for constant contact applications. Instead, they are engineered to work in conjunction with mechanical actuation systems because the release bearing thrust face is in contact with the pressure plate fingers only during clutch actuation. Contact time is so short that slight misalignment isn¶t a factor. The most recent change in release bearing technology is to integrate the clutch actuation systems and released bearing into one component. This system is referred to as a CSC (concentric slave cylinder). It eliminates the need for several additional components include the fork, bearing retainer, pivot ball, and traditional style release bearing .

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CLUTCH COVER ASSEMBLY:

Flywheel

The flywheel provides a friction surface for the clutch disc, a torque buffering mass, a mounting surface for the pressure plate, a mounting for the starter driven gear, and on some engines the flywheel is a factor in engine balance. The condition of the friction surface of the flywheel is important for proper clutch function. The surface should be smooth and free of burned sp ots and surface cracks. Used flywheels can be resurfaced. This should be done by grinding rather than lathe turning as less material is removed. The amount of material removed from the face can affect which clutch release bearing should be used. A flywheel should always be checked for run out on the engine.

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Pressure Plate

This is the other half of the driving friction surface. It mounts on the flywheel. It consists of four main parts and is more correctly called a clutch cover assembly. These parts are the pressure plate itself, the springs (or spring, if a diaphragm type), the clutch cover, and the release arms. There are two basic designs of clutches usually referred to by the spring type. These are the RockfordΠ(diaphragm spring type) and the Borg and BeckΠ(coil spring type). The coil spring type is also called a three -finger type, referring to the three release arms this style requires to compress the coil springs. The "softest" clutch is the diaphragm type. It also requires the least amount of travel to release. The diaphragm type clutch works good in lightweight, low geared vehicles. It is not the best clutch for high RPM use as the diaphragm spring will stay "flat" or released from the centrifugal force generated by the RPM. A variation of the diaphragm type was used for a while by GM that to some extent helped this problem. This was called the Hi -Cone diaphragm type and was designed so the spring - instead of being flat when released - still had a slight bevel. These Hi-Cone units were not bad but still won't hold like the Borg and Beck coil spring type. Aftermarket units like the Counterforce, use centrifugal weights to counteract this high-rpm flattening and subsequent loosening. It should be noted that this is not typically a concern of the Jeep enthusiast as high RPM horsepower is not as much an interest as low -RPM torque. It should be pointed out that the spring itself is the "release arms" of a diaphragm type clutch. Note that when interchanging from one type to the other, you will require a different throughout bearing. The three -finger style requires a
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The fourth part of the pressure plate assembl is the cover. The pressure plate, spri (or spri s) and release arms are attached to the cover in such a manner that, when the release bearing pushes on the three arms or the diaphragm spring, it causes a leveraged action to take place. This counteracts the spring pressure and lifts the pressure plate off the clutch disc, releasing the clutch. As stated above, the diaphragm t pe clutch takes slightl less travel to release and requires about .030 total air gap when released. The coil spring t pe requires about .040 to .050 total air gap when released. Air gap is the clearance between the clutch disc, fl wheel, and pressure plate with the clutch released. A total air gap of .050 will measure .025 between each side of the disc.

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Clutch Disc This is the "driven" part of the clutch. It has a friction material riveted to each side of a wavy spring (called a marcel). This is attached to a splined hub that the transmission input gear protrudes into. There are basically two common types of friction material used for clutch lining. These are organic and metallic. Th e organic is best for all around use. The metallic is preferred by some for severe duty applications but requires high spring pressures and is hard on the flywheel and pressure plate friction surfaces. Avoid solid hub clutches and clutches without marcel a s they will always chatter when used in vehicles with a rear differential mounted on springs (as opposed to a transaxle design).

Pilot Bushing

In most cases, this is a porous bronze, pre-lubed bushing rather than an actual bearing, as it is often called. A few applications still use an actual bearing and others use a needle roller type bearing, but by far, the most common type is bronze. You cannot use a roller bearing on a transmission shaft o riginally designed for a bronze bushing due to different type of heat treatment on the shafts

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The pilot bushing is seldom thought of as a part of the clutch system but it is one of the most vital parts of the system. It pilots the end of the transmission input gear in the crankshaft. If it is worn or not running "true", it can cause serious clutch problems or transmission failure. Pilot bushing bore runout should always be checked with a dial indicator and should be within .002 total. The bronze bushing type should be a press fit in the crankshaft bore. It must be installed carefully. It should have between .002 and .003 clearance on the transmission shaftwhen installed. The pilot bushing is only functional when the clutch is disengaged but it is a factor in input gear alignment at ALL times. Most people have no idea what an important part the pilot bushing plays in the life of the transmission and clutch. The job of the pilot bushing is to support the end of the transmission input (main drive) gear in the crankshaft and it only acts as a bushing when the clutch is depressed. This pilot bushing should be a light drive fit into the crank bore. Care should be taken when installing any pilot bushing as they are soft and easily damaged by crude installation techniques. A damaged pilot bushing can bind on the input gear giving symptoms of clutch drag. Transmission damage and early failure can be caused by a pilot bushing or crankshaft bore that "runs out" in relation to the transmission locating bore in the bellhousing. It is advisable to check the bo re of the crank with a dial indicator before installing the pilot bushing (see below). If the bore runs out more than .003 total, the crank should be set up in a lathe and the bore trued up OR a special pilot bushing should be made that runs out the same a mount as the crank bore. The run out in the bore of a pilot bushing is put 180 degrees off from the crank bore run out and the pilot bushing installed. If properly done, this can put the bore of the pilot bushing well within the .003 required. We have used this method to save engine disassembly many times. A disadvantage of this method shows up at pilot bushing replacement time as a special pilot bushing will have to be reproduced. It is always a good idea to use an input gear (of the proper diameter) or cl utch aligning tool when installing the clutch on any engine. With the clutch disc aligned on the pilot bushing it becomes a simple matter when installing the transmission to engage the splines and bolt up the transmission . If this simple procedure is not done, the transmission shaft won't line up and the temptation will be great to "pull it up with the bolts" which damages the front transmission bearing, pilot bushing, and more than likely will break an ear off the transmission or adapter. The transmission should slip in freely to mate up with the face of the bellhousing.

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Clutch alignment is critical to installation. Otherwise, expect the transmission to not line up with the pilot bushing.

Clutch Release Bearing As its name implies, this is the bearing that releases the clutch. It is often referred to as a "throw-out" bearing. They come on a number of different style carriers. The carriers, in some cases, vary considerably with the particular engine. In the GM line, for example, the bearings are all the same but there are several different carriers that vary about 1/2" between the shortest and longest. Which to use usually depends on the style of pressure plate being used, but substituting one length for another can often be used to the installer's great advantage. AMC, Ford &Mopar and others are far less generous with the variety of lengths available. This will be covered in more detail later in this article.

Because the release bearing only works when the clutch is being released it usually lasts quite a long time. However, improper linkage adjustment or riding the clutch with your foot when driving can wear the
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bearing prematurely. Normally there should be a minimum of 1/16" clearance between the face of the bearing and the three release fingers or diaphragm spring of the pressure plate when the clutch is engaged. This fact is important and will be discussed further when we get to the part about setting up the clutch linkage

Clutch Release Fork

This is the arm or lever that the linkage operates that moves the release bearing. There are several different styles of release arm. The most common in automotive use is the fork type that pivots on a rocker. This type requires a rearward force to move the release bearing forward. Note now that the following is key to your understanding of the clutch system: The ratio of the arm is the difference in length between the pivot point and the release bearing centerline divided by the length from the pivot point to where the linkage attaches. The ratio of the fork is important and will be used in the linkage setup section later in this article. GM, Ford, and AMC all use a pivot type release arm as their most common type. Some late GM, Pinto, Jeep and a few others use a nonrocker arm. This style pivots on the passenger side of center and is direct acting. That is, it takes a forward movement of the linkage to move the release bearing forward. This is not as suitable as the rocker system as it usually complicates the linkage requi rements. Regarding GM clutch forks, there are two basic types of manufacture used for the pivot type forks. These are stamped steel and forged steel. The stamped steel type uses a flat steel retainer spring that is riveted to
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the fork. These forks must be used with mushroom-head type pivots. The forged steel forks must use the ball-head type pivot. (This is different than the ball-on-pedestal AMC type.) These forged forks are retained on the pivot by a spring-wire retainer that fits in a groove machined in the ball pocket in the fork.

Release Arm Pivot

As its name implies, this is the support that the release arm pivots on. There are basically two types. One pivots on a ball -ended stud that screws into the bellhousing. The other type is an actual bearing ball that sits in a pedestal type socket that is part of the bellhousing. GM, Ford, and early AMC use the screw-in type. Late AMC favors the ball type. There is an adjustable length pivot (shown) with an adjustment range of 1-3/8 to 1-1/2 inches available for GM engines that can sometimes be used to compensate for variations in flywheel, clutch disc, and release bearing thickness. More about this in the troubleshooting section. Both ball and mushroom-head GM pivots are available in 1-3/8 and 11/2" length (overall length when not [this is important] installed in the bellhousing). It is very important to use the correct style of pivot in relation to the type of arm being used.

Transmission Front Bearing Retainer

This great device has three critical functions. This first is as its name implies. The second is to provide a register on which the bellhousing must center. This is feature is sometimes overlooked with expensive consequences. Thirdly, its
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tubular snout is the surface on which the throwout bearing rides on its way in to depress the springs of the pressure plate. Conversions often require special and modified retainers to acheive compatibility.

Bellhousing This provides a mounting place for the transmission, as well as a means of aligning the transmission to the engine. In some applications it also has a structural mounting function.

The alignment function is extremely important. Unfortunately, this is the most often overlooked and least understood part about the bellhousing. Most people who have worked on these parts realize there are aligning pins in the engine block that register with holes in the bellhousing. What they do not realize is, there can be a variation in the location of these holes and this variation can affect clutch and transmission life. How to check bellhousing alignment will be covered in its own section further on in this article.

Clutch Linkage This consists of everything between your foot and the clutch release arm. The linkags is the method of transferring the force of your left foot into the bellhousing and pressure plate release. The linkage can be mechanical, cable type or hydraulic. Note here that problems tend to BHARATH UNIVERSITY, CHENNAI
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show up because there are usually several choices of release arms and bearings for any particular family of engines. Choosing the wrong parts can get the linkage out of relationship and cause problems that can only be solved by removing the parts and starting over with other parts. The linkage cannot be made to compensate incorrect choice of release bearing or fork.
Cable Style Linkage Cable linkages may seem appealing because it is easy to understand and simple to hook up. However, once past this, the installer may discover that it has high friction, stretches, sticks, rusts, freezes, frays and breaks. A cable type clutch should probably be the last choice of the three types of linkages.

Cable linkages work fine in smaller applicati ons such as motorbikes and light cars, but they have an unsustainable record in light and heavy truck applications. Some CJ & Commando Jeeps from 1972-1974 used a cable release, with subpar results as evidenced by the duration of their implementation.
Mechanical Style Linkage Next is the mechanical linkage which is, with a few exceptions, the type

found on the majority of Jeeps® built prior to 1987. There are several basic styles of Jeep mechanical linkage but all are used in nearly their original configuration when doing an engine conversion. They usually consists of a pushrod at the pedal, a bellcrank and an additional pushrod actuating the fork. Earlier systems use pullrods, bellcranks and cables in lieu of pushrods, effectively reversing the way the systems works. The mechanical linkage is largely a successful method of clutch release. One drawback obvious to many off-roaders is the tendency of some of these to bind during frame and powertrain flex and differentiation.

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Hydraulic Style Linkage Hydraulic clutch linkage systems have moved into dominance in the past two decades, and generally with good reason.

The most common rendition of this linkage consists of the pedal pushrod against a master piston / cylinder, a high -pressure tube or line and a slave piston / cylinder whose pushrod pushes the clutch release arm.

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A less common style of hydraulic release is the internal hydraulic release bearing. This design combines the piston and bearing into one unit, eliminating the pivot, fork (or release arm) and separate throughout bearing.
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION FOR DIFFERENT PARTS OF CLUTCH COVER & DISC

1. CLUTCH COVER: A] Blanking + window piercing B] Window coining C] Drawing D] Trimming E] Restricting F] Drilling 2. PRESSURE PLATE: A] First side machining. B] Second side machining. 3. Diaphragm spring: A] Pierce small ID & blank B] Pierce slots & slits by indexing C] Coin slots & OD D] Pierce ID 4. Strap: A] Pierce holes, notch & cut off B]Forming 5. Clutch plate: A] Pierce ID & blank B] Pierce window holes, stop pin holes, cushion plate holes BHARATH UNIVERSITY, CHENNAI
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6.Retaining plate: A] Form & pierce small ID B] Blank OD C] Pierce ID, window holes, & stop pin holes D] Pierce window 7. CUSHIONING PLATE: A] Pierce holes & blank B] Crimping 8. Cone spring: A] Pierce ID & blank B] Forming 9. Splined hub: A] Drilling B] Pressure plate side machining C] Flywheel D] Notch slots E] Pierce window F] Flattening

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