SITUATING CY8ERSPACE

DALE BRADLEY
'Cyberspace' has become a rather familiar term in a relatively short
period of time, a term referring to a technologically generated envi-
ronment within which various communicative activities occur. The
technologies involved in the production of cyberspace work toward
the creation of a seemingly self-contained and separate world.
This 'separateness' is often taken as fact, foreclosing any discussion
of cyberspace as an instrumental space produced by the wider social
space of late capitalism. It is a space which functions; it automates
and operationalizes the specific networks of information, space, and
power that are involved in the production and reproduction of polit-
ical, economic, and social relations.
Cyberspace, as it currently exists, is not just a space, but a discourse about a space - a
name given to a certain desire for a social space whose contours are emerging from within
late capitalism. This discourse is defined by the proposal that a new and electronically con-
stituted space must be created in order to manage the increasingly large field of informa-
tion that has come into being through the activities of globalized late capital and the social
welfare state. The strategic goal of the proposal is this: rather than controlling the infor-
mational topographies that exist in any given geographical place, these places are inter-
linked and combined into a networked electronic topography. The ability to actually create
and define an apparently independent, electronic geography allows control to be 'built in'
to the space in advance via the use of standardized data formats and protocols for use.
Cyberspace must be addressed, therefore, in terms of how it participates in established
power relations and in terms of the degree to which these relations are altered, amplified,
or transformed by their extension into a new space of social activity.
Space is fundamental in any form ofcommunal life,
space is fundamental in any exercise ofpower. 1
- Michel Foucault
ab.arnet
ab. general
ab.jobs
ab.politics
alt.0d
alt .ld
alt.2600
alt.3d
olt. abortion. inequi. ty
al t. abuse. recovery
olt.activi.sm
olt.octivism.d
01 t .activism. death-penal ty
olt.adoption
01 t. al ten. vi.sitors
al t. amazon-women. admi.rers
alt.amiga,slip
olt.anagrams
alt.angst
al t .animals. foxes
ott. animals. humans
al t. ani.mals .lampreys
ott. ani.mation. warner-bros
al t. appalachian
olt. aquaria
olt. aquaria. kill ies
al t. archery
al t. archi. tecture
alt.archi. tecture .alternative
al t. architecture. tnt-desi.gn
alt.artcom
alt.arts.nomad
olt.ascii-art
al t .asci i-art .animation
III
U
e(
..
.,
a:
III
la
>-
U
"
Z
I-
e(
~
I-
III
>-
III
..I
11
e(
a:
ID
10
In the Beginning...
"(Social) space is a (social) product" and cyber-
space, like any other social space, is fundamen-
tally a space which has been produced.
2
Most
accounts of cyberspace's origins tend to avoid or
ignore its social, political, or economic produc-
tion and focus instead upon one of two interre-
lated figurations. The first portrays cyberspace
as a new frontier, an empty and/or formless
space 'discovered' in the interstices of informa-
tion and communications technologies: a new
frontier which awaits socialization. The second
raises cyberspace to the status of a mission to be
carried out according to the 'inevitability' of
human, social and technological development.
Both accounts posit the existence of an empty
space out of which cyberspace emerges and
which is only subsequently made into a social
space by those who encounter it. In the former, a
'backward-looking' discourse 'discovers' a space
already in existence, yet without social content.
In the latter, a 'forward-looking' discourse
insists upon the necessity of creating such a
space. Both scenarios are discursive strategies
which efface the production of cyberspace as a
site wherein specific power relations obtain.
The 'backward-looking' strategy goes
like this:
Cyberspace is a frontier where territorial rights
are being established and electronic environ-
ments are being differentiated in much the same
way the Western frontier was pushed back by
voyageurs, pioneers, miners, and cattlemen. And
the entrepreneurs are arriving with their institu-
tions and information technology, in much the
same way as the pony express and railroads pio-
neered communications networks during the
19th century.3
The reader, lost in the nostalgic discourse of the
'West-before-colonization' and the 'freedom' it
implies, proceeds unaware that the actual tem-
poral sequence of events which produce cyber-
space are reversed: colonizers and participants
arrive first, and the space (in the form of infor-
mation technology) evolves afterward. The
inversion of linear time (sequence) here produces
a paradox: the space, as frontier, must precede
its colonization, but its colonization is what
brings the space, or frontier, into existence. This
paradox results from an effort to make the occa-
sion of cyberspace's appearance the result of a
linear progression from an empty, frontier-like
space to that of a fully socialized space.
For Lefebvre, the linear development of
space from 'nothing' to 'something' is impossi-
ble because space is not only produced, a prod-
uct of manifold social relations, it is also a
producer of these relations.
4
As a figure, 'empty
space' is a discursive strategy that deflects atten-
tion away from the actual conditions which have
produced the space in question:
Apurely natural or original state of affairs is
nowhere to be found.... The notion of a space
which is at first empty, but is later filled by social
life and modified by it, also depends on this hypo-
thetical initial 'purity,' identified as 'nature' and as
a sort of ground zero of human reality. Empty
space, in the sense of a mental and social void
which facilitates the socialization of a not-yet-
social realm, is actually a representation ofspace.
s
al t. asian-movies
alt.astrology
alt.atari.2600
al t. atheism
al t .atheism.moderated
al t. autos . antique
01t. autos. camaro. fi rebi rd
01t. autos. rod-n-custom
01t. bacchus
alt.backrubs
alt. banjo
01 t. barney. dinosaur. die. die. die
alt. bbs
alt.bbs.ads
01t. bbs. allsysop
01t. bbs. first-class
01t. bbs. gigo-gateway
01t. bbs. internet
01 t. bbs .lists
01t. bbs. majorbbs
alt.bbs.metal
01t. bbs. pcboard
01t .bbs. pcbuucp
01t. bbs. qmodempro
alt .bbs. renegade
alt .bbs. unixbbs
alt.bbs.uupcb
alt.bbs.waffle
01 t. bbs .watergate
alt.bbs.wildcat
alt. beer
alt. best .of. internet
alt.bigfoot
01 t. binaries. cl ip-art
01t. binaries .doom
01t. bi naries. misc
01t .binaries .mul timedia
01t. binaries. pictures
01 t. binaries. pi ctures. anime
01 t. binaries. pictures. asci i
al t. binari es. pi ctures. cartoons
01 t. binaries. pi ctures. celebri ties
al t. binaries .pictures.d
01 t. binaries. pictures .erotica
al t. binaries. pictures .erotica. bestial i ty
01t. binaries. pictures. erotica. blondes
01 t. binaries. pictures. erotica. bondage
al t. binari es. pictures. erotica. cartoons
al t. binaries. pictures. erotica. d
01 t. binaries. pictures. erotica. female
al t. binaries. pictures. erotica. fetish
al t. bl.nanes. pl.Ctures. erohca. furry
01t. binaries .pictures. erotica.male
01t. binaries. pi ctures. erotica. orientols
01t. binaries. pictures. erotica. redheads
01t. binaries. pictures. fine-art. d
01t. binaries. pictures. fine-ort.digi tized
01t. binaries. pictures. fine-art. graphics
01t. binaries. pictures. fractals
01t. binaries. pictures. furry
01 t. binaries. pictures. misc
01 t. binaries. pictures. nudism
01 t. binaries. pictures. supermodels
01 t. binaries .pictures. tasteless
01 t. binaries. pictures. uti 1i ties
01 t. binaries. sounds.d
01 t. binaries. sounds. eroti ca
01 t. binaries. sounds. midi
The representation of an empty space however is
more than a mere philosophical error; it forms
the basis of an ideology that denies the forces
and relations of production that give rise to
spaces which, in turn, reproduce those same
forces and relations of production within any
given social space. Discourses of this type reify
cyberspace. The invocation of empty space is a
discursive strategy which effaces the traces of
production from the figure of cyberspace. It pre-
sumes to speak of history, but instead of an
actual history concerning the development of
cyberspace out of specific social/productive rela-
tions, it substitutes a mythical history and an
impossible origin in emptiness.
6
History is
absent: it is the present incarnation of cyber-
space and its aesthetization as a space of freedom
that is being discussed under the borrowed signs
of the 'West.'
The 'forward-looking' strategy also employs
the figuration of an empty space as cyberspace's
origin, only from a different direction. With
this strategy, however, the issue is not the 'dis-
covery' of a space, but the tasks involved in the
production of a new space for human and
machine relations. While this entails at least a
tacit acknowledgment of the produced quality
of cyberspace, production here is seen to be the
creation of an empty space ready for socializa-
tion. The paradox evident in the previous
account of cyberspace appears once again, and
for the same reason: without an account of the
political and economic conditions our of which
cyberspace is produced, one is forced to posit an
origin in empty space. This time, empty space is
something to be created, rather than a frontier
newly discovered. For Michael Benedikt, cyber-
space has already appeared as a 'proto-space'
within the world(s) of information technology
n.T."), but it is in need of a willed development
if it is to reach a point where it can:
provide a three-dimensional field of action and
interaction: with recorded and live data, with
machines, sensors, and with other people.
Beyond consequences in cyberspace, these inter-
actions will also have consequences that reach
directly back into the physical world, from the
efficient running of corporations, governments,
and small business, to the enrichment of our
individual lives with entertainment and commu-
nication ... in short, to our real health, wealth,
and happiness.
7
Cyberspace is thus a space which can be pro-
duced in order to deal with what Benedikt ear-
lier calls the "informational complexity" of our
time. This complex field of information is pro-
duced by our daily activities in all social realms
and its proliferation requires some sort of con-
trol if we, as individuals and groups, are to
make sense of our world. The peculiar line that
ends this statement is this: "After all, 'cyber' is
from the Greek word kybernan, meaning to steer
or control."8 Cyberspace is thus intended to be a
'control-space' in a very literal sense. The osten-
sible object to be controlled in and by cyber-
space is informational complexity. But this
complexity is itself a product of the densely
interconnected informational networks of late
capitalism and the social welfare state that LT.
facilitates. To control this field of information is
11
a Lt .61nanes. sounds .muc
01 t .binaries. sounds .mods
01t. binaries. sounds .movies
01 t. binaries. sounds. musi c
01t. binaries. sounds. tv
01t. binaries. sounds. util i ties
01t. bi tterness
01t. books. anne-ri. ce
01 t. books. deryni
01t. books. isaac-asimov
01t. books. stephen-king
01t. books. technical
01t. books. tofHer
al t. boomerang
oH. brother-jed
01 t. buddha. short. fat. guy
01 t. business. import-export
a Lt. bus1ness. m1 sc
al t. business. mul ti-level
alt.cad
alt.cad.autocad
al t. calc-reform
01 t. col i fornia
01 t. callahans
01 t. cancel. bats
01t. ccds
01t. cd-rom
01t. celebri ties
01 t. censorship
01t. cereal
alt.cesium
01t. child-support
01t. chinese. computing
01t. chinese. text
a[ t. ch1nese. text. 61g5
01 t. clearing. technology
01 t. co-ops
01 t. cobol
01t. coffee
01 t. college. food
01 t. college. fraterni ties
01t. college. sorori ties
01t . college. tunnels
01t. college. us
01t. colorguard
01 t. comedy .bri. tish
01t. comedy. bri tish. blackadder
01t. comedy. standup
01t. comedy. vaudeville
01 t. comics. 01 ternative
01 t. comics. batman
at t. com1CS .buffalo-roam
01 t. comics .el fquest
oH. comics. superman
01 t. comp .acad-freedom. news
01 t. comp. acad-freedom. talk
alt. comp. databases. xbase. cl ipper
alt.comp.fsp
01 t. camp. hardware .homebuil t
01t. comp. periphs. mainboard. asus
01t. camp. shareware
alt. computer. consul tants
alt. computer .workshop.l ive
ott. config
al t. consciousness
01t. conspiracy
01t. conspi racy. abe-l incoln
01t. conspiracy. jfk
III
U
ce
..
1Il
..
III
ID
>-
U
"
Z
l-
ce
~
I-
III
>-
III
...
11
ce
..
III
12
thus also to control, to some degree, the people
and places involved in the production, distribu-
tion and consumption of information.
Business as usual
In a discussion of the networks which link
global markets with local markets, Lefebvre
notes that "no space disappears in the course of
growth and development: the worldwide does not
abolish the local"; "social spaces interpenetrate one
another and/or superimpose themselves upon one
another"; and, that there is reason "to suspect the
existence of a space peculiar to information sci-
ence."9 Cyberspace is not a hermetic space that
exists separately from existing social spaces; it
links local spaces together into a globalized
space of informational control. Far from abolish-
ing local spaces, it is constituted out of the
actual interpenetrability of those spaces made
possible by their transformation into informa-
tional entities (at least as far as the market and
demographic needs of late capital and the state
go). Cyberspace thus has a physical instantiation
in the form of the actual I.T. networks which
link these disparate sites, and a social instantia-
tion as a space where the superimposition of
control occurs. It is thus continuous with the
wider social space(s) out of which it is being dif-
ferentiated and produced. It is the social space
of late capitalism which therefore constitutes the
surface of emergence for cyberspace.
lO
Discourses which reifY cyberspace either
ignore or deny this continuity and posit instead a
radical discontinuity (via the figure of empty
space) with current economic, political, social
and cultural spaces. It is thus imperative to trace
the lines of continuity which link the discursive
form of cyberspace with the social space(s) of late
capital and the social welfare state.
The movement from fordism to flexible
accumulation, or from an industrial to a post-
industrial mode of production, is the occasion
for the bringing into being of cyberspace, of its
production as a social space.
ll
Ernest Mandel
believes that a "third technological revolution"
in capitalism is currently underway. It com-
prises several factors, not the least of which is
the appearance of automation and information
technologies as key tools in the accumulation of
capital, as well as the globalization of capital in
a manner different than that of imperial or
monopoly capital.
12
A new stage of capitalism
appears, one whose mode of accumulation is
global and, hence, one wherein: "the multina-
tional company becomes the determinant orga-
nizational form of big capital."13 This shift has
several consequences which can be condensed
into a brief scenario: The scale of capital
involved in these enterprises means that new
players need huge amounts of capital if they are
to compete in established markets, or to open
up or enter into new markets. 14 This entails a far
greater risk to companies than was previously
the case under monopoly capital; and so, in
order to ameliorate these risks, big capital looks
to national governments for assistance in secur-
ing guarantees of profit by various institutional
and/or legislative means. Big capital and big
government thus find themselves in a situation
of mutual dependence.
alt. consumers. free-stuff
01 t. corel. graphics
alt.cosuard
al t. crackers
al t. creative-cooking
01 t. cuddle
al t. cul t-movies
al t. cul t-movies. rocky-horror
01t. cul ture. hawai i
alt.culture. indonesia
01 t. cul ture. internet
01 t. cul ture. kerala
01 t. cul ture. ny-upstate
01 t. cul ture .oregon
al t. cul ture . somal ia
01 t. cul ture . tami 1
01t. cul ture . underwear
al t. cul ture. us. asian-indian
01 t. current-events. cl inton .whi tewater
01t. current-events. hai ti.
01t. current-events .la-quake
01t. current-events. ukraine
alt. cyb-sys
01t. cyberpunk
01t. cyberpunk. chatsubo
01 t. cyberpunk .movement
01 t. cyberpunk. tech
01 t. cyberspace
al t. dcom. telecom
01 t. decothena
01t. desert-shield
01t. desert-storm
01t. destroy. the. earth
01t . destroy. the. internet
01 t. dev. null
01 t. devilbunnies
alt.discordia
al t. discrimi.nation
01t. dreams
alt. dreams .lucid
alt.drugs
01t .drugs. caffeine
alt.drugs.pot
01 t .drugs. usenet
alt. drumcorps
alt. edgar
01 t. education. disabled
alt. education. distance
01 t. education. emai.l-project
01 t. education. ib
01 t. education. ib. econ
01t. education. research
01 t. education .universi ty. vision2020
alt.elvis.king
01 t. emulators. ibmpc. apple2
01 t. emusic
01 t. engr. dynamics
01 t. engr. explosi ves
01 t. evil
al t. exotic-music
al t. fairs. renaissance
01t. falconry
01t. fan. addams
01t. fan. addams . family
01t. fan. albedo
01t. fan. amy-fisher
alt. fan. ben-el ton
alt.fan.bgcrisis
Perhaps the most significant feature of Man-
del's scenario is the absolutely central role of
planning in relation to the operations of late
capital and the state. LT. is a fundamental infra-
structural requirement not only for big capital (in
the form of multi-nationals) but also for
national governments (who are finding it
increasingly difficult to deliver on the modern
welfare state). LT. is a growth sector precisely to
the degree that it provides the tools and services
necessary to gain control over a highly intensi-
fied field of economic planning
Similarly, Harvey demonstrates that flexible
accumulation (a hallmark of late capitalism)
entails the expansion of the factory from a singu-
'lar space of production to a globalized system of
manufacture and assembly: "capitalism is
becoming ever more tightly organized through
dispersal, geographical mobility, and flexible
responses to labour markets, labour processes,
and consumer markets, all accompanied by
hefty doses of institutional, product, and tech-
nological innovation" and it is precisely here
that informational complexity comes from. 15
The day to day planning and operations of
multi-nationals and the state in the age of late
capitalism make it clear why 'control' is
attached to 'space' in the term "cyberspace": it is
a social space generated out of, and intended to
control, the informational networks of late capi-
tal. These networks facilitate the operations of
big capital and government, but "are not in
themselves the source of the organizational logic
that is transforming the social meaning of space:
they are, however, the fundamental instrument
that allows this logic to embody itself in histori-
cal actuality."16 Cyberspace is the embodiment
or concretization of a logic of control already
existent in the power relations that define late
capitalism and the modern welfare state. The
discourses which reify cyberspace do so in order
to efface its production and, therefore, its conti-
nuity with the relations of production which
define late capitalism, and the disciplinary mode
of power upon which the modern state is
founded.
Controlling Space(s): Surveillance
and Discipline
If cyberspace is continuous with the networks
and institutions that comprise late capitalism,
it is not unteasonable to suspect that power
relations in cyberspace will be similarly contin-
uous. That cyberspace can be discursively fig-
ured as a space ofcontrol suggests that Foucault's
concept of disciplinary power might be a good
place to begin an analysis of the power relations
implied in these discourses.
One of the primary means for producing
disciplinary power is surveillance, which Fou-
cault discusses in relation to Bentham's
"Panopticon."17 The mode of surveillance
embodied in the Panopticon is important
because "it automates and disindividualizes
power. Power has its principle not so much in a
person as in a concerted distribution of bodies,
surfaces, lights, gazes; in an arrangement whose
internal mechanisms produce the relation in
which individuals are caught up.n
l8
Cyberspace
similarly operates on a principle of'distribu-
13
01t. fan. bill-gates
01 t. fan. blues-brothers
01 t. fan. bri ti sh-accent
01 t. fan. bruce-becker
01 t. fan. cfny
01 t. fan. col in-chaprnan
01t. fan .dan-quayle
01 t. fan. dave-wi 11iarns
01t. fan. dave_barry
01t. fan. david-bowie
01t. fan. debbie .gibson
01t. fan. depeche-rnode
01t. fan. dinosaurs
01t. fan. douglas-adorns
alt.fan.dragons
alt.fan.dune
alt.fan.edding
alt.fan.eddings
01t. fan. frank-zappa
alt.fan.freenet
01 t. fan. furry
alt.fan.goons
01 t. fan. hofstadter
alt.fan.holrnes
01 t. fan. howard-stern
01 t. fan. i tchy-n-scratchy
01 t. fan. i vor-cut ler
alt. fan .jarnes-bond
01t. fan. jean-charest
01 t. fan. jello-biafra
01 t. fan. ji.nvny-buffett
01 t. fan. joegorde
01 t. fan. joel-furr
01 t. fan. john-palmer
01t. fan. john-winston
oH. fan. john.line
01 t. fan. karla-homolka
01t. fan. letterman
01 t. fan.l i la-feng
olt. fan. madonna
01 t. fan.michael-bol ton
olt. fan.rnike-ji tHov
01 t. fan.monty-python
alt.fan.mts
01 t. fan. noam-chomsky
01 t. fan.oj-simpson
01 t. fan. penn-n-teller
alt.fan.pern
01 t. fan. piers-anthony
01 t. fan. possum-kicking
01 t. fan. pratchett
alt. fan. ren-and stimpy
01 t. fan. ricking-ball
01 t. fan. riscos
01 t. fan. robert-jordan
01 t. fan. robert .mcelwaine
01 t. fan. ronald-reagan
01 t. fan. rush-l irnbaugh
01t. fan. russell.lawrence
01 t. fan. serdar-argic
01t. fan. shedevi 1
01 t. fan. shostakovich
01t. fan. shub-internet
01 t. fan. snuffles
01t. fan. surak
01 t. fan. tarka
alt.fan.tolkien
01t. fan. tom_peterson
III
U
C
..
OIl
..
III
III
>-
U
"
Z
;:
C
;)
..
III
>-
III
...
11
C
..
Gl
14
tion' which forges space and visibility into a
machine which produces subjects. The linkage
of space, visibility and power in cyberspace is,
however, somewhat different than it is in the
Panopticon insofar as Bentham's structure has a
single, central point from which all surveillance
is carried out whereas cyberspace is 'poly-
panoptic'. Surveillance in cyberspace is detached
from a fixed and/or central position and is dis-
persed over the entire network and automatized
in the standards and protocols that define
cyberspace's practical functioning. Everything
in cyberspace is only ever data and, as such,
standardized formats and protocols are
employed which ensure that all data-objects
and subjects find their place within a recogniz-
able and reproducible structure. In order to
make cyberspace a stable and secure space, con-
trolling mechanisms are required which record
and monitor the activity within it.
19
Surveil-
lance in cyberspace is thus an architectural and
geographic principle which renders the 'space'
of late capital's informational networks visible
in order to control it. It makes the space intelli-
gible to its (virtual) inhabitants while, at the
same time, making those inhabitants visible to
whatever mechanisms are necessary for control-
ling and policing the space.
This is most evident in the characterization
of cyberspace as a 'city.' Benedikt evokes the
image of a city when he suggests that cyber-
space should have ''ports, which, like their real-
world counterparts such as ship ports, airports,
train stations, and bus terminals, function as
landmarks themselves, while giving all travelers
a concentrated geographic, cultural, and eco-
nomic orientation to the sector of cyberspace
entered."20 Foucault notes that there is an inti-
mate connection between the figure of urban
space and the exercise of power:
There is an entire series of utopias or projects for
governing territory that developed on the
premise that the state is like a large city; the cap-
ital is its main square; the roads are like its
streets. A state will be well organized when a
system of policing as tight and efficient as that of
the cities extends over the entire territory. At the
outset, the notion of police applied only to the
set of regulations that were to assure the tran-
quility of a city, but at that moment the police
become the very type of rationality for the govern-
ment of the whole territory. The model of the
city became the matrix for the regulations that
apply to the whole state.
21
The frequent use of the city as a model for
cyberspace suggests that discipline - as a set of
power relations between subjects, space and vis-
ibility - is transferred, as a "matrix of regula-
tions;' from the state to cyberspace. But the
policing model of the city does not simply come
full circle in cyberspace, it is intensified. Cyber-
space coincides with the networks of late capital
exchange and is, therefore, necessarily a space
defined by flows, a space comprised not of geog-
raphy per se, bur of transit.
In this situation, the transit and flow of
information comes to dominate the places where
it is gathered, worked upon and disseminated.
Castells states that: "[t}he emergence of the
space of flows actually expresses the disarticula-
alt. fan. u2
alt.fan.vejcik
01 t. fan. warlord
al t. fan. wodehouse
alt.fandom.cons
01 t. fandom.misc
alt.fax
01t. feminazis
al t. feminism
01t. feminism. individual ism
01t. fidonet. fi lk
alt.fishing
alt.flame
01 t. flame. faggots
01 t. flame .landlord
alt.flame.mud
01 t. flame. parents
a1t . fl ame . roommate
01 t. fl intstones
01 t. folklore. college
01t. folklore. computers
01t. folklore.gemstones
01t. folklore. ghost-stories
01t. folklore. herbs
01t. folklore. info
oH. folklore .mi 1i tary
alt. folklore. science
alt. folklore. suburban
01 t. folklore. urban
alt. food. chocolate
01 t. food. cocacola
alt.food.coffee
01 t. food. fat-free
01t. food. ice-cream
01t. food .mcdonalds
01t. food. pancakes
01t. food. professionals
01t. food. sushi
alt. food. waffle-house
01t. food. wine
01 t. forgery
01 t. fractal-design. painter
alt.fractals
01 t. fractals. pictures
al t. fraterni ty. sorori ty
alt.freaks
al t. freenet
01t. galactic-guide
01t. gambl ing
01t. games. ai r-warrior
01t. games. 01t-config
alt.games.doom
01 t .games .doom. newplayers
01 t .games. frp .dnd-uti 1
alt.games.gb
01 t. games .lynx
alt.games.mk
01t. games. mtrek
al t. games. netrek. paradise
al t. games. pabu
al t. games. sf2
al t. games. torg
al t. games. vga-planets
al t. games. vga-planets. binaries
01t. games. video. classi c
01t. games. whi tewo1f
01t. games. xpi lot
aH. games. xtrek
tion of place-based societies and cultures from
the organizations of power and production that
continue to dominate society without submit-
ting to its control". And further: U[T}here is no
tangible oppression, no identifiable enemy, no
centre of power that can be held responsible for
specific social issues." In short, U[P}eople live in
places, power rules through flows:,n This, then,
is how surveillance and discipline provide the
basis for power relations in cyberspace: the
extension and transformation of the informa-
tional infrastructure of late capitalism and the
modern welfare state into a 'field of visibility'
creates a space wherein both information and
individuals are subject to control. There is no
identifiable centre from which power is effected
because the type of power operating here is dis-
ciplinary. It is a mode of power which is borne
by its subjects, rather than held over them as a
constant threat:
He who is subjected to a field of visibility, and
who knows it, assumes responsibility for the con-
straints of power; he makes them play sponta-
neously upon himself; he inscribes in himself the
power relation in which he simultaneously plays
both roles; he becomes the principle of his own
subjection. By this very fact, the external power
may throw off its physical weight; it tends to the
non-corporal; and, the more it approaches this
limit, the more constant, profound and perma-
nent are its effects: it is a perpetual victory that
avoids any physical confrontation and which is
always decided in advance.
23
The non-corporeality of cyberspace is a
given: it is a space of informational flows, not a
physical structure. The production of cyber-
space, however, is not explicitly undertaken in
order to intensify disciplinary power, it is done
in order to facilitate the smooth functioning of
late capital. The explicit function of cyberspace
is thus the increase of opportunities to make
business and government more effective and less
vulnerable to crises. The implicit function is
twofold: cyberspace is intended to be a bulwark
against the inherent contradictions in capitalism
and to mark the occasion of the movement from
monopoly to multinational or late capitalism.
This entails the production of a space of control
which intensifies disciplinary power while
simultaneously making power appear less physi-
cal in its manifestation.
Cyberspace produces an electronic topogra-
phy of control out of an informational interlink-
age of disparate geographic sites. Localities and
individuals are disciplined by first transforming
them into information, and subsequently pro-
ducing a space where this information can be
visualized and controlled. Harvey identifies the
operation of power in late capital with an almost
inimical relationship between place and space:
uthose who command space can always control
the politics of place even though, and this is a
vital corollary, it takes control of some place to
command space in the first instance:'24 What
better place to command the space oflate capi-
tal flows than from within the very space pro-
duced by those flows? Cyberspace is the
production of that space, and acts as a place
from which to control the flow not only of infor-
mation, but of individuals. Its function is to
15
01t .gathering. rainbow
01 t. geek
01 t. genealogy
01t. good .morning
01t. good. news
01t. gopher
alt. gothic
01t. gourmand
01t. grad-student. tenured
01 t. graphics. pixuti Is
alt. great-lakes
alt.guitar
01 t. gui tar. bass
01 t. gui tar. tab
01 t. hackers
01 t. hackers .mal icious
01 t. hangover
01 t. heal th. cfids-action
alt. hemp
alt. hindu
01t. history .what-i f
01t. homosexual
01t. horror
01 t. horror. shub-internet
01 t. horror .werewolves
alt.hotrod
alt. human-brain
01t. humor. best-of-usenet
01 t. humor. best-of-usenet. d
01 t. humor. oracle
01 t. hurricane. andrew
01 t. hypertext
01 t. i lluminati
alto image.medical
01t. indi vidual ism
01 t. inferti 1i ty
01 t. internet .access .wanted
01 t. internet. services
01 t. internet. talk-radio
alt.irc
01 t. ire. announce
alt.irc.hottub
alt.irc.opers
alto ire. questions
01 t. ire. recovery
alt.is.too
al t. journal ism
al t. journal ism. cri ticism
01t. kalbo
al t. kids-talk
alt.lang.asm
alt.lang.basic
01t.lang. cfutures
01t .lang. focal
01t .lang. intercal
alt.longuage.basic
olt.low-enforcement
olt .lefthanders
olt.lies
01 t.l t fe .afterl i fe
alt .locksmi thing
alt .lucid-ernacs. help
olt .lycra
olt .mag.playboy
alt .magic
alt .magick
01 t .magick. chaos
alt .make .money. fast
III
U
0(
..
Ul
..
III
ID
>-
U
"
Z
j:
cl
::I
..
Ul
>-
III
...
a
cl
..
Gl
16
make information visible and available for con-
trol, but this very function makes the structure
of cyberspace itself invisible in the sense that
cyberspace is not the textual or graphical infor-
mation it (re)presents, but the social space produced
by the distribution of that information throughout
the electronic/geographic infrastructure of late capital.
It is precisely for this reason that cyberspace
needs to be addressed in terms of the power
relations generated in its production in and as
a social space.
Mapping Cyberspace
The obvious difficulty encountered in a project
that attempts to analyze power in cyberspace is
that this space is presently located somewhere
between the proliferating, often contradictory,
discourses that seek to create it, and the already
existing social and technological networks of
late capitalism from within which it emerges.
Rather than summarize what has already been
discussed, it might be useful to address the five
points that Foucault states must be established
concretely if the power relations in any system
of social networks are to be analyzed.
25
Cyber-
space's incompleteness as an instirution pro-
hibits the drawing of a detailed map of its
power relations, but a brief sketch of some
major landmarks is possible at this point.
1. The system of differentiations
The primary differentiation operative in cyber-
space is between users and servers. Those who
subscribe to the networks of cyberspace are des-
ignated "users;' those that own the network and
provide the linkages are "servers." This differen-
tiation is both a condition and a result of cyber-
space's production insofar as it forms the
structural character of the network. There is
thus a bifurcated system of power: on the user
level everything is more or less equal, while at
the server level there are only a few centralized
sources of services.
26
This situation relates to a
key aspect of late capitalism identified by both
Mandel and Harvey: the increase, on one hand,
of the dispersal of production and, on the other
hand, the centralization and concentration of
capital (and power).
Another differentiation is to be found in the
discourses which portray cyberspace as a space
apart from that of late capital. This activity of
reification acts as the impetus to produce the
space, and does so by effacing its connections
with the wider social space of late capital and
the disciplinary power that resides in it.
2. The types of objectives pursued
The explicitly stated objective is that of increas-
ing productivity by integrating information
technologies and, in so doing, eliminating
processes that use up time, space and, therefore,
money. Decision-making becomes simultane-
ously dispersed and concentrated. Decisions
concerning the actual processes of production
tend to be 'passed down' to individuals closest
to those processes. At the same time, LT. pro-
vides management with the opportunity to
scrutinize the daily operations of production and
this mode of surveillance permits more control
over both material and personnel. This situation
ULL.lIIU,IU!::lLII!::l. \,.
olt.manga
alt.moth.tams
alt.mcdonolds
01 t .med.allergy
alt.med.cfs
01 t.med. fibromyalgia
01 t. med .outpat. clinic
01t. medi tatton. transcendental
alt.memettcs
alt.messtanic
alt.mindcontrol
al t. missing-kids
alt.models
alt.motherjones
01 t. mothersupertor
01 t .movies. monster
.. \,..", ......"'........ ' ... ....""..... '
alt.mud
alt.mud.lp
ott .mustc. a-cappella
aH.music. alternattve
ott .music. 01 ternattve. female
olt .music.amy-grant
al t. music. bi lly-joel
al t. mustc. blues-traveler
al t .music. canada
al t .mustc. chapel-ht 11
01 t.mustc. complex-arrang
01t. musi c. deep-purple
alt.music.elo
alt.music.enya
alt.music.filk
al t .music. hardcore
t:
01 t .music .mart 11ion
olt.music.misc
01 t.music .monkees
alt.music.nin
01 t.music .nirvana
01 t.music. pat-mccurdy
01t.music. paul-simon
01t.music. pearl-jam
01t. music. peter-gabriel
01t .music. ptnk-floyd
01t. musi c. prince
01t. music. progressi ve
01t. music. queen
01t .music. roger-waters
alt.mustc.ruch
al t. music. ska
01 t. music. smash-pumpkins
al t .music. sonic-youth
01 t.music. swedish-pop
01 t.music. synthpop
01t.music. techno
01t .music. the-doors
aH.music.tmbg
01t .music. todd-rundgren
alt.music.u2
01 t .my. head. hurts
alt.mythology
01 t. natt ve
al t. net. scandal
01 t. news-media
al t. nuke. europe
extends to the state in that the increase in con-
trol offered by cyberspace over individuals' sta-
tistical being enables greater control over the
disbursement of funds in accordance with the'
principles of the welfare state.
3. The means of bringing power relations
into being
Power relations are brought into being on the
basis of membership. Without submitting to
the rules' of membership in cyberspace, individ-
uals cannot claim the right to citizenship or
employment. Driver's licenses, social insurance
cards, student cards, credit cards, OHIP cards,
Blue Cross cards, employee numbers: all of
these are signs of membership in society and all
of them are component parts of the informa-
tional world of cyberspace.
Power is thus exercised via the threat of non-
membership and the concomitant disqualifica-
tion of the individual from social privilege.
This is enacted through various forms of surveil-
lance ranging from direct observation to auto-
matic registration via access protocols and card
usage. Archives are thus an essential feature of
cyberspace. The primary rule for the exercise of
power in this situation is that raw unprocessed
information moves 'upwards' and into the
archives in the form of data, and moves 'down-
ward' to individual users as processed represen-
tation.
4. Forms of institutionalization
The institutional form of cyberspace is most
similar to that of the state itself. This is evident
in the transference of the model of the city to
the state, and then on to cyberspace. The ideal
of democracy is frequently claimed to be a
defining characteristic of cyberspace. V.S. Vice-
President Al Gore has used this strategy:
The unique way in which the V.S. deals with
information has been the real key to our success.
Capitalism and representative democracy rely on
the freedom of the individual, so these systems
operate in a manner similar to the principle
behind massively parallel computers. These com-
puters process data not in one central unit but
rather in tiny, less powerful units distributed
throughout the computer. {oo.] Communism, by
contrast, attempted to bring all the information
to a large and powerful central processor, which
collapsed when it was overwhelmed by ever more
complex information.
27
Cyberspace is democracy and vice-versa. It is
a solution which bolsters capitalism against the
onslaught of its own informational complexity
(or, contradictions). Power comes into being as
discipline: a distribution of power through every
node in the network. Capitalism, democracy,
and communism are reduced to strategies for
controlling information, the implication being
that these social spaces, and the individuals con-
tained therein, are nothing more than informa-
tion in need of control.
While cyberspace may take its initial cues
from the state with regard to its institutional
character, it may well develop into a form very
different from that of the state. Whether or not
this will result in different configurations of
power remains to be seen.
17
ULl:.ODll:Uar\es
al t.office .management
al t .onl ine-service
al t .onl ine-servlce.americo-onl toe
01t .onl ine-service. compuserve
al t .onl ioe-service .delphi
01t .onl toe-service. freenet
01t. anI ine-service .genie
01t .onl ine-service. prodigy
alt.oobe
al t. org. toastmasters
olt.os.1inux
alt.os.multics
alt.out-of-body
olt.overlords
olt.pagan
01t. parol le1. universes
01t. poronet .abduct
olt. poronet . psi.
01t. poronet .ufo
01t. paranormal
alto parents-teens
01t. pave. the. earth
01t. pcnews
alt.peeves
olt .periphs. pcmcia
olt.personals
01 t.personols. ads
01 t .personals. bi
01 t. personals. bondage
01 t .personals .misc
al t. personals. poly
01t. phi losophy. )arf
01t. phi losophy. objecti vism
alt.phi losophy .zen
alt.pixar. typestry
alt.planning. urban
01 t.pol i tics .bri tish
01 t .pol Hies. bush
01 t .pol i tics. cl inton
01 t .pol i tics. correct
al t .pol i tics .datahighway
al t .pol i tics. drinking-age
01 t .politics .ec
01t .poli tics.economics
01t .poli tics .elections
al t.pol i tics. europe .misc
al t. pol i tics. greens
_.w.,.._ "'''' :1
01 t. poli tics .libertarian
olt. pal i tics .marrou
01t. pal i tics.org. batf
olt. pal i tics .org. ccr
01t. pal i tics .org. cia
olt. pal i tics .org. covert
01 t. pal i tics .org. fbi
01 t. pal 1. tics .org.misc
01t. pal i tics .org. nsa
01t.poli tics .org. suopo
01t.pol i tics .perot
01t. pal i tics. radical-left
01t .poli tics. reform
01t.poli tics. sex
alt .poli tics. social ism. trotsky
01t. pal i tics. usa. consti tution
III
U
0(
..
'"
Il:
III
ID
>-
U
I:J
Z
>
0(
::>
>
III
>-
III
...
a
0(
Il:
III
18
5. The degrees of rationalization
Cyberspace is rationalized as a solution to the
increasingly difficult problem of managing
and maintaining the productivity of large pop-
ulations. It is further rationalized on the basis
of its cost effectiveness in carrying out these
tasks. It eliminates workers employed to watch
over and manage both one another and the
processes of production that they engage in.
This is possible because it functions via the
automated and constant activity of surveillance
that follows from the principle of membership
(the necessary informational transformation of
individuals).
James Beniger provides a vital insight into
the connection between information, technol-
ogy, and control in relation to the management
of social spaces:
Because the activities of information processing,
programming, decision, and communication are
inseparable components of the control function,
a society's ability to maintain control at allleve1s
- from interpersonal to international relations -
will be directly proportional to the development
of its information technologies.
28
Beniger's statement comes from an analysis of
the fundamental necessity of control, and tech-
nologies of control, that arose during the indus-
trial revolution. If we are currently going
through a third technological revolution in capi-
talism, then the need for control must be just as
acutely felt now as it was then. Discourses on
cyberspace demonstrate this need explicitly and
use it as the rationalization for producing a new
social space. The question facing us, then, is
whose need for control is being served?
Notes
I wish to acknowledge the financial
assistance provided by a Doctoral Fel-
lowship from the Social Science and
Humanities Research Council of
Canada.
1. Michel Foucault, "Space,
Knowledge, and Power;' The Foltcaltlt
Reader, ed. Paul Rabinow (New York:
Pantheon Books, 1984), 252.
2. Henri Lefebvre, The Prodltction
o/Space, trans. Donald Nicholson-
Smith (Oxford: Basil Blackwell,
1991),26.
3. Anne W. Branscomb, "Common
Law for the Electronic Frontier;' Scien-
tific American, Vol 265, no. 3 (Sept.
1991), 158.
4. Lefebvre, 80-85.
5. Ibid., 190.
6. In this case it is the "West" that
is invoked. Ahistory of fabulous tech-
nologies and dedicated researchers
and hackers is often used in a simi-
larly mythic fashion.
7. Michael Benedikt, "Cyberspace:
Some Proposals;' Cyberspace: First
Steps, ed. Michael Benedikt (Cam-
bridge: M.LT. Press, 1991), 129.
8. Ibid., 129.
9. Lefebvre,86.
10. Frederic ]ameson discusses the
concept of differentiation in terms of a
relationship which produces new
social configurations out of already
existing ones. He cites Luhmann as
the source for his discussion of the
concept of differentiation. Frederic
]ameson, Postmodernism, or, The Cltl-
wral Logic 0/Late Capitalism
(Durham: Duke University Press,
1991), 140-143.
11. Post-Industrialism itself is a
highly contested discourse. Obviously,
there is not enough space here to get
into the debate. Suffice it to say, how-
ever, that the discourse(s) on Post-
Industrialism are often utilized by
promoters of cyberspace as 'evidence'
that cyberspace is a pressing necessity.
12. Ernest Mandel, Late Capital-
ism, trans. ]oris De Bres (London:
Verso, 1978), 184-222.
13. Ibid., 316.
14. Ibid., passim. This condensed
description of late capitalism is very
01 t. pol i tics. usa .misc
01 t. pol i tics. usa. republ icon
alt.polyamory
01 t. postmodern
01 t. president. cl inton
alt.prisons
alt.privacy
01 t .prophecies. nostradamus
olt.prose
alt.prose.d
01t. psychoactives
01t. psychology. help
01t. psychology .personal i ty
01 t. pub. coffeehouse. amethyst
01t. pub. dragons-inn
alt.pud
oH. pulp
01t. punk. straight-edge
oH. quotations
01 t. radio. networks. cbc
alt. radio. networks. npr
01 t. radio. pirate
alt.rap
01t. rap-gdead
alt.rave
01t. recovery
01t. recovery. cathol icism
01t. recovery. phonics
01t. recovery. rel igion
oH. rel igion. christian
oH. rel igion. computers
alt. rel igion. gnostic
oH. rel igion. islam
01 t. re1igion. kibology
01 t. rel igion .monica
01 t. rel igion .mormon
01 t. rel igion. scientology
01 t. rel igi on. shamanism
01 t. retromod
alt.revenge
01t. revisionism
01t. rhode_island
oH. rissa
01t. rmgroup
alt.rock-n-roll
oH. rock-n-ro11. aerosmi th
oH. rock-n-roll.classic
01 t. rock-n-roll. hard
01 t. rock-n- roll. metal
01 t. rock-n- roll. metal. death
01 t. rock-n- roll. metal. gnr
01t. rock-n-roll.metal. heavy
01t. rock-n- roll. metal. metall ica
01t. rock-n-ro11. metal. progressi ve
oH. rock-n-ro11.0Idi es
oH. rock-n-ro11. stones
oH. rodney-king
alt. rodney. king
oH. romance
01 t. romance. chat
01 t. romance.unhappy
01 t. rush-l imbaugh
alt.rv
alt.satanism
01t. satell i te. tv. europe
01t. save. the. earth
01t. sb. programmer
01 t. sci. physics. new-theories
compacted and cannot do justice to
Mandel's excellent analysis.
15. David Harvey, The Condition of
Postmodernity (Oxford: Basil Black-
well, 1990), 159
16. Manuel Casrells, The Informa-
tional City (Oxford: Basil Blackwell,
1989),348.
17. Michel Foucault, Discipline and
Punish, trans. Alan Sheridan (New
York: Vintage, 1979), 200. Briefly
stated, the Panopticon is a structure
intended to be used as a prison,
although Bentham suggested it could
also be used as a school or factory. It
consists of a central tower and, sur-
rounding it, a ring-shaped dormitory
of individual cells. The tower is mir-
rored in order to reflect light into the
cells of the prisoners, and to conceal
the guards in the tower from the sight
of the prisoners. The inmates thus
know that they are subject to observa-
tion, but they have no way of knowing
if they are being observed at any given
moment: "Hence the major effect of
the Panopticon: to induce in the
inmate a state of conscious and perma-
nent visibility that assures the auto-
matic functioning of power" (201).
18. Ibid., 202.
19. This is abundantly evident in
the proliferating discussions over
issues of privacy, data security, data
encryption, and intellectual property
with regard to cyberspace.
20. Benedikt, 171.
21. Michel Foucault, "Space,
Knowledge, and Power;' 241.
22. Castells, 349.
23. Foucault, Discipline and Punish,
202-203.
24. Harvey, 234.
25. Michel Foucault, "The Subject
and Power;' Critical Inquiry 8 (Sum-
mer 1982), 792.
26. This is an essential point
because only those with sufficient
funds may participate. This democra-
tic world is predicated upon the own-
ership of expensive rechnologies and
entails a hierarchy of participation.
Roughly stated, this hierarchy con-
sists of a category of electronically
homeless individuals (those without
credit cards, computers, telephones,
TV's, etc.); a category of users (those
employed in, or hooked up to, serving
networks); and a category of servers
(owners of the technology within
which cyberspace is created). Current
discourses primarily focus on the
democratic interaction of users (gen-
erally from the professional classes)
while the power of the server is often
overlooked, as is the plight of the
"electronic homeless."
27. Al Gore, "Infrastructure for
the Global Village;' Scientific American,
Vol. 265, no. 3 (Sept. 1991), 150.
28. lames R. Beniger, The Control
Revolrttion (Cambridge: Harvard Uni-
versity Press, 1986), 287. While
Beniger's analysis chastises other crit-
ics for not taking into account the
important connections between con-
trol and knowledge, it has little to say
about power and knowledge, or even
power and control. Beniger's analysis
provides important insights into the
function of control technologies in
society, but it is blind to power and,
therefore, neutralizes these technolo-
gies with regard to power.
19

politics alt. architecture. aquaria olt. death-penal ty olt.activi.Michel Foucault ab. animals. but is later filled by social life and modified by it..d 01 t .. like any other social space. but its colonization is what brings the space.adoption 01 t.gn alt.asci i-art . abuse. 1 .mals . The 'backward-looking' strategy goes like this: Cyberspace is a frontier where territorial rights are being established and electronic environments are being differentiated in much the same way the Western frontier was pushed back by voyageurs. recovery olt. must precede its colonization. archery al t.lampreys ott.artcom alt. into existence.mation. a 'forward-looking' discourse insists upon the necessity of creating such a space.arnet ab.octivism. appalachian olt. ani. in the sense of a mental and social void which facilitates the socialization of a not-yetsocial realm. humans al t.rers alt.0d alt . ani.alternative al t. is fundamentally a space which has been produced. warner-bros al t. . In the former. e( U tion and focus instead upon one of two interrelated figurations. frontier-like space to that of a fully socialized space. miners. archi.Space is fundamental in any form ofcommunal life.jobs ab. yet without social content.slip olt. tecture alt.ascii-art al t . also depends on this hypothetical initial 'purity. it is also a producer of these relations. in much the . space is fundamental in any exercise ofpower.. same way as the pony express and railroads pioneered communications networks during the 19th century. inequi.3d olt. an empty and/or formless space 'discovered' in the interstices of information and communications technologies: a new frontier which awaits socialization. or frontier.' identified as 'nature' and as a sort of ground zero of human reality. In the latter.animation In the Beginning . lost in the nostalgic discourse of the 'West-before-colonization' and the 'freedom' it implies. The inversion of linear time (sequence) here produces a paradox: the space. a product of manifold social relations. pioneers.activism.sm olt.angst al t ..I >- 11 e( a: ID space out of which cyberspace emerges and which is only subsequently made into a social space by those who encounter it.sitors al t.archi.arts. ty al t. or economic producIII 2 .anagrams alt. a 'backward-looking' discourse 'discovers' a space already in existence. kill ies al t.. proceeds unaware that the actual temporal sequence of events which produce cyberspace are reversed: colonizers and participants arrive first. The notion of a space which is at first empty. Most accounts of cyberspace's origins tend to avoid or ignore its social. Both scenarios are discursive strategies which efface the production of cyberspace as a site wherein specific power relations obtain.. The second raises cyberspace to the status of a mission to be carried out according to the 'inevitability' of human. and cattlemen. tnt-desi. s "(Social) space is a (social) product" and cyberspace. Both accounts posit the existence of an empty 10 a: III la U >- " Z Ie( ~ I- III III . al ten. is actually a representation ofspace. 'empty space' is a discursive strategy that deflects attention away from the actual conditions which have produced the space in question: A purely natural or original state of affairs is nowhere to be found . as frontier.nomad olt. The first portrays cyberspace as a new frontier.ld alt.amiga. general ab. social and technological development.. aquaria. foxes ott.2600 alt. and the space (in the form of information technology) evolves afterward. abortion.3 The reader. And the entrepreneurs are arriving with their institutions and information technology. Empty space. political. For Lefebvre.animals. vi. admi. the linear development of space from 'nothing' to 'something' is impossible because space is not only produced.. amazon-women. tecture . This paradox results from an effort to make the occasion of cyberspace's appearance the result of a linear progression from an empty. 4 As a figure.

best . binaries .bbs. erotica. pictures. For Michael Benedikt. cl ip-art 01 t. in turn. in short.bbs. pictures.lists 01 t. pictures. The ostensible object to be controlled in and by cyberspace is informational complexity. cartoons 01 t. pictures. This complex field of information is produced by our daily activities in all social realms and its proliferation requires some sort of control if we. asian-movies alt. however. binaries. autos. binari es. bondage al t. pcbuucp 01 t. bbs. binaries.digi tized 01 t. and happiness. pictures. misc 01 t .bigfoot 01 t. supermodels 01 t. erotica. anime 01 t. misc 01 t. erotica. to the enrichment of our individual lives with entertainment and communication .waffle 01 t. internet 01 t.binaries . banjo 01 t. pictures. fine-art.bbs. asci i al t. erotica. binaries. bbs.2600 al t. eroti ca 01 t. pictures."8 Cyberspace is thus intended to be a 'control-space' in a very literal sense. binaries. redheads 01 t. To control this field of information is . pictures. 'cyber' is from the Greek word kybernan. bbs. internet alt. binaries .male 01 t.bbs. but it is in need of a willed development if it is to reach a point where it can: provide a three-dimensional field of action and interaction: with recorded and live data. binaries.pictures. pi ctures. pictures . pl. bbs. Beyond consequences in cyberspace. camaro. d 01 t. binaries. bbs alt. pi ctures. 6 History is absent: it is the present incarnation of cyberspace and its aesthetization as a space of freedom that is being discussed under the borrowed signs of the 'West. cartoons al t.. female al t. binaries. only from a different direction. But this complexity is itself a product of the densely interconnected informational networks of late capitalism and the social welfare state that LT. binaries. binaries. fine-ort.wildcat alt. pcboard 01 t . erotica. wealth. The peculiar line that ends this statement is this: "After all.al t. nudism 01 t. The paradox evident in the previous account of cyberspace appears once again. sounds. beer alt. and small business. binaries. pictures. pictures. pictures 01 t. binaries. binaries. binari es. binaries. but the tasks involved in the production of a new space for human and machine relations. binaries. barney. with machines. bbs. and with other people. reproduce those same forces and relations of production within any given social space.bbs. binaries .nanes.d 01 t. With this strategy.mul timedia 01 t. binaries. d 01 t. While this entails at least a tacit acknowledgment of the produced quality of cyberspace.").bbs. one is forced to posit an origin in empty space. pictures. The invocation of empty space is a discursive strategy which effaces the traces of production from the figure of cyberspace. sounds. celebri ties al t. pictures. it forms the basis of an ideology that denies the forces and relations of production that give rise to spaces which. pictures. binaries. bbs .atari. fractals 01 t. but instead of an actual history concerning the development of cyberspace out of specific social/productive relations. pi ctures. 7 11 Cyberspace is thus a space which can be produced in order to deal with what Benedikt earlier calls the "informational complexity" of our time. binaries. sensors. atheism al t . orientols 01 t. majorbbs alt.' The 'forward-looking' strategy also employs the figuration of an empty space as cyberspace's origin. erohca. It presumes to speak of history. to our real health. pictures. binaries. erotica.doom 01 t. binaries. binaries .pictures. furry 01 t. erotica. uti 1i ties 01 t. from the efficient running of corporations.ads 01 t. as individuals and groups. it substitutes a mythical history and an impossible origin in emptiness. and for the same reason: without an account of the political and economic conditions our of which cyberspace is produced. gigo-gateway 01 t. die. pi ctures. binaries. empty space is something to be created.of. rather than a frontier newly discovered.erotica.bbs. bbs. unixbbs alt. sounds. bacchus alt. governments.backrubs alt. cyberspace has already appeared as a 'proto-space' within the world(s) of information technology n. renegade alt . fine-art. antique 01 t. Discourses of this type reify cyberspace. pictures.d 01 t. bbs. the issue is not the 'discovery' of a space. fetish al t. autos.moderated al t.watergate alt. facilitates. furry 01 t. die. these interactions will also have consequences that reach directly back into the physical world. midi The representation of an empty space however is more than a mere philosophical error.pictures. bbs .T.uupcb alt.astrology alt. binaries. graphics 01 t. production here is seen to be the creation of an empty space ready for socialization. first-class 01 t. erotica. binaries.atheism. binaries. die alt. pictures. are to make sense of our world. tasteless 01 t..Ctures. binaries. dinosaur. bi naries. pictures .bbs. rod-n-custom 01 t.erotica al t. blondes 01 t. This time.metal 01 t. erotica. qmodempro alt . autos . bestial i ty 01 t. binaries. fi rebi rd 01 t. allsysop 01 t. bl. pictures. meaning to steer or control. binaries.

01 ternative 01 t.muc 01 t . jfk thus also to control. consul tants alt. asus 01 t. 11 . binaries. It is the social space of late capitalism which therefore constitutes the surface of emergence for cyberspace. that there is reason "to suspect the existence of a space peculiar to information science. tofHer al t. comp. us 01 t. cd-rom 01 t. fat.. sounds . comics. buddha. political.movies 01 t. xbase. is the occasion for the bringing into being of cyberspace. or to open up or enter into new markets. binaries. of its production as a social space. In a discussion of the networks which link III ce . or from an industrial to a postindustrial mode of production. anne-ri. vaudeville 01 t.acad-freedom. college. acad-freedom. calc-reform 01 t. business. and so. 61g5 01 t..comp. batman at t. bi tterness 01 t. college. Lefebvre notes that "no space disappears in the course of growth and development: the worldwide does not III ID >- l- " ce ~ I- III III >- III ce . ccds 01 t.a Lt . ch1nese. cons pi racy. sounds. It is thus continuous with the wider social space(s) out of which it is being differentiated and produced. boomerang oH. child-support 01 t.l ive ott. college.workshop. coffee 01 t. . lO Discourses which reifY cyberspace either ignore or deny this continuity and posit instead a radical discontinuity (via the figure of empty space) with current economic. censorship 01 t. Business as usual and cultural spaces.binaries. co-ops 01 t. deryni 01 t. short. business. camp. comp. sounds . callahans 01 t. camp. Big capital and big government thus find themselves in a situation of mutual dependence. tv 01 t. comedy . technology 01 t. consciousness 01 t. bats 01 t.buffalo-roam 01 t.bri. sorori ties 01 t . computer. in order to ameliorate these risks. talk alt.."13 This shift has several consequences which can be condensed into a brief scenario: The scale of capital involved in these enterprises means that new players need huge amounts of capital if they are to compete in established markets. technical 01 t. hardware .. import-export a Lt. books. as well as the globalization of capital in a manner different than that of imperial or monopoly capital.cad. fraterni ties 01 t. util i ties 01 t. comp. chinese. books. books. comp . and a social instantiation as a space where the superimposition of control occurs. col i fornia 01 t. isaac-asimov 01 t. one whose mode of accumulation is global and. big capital looks to national governments for assistance in securing guarantees of profit by various institutional and/or legislative means. food 01 t. bri tish. books. conspiracy 01 t. cancel. distribution and consumption of information. standup 01 t. 12 A new stage of capitalism appears. tunnels 01 t. brother-jed 01 t. mul ti-level alt. text. college. social . clearing. databases. binaries. sounds. cobol 01 t. sounds . chinese. abe-l incoln 01 t. config al t. conspiracy. comics. the people and places involved in the production. bus1ness. comedy. It is thus imperative to trace the lines of continuity which link the discursive form of cyberspace with the social space(s) of late capital and the social welfare state. "social spaces interpenetrate one another and/or superimpose themselves upon one another". not the least of which is the appearance of automation and information technologies as key tools in the accumulation of capital. mainboard. superman 01 t. celebri ties 01 t. it is constituted out of the actual interpenetrability of those spaces made possible by their transformation into informational entities (at least as far as the market and demographic needs of late capital and the state go). periphs. sounds."9 Cyberspace is not a hermetic space that exists separately from existing social spaces. shareware alt. comedy. computer . colorguard 01 t. musi c 01 t. one wherein: "the multinational company becomes the determinant organizational form of big capital.homebuilt 01 t. m1 sc al t. comics . text a [ t.. books. ll Ernest Mandel believes that a "third technological revolution" in capitalism is currently underway. cereal alt. books. Cyberspace thus has a physical instantiation in the form of the actual I. comics.mods 01 t. It comprises several factors. hence. news 01 t. binaries.cesium 01 t. com1CS . stephen-king 01 t. guy 01 t.cad alt. 14 This entails a far greater risk to companies than was previously the case under monopoly capital. blackadder 01 t. it links local spaces together into a globalized space of informational control. cl ipper alt. computing 01 t. U Z U 1Il global markets with local markets.T.el fquest oH. 12 abolish the local". ce 01 t.autocad al t. college. Far from abolishing local spaces. and. The movement from fordism to flexible accumulation.fsp 01 t. comedy. tish 01 t.61nanes. to some degree. networks which link these disparate sites.

tech 01 t. cul ture . exotic-music al t. destroy. caffeine alt. asian-indian 01 t. product. telecom 01 t. family 01 t. drumcorps alt. dreams alt.nation 01 t. research 01 t. fan. and intended to control.cosuard al t. disabled alt. the informational networks of late capital. and flexible responses to labour markets."16 Cyberspace is the embodiment or concretization of a logic of control already existent in the power relations that define late capitalism and the modern welfare state. evil al t. education. destroy. ibmpc. fan. ukraine alt. fan. surfaces. labour processes. albedo 01 t. falconry 01 t.discordia al t.drugs. explosi ves 01 t. cul ture. cyberpunk. chatsubo 01 t. ad dams . geographical mobility. cyberpunk.alt. it is not unteasonable to suspect that power relations in cyberspace will be similarly continuous. which Foucault discusses in relation to Bentham's "Panopticon.universi ty. current-events. however. emai.la-quake 01 t. ib 01 t. emulators. edgar 01 t. null 01 t. in an arrangement whose internal mechanisms produce the relation in which individuals are caught up. cuddle al t. decothena 01 t.drugs 01 t . cl inton . ad dams 01 t. 01 t.king 01 t. current-events. the fundamental instrument If cyberspace is continuous with the networks and institutions that comprise late capitalism. us. kerala 01 t. graphics alt.drugs. cyb-sys 01 t. education. cul t-movies. education. ben-el ton alt. dcom. fairs. cyberpunk . These networks facilitate the operations of big capital and government.n l8 Cyberspace similarly operates on a principle of'distribu13 . and consumer markets.movement 01 t. cul tu re . education.drugs. free-stuff 01 t. rocky-horror 01 t. dev. the. Power has its principle not so much in a person as in a concerted distribution of bodies. engr. cul tu re .pot 01 t . hai ti. dynamics 01 t. and technological innovation" and it is precisely here that informational complexity comes from. the.bgcrisis Perhaps the most significant feature of Mandel's scenario is the absolutely central role of planning in relation to the operations of late capital and the state. and the disciplinary mode of power upon which the modern state is founded. current-events. lights.whi tewater 01 t. is a fundamental infra- that allows this logic to embody itself in historical actuality. internet 01 t. fan. internet 01 t. crackers al t. cul ture. LT. therefore. desert-storm 01 t. amy-fisher alt. cyberspace al t. vision2020 alt. somal ia 01 t. LT. renaissance 01 t.oregon al t.fan. The discourses which reify cyberspace do so in order to efface its production and. distance 01 t.l-project 01 t. econ 01 t. cul ture. discrimi. emusic 01 t. gazes. tami 1 01 t. Harvey demonstrates that flexible accumulation (a hallmark of late capitalism) entails the expansion of the factory from a singu'lar space of production to a globalized system of manufacture and assembly: "capitalism is becoming ever more tightly organized through dispersal. earth 01 t . cul tu re . current-events . cul ture. its continuity with the relations of production which define late capitalism."17 The mode of surveillance embodied in the Panopticon is important because "it automates and disindividualizes power. desert-shield 01 t. but "are not in themselves the source of the organizational logic that is transforming the social meaning of space: they are. cul t-movies al t. is a growth sector precisely to the degree that it provides the tools and services necessary to gain control over a highly intensified field of economic planning Similarly. all accompanied by hefty doses of institutional. dreams . consumers. apple2 01 t. underwear al t. engr. 15 The day to day planning and operations of multi-nationals and the state in the age of late capitalism make it clear why 'control' is attached to 'space' in the term "cyberspace": it is a social space generated out of. creative-cooking 01 t. corel. cul ture. One of the primary means for producing disciplinary power is surveillance. fan. hawai i alt.elvis. education.lucid alt.culture. education . ib. education. That cyberspace can be discursively figured as a space ofcontrol suggests that Foucault's concept of disciplinary power might be a good place to begin an analysis of the power relations implied in these discourses. Controlling Space(s): Surveillance and Discipline structural requirement not only for big capital (in the form of multi-nationals) but also for national governments (who are finding it increasingly difficult to deliver on the modern welfare state). ny-upstate 01 t. cyberpunk 01 t. indonesia 01 t. devilbunnies alt. usenet alt.

tom_peterson tion' which forges space and visibility into a machine which produces subjects. 21 . letterman 01 t. dinosaurs 01 t. col in-chaprnan 01 t. worked upon and disseminated. as such. and economic orientation to the sector of cyberspace entered. But the policing model of the city does not simply come full circle in cyberspace. the transit and flow of information comes to dominate the places where it is gathered. cultural. douglas-adorns alt.monty-python alt.holrnes 01 t. fan. necessarily a space defined by flows. fan. john-winston oH. fan . fan. pratchett alt.eddings 01 t. fan. i vor-cut ler alt. fan. fan. david-bowie 01 t. train stations. jean-charest 01 t. fan. function as landmarks themselves. Everything in cyberspace is only ever data and. penn-n-teller alt. blues-brothers 01 t. serdar-argic 01 t. . It makes the space intelligible to its (virtual) inhabitants while. fan. the notion of police applied only to the set of regulations that were to assure the tranquility of a city. tarka alt. fan. visibility and power in cyberspace is. standardized formats and protocols are employed which ensure that all data-objects and subjects find their place within a recogniz14 III III U Z >- " . bur of transit. possum-kicking 01 t. at the same time.' Benedikt evokes the image of a city when he suggests that cyberspace should have ''ports. fan. C 11 able and reproducible structure. fan. fan. ronald-reagan 01 t.fan. controlling mechanisms are required which record and monitor the activity within it. ji. fan. rush-l irnbaugh 01 t.gibson 01 t. i tchy-n-scratchy 01 t. cfny 01 t. the roads are like its streets. fan. fan. piers-anthony 01 t.01 t. C OIl III U is carried out whereas cyberspace is 'polypanoptic'.is transferred.fan.fan. fan. fan.. fan. riscos 01 t. fan.fan. fan. like their realworld counterparts such as ship ports.fan. fan. fan.pern 01 t. 19 Surveillance in cyberspace is thus an architectural and geographic principle which renders the 'space' of late capital's informational networks visible in order to control it. fan. fan. A state will be well organized when a system of policing as tight and efficient as that of the cities extends over the entire territory. At the outset. Gl . fan. which.mts 01 t. robert . a space comprised not of geography per se."20 Foucault notes that there is an intimate connection between the figure of urban space and the exercise of power: There is an entire series of utopias or projects for governing territory that developed on the premise that the state is like a large city. madonna 01 t. robert-jordan 01 t. fan. surak 01 t. it is intensified. fan. john.dune alt. fan. This is most evident in the characterization of cyberspace as a 'city. bruce-becker 01 t. The model of the city became the matrix for the regulations that apply to the whole state.as a set of power relations between subjects. hofstadter alt.tolkien 01 t. while giving all travelers The frequent use of the city as a model for cyberspace suggests that discipline . central point from which all surveillance a concentrated geographic. fan. airports. somewhat different than it is in the Panopticon insofar as Bentham's structure has a single. In this situation. fan. . joegorde 01 t. debbie . fan. Castells states that: "[t}he emergence of the space of flows actually expresses the disarticula- . fan. shostakovich 01 t.freenet 01 t. ricking-ball 01 t.line 01 t. john-palmer 01 t. but at that moment the police become the very type of rationality for the government of the whole territory. however. fan. Cyberspace coincides with the networks of late capital exchange and is. fan.fan. fan.nvny-buffett 01 t. fan. therefore.lawrence 01 t.. dave-wi 11 iarns 01 t. russell. frank-zappa alt. fan. shub-internet 01 t. fan. fan..fan.) C III III >- .mcelwaine 01 t. fan. howard-stern 01 t. fan. fan. fan .fan.. noam-chomsky 01 t. as a "matrix of regulations. fan. fan.edding alt.jarnes-bond 01 t. and bus terminals. Surveillance in cyberspace is detached from a fixed and/or central position and is dispersed over the entire network and automatized in the standards and protocols that define cyberspace's practical functioning. the capital is its main square. making those inhabitants visible to whatever mechanisms are necessary for controlling and policing the space. shedevi1 01 t. joel-furr 01 t. furry alt. ren-and stimpy 01 t. fan. The linkage of space.oj-simpson 01 t.rnike-ji tHov 01 t. fan. fan. fan. depeche-rnode 01 t. fan.fan. bri ti sh-accent 01 t.dan-quayle 01 t. fan. space and visibility .goons 01 t. jello-biafra 01 t.. fan.dragons alt. snuffles 01 t.: . dave_barry 01 t. karla-homolka 01 t. fan.michael-bol ton olt.' from the state to cyberspace.l i la-feng olt. fan. fan. bill-gates 01 t. In order to make cyberspace a stable and secure space. fan.fan. fan.

sorori ty alt. waffle-house 01 t. profound and permanent are its effects: it is a perpetual victory that avoids any physical confrontation and which is always decided in advance. games. and this is a vital corollary. is how surveillance and discipline provide the basis for power relations in cyberspace: the extension and transformation of the informational infrastructure of late capitalism and the modern welfare state into a 'field of visibility' creates a space wherein both information and individuals are subject to control. food. folklore.games . games. no identifiable enemy.cons 01 t. assumes responsibility for the constraints of power. And further: U[T}here is no tangible oppression. netrek. chocolate 01 t. roommate 01 t.mcdonalds 01 t. parents a1t .misc alt. individual ism 01 t. xpi lot aH. folklore.fishing alt. he makes them play spontaneously upon himself. painter alt.alt. games. the more it approaches this limit. not a physical structure. it is done in order to facilitate the smooth functioning of late capital. folklore. folklore . food. but of individuals.mk 01 t. fandom. games.games. fraterni ty. folklore." In short. There is no identifiable centre from which power is effected because the type of power operating here is disciplinary. and subsequently producing a space where this information can be visualized and controlled. games. cocacola alt. then. ice-cream 01 t.food. vga-planets al t. galactic-guide 01 t. This entails the production of a space of control which intensifies disciplinary power while simultaneously making power appear less physical in its manifestation.flame 01 t. Harvey identifies the operation of power in late capital with an almost inimical relationship between place and space: uthose who command space can always control the politics of place even though. By this very fact. frp . folklore. games.fan. fan. torg al t. binaries 01 t. food.vejcik 01 t. folklore. folklore. no centre of power that can be held responsible for specific social issues. games. the more constant.landlord alt.lynx alt. games. gambl ing 01 t. newplayers 01 t . pancakes 01 t.games.fax 01 t. food.fandom. herbs 01 t. mtrek al t.dnd-uti 1 alt. forgery 01 t. is not explicitly undertaken in order to intensify disciplinary power. xtrek tion of place-based societies and cultures from the organizations of power and production that continue to dominate society without submitting to its control".games. wodehouse alt. food. games. pictures al t. feminism 01 t. fractals. fat-free 01 t. games. fi lk alt. and. video. food. warlord al t. classi c 01 t.gemstones 01 t. 01 t-config alt. food.mi 1i tary alt. the external power may throw off its physical weight. It is a mode of power which is borne by its subjects. whi tewo1f 01 t. science alt. games.gb 01 t. games. fl intstones 01 t. fractal-design. ai r-warrior 01 t. Localities and individuals are disciplined by first transforming them into information. feminism. rather than held over them as a constant threat: He who is subjected to a field of visibility. The implicit function is twofold: cyberspace is intended to be a bulwark against the inherent contradictions in capitalism and to mark the occasion of the movement from monopoly to multinational or late capitalism. Its function is to 15 . feminazis al t. wine 01 t. u2 alt. folklore. fan. pabu al t. The production of cyberspace. ghost-stories 01 t. Cyberspace produces an electronic topography of control out of an informational interlinkage of disparate geographic sites. U[P}eople live in places. and acts as a place from which to control the flow not only of information. however. faggots 01 t. food.freaks al t. college 01 t. sushi alt.n This. The explicit function of cyberspace is thus the increase of opportunities to make business and government more effective and less vulnerable to crises. sf2 al t. it tends to the non-corporal.fractals 01 t.mud 01 t.flame. flame.games. flame . flame. power rules through flows:. games . paradise al t. fidonet. fan. info oH. he inscribes in himself the power relation in which he simultaneously plays both roles. it takes control of some place to command space in the first instance:'24 What better place to command the space oflate capital flows than from within the very space produced by those flows? Cyberspace is the production of that space. suburban 01 t.coffee 01 t. games. computers 01 t. he becomes the principle of his own subjection.doom 01 t . vga-planets. professionals 01 t.doom. folklore. and who knows it. urban alt. food . food. 23 The non-corporeality of cyberspace is a given: it is a space of informational flows. fl ame . freenet 01 t.

announce alt.irc 01 t. Mapping Cyberspace . money. 1. kids-talk alt. fast make information visible and available for control.lang.too al t. internet. gopher alt. the centralization and concentration of capital (and power).access . hindu 01 t.is. therefore. news 01 t. Rather than summarize what has already been discussed.magick 01 t . 25 Cyberspace's incompleteness as an instirution prohibits the drawing of a detailed map of its power relations. talk-radio alt. hackers 01 t.lang. tab 01 t. on one hand. internet . help olt . graphics.low-enforcement olt . history . kalbo al t.lang. in so doing. cfutures 01 t .wanted 01 t. hackers .basic 01 t. it might be useful to address the five points that Foucault states must be established concretely if the power relations in any system of social networks are to be analyzed.lang. ire.irc.asm alt. 26 This situation relates to a key aspect of late capitalism identified by both Mandel and Harvey: the increase. horror.mag. journal ism. focal 01 t . >- The obvious difficulty encountered in a project that attempts to analyze power in cyberspace is that this space is presently located somewhere 16 Gl .lies 01 t. d 01 t." This differentiation is both a condition and a result of cyberspace's production insofar as it forms the structural character of the network. heal th.locksmi thing alt . bass 01 t.basic olt. and does so by effacing its connections with the wider social space of late capital and the disciplinary power that resides in it. on the other hand. homosexual 01 t.. and the already existing social and technological networks of late capitalism from within which it emerges. humor.lefthanders olt.' those that own the network and vides management with the opportunity to scrutinize the daily operations of production and this mode of surveillance permits more control over both material and personnel.longuage.opers alto ire.guitar 01 t.gathering.l t fe .. The system of differentiations The explicitly stated objective is that of increasing productivity by integrating information technologies and.hotrod alt. cl a between the proliferating. Those who subscribe to the networks of cyberspace are designated "users.medical 01 t. great-lakes alt. eliminating processes that use up time.werewolves alt. 2.magic alt . gourmand 01 t. best-of-usenet 01 t. humor.lycra olt . but this very function makes the structure of cyberspace itself invisible in the sense that cyberspace is not the textual or graphical information it (re)presents. ire. good .lucid-ernacs. indi vidual ism 01 t.playboy alt . gui tar. recovery alt. intercal alt. Decisions concerning the actual processes of production tend to be 'passed down' to individuals closest to those processes. inferti 1i ty 01 t. internet. rainbow 01 t. tenured 01 t. chaos alt .lang. LT.make .money. grad-student. This situation . genealogy 01 t. hemp alt. questions 01 t. best-of-usenet. gothic 01 t. pro- The primary differentiation operative in cyberspace is between users and servers. Decision-making becomes simultaneously dispersed and concentrated. horror . pixuti Is alt. i lluminati alto image. 0( Ul III U U Z >- " j: by the distribution ofthat information throughout the electronic/geographic infrastructure oflate capital. horror 01 t. cri ticism 01 t. Another differentiation is to be found in the discourses which portray cyberspace as a space apart from that of late capital.magick. discourses that seek to create it. It is precisely for this reason that cyberspace needs to be addressed in terms of the power relations generated in its production in and as a social space.what-i f 01 t. . hangover 01 t.mal icious 01 t. hurricane.. of the dispersal of production and. while at the server level there are only a few centralized sources of services. At the same time. services 01 t. geek 01 t.hottub alt.morning 01 t. often contradictory.irc. hypertext 01 t. andrew 01 t. but a brief sketch of some major landmarks is possible at this point. humor. ::I cl Ul III . oracle 01 t. journal ism al t.. shub-internet 01 t. cfids-action alt. human-brain 01 t. The types of objectives pursued III ID ..afterl i fe alt . good. This activity of reification acts as the impetus to produce the space. space and. but the social space produced provide the linkages are "servers. There is thus a bifurcated system of power: on the user level everything is more or less equal.01 t . gui tar.

The ideal of democracy is frequently claimed to be a defining characteristic of cyberspace. student cards. mustc.music. natt ve al t.outpat. paul-simon 01 t.mart 11 ion olt. musi c. music.nin 01 t. europe extends to the state in that the increase in control offered by cyberspace over individuals' statistical being enables greater control over the disbursement of funds in accordance with the' principles of the welfare state. musi c.. peter-gabriel 01 t .. V. fibromyalgia 01 t. queen 01 t . complex-arrang 01 t. monster . This is evident .music. and moves 'downward' to individual users as processed representation. {oo.ruch t: al t.nirvana 01 t. The primary rule for the exercise of power in this situation is that raw unprocessed information moves 'upwards' and into the archives in the form of data. music.mustc.music.mindcontrol al t.med. hardcore ~i ~~~i ~: j~th~o~t~ll 01 t . a-cappella aH . ' alt.allergy alt.manga alt. It is a solution which bolsters capitalism against the onslaught of its own informational complexity (or...messtanic alt. ~ \. and the individuals contained therein. music. prince 01 t.lp ott . sonic-youth 01 t. attempted to bring all the information to a large and powerful central processor. scandal 01 t.S. music. are nothing more than information in need of control.amy-grant al t. ' ~ "" .med.. missing-kids alt.enya alt. hurts alt.. This is enacted through various forms of surveillance ranging from direct observation to automatic registration via access protocols and card usage.monkees alt. Driver's licenses. Forms of institutionalization collapsed when it was overwhelmed by ever more complex information. These computers process data not in one central unit but rather in tiny. Capitalism.music. progressi ve 01 t.mustc.music.music.music.. techno 01 t .my. med . . which Power relations are brought into being on the basis of membership. todd-rundgren alt.. ska 01 t. mothersupertor 01 t ..motherjones 01 t. The institutional form of cyberspace is most similar to that of the state itself.tmbg 01 t .music.models alt. music.lIIU.II~UIJIJU' \. olt. deals with information has been the real key to our success. ..music. Blue Cross cards.. less powerful units distributed throughout the computer.music. medi tatton. canada al t .music.".misc 01 t. the implication being that these social spaces. Power comes into being as discipline: a distribution of power through every node in the network. nuke. "'I::I.mud. . blues-traveler al t .music. head. OHIP cards. social insurance cards. democracy.music . net. music. the-doors aH. While cyberspace may take its initial cues from the state with regard to its institutional character. The means of bringing power relations into being in the transference of the model of the city to the state. ptnk-floyd 01 t..mud"'. swedish-pop 01 t.S. pat-mccurdy 01 t.. 01 ternattve.music. synthpop 01 t.music .music.. Capitalism and representative democracy rely on the freedom of the individual. transcendental alt.moth. 4.alt.mustc..music.music.. and communism are reduced to strategies for controlling information.mythology 01 t. contradictions).movies. individuals cannot claim the right to citizenship or employment.. credit cards.music. alternattve ott . chapel-ht 11 01 t. deep-purple alt... bi lly-joel al t. Archives are thus an essential feature of cyberspace. clinic 01 t..music . VicePresident Al Gore has used this strategy: The unique way in which the V.u2 01 t .music.music. Whether or not this will result in different configurations of power remains to be seen.elo alt.ULL. Without submitting to the rules' of membership in cyberspace.music. news-media al t.music.mustc..cfs 01 t.IU!::lLII!::l. roger-waters alt. so these systems operate in a manner similar to the principle behind massively parallel computers. Power is thus exercised via the threat of nonmembership and the concomitant disqualification of the individual from social privilege. by contrast. female olt ..memettcs alt..mcdonolds 01 t . smash-pumpkins al t .. pearl-jam 01 t.music. 27 17 Cyberspace is democracy and vice-versa.tams alt..filk al t . and then on to cyberspace. 3.med.] Communism. it may well develop into a form very different from that of the state. employee numbers: all of these are signs of membership in society and all of them are component parts of the informational world of cyberspace.music.

org.delphi 01 t .poli tics. 80-85. batf olt. 3 (Sept. bi 01 t.org. earth 01 t.1 inux alt. ccr 01 t. pcnews alt. pal i tics .. that arose during the industrial revolution.. poli tics . bush 01 t . poronet . europe . Ibid.elections al t. anI ine-service .' The Foltcaltlt Reader. and Power. nsa 01 t. pave. Ibid.pol i tics . 1991). "Cyberspace: Some Proposals. The Prodltction o/Space. trotsky 01 t. Il: III ID III U 0( tasks. 1991). decision.' Cyberspace: First Steps. org.personols. trans. 316. no.management al t .bri tish 01 t .ULl:. 01 t. suopo 01 t. toastmasters olt. and technologies of control. Suffice it to say. If we are currently going through a third technological revolution in capitalism. pal i tics. ads 01 t . It eliminates workers employed to watch over and manage both one another and the processes of production that they engage in. pal 1. )arf 01 t. correct al t . Knowledge. pal i tics . prodigy alt..onl ine-service al t .onl ioe-service . personals. 1991).politics . pal i tics. 140-143. A history of fabulous technologies and dedicated researchers and hackers is often used in a similarly mythic fashion.os. 158.org.ODll:Uar\es 01 t. the. 5.poli tics. there is not enough space here to get into the debate..org. Henri Lefebvre.' Scientific American.. phi losophy. 1991). 3. fbi 01 t. trans.. 12.planning. Vol 265.peeves olt .poli tics.misc al t.libertarian olt. Michael Benedikt.periphs. "Common Law for the Electronic Frontier. covert 01 t. Ernest Mandel.onl toe-service. 184-222. personals. Ibid.pol i tics . cl inton 01 t . 1984). 10. ed. Lefebvre. This condensed description of late capitalism is very . drinking-age 01 t . pal i tics . In this case it is the "West" that is invoked. phi losophy. psi. 7. usa. Paul Rabinow (New York: Pantheon Books.pol i tics . Frederic ]ameson discusses the concept of differentiation in terms of a relationship which produces new social configurations out of already existing ones. is whose need for control is being served? . or. paranormal alto parents-teens 01 t.onl ine-servlce.pol i tics. greens 01 t.ec 01 t .marrou 01 t.pol i tics. universes 01 t.zen alt.misc 01 t. ed. 8. 13. 14. Press.misc al t. poly 01 t. Donald NicholsonSmith (Oxford: Basil Blackwell. 252.86.onl ine-service.personals. Obviously.abduct al t. 6. Post-Industrialism itself is a highly contested discourse. 129.. The Cltlwral Logic 0/ Late Capitalism (Durham: Duke University Press. poronet .pixar. tics . 9. 1. social ism.poli tics .LT. The question facing us. freenet 01 t.pol i tics. objecti vism alt.pagan olt. Michel Foucault. Anne W. technol- '" >- U I:J Z > 0( > III III ::> >- . Lefebvre.office . parol le1. 1978). pcmcia olt. The degrees of rationalization Cyberspace is rationalized as a solution to the increasingly difficult problem of managing and maintaining the productivity of large populations. sex alt . Branscomb.pol i tics. and communication are inseparable components of the control function.. Discourses on cyberspace demonstrate this need explicitly and use it as the rationalization for producing a new social space. that the discourse(s) on PostIndustrialism are often utilized by promoters of cyberspace as 'evidence' that cyberspace is a pressing necessity. typestry alt.pol Hies. 4. Ibid.ufo 01 t. programming.economics 01 t . however.overlords olt. pal i tics. poronet . passim. 129.from interpersonal to international relations will be directly proportional to the development of its information technologies.onl ine-service. pal i tics . ]oris De Bres (London: Verso. 28 Beniger's statement comes from an analysis of the fundamental necessity of control. pol i tics. reform 01 t.w.org. 190.phi losophy . Michael Benedikt (Cambridge: M.pol i tics.americo-onl toe 01 t .26. urban 01 t. radical-left 01 t .personals . 2. cia olt._ "'''' :1 5. and control in relation to the management of social spaces: Notes I wish to acknowledge the financial assistance provided by a Doctoral Fellowship from the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada. 11. pal i tics .org.org. This is possible because it functions via the automated and constant activity of surveillance that follows from the principle of membership (the necessary informational transformation of individuals). Late Capitalism.oobe al t. bondage 01 t .. It is further rationalized on the basis of its cost effectiveness in carrying out these Because the activities of information processing.datahighway al t .multics alt. Postmodernism.genie 01 t . James Beniger provides a vital insight into the connection between information. a 0( Il: III 18 ogy. then the need for control must be just as acutely felt now as it was then. Frederic ]ameson.pol i tics .os.perot 01 t. a society's ability to maintain control at allleve1s . pal i tics .. compuserve al t . He cites Luhmann as the source for his discussion of the concept of differentiation.org.out-of-body olt. consti tution _. "Space.personals 01 t. then.

roll. 19 . gnostic oH. radio. Benedikt. usa. islam 01 t. rock-n-roll. 3 (Sept. and Power.metal. rel igion.' 241. metal 01 t.' Scientific American. 200. the. christian oH. 22. although Bentham suggested it could also be used as a school or factory. Discipline and Punish. psychology. It consists of a central tower and.rave 01 t. "Infrastructure for the Global Village. new-theories compacted and cannot do justice to Mandel's excellent analysis. a category of users (those employed in. rock-n-ro11. Roughly stated.d 01 t. 234.348. heavy 01 t. rmgroup alt. networks. serving networks). David Harvey. phonics 01 t. recovery. Castells. Discipline and Punish. pol i tics. sci. 171. republ icon alt. computers. cathol icism 01 t. president.monica 01 t. stones oH. rel igion. Briefly stated.rap 01 t. radio. recovery. chat 01 t. dragons-inn alt. quotations 01 t. metall ica 01 t. shamanism 01 t. programmer 01 t.). 265. rock-n-roll. Current discourses primarily focus on the democratic interaction of users (generally from the professional classes) while the power of the server is often overlooked.prophecies.roll. rissa 01 t.01 t. etc.classic 01 t. rock-n-ro11. but they have no way of knowing if they are being observed at any given moment: "Hence the major effect of the Panopticon: to induce in the inmate a state of conscious and perma- nent visibility that assures the automatic functioning of power" (201).privacy 01 t . rhode_island oH. metal. computers alt. 21. rel igion . straight-edge oH. it has little to say about power and knowledge.unhappy 01 t. 15. Vol. pub.. rap-gdead alt. data encryption. The tower is mirrored in order to reflect light into the cells of the prisoners. npr 01 t.prisons alt. aerosmi th oH. 28. sb. 202-203. recovery. Harvey. re1igion. or even power and control. progressi ve oH. rel igi on. 23. psychology . 17. europe 01 t. amethyst 01 t. coffeehouse. This is abundantly evident in the proliferating discussions over issues of privacy. While Beniger's analysis chastises other critics for not taking into account the important connections between control and knowledge.polyamory 01 t." 27.roll. "Space. nostradamus olt. neutralizes these technologies with regard to power. 1990). Michel Foucault. romance 01 t. recovery 01 t. 1991). The inmates thus know that they are subject to observation. rodney. metal. "The Subject and Power. The Informational City (Oxford: Basil Blackwell. usa . pol i tics. rel igion. Michel Foucault. tv. Al Gore. telephones. Beniger. save. and intellectual property with regard to cyberspace. romance. cl inton alt. 20.pud oH. punk. This democratic world is predicated upon the ownership of expensive rechnologies and entails a hierarchy of participation. cbc alt. The Condition of Postmodernity (Oxford: Basil Blackwell. 26. TV's. but it is blind to power and. psychoactives 01 t. rock-n-ro11. 1989). this hierarchy consists of a category of electronically homeless individuals (those without credit cards.0Idi es oH. rock-n. rel igion.revenge 01 t. revisionism 01 t. 24. Manuel Casrells. Beniger's analysis provides important insights into the function of control technologies in society. rel igion oH. surrounding it. 25. rock-n. the Panopticon is a structure intended to be used as a prison. rodney-king alt.prose. retromod alt. pulp 01 t. Foucault. 159 16. Alan Sheridan (New York: Vintage. pirate alt. and a category of servers (owners of the technology within which cyberspace is created). rel igion. help 01 t. 349. rock-n. and to conceal the guards in the tower from the sight of the prisoners. 1979). data security. kibology 01 t. a ring-shaped dormitory of individual cells. 1986). 792.rv alt.misc 01 t. earth 01 t. Michel Foucault.' Critical Inquiry 8 (Summer 1982). rock-n. 19. or hooked up to. metal. radio.roll. rush-l imbaugh alt. satell i te. rock-n-ro11. scientology 01 t. metal. no. The Control Revolrttion (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. pub.satanism 01 t. as is the plight of the "electronic homeless.mormon 01 t. romance. trans. rel igion . This is an essential point because only those with sufficient funds may participate. networks. therefore. Knowledge. postmodern 01 t.rock-n-roll oH.prose alt. physics. 150. Ibid. rock-n-roll. 18. king oH. lames R. 202. death 01 t. hard 01 t.personal i ty 01 t. gnr 01 t. 287.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful