1.

WELL STIMULATION
By:
Engr. Saleem Qadir Tunio
1 TUNIO, May' 2011
1. Well
Stimulation
Overview of
Stimulation in
an Oil Well
Overview of
acidizing
Well
stimulation
economics
TUNIO, May' 2011 2
Stimulation
Fundamentals
of fracturing
General safety
and work
guidelines
Well Stimulation
Well stimulation involves techniques to
optimize well performance. This may include
pumping of acids, energized fluids, and
various other chemicals to improve formation various other chemicals to improve formation
flow characteristics.
3
OVERVIEW OF STIMULATION IN AN OIL WELL
• During drilling and completion operations,
formation damage are due to:
– Solid block pore throats – mud solid invasion – Solid block pore throats – mud solid invasion
leading to blocked pore throats (reduce
permeability)
– Mud filtrate invasion – clay swelling (reduce
permeability)
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– Scale – due to pressure and temperature
changes. Salts in formation water become over
OVERVIEW OF STIMULATION IN AN OIL WELL
changes. Salts in formation water become over
saturated and precipitate.
– Wax
– Asphaltenes – precipitate due to pressure drop
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• Matrix treatment and acidizing in particular,
aims to remove the excess flowing pressure
drop (Ap) created by the presence of volume
rock which has suffered formation damage
near wellbore area.
OVERVIEW OF STIMULATION IN AN OIL WELL
near wellbore area.
• Damaged zone has lower permeability than
original.
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OVERVIEW OF STIMULATION IN AN OIL WELL
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OVERVIEW OF STIMULATION IN AN OIL WELL
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r k
| |
• The removal of this formation damage will restore
the ‘natural’ well productivity.
• The Hawkins formula;
OVERVIEW OF STIMULATION IN AN OIL WELL
w
d
d
r
r
k
k
s ln 1 ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
is convenient tool for analyzing the influence of
varying levels and depth of formation damage.
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• Matrix stimulation treatments increase well
productivity by pumping a specially formulated
treatment fluid (normally acid)
OVERVIEW OF STIMULATION IN AN OIL WELL
treatment fluid (normally acid)
• The fluid is designed to remove (normally dissolve)
the formation damage.
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Well stimulation types
• Acid Fracturing/Acidizing/ Matrix Acidizing
• Hydraulic Fracturing • Hydraulic Fracturing
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Acidizing
• A type of stimulation treatment,
acidizing is performed below the
reservoir fracture pressure in an
effort to restore the natural
permeability of the reservoir
rock. rock.
• Well acidizing is achieved by
pumping acid into the well to
dissolve formations like
limestone, dolomite and calcite
cement between the sediment
grains of the reservoir rocks
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OVERVIEW OF ACIDIZING
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OVERVIEW OF ACIDIZING
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Organic Acid
(Source: Wikipedia)
An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic
properties. The most common organic acids are the
carboxylic acids, whose acidity is associated with their
carboxyl group -COOH. Sulfonic acids, containing the
group -SO
2
OH, are relatively stronger acids.
A few common examples include: A few common examples include:
• Lactic acid
• Acetic acid
• Formic acid
• Citric acid
• Oxalic acid
• Uric acid
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• Simple organic acids like formic or acetic acids are
used for oil and gas well stimulation treatments.
These organic acids are much less reactive with
metals than are strong mineral acids like
Organic Acid
(Source: Wikipedia)
metals than are strong mineral acids like
hydrochloric acid (HCl) or mixtures of HCl and
hydrofluoric acid (HF). For this reason, organic
acids are used at high temperatures or when long
contact times between acid and pipe are needed.
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• A mineral acid or (inorganic acid) is an acid derived
from one or more inorganic compounds. A mineral acid
is not organic and all mineral acids release hydrogen
ions when dissolved in water.
In-organic Acid
(Source: Wikipedia)
• Commonly used mineral acids are sulfuric acid,
hydrochloric acid and nitric acid (They are also known
as bench acids). Mineral acids range from acids of great
strength (example: sulfuric acid) to very weak (boric
acid). Mineral acids tend to be very soluble in water
and insoluble in organic solvents.
TUNIO, May' 2011,,, 17
• Hydrochloric acid
• Nitric acid
• Phosphoric acid
• Sulfuric acid
In-organic Acid
(Source: Wikipedia)
• Sulfuric acid
• Boric acid
• Hydrofluoric acid
• Hydrobromic acid
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•In fracturing, conductive
path is created by injecting
fracturing fluid into the
formation.
FUNDAMENTALS OF FRACTURING
formation.
•Conductivity is maintained
by propping agent(sand or
glass beads)to hold the
fracture faces apart.
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Frac. Fluid and Proppant
Fracturing fluid
The fluid used during a hydraulic fracture treatment of oil, gas or
water wells. The fracturing fluid has two major functions 1) Open
and extend the fracture; 2) Transport the proppant along the
fracture length.
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Proppant
Suspended particles in the fracturing fluid that are used to hold
fractures open after a hydraulic fracturing treatment, thus
producing a conductive pathway that fluids can easily flow along.
Naturally occurring sand grains or artificial ceramic material are
common proppants used.
Fracture Initiation
• Hydraulic fracture treatment is accomplished by
pumping a suitable fluid into the formation at a rate
faster than the fluid can leak off into the rock.
FUNDAMENTALS OF FRACTURING
faster than the fluid can leak off into the rock.
• Injecting fluid pressure is built up sufficient to
overcome the earth compressive stress holding the rock
material together. The rock then parts or fractures along
a plane perpendicular to the minimum compressive
stress in the formation matrix.
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A Fracture Extension:
•As injection of frac fluid continues, the fracture tends
to grow in width as fluid pressure in the fracture works
against the elasticity of the rock material.
FUNDAMENTALS OF FRACTURING
• After sufficient frac fluid has been injected to open
the fracture wide enough to accept proppant, sand is
added to the frac fluid and is carried into the fracture
to hold it open after the job.
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When sufficient sand has been injected:
• pumps are shut down
• pressure in the fracture drops
FUNDAMENTALS OF FRACTURING
• pressure in the fracture drops
• the earth compressive stresses closes the
fracture on the proppant.
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Sand-Out Treatment:
• The width of the fracture is related to the
differential pressure.
FUNDAMENTALS OF FRACTURING
differential pressure.
• As sand enters the fracture and is deposited, more
fluid pressure is required to create greater stress
against the fracture face to increase the frac width.
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• If the required fluid pressure cannot be applied due to
equipment or casing limitations:
• fluid injection rate slows down
FUNDAMENTALS OF FRACTURING
• sand drops out of the fluid at a more rapid rate
• sand-out in the fracture occurs
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Fracturing is beneficial in following cases:
1. If the reservoir is composed of a low-
permeability, homogeneous rock, fracturing is
similar to increase the size of the hole.(i.e., fluid
FUNDAMENTALS OF FRACTURING
similar to increase the size of the hole.(i.e., fluid
formerly flowed through the low-permeability
rock becomes able to move into the high
capacity fracture at some distance from the
well.)
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2. Fracturing will eliminate formation damage due to
- invasion of drilling mud,
- deposition of mineral matter
FUNDAMENTALS OF FRACTURING
- swelling of clays
If damage is only in the immediate vicinity of the well
bore, only a mild fracture treatment is required.
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3. Fracture radiating from the well bore act as a
gathering lines connecting permeable and porous
systems that are otherwise isolated from the well
by impermeable barriers.
FUNDAMENTALS OF FRACTURING
by impermeable barriers.
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• Matrix acidizing – removal near wellbore damage
• Hydraulic fracturing – improving well inflow performance
MATRIX ACIDIZING
VS.
HYDRAULIC FRACTURING
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Skin Permeability Treatment
High Low Fracturing (matrix possible)
Low Low Hydraulic Fracturing
• Matrix acidizing aims to;
– Increase the PI
– By reducing the skin
MATRIX ACIDIZING
VS.
FRACTURING TREATMENTS
– By reducing the skin
– through dissolving formation damage
components and rock near wellbore region
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• Hydraulic fracturing aims to:
– Increase the PI
– By increasing effective wellbore radius
– through creation of high conductivity fractures from
MATRIX ACIDIZING
VS.
FRACTURING TREATMENTS
– through creation of high conductivity fractures from
the wellbore
– Fracture bypass the damage zone and extend to a
greater depth into the reservoir than can be reached
by acidizing
– Suitable for low permeability with or without skin
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General safety and work guidelines
&
Well Stimulation Economics
ASSIGNMENT NO. 01 ASSIGNMENT NO. 01
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Deadline : Wednesday, 15/06/2011

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