You are on page 1of 153

The Third e-Services Symposium in The Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia The Future of eServices: The Next Step?

25-28 February, 2008 / 18-21 Safar, 1429 In the Meridian Hotel, Khobar, Saudi Arabia

Book of Proceedings Research and Working Papers

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

In the Name of Allah The Most Merciful The Most Compassionate

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

II

Organizing Body

ORGANIZING BODY: The Emirates of the Eastern Province And e-Services Committee of the Eastern Province

THE SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE


1. Prof. 2. Prof. 3. Dr. 4. Dr. 5. Dr. Mahmoud Ahmed Abdellatif Nouby Mahmoud Hassan Rabee Mohamed Reffat Bhzad Sidawi KFU KSU KFUPM KFU Chairman Member Member Member Member

Mohammed Mahmoud Maatook KAU

PROCEEDINGS EDITOR:
Prof. Mahmoud Ahmed Abdellatif

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
PREFACE FROM THE EMITATE OF THE EASTERN PROVINCE: ............................................................

Mr. Zarib Saeed AlQahtani .............................................................................................................. V


PREFACE FROM THE SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE: ....................................................................................

Prof. Mahmoud Ahmed Abdellatif .................................................................................................... VI


THE ORGANING COMMITTEES: ........................................................................................................ VIII 1-THEME ONE: NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND THEIR USE IN PROVIDING ESERVICES ........................... 1 1-1 LOCATION BASED ELECTRONIC SERVICES ................................................................................. Dr. Abdullah H. Alkadi ..................................................................................................................... 1 1-2 A STRATEGIC APPROACH FOR MUNICIPAL ESERVICES: THE CASE OF BUILDING DEVELOPMENT DIVISIONS ......................................................................................................... Dr. Rabee M. Reffat ........................................................................................................................ 2 1-3 RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION (RFID) FOR AUTOMATING BUSINESS PROCESSES .......... Eng. Mahmod S. Al-Muhamed ........................................................................................................13 1-4 WIRELESS MOBILE SERVICES FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS ................................................. Eng. Ramadan A. Fan ....................................................................................................................24 1-5 VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS AND FUTURE OF E-SERVICES: AN INDUCTIVE VISION ....................... Dr. Khaled Salah Said Abdelmagid .................................................................................................31 1-6 RIYADH CHAMBER OF COMMERCE & INDUSTRY EXPERIENCE IN PRESENTING ELECTRONIC SERVICES ................................................................................................................................... Dr. Saud H. Al-Sehali .....................................................................................................................32 1-7 POTENTIAL AND CHALLENGES OF THE APPLICATION OF E-GOVERNMENT IN SAUDI ARABIAN ORGANIZATION OF STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS ........................................................... Eng. Talat AbdulQader AlRahalli .....................................................................................................33 1-8 POTENTIAL CONSIDERATION OF EBUSINESS TECHNOLOGY IN THE CURRICLUM OF ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING IN KING FAISAL UNIVERSITY .................................................. Dr. Bhzad Sidawi ...........................................................................................................................34 1-9 KING SAUD UNIVERSITY ELECTRONIC PORTAL: FROM A VISION TO REALITY ............................ Eng. Esam A. Alwagait ...................................................................................................................42 1-10 SOCIAL ENGINEERING AS AWARENESS METHOD FOR INFORMATION SECURITY .................... Eng. Waheed H. Alkahtani..............................................................................................................43 1-11 ESERVICES@KFUPM: STATUS AND CHALLENGES .................................................................... Prof. Sadiq M. Sait .........................................................................................................................44 1-12 DEVELOPING AN ENTERPRISE IT ARCHITECTURE..................................................................... Eng. Fathi M. Alwosaibi ..................................................................................................................45 1-13 VIDEO-MEDIATED AND LIVE INTERACTION BASED COMMUNICATION CHANNELS: TOWARDS BETTER E-GOVERNMENT PERFORMANCE ................................................................................ Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef ...................................................................................................................46 1-14 SAUDI ARAMCO HEALTHCARE LINK (SAHL): THE AUTOMATION OF INTERLINK OF MEDICAL SERVICES BETWEEN SAUDI ARAMCO AND MEDICAL SERVICE PROVIDERS ............................ Eng. Saeed O. Amoudi...................................................................................................................58 2- THEME 2: BUILDING THE E-SERVICES CULTURE AND SOCIETY AWARENESS OF IT ...................59 2-1 IS MEDIUM THE MASSAGE? .......................................................................................................... Mr. Ahmad Zahidah, M. Sc. PGD, ...................................................................................................60 2-2 INTRODUCING ESERVICES: THE CHALLENGE OF MANAGING THE CHANGE ............................... Eng. Faisal M. Al-Naim, M. Sc., MBA ..............................................................................................61 2-3 CYBER LAW AND THE SAUDI ARABIA KINGDOMS RESPONSIBILITY ............................................ Mr. Abdu A. Albur ..........................................................................................................................62 2-4 THE IMPACT OF THE USE OF E-SERVICES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LEARNING SOCIETY IN SAUDI ARABIA ............................................................................................................................. Eng. Anwar A. Hasan, M Sc. ..........................................................................................................74 2-5 EGOVERNMENT: HINDRANCES AND SOLUTIONS ........................................................................
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

II

Table of Contents

Eng. Bahjat S. Fakieh ....................................................................................................................75 2-6 COMPUTER KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ATTITUDE AMONG SAUDI UNIVERSITIES STUDENTS: THE CASE OF KING FAISAL UNIVERSITY......................................... Dr. Ahmed Alshoaibi ......................................................................................................................76
3- THEME 3: ESERVICES INFORMATION SECURITY ...........................................................................78 3-1 ESERVICE SECURITY REQUIREMENTS: OBJECTIVES AND RISKS ............................................... Eng. Saleh M. Al-Ghamdi ...............................................................................................................80 3-2 SECURING ESERVICES: CHALLENGES AND NEW TRENDS- A PRACTICAL GUIDE ....................... Dr. Nasser ALMeshary ...................................................................................................................81 3-3 SEEING THE UNSEEN: THE ONLINE IDENTITY THEFT................................................................... Mrs. Manal Masoud Al-Sharif ..........................................................................................................82 3-4 DEVELOPMENT OF DIGITAL ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS TO PROTECT INFORMATION FROM SPY .. Major Dr. Mohammed A. Aseeri ......................................................................................................83 3-5 E-GOVERNMENT APPLICATIONS: CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS .............................................. Mr. Yahya M. Ali Abu Mmaghaied, MBA ..........................................................................................84 4- THEME FOUR: LIMITATIONS AND POTENTIALS OF ESERVICES ....................................................86 4-1 ESERVICES: CHALLENGES AND MECHANISMS IN THE TRANSITION TO ECOMMUNITY .............. Eng. Saeed A. Bawazir and Mr. Husam A. BenSeddeekk .................................................................87 4-2 SMART CITY MOBILE WORLD........................................................................................................ Eng. Ammar Enaya ........................................................................................................................88 4-3 MANAGED SERVICES, WHAT, WHY AND HOW? ARABIAN INTERNET AND COMMUNICATIONS: AWALNET .................................................................................................................................... Eng. Fahad Al-Hussaini ..................................................................................................................89 4-4 E-LEARNING AND VIRTUAL CLASSES: NAIZAK GLOBAL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS ...................... Eng. Basheer M. Al-Ghazali ...........................................................................................................90 4-5 THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY TO SORT OUT BUSINESS PROBLEMS: THE BUSINESS SYSTEMS OF AL ALAMIAH INSTITUTE FOR COMPUTER & TECHNOLOGY .................................................. Mrs. Nadia y. ALsaleh ....................................................................................................................91 5- THEME FIVE: ESERVICES EXPERIENCES AND SUCCESSES .........................................................92 5-1 ACHIVEMENTS OF THE EMARAH OF AL-BAHA REGION IN EGOVERNMENT ................................. Prince Salman Ben Faisal Ben Mohammed Ben Saud .....................................................................93 5-2 THE ESERVICES IN THE MINISTRY OF HEALTH: SHARQIYAH HEALTH ......................................... Dr Khaled AlTurki...........................................................................................................................94 5-3 E-TRAINING SERVICE: E-GOVERNMENT TRAIL IN EDUCATION ENVIRONMENT .............................................. Dr.Ibrahim Salim Al Saikhan and Mr. Naif Ghazi Al Harbi .................................................................95 5-4 E-SERVICES AT JUBIAL INDUSTRIAL COLLEGE ............................................................................ Mr. Eid F. Al-Rasheedi ...................................................................................................................96 5-5 THE ESYSTEM FOR COMPREHENSIVE SERVICE IN THE ROYAL COMMISSION OF JUBAIL .......... Mr. Ali M. Uqaily ............................................................................................................................97 5-6 ERP PROJECT (SAFEER) IN THE DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF THE ROYAL COMMISSION IN JUBAIL......................................................................................................................................... Mr. Musfer Ali Al-Ghamdi ...............................................................................................................98 5-7 EHEALTH IN JUBAIL INDUSTRIAL CITY .......................................................................................... Eng. Abdul-Aziz Mohammed Al-zahrani ..........................................................................................99 5-8 E-EDUCATION IN THE SCHOOLS OF THE ROYAL COMMISSION FOR JUBAIL ............................... Mr. Abdulaziz Abdullah Al-Musnad ................................................................................................ 100 5-9 NET PARKS IN THE INDUSTRIAL CITY AL-JUBIAL .......................................................................... Mr. Melab Ashwei Aldhafeerie ...................................................................................................... 101 5-10 THE MINISTRY OF HIGHER EDUCATION IMPLEMENTATION OF MANAGEMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY OF KING ABDULLAH OUTSIDE SCHOLARSHIPS' PROGRAM (KAOSP) ...................................................................................................................................... Prof. Abdullah Abdul-Aziz AlMousa ............................................................................................... 102 5-11 THE E-GOVERNMENT PROGRAM YESSER: RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY YESMETHOD ......................................................................... Eng. Suhail M. Al-Almaee ............................................................................................................. 103

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

III

Table of Contents

5-12 E-COLLEGE AS AN INTEGRATED INSTITUTIONAL SOLUTION FOR PROVIDING E-SERVICES IN THE FACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN- KAU .................................................................... Dr. Mohamed M. H. Maatouk ........................................................................................................ 104 5-13 E-HEALTH STRATEGIES TO MANAGE COST, MARKET POTENTIAL, AND BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES AMONG FOUR MIDDLE EAST COUNTRIES ...................................................... Eng. Mustafa H. Qurban* and Mr. Richmond D. Austria** ............................................................... 113 5-14 THE FEATURES OF THE WEB SITE OF THE BRANCH OF THE INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE MINISTRY IN THE EASTERN PROVINCE ...................................................................................... Mr. Mousa Jaafar AlKhadhabah ................................................................................................... 131 5-15 PRINCE MOHAMMED BEN FAHAD UINIVERSITY ESERVICES EXPERIENCE ............................... Mr. Osama S AlSaif, MTA, MBA ................................................................................................... 132 5-16 NEELWAFURAT.COM LIBRARY: NEELWAFURAT.COM EXPERIENCE IN SELLING ARABIC BOOKS OVER THE INTERNET AND HOW TO BENEFIT FROM THE GROWING E-COMMERCE SECTOR ...................................................................................................................................... Mr. Salah Chebaro ....................................................................................................................... 133 5-17 ACHIEVEMENTS OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT AT SAUDI ORGANIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL ESTATES & TECHNOLOGY ZONES (SOIETZ) .................................................... Eng. Saleh I. Al-Rasheed ............................................................................................................. 134 5-18 HUMAN RESOURCES WEBSITE (HR ONLINE) AT SAUDI ARAMCO .............................................. Mr. Isa M. Al-Hashem .................................................................................................................. 135 5-19 E-GOVERNMENT PROJECTS IN ALAHSSA MUNICIPALITY .......................................................... Mr. Hamdan Odah AlBalwi ........................................................................................................... 136 5-20 ELECTRONIC SOCIAL INSURANCE (EGOSI) .......................................................................................... Mr. Nawaf M Al Badia .................................................................................................................. 137 FINAL RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................................................. 138

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

IV

Preface from the Emirate of the Eastern Province

Preface from the Emirate of the Eastern Province:


Mr. Zarib Saeed AlQahtani
Deputy of the Emirate of the Eastern Province
All praise is to Allah and peace be upon our Prophet Mohammad, and upon his family, companions, and followers. We all feel the unlimited interest of His Highness Prince Mohammed Ben Abdulaziz (the Prince of the Eastern Province) and His Deputy His Highness Prince Jalawi Ben Abdulaziz Ben Musaid to utilize the latest advancements of science and technology to ease and improve the daily lives of citizens and to speed and enhance the quality of providing them with services avoiding negative consequences of delay resulting from repeated inquires, follow ups, and physical commuting. To realize these aims, and to fulfill the directions of Custodian of the Two Holly Mosques and His loyal Crown Prince, the Emirate of the Eastern Province has strived for popularizing the eServices concept in the all governmental facilities in the Emirate and in other centers all over the Eastern Province departments which provide services to citizens. This has been achieved through a primary portal in the world wide web. Seeking continuous progress and optimum use in eServices, the Technical Committee of eServices in the Eastern Province holds a n annual Symposium which polarizes the best academic and professional elites in the eServices field and other related fields. The success of the First and Second Symposiums held in the previous two years was a driving force to held this third Symposium this year with a hope to reach more useful recommendations and to gain fruitful lessons from the experiments and experiences participating in the working sessions of the Symposium. The organizing Committee has decided to compile all the scientific papers and experiments discussed in the sessions in this Book of Proceedings to make it handy to all those who are interested and working in the eServices field. I ask Allah Almighty to make this work in His sake and to make it useful and to reward everybody participated in it.

Mr. Zarib Saeed AlQahtani


Deputy of the Emirate of the Eastern Province

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

Preface from the Scientific Committee

Preface from the Scientific Committee:


Prof. Mahmoud Ahmed Abdellatif
Editor of the Proceedings and Chairman of the Scientific Committee
All praise is to Allah (SWT) the Facilitator and Provider of all our needs and the source of our guidance. Peace and blessings upon Prophet Mohammad, the Messenger of mercy to all mankind. Following the success of the Second e-Services Symposium in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia which was held in December 2006, comes the Third Symposium in February of this year (2008) reflecting the unlimited interest of His Highness Prince Mohammed Ben Abdulaziz (the Prince of the Eastern Province) and His Deputy His Highness Prince Jalawi Ben Abdulaziz Ben Musaid in the development of new electronic means and methods of conducting services achieving quality, efficiency and easiness and hence, saving the time, effort and energy of the citizens of the Eastern Province. From this conception, the e-Services Symposium has become a regular scientific arena where many specialists and expertise (in the fields of communications, information technology, administration, business, planning, and other related fields) meet each year. Through scientific papers, presentations, discussions, interactions, and healthy exchange of ideas and experiences in the field of e-services; the Symposium has become a prominent step in the ongoing efforts to improve the electronic services practices in the Eastern Province at all planning, design, implementation, and administration and management levels. The symposium provides an opportunity to shed lights on means to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of information management and decision-making processes. It investigates approaches to use the unlimited potentials of e-services to improve the accuracy, objectivity and quality of information and transactions among individuals, agencies and other societal entities. In addition, the Symposium provides a rich platform for spreading the electronic culture and optimizing the use of numerous e-service applications among all individuals and institutions of the society. This cultural awareness will be a basic and necessary key to reach the high e-government status targeted by the Government of Saudi Arabia and the Emirate of the Eastern Province. The Symposium aims to achieve the following objectives:

- Shedding lights on new development in the field of e-Services and their technological, cultural, social and technological impacts. - Studying the role of e-Services in improving and facilitating necessary services of citizens in both rural and urban areas. - Calling for support to efforts of public and private institutions concerned with and heavily involved in the development of e-Services. - Investigating proper means to secure the latest technologies and facilitating their use in improving e-services for citizens. - Building the culture of using e-Services and improving society awareness of the benefits of e-Services usage by governmental, public and private sectors and all citizens of the society. - Exploring major limitations and opportunities facing the e-services field. - Bringing together leading research experts, professionals, and vendors to explore and share their knowledge and expertise in different areas of e-services, contributing to the assessment of recent efforts and propose future directions towards the development of the field.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

VI

Preface from the Scientific Committee

As for the themes of the Symposium, experts from academics, government departments, and practitioners in public and private sectors have submitted papers on the following five themes related to eServices field:

- New technologies and their use in providing e-Services. - Building the e-Services culture and society awareness of it (the role of media, private and governmental sectors and other related entities). - E-Services information security. - Limitations and potentials of e-Services. - E-Services experiences and successes.
The Scientific Committee has received 81 abstracts from five countries (Saudi Arabia, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Algeria). All Abstracts have been reviewed by distinguished referees specialized in the themes of the Symposium. Referees remarks were sent to participants to enhance their work. The review process and refinements of submitted abstracts and papers have concluded into 52 participations (8 scientific research papers, 11 scientific essays, and 32 experiments). Accepted participations have been diversified including: academic research specialists, professional practitioners, individuals, and institutions from private and public sectors. This indicates the spreading nature of the topics dealt with in the Symposium. Due to the exceptionally large number of participants, the Scientific Committee had to apply strict criteria to select only 48 participants to present their papers in person. The program of the Symposium is very intensive; since it only for two full days (mornings and evenings as well). The morning sessions are allocated to the main themes while the evenings are devoted for the workshops of experiments. This book includes all research and working papers presented in the Third eServices Symposium in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The papers are presented in three forms; (1) Refereed Scientific Papers, (2) Useful Essays, and (3) Informal Presentations of experiences. Both the refereed papers and the essays are published in this Book after careful editing. While full versions of presentations are posted on the Symposium web site, only abstracts of the presentations are included in the book. We pray to Allah that the book will be for the benefit of all those who are concerned with the topics of the symposium. We hope that this scientific gathering will help propagate and upgrade the concepts and use of eServices in the Eastern Province, in the Kingdom as a whole, and in other Arab and Muslim Countries. Thanking Allah (SWT), the Scientific Committee wishes the best for all participants and prays to Allah to accept all efforts of other committees and individuals invested to make this Symposium successful and fruitful.

The Scientific Committee

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

VII

Organizing Committees

THE ORGANING COMMITTEES:

THE HIGHER COMMITTEE:

Secretriat Genral of the Symposium Dr Abdullah AlKadi Chairman of eServices Technical Committee of the Eastern Province

Symposium Coordinator Mr. Sameer A AlOfaysan

Symposium Consulting Committee Eng. Abdullah AlArfaj Dr. AbdulAziz Sultan AlMulhem Dr. Ahmed Abdullah AlShoaibi

Symposium Organizing Committee Eng. Nabeel Fahad AlMoejil Chairman Eng. Waheed H. AlQahtani Deputy Chair. Eng. Ezzat Basheer Coordinator Secretary: Mr. AbdulAziz Hijji

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

VIII

Organizing Committees

ORGANIZING COMMITTEES:

Organizing Committee
Eng. Nabeel Fahd Al Mojil Chairman Eng. Waheed Hazzaa Al Qahtani - Deputy Chairman Eng. Ezzat Saad Basheer - Tech. Coordinator of e-Services Mr. Abdulaziz Al-Hijji - Symposium Secretary

Communication & Accommodation Committee


Mr. Moohammed Abdullah Al Yabis - Chairman Mr. Homoud Mohammed Al Otabi - Member Mr. Sami Saud Al Obaidi - Member Mr. Ali Al Haddad - Member Mr. Osama Homoud - Member

Scientific Committee
Prof. Mahmoud A Abdellatif KFU Chairman Prof. Noubi M Hassan KSU Member Dr. Rabee M Reffat KFUPM Member Dr. Mohammed M Maatouk KAU Member Dr. Bhzad Sidawi KFU Member

Exhibition and Sponsors Committee


Mr. Ibraheem Al-Qahtani - Chairman Eng .Moaeid Al-Barqan - Member Eng. Ayman Moftee - Member Eng. Waheed Al-Qahtani - Member

Technical and Registration Committee


Eng. Ezzat Saad Basheer - Chairman Eng. Mohammed Salout - Deputy Chairman Eng. Farouq Saif - Membe

Mr. Sameer Al-Afissan Chairman Mr. AbdulLatif Al-Thuwaini Deputy Chairman

Media Committee

Financial Committee
Mr. Khaled Al-Dosary - Chairman Mr. Khaled Al-Hassan - Deputy Chairman

Ladies Committee
Mrs. Badriah Al Othman - Chairman

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

IX

Organizing Committees

- : - 8002 ,Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February Book of Proceedings

1-Theme One: Advanced Technology Use in eServices

- :

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

1-Theme One: Advanced Technology Use in eServices

- :

- : - 8002 ,Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February Book of Proceedings

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-1 Location Based Electronic Services

Dr. Abdullah H. Alkadi

1-1 LOCATION BASED ELECTRONIC SERVICES

Dr. Abdullah H. Alkadi


Associate Professor College of Urban planning, King Faisal University, Dammam Email: al_kadi@yahoo.com

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
In the expanding domain of electronic services, the concept of "geographic location" gained a distinguished status among other promising electronic services. This is because a geographic location is inherently digitized. It is based on longitude-latitude coordinate's character. One of the consequences of this concept is the automatic benefit gained by Location Based Services (LBS) from the shift in technology to digital systems. Based upon location based services (LBS), a new unified addressing system can be established which is extremely helpful to a wide range of civil services. It can be shown to have numerous benefits in addition to unification of older fashion addressing schemes as used by municipalities, electric, water and telephone companies. The most important is the full compatibility with digital services transmitted by new communication devices like mobile phones and GPS's. The new addressing system is to be considered as a base addressing standard irrespective of the type of service. That is why it resolves location conflicts among competing services. It is also automatically projected onto civil maps for all considered services. This is very useful for maintenance and development.

Keywords:
E-Services, Location Based Services, Civil Services, Addressing Systems.

Biography:
Dr. Abdullah Alkadi is an associate professor in the college of Architecture and Urban planning, King Faisal University Al Dammam. He is in charge of numerous official duties, some of these are: secretary general of the Society of Benevolence; Secretary General of Prince Mohammad bin Fahd prize for charity services; General Supervisor for Prince Mohammad Projects for Affordable Housing; member of the Supreme Committee for Geographic Information System in the Eastern Province; Secretary General of the 3rd e-Services Symposium in the Eastern Province; and Head of the Technical Committee of the e-Services of the Eastern Province Governance. Dr. Alkadi has published numerous refereed papers and participated in many conferences and symposia in the Kingdom and abroad.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-2 A Strategic Approach for Municipal Eservices: the Case of Building Development Divisions Dr. Rabee M. Reffat

1-2 A STRATEGIC APPROACH FOR MUNICIPAL ESERVICES: THE CASE OF BUILDING DEVELOPMENT DIVISIONS Dr. Rabee M. Reffat
Architecture Department, College of Environmental Design, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia Email: rabee@kfupm.edu.sa & rabee.reffat@gmail.com

This paper was presented in the symposium, then refereed and accepted for publication in this Proceedings Book as a Scientific Research Paper in its final form as follows:

Abstract:
Municipal services for the Building Development Divisions at various places worldwide have recently opted for the concept of e-services. Discussions about the importance of strategic planning consistently emerge in literature on e-government, innovation, and information technology implementation. With regard to municipal e-services this might include finding out what online services residents and businesses of the municipality consider to be most useful. This paper introduces a strategic approach for municipal e-services in general and for the Building Development Divisions in particular that aims at improving communications between the Municipality, its partners and citizens; improving learning and workplace skills; and improving the ways in which the Municipality organizes and delivers its services. Such e-services might include e-Plan Status, e-Permits, e-Inspections, e-Inspection Schedule, e-Notifications, e-Building Development and others based on users need within a user-centered approach. The approach introduced in this paper consists of seven primary components: (a) restructuring of business processes; (b) user-centered focus; (c) external partnership; (d) operation framework; (e) efficient and reliable ICT infrastructure of service delivery; (f) community of learners; and (g) plan for progressive development of e-services. These components are sorted based on their logical sequence. The paper articulates these components that can be used as practical measures for municipalities that are currently offering or planning to offer e-services for its Building Development Division. The position of e-services and its location in relation to the e-government schema is addressed. The scope of eservices in terms of nature of business and nature of participants is articulated in an interrelationship matrix format. Furthermore, three models of delivering e-services are introduced along with the potential benefits of delivering effective e-services.

Keywords:
Municipal e-Services, Strategic Approach, Building Development Divisions.

Biography:
Dr. Reffat is specializing in the field of Architecture and Design Computing and currently works at the Architecture Dept., KFUPM, Saudi Arabia. Dr. Reffat earned his PhD in Architecture and Design Computing from the University of Sydney, Australia. Dr. Reffat has published one edited book, three book chapters and over 50 refereed journal and conference papers. His expertise include digital design in practice and education, using artificial intelligence and machine learning, intelligent and smart buildings, knowledge management, and virtual design studios in architecture, maintenance and construction. Dr. Reffat has successfully managed and completed research projects funded by Australian Research Council, University of Sydney and the CRC Construction Innovation in Australia, and currently from KFUPM and KACST in Saudi Arabia. Dr. Reffat has a substantial design experience in the building and construction industry and contributed in designing major buildings in Australia, Saudi Arabia and Egypt.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-2 A Strategic Approach for Municipal Eservices: the Case of Building Development Divisions Dr. Rabee M. Reffat

1- INTRODUCTION The advancement of digital connectivity and the significant improvements in information technology are revolutionizing the ways in which businesses are conducted and services are delivered. These developments have paved the road to both improving the quality and expanding the scope of e-government initiatives worldwide. One of the major foci of e-government initiatives is realizing the connections and interrelationships among government, citizens, and businesses to deliver automated services (e-Services). eServices can be viewed as Internet-based applications that fulfill service needs by seamlessly bringing together distributed and specialized resources to enable complex and real-time transactions. Examples of eservices include supply chain management, customer relationship management, accounting, order processing, resource management and other many other services that are electronically delivered through the Internet. A common argument in the e-government literature is that the true potential of e-services initiatives will not be achieved as long as ICT (Information and Communication Technology) tools involved in providing these initiatives merely used by to automate existing processes provided by government agencies. Hence, in order to develop beneficial and successful e-services, government agencies may have to reevaluate their mission, management practices, and the way their existing tasks are carried out; let alone developing a strategic plan to achieve such a mission. Municipal services for the Building Development Divisions at various places worldwide have recently opted for the concept of e-services. In the local context, the e-Government initiative of Dubai Municipality that aims to have maximum online clients to improve customer service, processes, and reduce costs by saving time, money and efforts. The new services include some 42 services related to the Building Licensing Section of the civic body's Building Department in such fields as obtaining permissions for amendments to the existing buildings, licenses for excavation works, and various other licenses. The new online services include those related to obtaining licenses for making amendments in an existing building, licenses for excavation or foundation works, changing consultant before issuance of a building license, cancelling licensing transaction, extending validity of approved designs, renewing building license, license for painting works, license for maintenance works, license for temporary fencing, reimbursing deposits, minor amendments, license for decoration works, and license for demolition of buildings. On the other hand, discussions about the importance of strategic planning consistently emerge in literature on e-government, innovation, and information technology implementation. With regard to municipal e-services this might include finding out what online services residents and businesses of the municipality consider to be most useful. This paper introduces a strategic approach of municipal e-services for the Building Development Divisions. In addition the paper addresses locating e-services with the egovernment schema, scope and benefits of e-services, and models of e-services. 2- LOCATING E-SERVICES WITHIN THE E-GOVERNMENT SCHEMA e-Government means different things for different people. Some simply define it as digital governmental information or a way of engaging in digital transactions with customers. For others e-Government simply consists of the creation of a web site where information about political and governmental issues is presented. These narrow ways of defining and conceptualizing e-Government restrict the range of opportunities it offers. One of the reasons why many e-Government initiatives fail is related to the narrow definition and poor understanding of the e-Government concept, processes and functions. e-Government is a multidimensional and complex concept, which requires a broad definition and understanding, in order to be able to design and implement a successful strategy. The crucial element of various definitions of eGovernment used in the literature is the use of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) tools to reinvent the public sector by transforming its internal and external way of doing things and its interrelationships with customers and the business community. The analysis of these definitions allows us to individuate the main issues and components that characterize an e-Government framework, such as [1]: - Transformation areas (internal, external, relational); - Users, customers, actors and their interrelationships (citizens, businesses, government organizations, employees);

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-2 A Strategic Approach for Municipal Eservices: the Case of Building Development Divisions Dr. Rabee M. Reffat

- e-Government application schema (e-services, e-democracy, e-administration). The target of e-Government encompasses four main groups: citizens, businesses, governments (other governments and public agencies) and employees. The electronic transactions and interactions between government and each group constitute the e-Government web of relationships and the respective four main blocks of e-Government, that are: Government to Citizens (G2C); Government to Business (G2B); Government to Government (G2G); and Government to Employees (G2E) [1]. Furthermore, the exploitation and implementation of complex webs of inter-relationships in e-Government requires three main application domains for [2]: - e-Administration: for automation and computerization of administrative tasks and for realization of strategic connections among internal processes, departments and functions. - e-Citizens and e-Services: to realize connections and interrelationships among governments and citizens and to deliver automated services. - e-Society: to enable relationships and interactions beyond boundaries, among public agencies, private sector and civil community in general. These three application domains should be considered as overlapping and e-Services can be found in the overlapping area of these three application domains as illustrated in Figure 1, demonstrating the complexities and heterogeneities needed to be handled for assuring its success. Hence, e-Services applications can be seen as instruments for two-way communication between citizens and one or more governmental agencies.

Figure 1. Locating e-Services within the e-Government schema [1]

3- SCOPE AND BENEFITS OF E-SERVICES It is suggested that it is not the resources that a firm has, but the services that those resources render that are of value [3]. e-Services offer the opportunity to electronically outsource non-core IT functions without the traditional lock-ins and coordination overhead involved in outsourcing systems and electronic services. If the transformation of software into service is indeed occurring, information systems development approaches must resemble the processes used by service firms more than product firms. In service industries, customers dont buy products or services. They buy results [4]. The quality of the processes for delivering those results is of critical import in sustaining their competitiveness their and eventual success. The scope of e-services can be classified according to the nature of business activity and the nature of participants. The nature of participants includes: business-to-consumer (B2C), business-to business (B2B), and consumer-to-consumer (C2C). The nature of business activity includes: physical, digital and pure service. Figure 2 illustrates a matrix classification of both the nature of business activity and the nature of participants. An articulation of the scope of e-Services with examples explaining the matrix relationships is as follows [5].
Physical: The primary product-process supported by the e-service is a physical good, and the service itself is concerned with its assembly, design, aggregation, or delivery. For example, FedExs package tracking services (B2C) focus on package delivery and tracking, Dells supply chain management services focus on aggregating parts and components from across its suppliers on the back end (B2B)

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-2 A Strategic Approach for Municipal Eservices: the Case of Building Development Divisions Dr. Rabee M. Reffat

Digital:

Pure Service:

and managing their delivery to customers on the front end (B2C), and eBays auction service manages transactions of physical goods (and occasionally purely digital goods) among buyers and sellers (C2C). The primary end product delivered by the eservice is a digital information product. Such products are assembled digital goods that exist primarily in electronic form. Examples of such services include Beyond.coms aggregation of purchasable and electronically delivered software published by hundreds of different software publishers (B2C), services such as Employease that help businesses build payroll records for their employees (B2B), and services such as Napster and Gnutella.com that facilitate consumer-to-consumer trade of digitized information products (C2C). The end product for some services is neither a packaged information product nor a physical artifact. These are pure services in the true sense of the word. E*Trade, and Amazon.coms customer interest profiler, RebateCentrals rebate tracker are examples of such e-services in the B2C arena. In the B2B arena, application service providers and Web-delivered ERP services exemplify these services; and Thirdvoice.coms C2C distributed real-time discussion system exemplifies these in the C2C context

These distinctions are not always very clear. In many cases an input might be digital but the output might be physical. A case in point is OfficeMaxs NowDocs eservice that allows customers to upload digital documents that the company prints, binds, and ships according to the options selected by the customer. Similarly, some of these e-services might be simultaneously classified in more than one category. A complementary way of classifying such services is mapping them in a three-dimensional space according to the relative proportion of physical and electronic components in them. This way, the physical-digital characteristic can be treated as a continuum rather than a collection of discrete states. Once such services are mapped accordingly, clusters of similar services can help determine their design, fulfillment, and delivery similarities [5].

Figure 2. The Scope of e-Services in a matrix classification of both nature of participants (B2C (Business to Customer); B2B (Business to Business); and C2C (Customer to Customer)), and nature of business activity (Physical, digital, and pure service) [5].

The potential benefits of e-Services include providing opportunities for economic development and playing a critical role in rapid economic change, productive capacity improvements and business
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-2 A Strategic Approach for Municipal Eservices: the Case of Building Development Divisions Dr. Rabee M. Reffat

competitiveness. e-Services support core business processes such as supply chain management, coordination, inventory management, purchasing, call center management, distribution, work flow management, and order fulfillment functions is clear. e-Services attempt to offer various capabilities with flexibility, adaptability, and cost-effectiveness. They also support linkages across multitudinous stakeholders (suppliers, vendors, retailers) within the firms business web [6] without the traditional lock-ins that are associated with large investments in specialized, custom developed information systems. The modular nature of e-Services facilitates alliance formation, transactional switching, and delivery of adaptable, flexible, and scalable, endto-end technology architectures for client businesses [7]. Benefits of e-Services that can be reaped by its users include: (a) Quality of service delivery to businesses and customers; (b) Transparency, anticorruption, accountability; (c) Improve the quality of decision making; and (d) Promote use of ICT in other sectors of the society. Putting services on-line substantially decreases the processing costs of many activities compared with the manual way of handling operations. For example, it costs the US Inland Revenue Service $1.60 to process a paper tax form, but only $0.40 to process an electronic form [8]. The appropriate application of eServices may possibly reduce the number of inefficiencies in processes by allowing file and data sharing across government departments, thereby contributing to the elimination of mistakes from manual procedures, reducing the required time for transactions. Efficiency is also attained by streamlining internal processes, by enabling faster and more informed decision making, and by speeding up transaction processing. For instance, in Beijings Business e-Park, the latest computer and Internet technologies are applied to improve the efficiency and responsiveness of government. If businesses choose to use this system, they can reduce the time required for gaining approval for specific applications from 2-3 months to few days [9]. 4- MODELS OF eSERVICES There are various models of e-Services for which it is strategically important to realize their differences and select the most appropriate model that suits specific services planned to be launched electronically. Herein, some of the most common models are introduced; namely the Generic Exchange Model (GEM), the communication model of public e-Services, and the functional access point e-Services respectively. 4-1 The Generic Exchange Model The generic exchange model describes the business interaction between customers and suppliers. A business transaction can be divided into four generic phases: proposal phase, commitment (contract) phase, fulfillment phase, and assessment phase as graphically illustrated in Figure 3. The business transaction is a dyadic interaction between one customer and one supplier. This is related to market interaction with several customers and several suppliers. The business interaction consists of social actions of different characters. In the generic exchange model context is generalized to cover both commercial and governmental settings, generic actions of the inter-actors in the different phases are explicitly stated, and infrastructure elements are integrated [10]. 4-2 The Communication Model of Public e-Services An e-service application is encountered by the citizen through a user interface. A communication model of public e-services is illustrated in Figure 4. This model is part of the practical theory on information systems actability. In information systems actability theory, information systems are seen as instruments for technology mediated work communication. Communication is performed through a user interface, which thus is conceived to be an action and communication medium. A user interface consists of different communication parts. A user interface contains some descriptions of what action possibilities there are available. Sometimes, such action possibilities may be implicit and even concealed. An e-service application consists usually of possibilities for a citizen to read information (i.e. to get information from a governmental agency) and to submit something to the agency. Communication between citizens and a governmental agency is afforded by an e-service application. The action repertoire of the e-Services applications is their communicative affordances. Different types of actions may be performed through e-Services applications; for example a citizen applying for child care, a municipality offers a place on a day nursery, a citizen accepting or declining such an offer. Such communicative actions are performance-based in their functions [10].
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-2 A Strategic Approach for Municipal Eservices: the Case of Building Development Divisions Dr. Rabee M. Reffat

Figure 3. The generic exchange model of e-Services [10].

Figure 4. The communication model of public e-Services [10].

4-3 The Functional Development Model Lane & Lee [11] have proposed a functional development model that can be utilized for e-Services and includes four stages: cataloguing, transaction, vertical integration, and horizontal integration as shown in Figure 5. Each subsequent stage represents a higher level of complexity and integration of e-Services. The functional development model that can be successfully adopted for e-Services is the one that attempts to achieve complete integration and sophisticated technological and organizational complexity; that is the upper right corner in the graph shown in Figure 5.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-2 A Strategic Approach for Municipal Eservices: the Case of Building Development Divisions Dr. Rabee M. Reffat

Figure 5. Functional Development Model that can be adopted for e-Services [11].

5- A STRATEGIC APPROACH OF MUNICIPAL ESERVICES FOR BUILDING DEVELOPMENT DIVISION In the traditional model of public service delivery, the procedures are long, time consuming and lack transparency. A business that wishes to obtain a license or a permit for building development has to fill out a number of application forms, has to visit a number of different offices and spend a considerable amount of time. If a citizen wishes to be issued with a certificate or any other official document, he or she will have to travel to the central government office, go to different offices and spend a lot of time for a simple service. The consequences are high costs and citizen and business dissatisfaction. The e-Services initiative puts government services online, thereby reducing the bureaucracy, offers around the clock accessibility, fast and convenient transactions, and obviously enhances the quality of services, in terms of time, content and accessibility. For small municipalities especially, the planning stages of e-Services may amount to triage; i.e. which specific municipal functions and services can a municipality afford to implement (or which services can they afford not to implement) given the costs of technology and technological competence. In order to make informed decisions, municipalities can and should establish, develop, and/or adopt a strategic approach for their e-Services. In such approach municipalities should go beyond simply posting information. They should create an interactive mechanism so citizens are able to complete transactions online that are called transactional services. Examples range from single exchanges, such as paying a parking ticket online, to a more complex series of exchanges, such as an appeal of a property tax assessment. The challenges include overcoming cultural barriers, enabling seamless service by ensuring departments are able to work collaboratively to integrate services, and protecting personal privacy online. Cultural change does not occur easily or rapidly. Municipalities must take steps to ensure that their citizens are willing and able to use the technology. The overall strategy for content selection should be developed up front. It should reflect a corporate perspective, and it should be anchored in a clear awareness of the concerns and needs of citizens. Strategic planning involves setting organizational goals and objectives and developing strategies for achieving them. An important purpose of strategic planning is also to determine the needs of customers and to develop approaches for meeting these needs in the most effective and efficient way. With regard to municipal e-Services this would mean finding out what online services residents and businesses of the
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-2 A Strategic Approach for Municipal Eservices: the Case of Building Development Divisions Dr. Rabee M. Reffat

municipality consider to be most useful. One of the best mechanisms of doing this, most often emphasized in the literature, is to conduct citizen surveys. Strategic planning is directly linked to business process reengineering. A major goal of reengineering is to overcome an approach to ICT implementation known as technological determinism. Technological determinism occurs when government agencies merely automate their existing processes with an expectation that this alone would lead to cost savings and increased efficiency. Most importantly and in order to develop a functional e-Services, agencies may have to reevaluate their mission, management practices, and the way their existing tasks are carried out. The results of reengineering include, among others, change in the number and role of staff, increased efficiency, reduction in operating costs. The strategic approach proposed herein is substantially developed by the author based on the e-Services strategy summary statement of the city of Wakefield Metropolitan District Council, UK [13]. The primary objectives of proposed strategic approach include: improving communications between the Municipality, its partners and citizens; improving learning and workplace skills; and improving the ways in which the Municipality organizes and delivers its services. The delivery of these objectives requires a radical approach that demands strategic co-ordination at the highest levels and close working relationships with all parties. The components and their sequence of the proposed strategic approach for delivering effective e-Services in general and for Building development Divisions in particular are depicted in Figure 6 and include: (a) restructuring of business processes; (b) user-centered focus; (c) external partnership; (d) operation framework; (e) efficient and reliable ICT infrastructure of service delivery; (f) community of learners; and (g) plan for progressive development of e-services. These components are sorted based on their logical sequence and articulated as follows:

Restructuring of Business Processes User-centered Focus

Progressive Development

A Strategic Approach to Municipal e-Services


Operation Framework

External Partnership

Community of Learners

ICT Infrastructure

Figure 6. Components and their sequence of the proposed strategic approach for delivering effective e-Services in general and for Building development Divisions in particular [source: Author]
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-2 A Strategic Approach for Municipal Eservices: the Case of Building Development Divisions Dr. Rabee M. Reffat

(a) Restructuring of Business Processes: Restructuring of Business Processes is a key to achieving the best business advantage for the Municipality. The restructuring involves reevaluating Municipalitys mission, management practices, and the way its existing tasks are carried out. The results of restructuring and reengineering include, among others, change in the number and role of staff, increased efficiency, reduction in operating costs (b) User-centered Focus: Citizens increasingly want more choice in the way they receive access to services from public sector organizations. In response, the Municipality should contribute to the development and delivery of public services around the needs of the citizen, with equality achieved through investment in libraries and key municipal buildings, providing training, free computer use, broadband connection and telephone access. All access channels should be supported by a fully integrated corporate CRM solution. A user-centered focus requires identifying online services for residents and businesses of the municipality that they consider to be most useful. This can be conducting through citizens and businesses surveys. For instance, examples of eservices that are required to be offered by the Building Development Division at Prince William County Government, Virginia, USA are shown in Table 1. Table 1. Examples of e-services that are required to be offered by the Building Development Division at Prince William County Government, Virginia, USA [14].
ePlanStatus www.pwcgov.org/ePlanStatus ePermits www.pwcgov.org/ePermits

Find your Plan Review Status View comment letters & approvals Find out when your plans and permits are ready for pick-up and what you need to bring when picking them up eInspections www.pwcgov.org/eInspections

Apply for Residential Trade permits online (requires qualified trade license) Pay for permits (via electronic checking payment system) Print out your permits from your computer eInspectionSchedule www.pwcgov.org/eInspectionSchedule Find the order in which your inspector will get to you Find out who your inspector is

Schedule, reschedule & cancel inspections View inspection status, results and comments Find your unpaid fee amount

eNotifications www.pwcgov.org/eNotifications

Confirm which inspections your inspector has completed eBuildingDevelopmentForms www.pwcgov.org/eBuildingDevelopmentForms

Sign up to receive electronic notification of changes to building permitting rules and regulations (choose Building Permit Regulation Update Notifications)

Easy access to all Building Development forms Fill in and print out forms before submitting them (all forms are in fillable PDF format)

(c) External Partnership: The need for effective external partnerships is essential for a successful implementation of the strategic approach through joint commissioning and delivery of services and performance management. This should help in providing a clear view of how ICT will play an important part in the development and implementation of e-Services and identifying the most appropriate e-Services model to be adopted. (d) Operation Framework: The operation framework should provide an integrated and agile ICT service to meet the needs of users and the modern technical architecture. The result of an assessment of current business situation, circumstances and readiness to adopt e-Services should be taken into consideration while developing the operation framework. Development of the operation framework outlines the prioritization of ICT investment, and provides a gateway style challenge on all major projects and programs.
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

10

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-2 A Strategic Approach for Municipal Eservices: the Case of Building Development Divisions Dr. Rabee M. Reffat

(e) Efficient and reliable ICT Infrastructure of Service Delivery: The establishment of ICT infrastructure and supported systems must drive out efficiencies and benefits, ensure quality and timeliness of information, and streamline or remove processes. The upgrade of key e-Services systems is quite crucial for achieving efficient service delivery. The ICT infrastructure and its supporting systems need to set the foundations for self service, which will allow the management to reap increased efficiency through empowering managers, staff and citizens to access all information, systems and training anytime and from anywhere. (f) Community of Learners: The provision of training and investment in staff, members and citizens should be a major strategic goal of the Municipality and necessary to realize the benefits from introducing new technologies. Through e-learning developments on Municipalitys Intranet, increasing staff percentage receiving comprehensive training in a proactive, innovative and cost efficient manner will pave the road for a community of learners. (g) Plan for Progressive Development of e-Services: As a first step towards progressive development of eServices, the implementation of above components of the proposed strategic approach should be fully documented, along with a structure in place to manage standards, interoperability, and future change. Close collaboration with external partners (component (c) above), to provide external challenge on the technologies used and advise on how they should be installed and configured, acting as a critical-supporter in evaluating current and future needs. Compatibility and stable integration is an important key to the speed of joint working within the Municipality and with external partners.

6- Conclusion The e-Services initiative puts government services online, thereby reducing the bureaucracy, offers around the clock accessibility, fast and convenient transactions, and obviously enhances the quality of services, in terms of time, content and accessibility. In order to make informed decisions, municipalities can and should establish, develop, and/or adopt a strategic approach for their e-Services. Strategic planning involves setting organizational goals and objectives and developing strategies for achieving them. An important purpose of strategic planning is also to determine the needs of customers and to develop approaches for meeting these needs in the most effective and efficient way. This paper introduced a strategic approach for Municipal e-Services in general and Building Development Divisions in particular that aims at improving communications between the Municipality, its partners and citizens; improving learning and workplace skills; and improving the ways in which the Municipality organizes and delivers its services. The strategic approach introduced in this paper consists of seven primary components: (a) restructuring of business processes; (b) user-centered focus; (c) external partnership; (d) operation framework; (e) efficient and reliable ICT infrastructure of service delivery; (f) community of learners; and (g) plan for progressive development of e-services. The paper articulated these components that can be used as practical measures for municipalities that are currently offering or planning to offer e-services for its Building Development Division. Such e-services might include e-Plan Status, ePermits, e-Inspections, e-Inspection Schedule, e-Notifications, e-Building Development and others based on users need within a user-centered approach. 7- REFERENCES
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Ndou, V. (2004), E-Government for developing countries: opportunities and challenges, The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries, 18, 1, 1-24. Heeks, R. (2001), Understanding e-Governance for Development, i-Government Working Papers, http://idpm.ac.uk/wp/igov_wp11.htm Penrose, E. (1959), The Theory of the Growth of the Firm, Basil Blackwell, Oxford. Heskett, J., Sasser, W. and Schlesinger, L. (1997), The Service Profit Chain: How Leading Companies Link Profit and Growth to Loyalty, Satisfaction, and Value, The Free Press, New York. Tiwana, A. and Ramesh, B. (2001), e-Services: Problems, Opportunities, and Digital Platforms, Proceedings of the 34th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. D. Tapscott, D. Ticoll, and A. Lowy, (2000), Digital Capital: Harnessing the Power of Business Webs, Harvard Business School Press, Boston. Seybold, P. (1999), Preparing for the e-Services Revolution, Patricia Seybold Group, Boston Customers.com Report, April 30, 1999. Al-Kibsi, G., De Boer, K., Mourshed, M. and Rea, P.R. (2001), Putting Citizens Online, Not In- line, The McKinsey Quarterly, 2, http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/article_page.asp?tk=:1004:&articlenum=1004.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

11

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-2 A Strategic Approach for Municipal Eservices: the Case of Building Development Divisions Dr. Rabee M. Reffat

[9] [10] [11] [12]

[13] [14]

[9] Lin, M., Zhu, R. and Hachigian, N. (2001), Beijing's Business E-Park, World Bank, http://www1.worldbank.org/publicsector/egov/zhongguancun_cs.htm [10] Goldkuhl, G. (2007), What does it mean to service the citizen in e-services?, International Journal of Public Information Systems, vol 2007:3, pp. 135-159. [11] Lane, K. and Lee, J. (2001), Developing fully functional e-government: A four stage model, Government information quarterly, 18: 122-136. [12] Pavlichev, A. (2004), The effects of internal characteristics of municipal government agencies and environmental factors of municipalities on the scope and quality of municipal e-government initiatives: developing an integrated approach, PhD Thesis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA. [13] Jones, A. e-Services strategy summary statement of the city of Wakefield Metropolitan District Council, http://www.wakefield.gov.uk/CouncilAndDemocracy/Policy/eServices/default.htm [14] Building Development Division eServices, Building Development Division at Prince William County Government, Virginia, USA, http://www.pwcgov.org/default.aspx?topic=010064999990001696

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

12

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-3 Radio Frequency Identification (Rfid) for Automating Business Processes

Eng. Mahmod S. Al-Muhamed

1-3 RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION (RFID) FOR AUTOMATING BUSINESS PROCESSES

Eng. Mahmod S. Al-Muhamed


Communications Engineer Communications Engineer & Technical Support Department (CE&TSD, Saudi Aramco) muhamems@aramco.com.sa

This paper was presented in the symposium, then refereed and accepted for publication in this Proceedings Book as a Scientific Research Paper in its final form as follows:

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to provide a brief explanation of RFID technologies, potential applications and some of RFID case studies. It explains two types namely: Passive and Active technologies, their definitions, RFID components and Architecture Design. Furthermore, it demonstrates the ISO 18000 standards, EPC standards, RFID based on 802.11 standards, frequency, Read Range, Data Rate and other related technical issues. The paper uses a case study of business developing stage to explain the RFID project life cycle from planning, design, test up to the maintenance and support. Additionally, the paper focuses on global potential applications and provides marketing analysis for a variety of RFID technologies and demonstrates a number of business cases. Finally, the paper highlights potential applications of RFID technologies at Saudi Aramco, types of RFID technologies that would be used and the expected RFID Architecture Design at Saudi Aramco.

Keywords:
RFID, Active Tag, Passive Tag , ISO 18000.

Biography:
Mr Al-Muhamed graduated from King Fahd University of Petroleum& Minerals (KFUPM) as a computer engineer in 1999. He joined Saudi Aramco, Communication Engineering& Technical Support Department (CE&TSD) in 2000. During my worker on communications services, he was assigned to develop technical specifications for wireless data equipments for the next five years. Thus, he was promoted to a Project leader that is responsible for the deployment of around 2000 internal access points and 140 external access across the company. He was appointed to develop a Wireless Services& Mobile Computing Infrastructure Roadmap for Saudi Aramco. The roadmap consists of an analysis of the excising mobility infrastructure, business drivers, target services, future mobility architecture and recommended technologies such as RFID, WIFI, WiMax and 3G. It suggests new communication services to Saudi Aramco which would resolve a number of exiting wireless problems. Mr Al-Muhamed has taken the responsibility to pilot RFID project for assets management of the medical department and the automation of the warehouses business processes. The potential work includes the initiation of voice technology over WLAN with possible integration of the wireless infrastructure with telephone switching system.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

13

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-3 Radio Frequency Identification (Rfid) for Automating Business Processes

Eng. Mahmod S. Al-Muhamed

1. INTRODUCTION: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) contributes directly on improving business processes by automating identity and data capture on any object. RIFD is able to reduce error rate, enhance business processes life-cycle and provide real time tracking for any items that can be tagged. Recently, the industry introduced RFID applications and solutions that suite variety of business requirements. Asset management is one of the major RFID applications deployed for warehouses, medical institutes and enterprises. The development on RFID solutions has moved beyond assets management. It started penetrating into other business applications. Companies and enterprises deploy RFID technologies for various access control, postal identification, airlines baggage screening, animal tracking and admissions ticketing. RFID requires extensive efforts during the development and implementation phases. Moreover, RFID technology selection stage is the most critical stage during design phase. After successful RFID deployment, business and operation sectors will realize immediate business benefit and proven Return on Investment (ROI). 2- RFID FUNCTIONALITY & TECHNOLOGIES The definition of the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is to capture the identity of objects automatically using radio waves and transfer the information wirelessly to back-end applications. The RFID system includes tags, readers, antennas, middleware and other peripherals as illustrated in Figure (3.1).

Figure (3.1): RFID Architecture Components

The industry has divided RFID technologies to three major concepts based on the power source as follows: 1) Passive, 2) Semi-passive, and 3) Active. Each of these technologies uses different standards, frequencies, data rates, power consumption and sizes. 2-1 RFID Tags (Transponder): RFID tag (Transponder) is located on the objects for identification and to store specific data related to the object. Tag is composed of chip (Integrated Circuit), antenna and power source as details below: Tag Antenna: it receives the signals from the reader and radiates a response back to the reader.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

14

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-3 Radio Frequency Identification (Rfid) for Automating Business Processes

Eng. Mahmod S. Al-Muhamed

Power Source: Tags require power to communicate with readers. Tags can obtain this power from electromagnetic waves released by readers or from a built-in battery. The tags power requirements depend on different factors, which are: operating distance between the tag and the reader, the radio frequency used and tag functionality. Based on the power source, tags are categorized as follows: Passive: This type draws power from the reader device that sends out electromagnetic waves, Figure (3.2).

Figure (3.2): Passive RFID Tags

Active: Power source is provided through a battery that is used to run the microchip circuit inside the tag which broadcast the signals to the RFID readers, Figure (3.3).

Figure (3.3): Active RFID Tags

Semi-Passive: It includes a battery to run the microchip circuit but communicate by drawing power from the reader. This design reduces time for tag to response and can increase its read range.

2-2 RFID READER (Interrogators): RFID Reader or interrogator provides radios signals and receive signals from the tag in order for reader to read and write to the tag. Reader consists of: Receiver (amplifier and demodulator) Transmitter (Modulator and Power amplifier) Oscillator Controller/processor

The industry supplies market with multiple types of RFID reader, starting from Fixed, Mobile, Handheld up to PCMCIA Readers, in order to meet business needs and operations requirements, Figure (3.4).

Figure (3.4): RFID Reader Types

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

15

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-3 Radio Frequency Identification (Rfid) for Automating Business Processes

Eng. Mahmod S. Al-Muhamed

2-3 RFID FREQUENCIES: RFID system operates at different frequency bands based on the functionally and application requirements as summarize on the below Table (3.1):
Table (3.1): Passive and Active Technologies Summarization Low Frequency (LF) Frequency Range <135 KHz High Frequency (HF) 13.56 MHz Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Passive: 860-930 MHz Active: 433 MHz Passive: Auto-ID Class 0 Auto-ID Class 1 EPCglobal Gen 2 ISO 18000-6 Active: 18000-7 From 32 bits to 4k bits Both read-only or read / write tags 28kbps 0.002 second Passive: 2-5m Active: 100m Backscatter (Electric or Far field) Asset tracking Supply Chain Logistics. Microwave

2.4GHz

Standards

ISO 18000-2

ISO 14443 ISO 15693 ISO 18000-3

ISO 802.11 ISO 18000-4

Data Capacity

Low data capacity from 64 bits to 2k bits Read-only or read/write tags Low data transfer less than 1 kbits/s 0.5 second quite slow! Passive: 0.5m Active : 2m Inductive coupling (Near field) de variety of tag forms Manufacturing Large vehicle Container Access Control, Animal

From 512 bits to 8k bits Both read-only or read / write tags 25kbps 0.002 second Passive: 1.2m Inductive coupling (Magnetic or Near field) Airline baggage, Library Laundry

From 128 bits to 32kbit Read-only or read / write tags up to 1 Mbps 0.3 second Passive: 2-5m Active: 30m Backscatter (Electric or Far field) Vehicles, Factory, Access control, Road tolling

Read-write Capability Data transfer Time to Read Range

Power Source

Some Applications

3- RFID TECHNOLOGY SELECTION & DESIGN: The RFID implementation is more than just establishing potential locations of RFID reader and antenna. It requires assessment and analysis of business process, integrates components to network infrastructure and environmental influence that may affect the implementation. The deployment of RFID requires forming a team, which consist of business subject matters experts, applications developers and communications engineers. The team should work together in all stages. The RFID deployment, which consists of the following stages: Business Processes Analysis: to establish a baseline by identifying and analyzing the current business process called As-Is. The result of the analysis will be used to optimize the business processes by eliminating non-added value tasks and redesign the business processes called To-Be. Site Survey: to collect info on RF interference, environmental issues, network infrastructure, physical location of the RFID devices and power. Technology Selection: to identify the RFID functionally, frequency selection, RFID tags type (passive, active), data rate, read range, RFID protocol, standards, middleware selection, centralize management and
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

16

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-3 Radio Frequency Identification (Rfid) for Automating Business Processes

Eng. Mahmod S. Al-Muhamed

RFID network security. This stage is considered as the most important and critical stage from the whole lifecycle of the RFID deployment. Implementation: to integrate middleware to existing applications, install RFID devices, connect devices to networks and perform equipment configurations. At this stage the difficult decisions has been made. Test: to define success factors that indicate the expected result is achieved by performing different test scenarios starting by testing the readers connectivity, tag reach by the readers, middleware ability to filter tags, applications receive tags details. Maintenance: RFID devices require continues by through centralized management system for monitoring, IOS updates and new features deployment. 3.1 Design Scenarios The deployment of RFID functionalities will follow the lifecycle, explained in section 4.1, but each stage will be different depending on the operations nature. The following design scenarios were selected as samples: Warehouses Design: RFID system is deployed at warehouses for assets management. This functionality can be achieved by a collection of RFID technologies such as passive UHF and active tags. Additionally, the protocols can be different based on the standards, for instance, the deployment might have Gan2 standard and using Wi-Fi coverage for active tag based on 802.11 standards. Healthcare Design: RFID technology is deployed in medical institute to mange medical assets through Real Time Location System (RTLS) based on Wi-Fi (802.11) standard. Whereas, the Passive technology is deployed to track blood- samples using High Frequency (HF). Moreover, the format and the characteristics of a tag can be customized based on the objects, size and data capacity 3.2 Deployment concerns & Recommendation RIFD technologies deployments can be deployed across the enterprises such as healthcare, logistics, manufacturing and retailers. Therefore, some of the concerns have been addressed to be considered during the selection of RFID systems and technologies, Figure 4.3: RFID Middleware: to integrate RIFD components to the network, offer development tools, handle data movement from readers to applications and perform data filtering and aggregation. Management: to manage RFID components though cartelize application for real-time monitoring, operating system update, configuration and events reporting. Flexibility: to support verity of standards and protocols, support new tags formats and ability to add custom logic to extend functionality. 4- RFID APPLICATIONS AND MARKET STATISTICS Today, RFID applications and solutions effect the whole business environments by increasing productivity, improving security, preventing errors, automating data collections and object identity and achieving compliance. 4-1 RFID Market ANALYSiS and forecast The RFID market is promising and the projections for RFID business grows strongly from $2.8 billion in 2006 to $26 billion in 2016 and the market will rise to $27.88 Billion in 2017. The number of RFID tags has been sold for last 60 years is 3.752 billion, 27% of that number were sold in 2006 as listed in Table (4.3) and 19% in 2005. In 2007, IDTechEx expect 1.71 billion tags will be sold and total RFID market value (including all hardware, systems, integration etc) across all countries will be $4.96 Billion. In 2008 6.8 billion tags will be sold for baggage, animals, books, tickets and other non retail markets and 15.3 billion tags for pallets/cases. RFID interrogators will reach $1.14 billion in 2008 for EPC interrogators and $0.75 billion in the same year for other interrogators, such as Near Field Communication interrogators.
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

17

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-3 Radio Frequency Identification (Rfid) for Automating Business Processes

Eng. Mahmod S. Al-Muhamed

Table (5.1): RFID Applications in 2006, number of tags and total value ($) Number of tags supplied in 2006(Millions) 15 10 50 10 0.1 0.5 50 10 8 10 200 350 65 25 10 70 2.5 0.5 46 25 Value of spend on tags (USD $ Millions) 3.5 5.1 10 2.5 0.1 0.3 17.3 4 2.6 200 34 770 13 5 10 140 23.8 9.5 46 100

Application Drugs Other healthcare Retail apparel Consumer goods tires postal Books Manufacturing parts, Tools Archiving(documents, samples) Military Pallet, Case Smart cards/payment key fobs smart tickets air baggage Conveyances/rollcages/ULD/totes Animals Vehicles People car clickers Passport page/secure documents laundry Leisure Other tag application Total

Main frequency A few KHZ HF, UHF, 2.45GHz UHF, HF HF, UHF UHF 433MHz HF LF, HF HF 433MHz, UHF UHF HF HF UHF 433MHz, UHF, HF, 2.45GHz LF 433MHz, 2.45GHz 433MHz, 2.45GHz, UWB 433MHz HF LF,HF LF, HF

Highlights Error prevention Equipment, documents Retailer DVDs, Watches,

Books, Videos, DVDs, libraries Test tubes Assets, Vehicles Meeting retail mandates Access IDs Cards Transportation,access Container ports, trolleys Road tolling Security, People Management Car remote clicker Meeting international mandates Hospital, hotel

65 1022.6

87.1 1484

4-2 RFID Case studies & Applications The RFID case studies reach more than 3000 case studies world-wide in 2007 at different RFID solutions comparing with 2000 cases in 2006 according to the IDTechEx knowledgebase. IDTechEx believes that there are about 10,000 cases of RFID in action, but IDTechEx is not in the business of listing all of them. The number of new cases is increasing rapidly, with IDTechEx analyzing and recording about 60 per month. Top 10 Countries: IDTechEx includes RIFD case studies from the whole contraries. USA is in the lead position on developing the case studies since the establishment of IDTechEx. USA provides around 1002 up to today, as illustrated in Figure (5.1). RFID Application Classifications: RFID solution has been classified to thirteen (13) categories according to IDTechEx knowledgebase as listed in Table (5.2), where the top ten (10) RFID applications of these categories has been illustrated in Figure (5.2).
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

18

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-3 Radio Frequency Identification (Rfid) for Automating Business Processes

Eng. Mahmod S. Al-Muhamed

N m e fR IDC s s u b ro F ae

Top 10 Countries RFID Case Studies 2005-2007 * Sources IDTechEx


1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 s om te ta gd S in d K te ed ni t U ni U

2007 2006 2005


y na an hi m C er G s a lia ce nd an ad tra an rla ap s r an e J u F h C A et N ea or K ly Ita

Countries

Figure (5.1): Top 10 Countries Submitted RFID Case Studies

Table (5.2): RFID applications Classifications Applications Airlines and Airports Animals and Farming Books, Libraries, Archiving Financial, Security, Safety Healthcare Land and Sea Logistics, Postal Laundry Leisure, Sports Manufacturing Military Passenger Transport, Automotive Retail, Consumer Goods Other Total # of Case Studies 109 131 107 564 266 322 13 389 199 77 405 499 7 3088

Top RFID Applications


# of Case Studies

700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

642 400 37
Air Baggage

430 328 112 90 36


Conveyance

261 24 54
Vehicle

Case Studies

107
Card (inc. key Animals

23
Item level Pallet/case Other

71
Passport People

Intermodal

Clicker/immobilis

Applications

Figure (5.2): Top Ten (10) RFID Applications


- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

19

Phone

Ticket

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-3 Radio Frequency Identification (Rfid) for Automating Business Processes

Eng. Mahmod S. Al-Muhamed

4-3 RDIF case studies samples The purpose of RFID business case to recognize feasibility of RFID deployment, identify business opportunities, assesses the risks and to structure and implement a strategy for change that clearly identifies a sympathetic return on investment (ROI). Appropriately applied RFID can significantly influence the primary added-value objectives of business activity including: Increased revenues and enhanced internal cost reductions through product and process improvements, innovation and enhanced services. Enhanced competitiveness through more efficient and effective processes, communications, quality and customer care. Enhanced management and safety of people. Enhanced asset management and maintenance.

Based on the above statistics and benefit, the below case studies were selected as samples: 4-3-1 Enhance Airlines Services (McCarran Intl. Airport): According to IATA, the airline trade association, enthuses, "In the next few years the air industry will be tagging an ever higher proportion of its two billion bags yearly and it will use RFID in other new applications as well." (a) Issues: i. ii. i. ii. iii. i. ii. Extensive time check-in and go through security Un-reliable process to ensure passenger-bag matching RFID-enabled security cards w/ biometric authentication processes Readers that authenticate traveler at check-in, security & boarding Tag on luggage for passenger identification Better security Improved speed & efficiency of checking & boarding

(b) Solution:

(c) Result:

4-3-2 Enhance inventory management (Boeing) : Assets management is part of any indusial or services organizations day to day activities. RFID will ease the inventory management for expensive and non expansive items. RFID will be able to provide Real-Time tacking and automate the process of assets move between sits, figure (5.2). (a) Issue i. ii. i. ii. i. ii. Labor/time intensive inventory process Errors causing sunk costs and lost & aged products RFID at dock doors, conveyers & forklifts Location visibility with RFID tags on the floor Processing time reduced 2x-60x for shipping, receiving and verification Potential 20% operational savings in DC

(b) Solution

(c) Results

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

20

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-3 Radio Frequency Identification (Rfid) for Automating Business Processes

Eng. Mahmod S. Al-Muhamed

Figure (5.1): Mccarran Intl. Airports RFID baggage screening

Figure (5.2): Boeings RFID Assets management

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

21

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-3 Radio Frequency Identification (Rfid) for Automating Business Processes

Eng. Mahmod S. Al-Muhamed

5. RFID AT SAUDI ARAMCO RFID technologies have been introduced to Saudi Aramco in order to enhance supply chain management business processes, improve access control and increase assets the utilization and control. 5.1 RFID High level Design & Projects status Saudi Aramco requires multiple RFID technologies to be deployed based on the business needs and operation requirements. The RFID design consist of middleware, passive RFID readers (Mobile & Fixed), passive tags and active tags as illustrated in Figure (6.1). Project under exestuation: Saudi Aramco deploys RFID system for access control Projects Under evaluations: Saudi Aramco is evaluating RFID UHF tags at warehouses using RFID. Moreover, Saudi Aramco is evaluating active tag to provide Real-Time at medical for assets management. Potential Applications: the major RFID potential application will be at plants, assets management across the company and access control.

Figure (6.1): RFID High Level Design at Saudi Aramco

6. REFERENCES
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] Active RFID and Sensor Networks (IDTechEX, 2006) Active RFID Attracts More Big Money (IDTechEX, 2006) A Basic Introducation to RFID technology and Its use in the supply chain Applications & Case Studies (Symbol, 2006) Better Asset Management with RFID (Leanne Smullen, 2006) Defining RFID: A review of RFID Forecasts (IDTechEX, 2005) EPCglobal Tag Data Standards Version 1.3 (EPCgolobal, 2006) EPC Value Model for Healthcare & life sciences (EPCgolbal, 2005) EPCgolbal calss1 Gen 2 RFID specifications (Aline, 2005) Item level RFID - the prosperous market 2006-2016 (IDTechEX, 2006)

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

22

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-3 Radio Frequency Identification (Rfid) for Automating Business Processes
[11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30]

Eng. Mahmod S. Al-Muhamed

ISO RFID STANDARDS For Item Management (Don Ferguson, President Lyngsoe Systems, Canada, 2006] ISO/IEC 18000-2 (ISO, 2004) ISO/IEC 18000-1(ISO, 2004) RFID in Actions (IDTechEX, 2006) RFID Use Cases For Government (Symbol, 2006) RFID A basic primer (AIM international, Inc, 1998) RFID Cost Tutorial (EPCglobal) RFID Is Set to Redefine Industry Processes (Gartner, 2005) RFID market to reach $7.26Bn in 2008 (IDTechEX, 2005) RFID in 2006: A story of extremes (IDTechEX, 2006) RFID Forecasts, Players & Opportunities 2007-2017 (IDTechEX, 2006) RFID Market $2.77Bn in 2006 to $12.35Bn in 2010 (IDTechEX, 2006) Real Time Locating Systems 2006-2016 (IDTechEX, 2006) RFID in the Air Industry and Land Transport (IDTechEX, 2006) RFID Systems and Operating Principles (Vlad Krotov, University of Houston, 2005) Performance of EPC Gen 2 in the Real World (Daniel Deavours, Research Director, RFID Alliance Lab, 2006) The myth and reality of baggage tagging (IDTechEX, 2006) Technology Guide (Auto-ID center) Specification for RFID Air Interface (EPCgolobal, 2005) Smart labeling Concept & Applications for the Consumer Packaged goods ( Supply Chain: Kleist , R. A., T. A., Chapman, D. A. Sakai, B. S. Jarvis, 2005) [31] UHF EPC Tag Performance Evaluation(Daniel D. Deavours, 2005)

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

23

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-4 Wireless Mobile Services for Industrial Applications

Eng. Ramadan A. Fan

1-4 WIRELESS MOBILE SERVICES FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Eng. Ramadan A. Fan
Saudi Aramco, Distribution & Terminal Operations Dhahran, Saudi Arabia e-mail: ramadan.fan@aramco.com

This paper was presented in the symposium, then refereed and accepted for publication in this Proceedings Book as a Useful Essay in its final form as follows:

Abstract:
Although wireless networks and mobile devices have been deployed in many Saudi Aramco facilities such as offices, warehouses and other facilities; they have not been used widely for industrial plant applications. There are many opportunities where mobile hand-held devices can automate the manual processes that are currently being performed by plant operators. This would reduce unnecessary manual work and improve the efficiency of operations. Saudi Aramcos Distribution& Terminal Operations conducted a study to evaluate the requirements of wireless mobile services for industrial plants. The aim of the study was to find the best mobile solution for plant operators which would suite the Industrial work environment and can be integrated with the corporate applications such as the SAP system. The proposed solution was thus tested at one of Saudi Aramcos distribution bulk plants to verify its potential use. This paper reviews a number of basic concepts of wireless technology, thus it demonstrates some guidelines and recommendations on how to select wireless equipments and mobile applications. The paper discusses the pilot project for the bulk plant and summarizes the findings of the field study. It highlights the unique requirements of mobile services for industrial plants, and discusses possible strategies for the integration of the field devices with the corporate IT infrastructure.

Keywords:
Wireless, mobile, industrial, application, infrastructure, integration.

Biography:
Mr Ramadan Fan got his Bachelor and Master Degrees in Systems Engineering from King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals in 1997 and 2004 accordingly. He works as Systems Engineer at Saudi Aramcos Domestic Sales & Technical Support Department. During the past 10 year, he had worked on several projects such as the automation of plant operations and work processes, definition of software application requirements, coordination of IT infrastructure deployment in plants, review and evaluation of new technologies, and arrangement of end-user support and training.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

24

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-4 Wireless Mobile Services for Industrial Applications

Eng. Ramadan A. Fan

1- INTRODUCTION Wireless technologies can be used in many applications and for different reasons. For an industrial firm like Saudi Aramco, it could mean providing real time access to remote data, connectivity with a mobile work force, reduced installation and operation costs compared to a wired network, and flexibility to reconfigure or scale the network as the need arises. The goal is to provide improved services while minimizing the cost and increasing the return on investment of existing systems. Although wireless networks and mobile devices have been deployed in many Saudi Aramco facilities such as offices, warehouses, and other indoor facilities; it has not been used widely for industrial plant applications. There are many opportunities where mobile hand-held devices can automate the manual processes currently being performed by plant operators in the field, which will result in reducing redundant manual work and improve operations efficiency. As wireless technologies mature in the industrial world, the number of communication protocols and network topologies continues to grow. Also, the capabilities of mobile devices are increasing in terms of speed, distance, cost, transmission method, and networking capabilities. It is the role of the users to select the right technology for the right application. Selecting the proper technology and equipment will ultimately lead to a successfully installed, well-designed, reliable and efficient system. Saudi Aramcos Distribution & Terminal Operations conducted a study to evaluate the requirements of wireless mobile services for industrial plants. The objective was to find the best mobile solution for plant operators that will be suitable for the process environment while maintaining the capability to integrate with the corporate applications such as the SAP system. The proposed solution was piloted at one of Saudi Aramcos distribution bulk plants as a proof of concept. In this paper, we provide a basic introduction to wireless technology, then we go over some of the guidelines and recommendations on how to select wireless equipment and mobile applications, and then we discuss the bulk plant pilot project and summarize the findings of this study. We will shed some light on the unique requirements of mobile services in industrial plants, and discuss the possible strategies for integrating the field-level devices with the corporate IT infrastructure. 2- WIRELESS BASICS Wireless technologies use the air as a communication medium. Information is carried over radio waves that have frequencies between 9 kHz and 300 GHz. Since air is a shared medium, the usage of radio waves is typically regulated by government authorities. This determines which frequency ranges should be licensed and which are unlicensed. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is the international organization which looks after the standardization and regulation of international radio and telecommunications. In Saudi Arabia, it is done by the Communications and Information Technology Commission (CITC). The radio frequencies are divided into different bands usually known as the radio spectrum. At the low end of the spectrum, radio waves can travel great distances but the capacity for delivering information is limited. Above 1 GHz the transmission becomes increasingly constrained by obstructions and therefore the range becomes limited but the capacity becomes higher. Mobile communications, for example, operate in the range 800 MHz to 3 GHz. The communications between different devices is usually controlled using wireless networks. These networks are often grouped into the following categories: 2-1 Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWAN) These are usually cellular technologies offered regionally, nationally or even globally and are provided by a wireless service provider for a monthly usage fee. Cellular network technologies include GSM, GPRS, 3G or UMTS, CDMA2000 and other standards. Network speeds vary from 10 kbps to 384 kbps. These networks are usually allocated licensed spectrums which are regulated by national authorities.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

25

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-4 Wireless Mobile Services for Industrial Applications

Eng. Ramadan A. Fan

2-2 Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMAN) These networks transmit data over long-distances and are typically used to connect smaller wireless LANs together. They are also known as WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) which is a telecommunications technology based on the IEEE 802.16 standards. WiMAX typically uses licensed spectrum to deliver a point-to-point Internet connection from an ISP to an end user. It uses frequencies between 2 GHz and 11 GHz and speeds of up to 70 Mbps. 2-3 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) This is the most common type of wireless network. They are based on the IEEE 802.11 standards, also known as Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity). Wi-Fi networks broadcast radio waves that can be picked up by Wi-Fi receivers that are attached to different computers or mobile devices. Wi-Fi is a shorter range system, typically hundreds of meters, and uses unlicensed spectrum to provide access to a network. Frequencies can be 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz and speeds range from 2 Mbps to 54+ Mbps. 2-4 Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN) These are networks used for communication among computer devices close to one person (such as mobile phones or PDAs). They are based on the IEEE 802.15 standards. They cover short distances, typically a few meters, and operate at low data rates (<1 Mbps). They can be used for peer-to-peer communication between devices, or for connecting the devices to a higher level network. Examples of WPAN technologies include IrDA, Bluetooth, RFID, UWB and ZigBee.

Figure 1. Wireless technologies.

3- SELECTION OF MOBILE DEVICES Usage of mobile devices has been expanding considerably in recent years due to the increased capabilities of these devices. In general, mobile devices can be classified into two main categories: voicecentric devices such as mobile phones and radio equipment, and data-centric devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) and laptops/tablet PCs. Selection of the most suitable device within each category should be carried out to fulfill a specific technical and functional requirement. For the purpose of this study, we have focused on the second category of mobile devices, which is the data-centric device. The objective of the study was to allow plant operators to perform their job more efficiently, and replace the manual work procedures (which are often paper-based) with a fully automated work process based on a wireless hand-held solution. To achieve this, we have looked at some general and specific requirements that have to be met in the potential mobile devices .
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

26

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-4 Wireless Mobile Services for Industrial Applications

Eng. Ramadan A. Fan

3.1 General Requirements The selection process of mobile devices was based on certain criteria set by a review team. The team conducted comparisons of different device specifications including operating system, hardware capabilities, applications support, network and connectivity, security features and device management. Two categories of data-centric devices were reviewed: PDA based hand-held devices, and Tablet PC portable devices. The device platform and operating system had to be compatible with the corporate IT infrastructure, therefore Microsoft products were specified for the PDA and Tablet PC. These platforms not only provided seamless integration with the desktop computers at the plant, but also provided developers with well known development tools. Alternative platforms such as Symbian, Blackberry and Palm OS were not tested but they could be used for other applications. For device hardware requirements, the emphasis was made on the durability and flexibility of the device to suit prolonged usage by plant operations on daily basis. Battery life and power management were key factors in the selection process. Also, the overall size and weight of the devices were important to ensure user convenience and acceptance of the new technology.

Figure 2. Industrial mobile devices.

Application support is the main success factor for the mobile devices. For this study, the devices had to provide the capability to integrate with the SAP enterprise resource planning system, which meant the mobile devices should support Personal Java Edition. Also, for non-SAP mobile applications, the mobile devices should support .Net technology and Java based Web services. Connectivity options are typically selected to meet the specific application requirements. However, it is recommended to identify the expansion and upgrade requirements to be able to meet future business needs. In general, the devices should support basic connectivity such as IrDA and Bluetooth (WPAN), Wi-Fi (WLAN), and GSM network access (WWAN). Security of mobile devices is extremely important to ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information on these mobile devices will not compromise Saudi Aramco networks or systems. The devices should comply with the IT security standards and guidelines, including physical security, access control, authentication, data protection, equipment identification, antivirus and backup. Finally the mobile devices will require support and management similar to other IT equipment. This means the mobile devices should provide hardware management capabilities such as inventory, configuration and monitoring. They should also provide data and information management capabilities such as content management and centralized security and protection. 3.2 Special Requirements for Industrial Plants Mobile devices that will be used within hazardous areas require special attention as they are considered a potential source of ignition. Hazardous areas within Saudi Aramco plants are classified into the following categories:

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

27

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-4 Wireless Mobile Services for Industrial Applications

Eng. Ramadan A. Fan

Class I, Zone 0: This is an area in which ignitable concentrations of flammable gases or vapors are present either continuously or for long periods of time. Class I, Zone 1: This is an area in which ignitable concentrations of flammable gases or vapors are likely to exist under normal operating conditions, or as a result of repair or maintenance, or because of leakage. Class I, Zone 2: This is an area in which ignitable concentrations of flammable gases or vapors are not likely to occur in normal operation and if they do occur they will exist only for a short period.

Most areas within Saudi Aramco plants are classified as Class I Zone 2. However, the company policy is to standardize on Class I Zone 1 devices. These are known as intrinsically safe (or I-safe) devices which are typically molded from petrochemical and solvent material and sealed to certain standards to protect against ingress. This class was selected based on several factors such as Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards, VHF/UHF Land Mobile and Fixed Radio Communication, and Loss Prevention Department recommendations. Operating departments may wish to consider the possibility of using Class I Zone 2 devices as long as they are listed for the same level and type of hazard. This requires, however, that they provide certain conditions such as developing procedures and guidelines within the plants to avoid operating these Zone 2 devices in Zone 1. In addition, precautions are taken to restrict the use of these devices where interference with fixed instrumentation and control systems is a possibility. The listed equipment shall be identified not only for the class of location, but also for explosive, combustible or ignitable properties of the gas or vapor that will be present. 4. SELECTION OF SOFTWARE PLATFORM Integrating the mobile device applications with the corporate IT infrastructure is important for successful implementation of the overall wireless mobile solution. In this study, we investigated two methods of establishing this software integration: (1) through direct access from a Web browser to the backend server application, and (2) through a client-server approach where an enterprise mobility platform is used to link between the client devices and the backend server. The mobility platform approach ensures that all the functionality and tools are provided to manage the organization and flow of information between mobile devices and enterprise systems, as well as providing a powerful design environment for application development. The selection of the most suitable platform is usually based on the vendor profile, the application development toolkit, device management capabilities, data management capabilities, system integration options, system security features and overall estimated cost.

Portals Portal Server

Business Monitoring Dashboard

Mobile Devices

Business Rules & Alert Management Database Layer

Messaging Push: Alerts, Workflow Mobility Server

Data Integration Layer

ESB Interface Pull information

Figure 3. Mobile application platform.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

28

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-4 Wireless Mobile Services for Industrial Applications

Eng. Ramadan A. Fan

5. PILOT STUDY A feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the requirements for mobile hand-held devices in the distribution bulk plants. The bulk plant is a facility which receives refined products from a refinery, stores the product in tank farms, and loads the products either to customer trucks or to other Saudi Aramco facilities. The daily operation of a bulk plant usually involves many inspection processes which are manually performed by the operator. These include for example: the truck inspection process, the loading equipment inspection, and the product quality assurance testing. These inspections require a lot of manual redundant data entry which is susceptible to human error and may result in inaccurate information. The objective was to find the best solution that will reduce manual work and increase efficiency of plant operations. The proposed solution was designed to utilize wireless network connectivity to enable direct data field entry and transfer to corporate systems such as SAP.

Figure 4. Pilot system overview

The pilot system consisted of three main components: (1) a wireless LAN based on 802.11a/g standards, (2) intrinsically safe PDA and Tablet PC devices, and (3) a mobile application platform which was integrated with Saudi Aramco IT environment. Two applications were tested as part of this pilot project: the Product Quality Assurance System which is an existing Web application used to keep track of quality test activities, and the Truck Inspection System which is a SAP application used to keep track of truck inspection activities. 5.1 Direct Access to Backend Systems The Web application was selected to test the direct access method from the device web browser. Using a PDA hand-held device, it was observed that the original Web page does not appear in the correct size and format, which means that a special version of the Web page has to be developed. This translates into considerable amount of development time and effort as well as future maintainability issues. In addition, the device will require continuous online connection to the server in order for the applications to run seamlessly. This requires a reliable high-bandwidth WLAN that should cover the whole plant area. The direct Web browser method was more reasonably accepted on the Tablet PC device. The larger screen could comfortably show the original Web pages without any alteration. However, this approach still requires continuous online WLAN connection which could be quite expensive depending on the size of the plant coverage area. In addition, Tablet PCs classified as Class I Zone 1 devices are non-existent in the market, at least during the time of this pilot study. Only PDA size hand-held devices were available as Class I Zone 1.
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

29

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-4 Wireless Mobile Services for Industrial Applications

Eng. Ramadan A. Fan

5.2 Mobile Application Platform The SAP application test was performed to evaluate both the direct access method as well as the mobile application platform method. The direct access method had the same arguments discussed above with Web applications. The mobility platform approach, on the other hand, provided some advantages that overcome the shortcomings of direct access. For example, the devices will be able to work in off-line/online mode which means the applications will continue running locally on the device even when network services are interrupted momentarily. Also, the mobility platform typically provides a complete development tool and integration environment which enables the users to modify their original applications to fit the mobile device screen with minimal effort. This opens the door for applications to use the most suitable device including PDAs or Tablet PCs, which also means enabling the user to select the proper Class I Zone 1 device available in the market. The downside of mobility platforms is that they require a large initial investment in order to establish the necessary infrastructure within the company. 6. RECOMMENDATIONS The selection of the right wireless technology, the right hardware equipment, and the right software platform will depend largely on the site-specific requirements for each industrial application. However, as general guidelines we provide the summary of our findings in Table 1 below.
Table 1. Pilot Study Findings Direct Access to Backend Systems Type of Application Generally for casual uses, view reports, browsing. Limited to specific screen sizes. I-Safe models that support such screen sizes are not commonly available. Always needs online connection with backend system. High bandwidth required. Complete screens transferred. Based on desktop application flow. May require development effort to modify original application to fit new screen sizes. Development done in original application environment. Mobile Application Platform Geared toward field worker, interactive applications and mission-critical systems. Variety of devices can be used, either ISafe or non-I-Safe. Application can be customized to screen size. Can work in online/off-line mode. Low bandwidth required. Only changes are transmitted. Tailored to field worker based on business process. May require development effort to modify original application to fit new screen sizes. Development done in mobility platform toolkit environment.

Devices

Connection Network Utilization User Interface Development

This pilot study was intended as a proof of concept and evaluation of the technology. It proved that the wireless mobile services can be implemented in the industrial plant environment to automate work processes and improve efficiency. However, proper design of the solution and careful selection of the hardware/software are needed to ensure the business requirements are met. REFERENCES
[1] [2] [3] [4] McPherson, Ian, Industrial wireless: Hope, help or hype? Industrial Ethernet Book, Issue 31, March 2006. Saudi Aramco, Bulk Plant Wireless Hand-Held Pilot Project Report, April 2007. Schmidt, Garrett, Informed decision: Users need to marry correct technology to application, InTech, September 2005. Thane, Phil, Wireless technology: Communications and automation in the terminal, Tank Storage, Vol. 3, Issue 4, November 2007.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

30

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-5 Virtual Environments and Future of E-Services: an Inductive Vision

Dr. Khaled Salah Said Abdelmagid

1-5 VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS AND FUTURE OF E-SERVICES: AN INDUCTIVE VISION

Dr. Khaled Salah Said Abdelmagid


Assistant Professor Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, Egypt Manager of FOED Project - AU khaled@aun.edu.eg & dr_khaledsalah@yahoo.com

* This paper was submitted, refereed and accepted for publication in this Proceedings Book as a Scientific Research Paper: (for the contents, See the Arabic Volume of the Proceedings).

Abstract:
The paper supposes that Virtual Environments (VE) and techniques will play an effective innovative role, that would change how various electronic services are presented and offered in the near future. The aim of the study is to examine the research hypothesis by using descriptive, analytical and inductive methodologies. The study is divided into sections. The introduction highlights the importance of the research, hypothesis, aims and methods of the paper. The second section describes the development of e-services in the government and private sectors. The third part discusses the current and the anticipated changes to the provision of services through the internet. Next, it presents a theoretical background about Virtual Reality (VR) and Virtual Environments (VE), their techniques and requirements, and its applications. The fifth section illustrates an inductive vision of the future of presentation of the e-services through Virtual Environments in government and private sectors, and possible challenges of their application in the Arabic world. The conclusion highlights the main findings of the research and tests it against the hypothesis of the research and how far it was capable to achieve the study aim.

Keywords:
Virtual Reality Virtual Environment E-Services

Biography:
Dr. Khaled was born in Assiut, Egypt in December 1970. He obtained his B. Sc. and an M. Sc. Degrees from Faculty of Engineering Assiut University (FOE-AU), Egypt in 1993 and 2000, respectively. He got his Ph. D. Degree from UACG University, Sofia - Bulgaria (in a Ph.D. scholarship). At present, he works as a lecturer (assistant professor) at Assiut University, Egypt. Dr. Khaled has published eleven research papers in the last five years and participated in many international conferences around the world. He is the manager of the FOE Developing Project (FOED), coordinator of strategic plan 2008-2012 of FOE-AU and member in many scientific and administrative committees in FOE-AU. His other activities include: the organization of conferences and seminars, web design, design architectural and urban planning projects. He is a member in a number of national and international scientific organizations in Egypt and around the world.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

31

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1- 6 Riyadh Chamber of Commerce & Industry Experience in Presenting Electronic Services

Dr. Saud H. Al-Sehali

1-6 RIYADH CHAMBER OF COMMERCE & INDUSTRY EXPERIENCE IN PRESENTING ELECTRONIC SERVICES

Dr. Saud H. Al-Sehali


Director General of Information & Research,

Riyadh Chamber of Commerce & Industry

alsehali@yahoo.com
* This paper was submitted, refereed and accepted for publication in this Proceedings Book as a Useful Essay: (for the contents, See the Arabic Volume of the Proceedings).

Abstract:
This paper aims to highlight the importance of the use of information technology (IT) as an approach to development and transformation of the organizations work methodologies and to achieve certain standards and criteria that would guarantee the success of this approach. This paper discusses motivations that promote Saudi organizations to provide electronic services, the required methodology for the development of these services and the obstacles that organizations would experience while offering electronic services. Lessons learned from the transformation experience of Riyadh Chamber of Commerce and Industry to an electronic chamber would help other organizations to overcome possible transformation obstacles. The paper discusses a number of recommendations and findings, some of these are: the Saudi organizations should have strong motivations to provide electronic services, the importance of a rational methodology; that relies on reality and the achievement of planned objectives; for the development of such services, the organizations anticipation of future barriers of the application of electronic services and how to encounter them; associated with the increase of the expenditure level and prices, the need of IT training for the organizations staff and to update their knowledge about e-information systems and software, the need for continuous assessment of the level of utilization, methods of providing electronic services, the extent of need for new services or methods; and finally the need to take all the above mentioned points into account during the development stage of the IT services.

Keywords:
Private Sector, Chamber of Commerce & Industry, Information Technology, Electronic Services, Electronic Government, Electronic Infrastructure.

Biography:
Dr. Saud H. Al-Sehali graduated from the Faculty of Administrative Sciences, King Saud University in 1992, got the Masters Degree in Information Systems from the University of Detroit Mercy, USA, in 1997, and obtained his doctorate in Information Technology, from the University of Northern Iowa, USA, in 2000. He was rewarded the Custodians of the Two Holy Mosques Ambassadors Award, in Washington, for his scientific excellence after earning his doctorate degree with honors. Dr. Saud worked as a Director of IT Department of the Human Resources Development Fund. He also worked as a part-time lecturer in the Computer Department of the Arab Open University, Riyadh. At present, Dr. Saud works as a Director General of Research and Information of the Riyadh Chamber of Commerce and Industry and a supervisor of the administration of the On-Line project of the Chamber. Dr. Saud is involved in several consultation and technical committees, businesses and studies about electronic information and e-transactions. These include, the Consultation Group which was assigned to establish a national center to retain and keep track of World Trade Organization information, the Board of Directors of the National Credit Center, and the Steering Committee of Electronic Transactions at the Riyadh Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

32

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-7 Potential and Challenges of The Application of eGovernment in Saudi Arabian Organization of Standards and Specifications Eng. Talat AlRahalli

1-7 POTENTIAL AND CHALLENGES OF THE APPLICATION OF E-GOVERNMENT IN SAUDI ARABIAN ORGANIZATION OF STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS Eng. Talat AbdulQader AlRahalli
Manager Of General Department of Information Technology Saudi Arabian Standards Organization talt@saso.org.sa

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
The paper focuses on number of important issues that is related to the application of the e-government program in the Saudi Arabian organization of standards and specifications. It discusses the methodology of the e-government program (Yasser) in regards to the implementation of the program as well as the process of implementation. The paper argues that application of the program (Yasser) would guarantee the best and most comprehensive solution is adopted for the organization and development of internal and external transactions. This contributes to the activation of activities and services that could change the method of handling e-information and reach quality electronic transactions. On the other hand, it would contribute to the upgrade and enhancement of the personnel performance, abilities and productivity. The organization would be unable to control efficiently e-services and activities that are connected to the system and to integrate systems with the Department of Information Technology. The paper proposes a smooth approach to the application of the e-government in the organization of standards and specifications which discusses and verifies the following points: Goals and strategies behind the application of e-government in the organization Electronic portal gate of the organization on the Internet and organizations Intranet Electronic archive system, the exchange of information and documents filing Infrastructure that consists of networks, points or gates of contacts and data protection systems Electronic payment system that is implemented by SADAD system The Development of standards to sell specifications Saudi and Gulf Interaction and electronic integration with the Gulf Cooperation Council of Arab, regional and community

Keywords:
Electronic Transactions, SASO e-Government, Interaction of the Arab and Regional System.

Biography:
Eng. Talat Rahalli was born in Madinah, KSA in August 1966. He obtained his B. Sc. and an M.Sc. degrees from KFU, KSA in 1993 and he followed a number of IT and applications management of e-government courses. He did his studies at the Institute of e-business that is headed by the Egyptian Cabinet. He worked as IT Director of IT Authority of Saudi Arabia Standards Organization, where he participated in a number of specialized courses on the standardization and WTO agreements. He is WTO member of the Supreme National Committee for GIS and member of the technical committee ISO TC 211 and the digital Geographic Information Systems committee. He is also member of the Steering Committee for linking information centers and standardization bodies in the Gulf Cooperation Council. He is the Chairman of the Technical Committee of the Gulf specifications and information technology.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

33

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-8 Potential Consideration of eBusiness Technology in the Curriculum of Architectural Engineering in KFU Dr.

Bhzad Sidawi

1-8 POTENTIAL CONSIDERATION OF eBUSINESS TECHNOLOGY IN THE CURRICLUM OF ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING IN KING FAISAL UNIVERSITY Dr. Bhzad Sidawi
Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture College of Architecture and planning, King Faisal University, Dammam Bsidawi@kfu.edu.sa

This paper was presented in the symposium, then refereed and accepted for publication in this Proceedings Book as a Scientific Research Paper in its final form as follows:

Abstract:
The revolution in networking computer technology and electronic communications in the second half of the 20th century has paved the way for a number of electronic technologies such as e-business and e-commerce to emerge. E-business and e-commerce tools have helped practices to effectively reach remote clients, market their products and to integrate their business systems with their partners-inbusiness. These technologies have affected the way that building industry conduct business, communicate, design and construct buildings. At present, clients who have adopted these technologies have special design requirements in regards to the design of their new buildings. These requirements influence the building design and how architects interpret the design problem. This paper argues that Architecture students should be aware of the e-business and e-commerce technologies and their special requirements that it would be imposed on buildings design. The authors observation of the design studios at College of architecture, King Faisal University showed that students did not consider these technologies in the agenda of the design project. Subsequently, students were surveyed and interviewed to explore the extent of the students knowledge about these technologies. The survey showed that architectural students have little knowledge about these e-technologies and how they can be taken into account in projects. This paper demonstrates the survey findings and explains why students do not consider the above mentioned technologies in architectural design. It also makes recommendations of how to incorporate these technologies in the educational curriculum.

Keywords:
The Internet, eBusiness, eCommerce, Design Studio, Pre-Assessment, Prior Knowledge.

Biography:
Dr Sidawi was born in Damascus, Syria. He obtained his B. Sc. Degree from Damascus University, Faculty of Architecture and Planning in 1982. He has worked in Syria for ten years as an architect and design team leader. He got his Mphil in CAAD in 1997 from Bath University, UK and Ph D in Internet Information Management from Cardiff University in 2004. He obtained E-commerce and E-tutoring design certificates from Bristol and Plymouth Colleges, in 2005 and 2007 accordingly. He had worked in the UK for around 7 years as an architectural designer and CAAD consultant and he has a number of publications in the areas of CAAD and Architectural office management of electronic information and projects. He joined King Faisal University, College of Architecture and Planning in November 2006 and works there at present.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

34

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-8 Potential Consideration of eBusiness Technology in the Curriculum of Architectural Engineering in KFU Dr.

Bhzad Sidawi

1- INTRODUCTION A number of networking technologies have emerged in the late 1990s that affected the way that people live and erect buildings. The Internet comprises of a number of technologies that have affected how people trade and conduct business. One of these technologies is the e-commerce (i.e. electronic commerce) which can be defined as buying and selling of goods and services on the Internet, especially the World Wide Web [1] & [2]. The other technology is the E-business (i.e. electronic business) which describes all business activities that involve the sharing of information through electronic networks, i.e. companies are being able to sell or order and pay for goods online, check availability and get further information on products [3]. It includes any conduct of business on the Internet, not only buying and selling but also servicing customers and integrating systems and collaborating with business partners. These electronic networking technologies have helped people to communicate remotely i.e. to work from home such as tele-workers; they have also helped people to meet and discuss business on line, buy and sell goods and to do banking etc. The use of networking technologies such as e-business and mobile technologies has facilitated the work mobility. The new methods of work suggest a new workplace culture which accepts that wherever one works is the workplace, be it a headquarters building, branch office; telework centre, home office or an airplane, car, boat, airline club, restaurant, or hotel lobby [4]. Jackson et al pointed out that: Not all work happens at a desk. Not all meetings take place in meeting rooms. Knowledge workers need a variety of different settings to suit their different needs at different times of the day. They need places for individuals to think and work quietly, places for groups to gather and exchange ideas, places for people to meetwhich may be formal or informal, scheduled or impromptu, electronically or face to faceplaces for teams to set up long-term projects, and places for those just dropping in. As some of the work can be done virtually and remotely or anywhere inside or outside the office, new workspace should be designed in a flexible way that allow the user to make an optimal utilization of the space and to accommodate a much wider variety of settings than those provided by traditional design solutions [5]. A number of authors suggested that the adoption of computer networking and communications technologies by practices has an impact on a number of building features. In the UK, the impact of ICTenabled (i.e. electronic Information and Communications Technologies) new working practices (e.g. hotdesking, home-working and team working) on office space demand was found to be muted and gradual [6], [7] & [8]. On the other hand, more firms in the UK demand flexible office space [9]. They adopt a portfolio approach to achieve mobility, flexibility and adaptability in office space [3]. Gibson and Lizieri predict that the amount of office space required by organizations would decrease as organizations continued to reorganize, adopt new working practices and implement more technology [10]. On the other hand, these networking technologies including e-commerce and e-business would have an infrastructure that need some extra spaces such as horizontal and vertical shafts for networks wiring. These technologies change how businesses conduct work and in some cases, such as in banks, may need spaces for cash machines and deposit machines and in other types of buildings a secure central servers space. These technical and spatial requirements should be taken into account by the architect during the early design phase. These studies suggested that practices and businesses (e.g. potential clients) who adopt ICT and networking technologies would have the following demands in regards to the building design: Mobile, flexible and adaptable space layout; Less building size is demanded by ICT practices than practices that do not use these technologies; As some business functions can be located remotely or outsourced, less central office or headquarter space is required; In some cases, extra spaces would be required to accommodate certain functions.

As stated above, the adoption of the e-technologies including e-business and e-commerce by the client would have an impact on the building design. Architects should be aware of the special requirements of those clients and the needs of these technologies as well, and how it would impact the design product. The paper argues that the awareness should be brought to the attention of architects during their higher education stage.
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

35

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-8 Potential Consideration of eBusiness Technology in the Curriculum of Architectural Engineering in KFU Dr.

Bhzad Sidawi

At present, these technologies are not taught at the College of architecture and planning, King Faisal University1. Observation and chats with few students of years 3, 4 and 5, were undertaken by the author, and it was found that students were not aware of these technologies and how they can be embedded in the building design and what their likely effect is on the design of buildings. Thus, it was necessary to find out the level of year 4 and 5 students knowledge about these technologies and whether they had been considered in design projects. 2- RESEARCH OBJECTIVES (THEME) The research has a set of objectives and these are: To find out the extent of students awareness of e-business and e-commerce technologies and whether they would consider them in the design project To know the reasons of non consideration of these technologies in the design project To set recommendations of how to implement these technologies in architectural education

3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY In regards to the research objectives, it is argued that a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods is needed. The use of mixed methods is because the findings that relate to each method will be used to complement one another and at the end of the study to enhance theoretical or substantive completeness [11]. To assess the students knowledge about advanced technologies, a survey questionnaire was suggested as a pre assessment and used to examine the level of knowledge and student awareness about these technologies. The pre-assessment is recommended by researchers such as Ausubel & Meyer for several purposes. Some of these are: to assess student prior knowledge and to provide the basis for the implementation of teaching syllabus into the educational curriculum [12]& [13]. A questionnaire survey was used to target 137 students who are in the fourth and fifth year at college of architecture and planning, departments of architecture and building technology. Fifth and fourth year students were chosen because it was presumed that those students have more advanced knowledge than students who are at lower levels of study. In case that the survey found that they have lack of knowledge about the advanced systems, it will make recommendations of how to incorporate it in the curriculum. The recommendations would highlight the likely benefits of teaching advanced technologies to students to their overall architectural education. A questionnaire was prepared to inspect the students views about the following aspects: Their knowledge about each component of e-business and e-commerce Whether they think that it can be considered in the architectural design of buildings

The original questionnaire was written in English but after careful consultation, it was translated into Arabic as it was found that a large number of students are weak in English. The questionnaire was done using Dream weaver version but there was some difficulty in writing Arabic letters as Dream weaver does not fully support the Arabic language letters. The questionnaire was linked to - what so called- dynamic database, and they were placed on the internal server of the college of Architecture and given a unique web address. When the student completes the questionnaire and clicks SUBMIT, the results will be recorded directly into the database on a designated internal server at the college. An explanation note of where and how to fill the questionnaire was prepared. The author visited all fourth and fifth year design studios of the building technology and architecture departments, explained about the questionnaire to the students, asked for their participation and co-operation, and handed copies of the explanation note to them. The questionnaire was launched on the Intranet page of the college of architecture in early of June 2007, for around two weeks. At the end, the total number of respondents was 64 that represent an overall return of 47% which is high return percentage of such Internet questionnaire survey.
1

The author sees that E-business needs be taught to students because architectural practices are increasingly relying on e-business tools such as web based project management systems to conduct their work, see for instance AJPlus case studies [18] and [19]. However, this aspect is out of this paper scope.
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

36

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-8 Potential Consideration of eBusiness Technology in the Curriculum of Architectural Engineering in KFU Dr.

Bhzad Sidawi

The sample number (i.e. number of respondents) was too small to allow anything but simple statistical tests [14]& [15], such as Cramers test of correlation to examine the strength of relationships, and the Chisquare Pearson test to measure their significance. However, it was difficult to investigated by the questionnaire the reasons of non implementation of E-business which may include behavioral or attitude factors. Therefore, the interviews tool was suggested. It would reveal the hidden reasons of why advanced technologies had not been implemented in design projects and may provide information that could support the questionnaire results. Three random interviews were carried out. The target of these interviews was to find out whether there are any constraints on the implementation of advanced technologies in design projects and why students were unhappy to implement them. Qualitative research tools such as the Interviews would produce data that can be analyzed by classifying it into categories and making comparisons using crossreferencing (i.e. similarities and non similarities) which allow interpretation and judgment. 4- GENERAL RESULTS CONCERNING THE USE OF E-BUSINESS AND E-COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES It was found that most students have little or average knowledge about the e-commerce and e-business. 70% to 75% have little or average knowledge about the following components: electronic shopping cart, electronic catalogue, electronic payment gateway, electronic Inventory tracking, electronic, remote access to office networked computer, electronic banking and transactions, web-based project management sites, electronic, project Tendering services, and electronic customer relations management (CRM) (see table 1, appendix A). 76% to 80% of respondents also have average or little knowledge about the following components: electronic third party payment, electronic processor, electronic visitor tracking. Electronic procurement and electronic enterprise management systems. 84% of respondents have little and averaged knowledge about electronic enterprise resource planning (ERP). Nearly half of the students have high knowledge about electronic customer accounts (see table 1, appendix A). Students were asked a general question about the possible consideration of e-business and e-commerce (i.e. as one of the design requirements) in the architectural design of commercial, retail, and buildings. 41% of them said it could be considered and 38% said that it can be considered but they do not know how. The total percentage of whose in favour of considering e-business technology was 79% (see table 2, appendix A). 5. FOCUSED RESULTS ABOUT E-COMMERCE AND E-BUSINESS TECHNOLOGIES It should be mentioned that only significant links as defined in section three will be reported. Significant links were found between the knowledge about various components of the e-business and e-commerce and the consideration of the use of these components in design projects. However, there was not general agreement among students who have high or above average knowledge of whether to consider a number of e-business and e-commerce components in design projects. In detail, students who have high knowledge about the following components: electronic shopping cart, electronic third Party Payment, electronic processor, electronic inventory tracking, electronic procurement, electronic enterprise management systems,, electronic customer relations management (CRM), electronic enterprise resource planning (ERP), electronic product/data management (EDM, PDM) said they do not think that it should be considered in design of commercial, retail and office buildings, whereas students who have above average knowledge about the above mentioned components said it is possible but with some difficulty to consider them (See table 3, appendix A). It seems that students are not sure how e-business components can be considered in building design and as one student said: It was not clear for some students how to consider e-business and, e-commerce technologies in the design projects. 6. THE INTERVIEW RESULTS Students pointed out that there are other reasons of why the e-business and e-commerce technologies had not been implemented. One of them mentioned: As a student I am constrained by a number of design factors (e.g. site constraints, environmental and climate factors) so I cannot go beyond the borders so I take only the factors
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

37

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-8 Potential Consideration of eBusiness Technology in the Curriculum of Architectural Engineering in KFU Dr.

Bhzad Sidawi

that should be considered in the design projects. This would guarantee success and it is better than taking a risk of implementation of new factors which include the advanced technologies A student said there was hardly enough time to do the design project so there was no time to find out how these technologies could be implemented. A third student said that he was not aware of these systems as they had not been taught previously at the college of architecture and no one had explained to him how to implement them in design projects. One of the students revealed there was no way to implement these technologies because the study term was so short, and the student is usually asked to provide architectural, structural and air conditioning design solutions only. Students have a concern that they would be criticized by the jury if they implemented e-business and e-commerce technologies in the design project. A student explained why these technologies had not been implemented in design of projects by saying: I cannot implement something which I do not know about it. In architectural design studio, there are no requirements at present to do detailed plans or technical plans apart of A/C and structural plans. Another student pointed out that instructors should teach students about these electronic technologies and how to apply them in projects, or even giving a hint about them, so the student can do some research about these technologies. Students suggested that college should invite external lecturers who can give lectures about these technologies. 7. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION The survey results showed that so far, most students have little or average knowledge about e-commerce and e-business. These results were expected as these e-business and e-commerce technologies have been previously taught to students. The in-depth analysis of results showed an agreement to abandon ebusiness from the design of buildings between students of high knowledge about e-business with students who have averaged knowledge about e-business. This was explained above that it was not clear for many students how to consider these technologies in design and how they would affect the spatial and technical layout of the building. Students highlighted to a number of constraints that would hinder possible implementation or consideration of e-business technology in design projects, these are: Little technical knowledge of students about this technology as there is no previous technical courses that teach such subject exist, neither at the college or department level; The time constraints of the study term; The design projects tutors instructions regarding the implementation of specific technical requirements of design studio projects Risk of dissatisfying jury and the students concern of possible failure

Maciel et al had interviewed a mixed group of architectural professionals and academics in regards to the integration of bioclimatic issues into design. He found that in some cases, architects consider learning about bioclimatic issues and related building physics to be too technical and not related to design or studio activities. The perception of those architects, is that this disconnection from design is a barrier to the integration of these issues into design [16]. This may explain the design studio tutors and students resistance to the implementation of e-business in design projects as they are probably not aware of e-business and see no real connection between e-business and design. Bury et al found that the majority of beginning students - commencing their architecture studies at Australian universities- are ill-prepared for new forms of learning and working such as the following: a. reflection-inaction, which is a continuous cycle of self-criticism and creation that produces both learning and improved work; b. design making, which is the process that considers building construction as an integral part of architectural designing. He pointed out that beginning students and other laypersons have particular difficulty with the discourse between a world of ideas and a world of physical form. Therefore, it would be difficult for them to imagine how a building would be constructed or how it would go together . He mentioned that use of computing
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

38

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-8 Potential Consideration of eBusiness Technology in the Curriculum of Architectural Engineering in KFU Dr.

Bhzad Sidawi

would offer new ways to engage both reflection-in-action and design making. He suggested that form making games can breed confidence and build new skills, which many beginning students sorely need [17]. This would explain why architecture students are not happy about the implementation of e-business in design as this would expose them to a new form of learning and working which they are not prepared for, also they will not probably get the required support from their tutors. To overcome the constraints of implementation of e-business in architecture engineering curriculum, the study suggests the following steps to increase students knowledge about these technologies: a. To incorporate them in the architectural curriculum as technical course. E-business and ecommerce can be taught to students in a way that it demonstrates their effect on the working environment and buildings. These technologies can be introduced through some type of computer gaming which would speed up the learning process. b. To incorporate them in design studio. Students should be taught how to build up a design criteria by extracting information from a prospected e-business client about their design preferences, systems they use and their activities c. To increase students awareness about this technologies by inviting specialists and practitioners to deliver lectures about the application of e-business as one of the design requirements in project design. However, this cannot be achieved without the support of the teaching staff and their willingness to consider advanced technologies in the design studio. There is also a need to increase students awareness about the advanced technologies. The author would anticipate that further in depth research is needed to assess the impact e-business and e-commerce on work environment and building design. Acknowledgement The author would like to thank all fourth and fifth year Architectural students, KFU who took part in this survey. My specials thanks to the engineer Badran Zunifer who set the on-line survey questionnaire on the KFU intranet. References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] Goodwin, Peter. (2001). Effective integration of IT in construction, final report. (2001). [WWW] http: www.buildingcentretrust.org/xplorer/ Effective_Integration.pdf. (Accessed 2001). Grant, Simon. (1999). E-commerce for small businesses. [WWW] http://www.simongrant.org/pubs/iec99/small.html. (Accessed 21/10/2007). Thompson, Matt. (2003). The construction confederation publications. A beginners guide to e-business in construction. [WWW] www.thecc.org.uk/pdf/EBusiness.pdf. (Accessed July 2007). Gomes, Cristina Caramelo, Aouad Ghassan and Ormerod, Marcus. The sustainable workplace and workplace design. (2001). in: e-Business and Workplace Redesign. Editors: Paul Jackson; Reima Suomi. Publisher: Routledge, London. Jackson, Paul and Soumi, Reima (Ed). (2001). E-Business and Workplace Redesign. Publisher: Routledge, London. Lizieri, C. (1997), The changing market for business space: occupier requirements, market response and valuation impact, paper presented at The Cutting Edge Conference, RICS Research. Lizieri, C.M. (2003), Occupier requirements in commercial real estate markets, Urban Studies,Vol. 40 No. 5-6, pp. 1151-69. Gibson, V.A. and Lizieri, C.M. (2001), Friction and inertia: business change, corporate real estate portfolios and the UK office market, Journal of Real Estate Research, Vol. 22 Nos 1/2, pp. 59-79. Gibson, V. (2003), Flexible working needs flexible space? Towards an alternative workplace strategy, Journal of Property Investment & Finance, Vol. 21 No. 1, pp. 12-22. Gibson, V. and Lizieri, C. (1999), New business practices and the corporate real estate portfolio: how responsive is the UK property market?, Journal of Property Research, Vol. 16, pp. 201-18. Morse, Janice M. (ed.). (1991). Qualitative health research. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage. Ausubel, D.P. (1968), Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, NY. Meyer, D. (1993). Recognizing and changing students misconceptions. College Teaching, 41, 104-108. Plackett, R L. (1974). The analysis of categorical data. London: Griffin Everitt, B S. (1992). The analysis of contingency tables. London: Chapman and Hall.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

39

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-8 Potential Consideration of eBusiness Technology in the Curriculum of Architectural Engineering in KFU Dr.

Bhzad Sidawi

[16] Maciela, Alexandra A. ; Ford, Brian; Lambertsa, Roberto. (2007). Main influences on the design philosophy and knowledge
basis to bioclimatic integration into architectural designThe example of best practices. Building and Environment, 42, 3762 3773. [17] Burry, Mark; Dawson, Tony and Woodbury, Robert. Learning about architecture with the computer, and learning about the computer in architecture. ECAADE conference proceedings 1999, Collaborative learning and design, the University of Liverpool, UK. [18] The editor. (2001). Over 1500 projects now under management. Ajplus issue 26 April 2001. [WWW] http://www.ajplus.co.uk/proj_collaboration/?ChannellID=28. (18.5.2001). [19] Roe, Patrick R.W..(ed). Towards an inclusive future Impact and wider potential of information and communication technologies. Edited by Swiss Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne. www.tiresias.org/cost219ter/inclusive_future/inclusive_future_book.pdf. (Accessed July 2007)

Appendix A
Question 1: The level of students knowledge about e-commerce and e-business

Table 1: Level of students knowledge about e-business and e-commerce


Total average or little

E-commerce components Electronic shopping cart 38% 17% 20% Electronic Catalogue 23% 27% 20% Electronic Payment gateway 27% 22% 22% Electronic Third party payment 44% 19% 13% Electronic processor 44% 19% 17% Electronic Customer accounts 14% 17% 27% Electronic Inventory tracking 36% 22% 13% Electronic Visitor tracking 33% 23% 20% Remote access to office networked computer 31% 19% 22% Electronic banking and transactions 30% 19% 23% Web-based Project management sites 31% 22% 17% Electronic Project Tendering services 38% 23% 14% Electronic Procurement 38% 25% 16% Electronic Enterprise management systems 33% 30% 17% Electronic Customer Relations Management (CRM)) 39% 20% 14% Electronic Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) 42% 22% 20% Electronic/Product Data Management (EDM/PDM) 34% 28% 17% Sample size of 64, Bold font: The percentages of students above 50%

19% 20% 20% 16% 11% 20% 20% 13% 19% 16% 20% 22% 14% 13% 17% 11% 13%

6% 9% 9% 9% 9% 22% 9% 11% 9% 13% 9% 3% 8% 8% 9% 5% 8%

75% 70% 71% 76% 80% 58% 71% 76% 72% 72% 70% 75% 79% 80% 73% 84% 79%

25% 29% 29% 25% 20% 42% 29% 24% 28% 29% 29% 25% 22% 21% 26% 16% 21%

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

40

Total high

Very little

Very high

Average

little

high

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-8 Potential Consideration of eBusiness Technology in the Curriculum of Architectural Engineering in KFU Dr.

Bhzad Sidawi

Question 2: Possible consideration of e-commerce and e-business in the architectural design of commercial, retail and office buildings Table 2: Students views about the consideration of e-commerce and e-business in design of buildings I don't think it should be considered I think it is difficult to consider it It could be considered It could be consider ed but I don't know how

Possible consideration of e-commerce and ebusiness in architectural design of commercial, retail and office buildings

14%

8%

41%

38%

Sample size of 64, Bold font: The percentages of students above 50% Table 3: The links between students knowledge about various e-business and e-commerce components and consideration of e-business& e-commerce in design of buildings
Level of significanc Correlatio n value Variables tested

Knowledge about electronic shopping cart * Consideration of use of e-commerce& e-business technologies in design of commercial, retail and office buildings Knowledge about electronic third Party Payment * Consideration of use of e-commerce& e-business technologies in design of commercial, retail and office buildings Knowledge about electronic processor * Consideration of use of e-commerce& e-business technologies in design of commercial, retail and office buildings Knowledge about electronic inventory tracking * Consideration of use of e-commerce& e-business technologies in design of commercial, retail and office buildings Knowledge about electronic procurement * Consideration of use of e-commerce& e-business technologies in design of commercial, retail and office buildings Knowledge about electronic enterprise management systems * Consideration of use of e-commerce& e-business technologies in design of commercial, retail and office buildings Knowledge about Electronic Customer Relations Management CRM * Consideration of use of e-commerce& e-business technologies in design of commercial, retail and office buildings Knowledge about electronic enterprise resource planning (ERP) * Consideration of use of e-commerce& e-business technologies in design of commercial, retail and office buildings Knowledge about electronic product/data management (EDM, PDM) * Consideration of use of e-commerce& e-business technologies in design of commercial, retail and office buildings

0.38

0.01

0.38

0.01

0.40

0.00 students who have high knowledge said they do not think that it should be considered or difficult to consider whereas students who have knowledge above average said it can be considered but it might be difficult to consider

0.44

0.00

0.38

0.01

0.45

0.00

0.33

0.05

0.45

0.00

0.38

0.01

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

41

Result

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-9 King Saud University Electronic Portal: from a Vision to Reality

Eng. Esam A. Alwagait

1-9 KING SAUD UNIVERSITY ELECTRONIC PORTAL: FROM A VISION TO REALITY Eng. Esam A. Alwagait
Portal and E-Services Department Manager King Saud University esam@alwagait.com

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
This Presentation shows King Saud University Experience in building an dynamic online Portal, a.k.a KSUs Electronic Portal Program. It shows the different stages of the program starting from defining the vision and goals of the portal, planning and preliminary design, till Launching the portal on the Internet. It shows the Content Management System (CMS) used and the technical challenges overcame. It also discusses the strategies used to insure the continuity of updating the portal content by KSU Faculty members and employees.

Keywords:
Electronic Portal, CMS , University Education, Saudi Arabia.

Biography:
Esam A. Alwagait was borni in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in October 1975. He obtained his B. Sc. in computer science from the College of Computer and Information Sciences in KSU, with second Honor. He later join the university working as a T.A in computer science department. He obtained his Masters from University of Southern California in 2002. During his stay in the U.S Esam contributed with his colleagues in USC Database Laboratory to build Proteus Framework, which is considered to be among the first Internet Database Management Systems (IDBMS). He has published 5 scientific papers in different ACM and IEEE conferences. Currently, Esam works as the Portal and E-services Department manager in KSU.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

42

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-10 Social Engineering as Awareness Method for Information Security

Eng. Waheed H. Alkahtani

1-10 SOCIAL ENGINEERING AS AWARENESS METHOD FOR INFORMATION SECURITY Eng. Waheed H. Alkahtani
Senior Auditor, Internal Auditing Department, Saudi Aramco Waheed.kahtani@aramco.com

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
Social engineering is a collection of techniques that is used to influence and convince people to perform certain actions or revealing confidential information. Currently, companies carry out penetration testing on critical information systems Corporate-wide. Penetration Testing (PT) identifies systems vulnerabilities but this would increase the solidarity of a specific system, network, or application. However, such periodical penetration test would be considered inadequate unless the human element is regarded and included. This paper presents SE as a possible measure that would examine the degree of the effectiveness of information protection policies and processes. It investigates the best approach that can be followed to test social engineering effects and evaluate the legality of conducting social engineering vulnerability assessment in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords:
eServices, Social Engineering, Online Fraud, Saudi Arabia.

Biography:
Mr Waheed is a Computer Engineer with Master Degree in High speed Data Networks and ATM Switches from King Saud University. In addition, he holds several certifications in Wireless Network, ATM LAN Engineering, and Microsoft. He has a solid technical background and more than 17 years of experience in Networking, Internet, Intranet solutions, and IT Project Management. He works at present with Saudi Aramco/Internal Auditing Department. Mr Waheed has other interests which include public speeches, online fraud, Mobile Technologies and Wireless Networks.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

43

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-11 eServices@Kfupm: Status and Challenge

Prof. Sadiq M. Sait

1-11 ESERVICES@KFUPM: STATUS AND CHALLENGES

Prof. Sadiq M. Sait


Director, Information Technology Center Professor, Department of Computer Engineering King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals sadiq@kfupm.edu.sa

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
This paper illustrates the transformation from old legacy systems to state-of-the-art ERP system via the Raed project at KFUPM. The main components of the new system include: the eBusiness suite provided by Oracle for administration systems, Banner (SunGard) for students educational services, and the Business Intelligence systems for the management of enterprise performance. The research discusses the mission, vision, goals, and scope of Raed project, and the various e-services offered to academic and administration departments staff and students. The paper focus is on the role of the Information Technology Center (ITC) at KFUPM which enable the successful implementation of ERP projects, current issues that are associated with the deployment of systems, and future plans.

Keywords:
ERP, eServices, Business Intelligence.

Biography:
Sadiq M. Sait obtained a Bachelor's degree in Electronics from Bangalore University in 1981 and Master's and PhD degrees in Electrical Engineering from King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia in 1983 & 1987 respectively. At present, he is a Professor at the Department of Computer Engineering, KFUPM, and Director of Information Technology Center. He is the author of over 150 research publications including books and book chapters.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

44

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices 1-12 Developing an Enterprise it Architecture

Eng. Fathi M. Alwosaibi

1-12 DEVELOPING AN ENTERPRISE IT ARCHITECTURE

Eng. Fathi M. Alwosaibi


Information Security Consultant Saudi Aramco Fathi.Wosaibie@aramco.com

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
The adoption of successful Enterprise Architecture (EA) delivery is curial to enhance current business progress and create strategic planning for future development through the convergence of EA and identification of best practices. This presentation would give the audience a chance to get an expert views over a number of vital issues such as:

- Examination of current trends in Enterprise Architecture and the fine alignment of IT infrastructure and business goals - Visualization and analysis of current business goals - Creation of unassailable EA framework for future business - Development of understanding about the differences between SOA & EA technology and older integration systems - Extraction of new values from existing technologies through current EA measures - Upholding of business interest by incorporating security value into processes & technology - Learning& analyzing how different organizations can successfully optimize resources by managing EA processes effectively

Keywords:
Information Security, Enterprise Architecture, IT infrastructure, Saudi Aramco

Biography:
Fathi AlWosaibi is a 1990 graduate of the University of Southwestern Louisiana, USA in the field of computer science. He is currently working at Saudi Aramco as an Information Security Consultant. He has been in this position for around three years and has been in charge of developing an enterprise Information Security roadmap for Saudi Aramco. Mr Fathi as an Information Security Consultant is recognized internationally. He has made a keynote speech regarding the development of an enterprise architecture in a number of international conferences. In addition he participated in other Information Security conferences and forums.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

45

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-13 Video-Mediated and Live Interaction Based Communication Channels: Towards Better E-Government Performance Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

1-13 VIDEO-MEDIATED AND LIVE INTERACTION BASED COMMUNICATION CHANNELS: TOWARDS BETTER E-GOVERNMENT PERFORMANCE Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef
Assistant Professor, Department of Architectural Engineering Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, Egypt khaled_ali@yahoo.com

This paper was submitted then refereed and accepted for publication in this Proceedings Book as a Scientific Research Paper in its final form as follows:

Abstract:
E-government projects are initiated to foster the capture, management, use, dissemination, and sharing of information. These are capable to exploit ICTs to create a networked infrastructure for interconnectivity, service delivery, efficiency and effectiveness, interactivity, decentralization, transparency and accountability. The increase of public demand on services offered by e-government and delivered synchronously and asynchronously to the citizens, raise notable communication challenges; i.e. mismatch of channel preferences, and miscommunication between citizens and government bodies regarding the increase of complexity and ambiguity of e-services. As a result, a research was undertaken to find out multiple and innovative channels of communication which would overcome the communications difficulties. It highlights the possible integration that can be made between the concept of video-mediated and live interactive communication with existing e-government channels, or what so called Video-Mediated and Live Interaction based Communication Channels. The aim of this paper is to extend the scope of offering and delivering e-government services, increase the number and depth of existing channels of communication, support the sense of real and close presence between the communicators despite of the separating distance between them, and to sort out the present miscommunication challenges. This paper explains the methodology and findings of the research through three consecutive stages. In the first stage, it introduces the aim, objectives, methodology, scope and limitation. The second stage illustrates the motivations that stimulated this research. The final stage discusses a proposed model of Video-Mediated and Live Interaction Based Communication Channel.

Keywords:
Video-Mediated, Live Interaction, Communication Channels, e-Government.

Biography:
Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Architectural Engineering, Assiut University, Egypt. He got Bachelor, M.Sc. and Ph.D. Degrees in Architectural Engineering from Assiut University. His area of interest includes theories of Architecture and Architectural Design. Dr. Youssef has published several papers in refereed journals and conferences held in Spain, UK, Egypt, KSA, Turkey and Malaysia. He participated in two research projects funded by Johannes Kepler University, Austria. In 2002, Dr. Youssef was awarded the fifth prize of the design competition of a Storage and Cars Shelter that is owned by Voest-Alpine Company-Linz, Austria. He got the British Council Ph.D. Research Competition Award that was held in Egypt in the year 2005.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

46

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-13 Video-Mediated and Live Interaction Based Communication Channels: Towards Better E-Government Performance Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

1- INTRODUCTION Before embarking on a voyage to understand the evolution of e-government projects and communication channels; through which e-services can be provided and delivered, one should know what an e-government is and realize the vast transformations e-government projects brought with, the main phases of development, and the expected benefits. Upon completion of addressing these issues, a clear vision of e-government projects would be built. According to Pascual, reference number [20], definitions of e-government range from the use of information technology to free movement of information and overcome the physical bounds of traditional paper and physical based systems to the use of technology to enhance the access to and delivery of government services to benefit citizens, business partners and employees. For UN & ASOA (2002) egovernment is defined as utilizing the Internet and the World-Wide-Web for delivering government information and services to citizens. Similarly, Means and Schneider (2000) define e-government as "the relationships between governments, their customers (businesses, other governments, and citizens), and their suppliers by the use of electronic means", where it is " simply using information technology to deliver government services directly to the customer; a citizen, a business or even another government entity" for Hernon, in reference number [25]. As e-government projects managed to experience a level of the rapid and extensive advancement in computer and networking technologies, they appeared capable of allowing businesses to transact with each other more efficiently (B2B), bringing customers closer to businesses (B2C), and making the interaction between government and citizens (G2C), government and business enterprises (G2B) and inter-agency relationships (G2G) more friendly, convenient, transparent, inexpensive, concrete and dynamic. Moreover, egovernment projects manage to strengthen the connection between the Government and Civil Societal Organizations (G2CS), as well as the connection between citizens themselves (C2C), if the interaction among them is related to one of the previous categories of e-government, reference number [25]. With the evolution of e-government services, models to study phases of development were built. On the perspectives of the degree of change, role of technology, degree of complexity and targeted benefits, egovernment projects are argued to rapidly move from the presence/startup phase to the convergence/transaction phase over the process integration/interaction and transformation/two-way interaction phases, figures 1 and 2, references numbers [10] and [20]. The expected benefits are less corruption, increased transparency, greater convenience, revenue growth, cost reductions, effective governance, better management of social and economic resources, and new styles of leadership, debating and deciding strategies, transacting business, listening to citizens and communities, and organizing and delivering information, references numbers [20] and [25].

Source: ('eGovernment: More Than an Automation of Government Services', 2003) Figure 1: Phases of e-government according to the degree of change and role of technology

Source: (Pascual, 2003)

Figure 2: Phases of e-government on the perspective of complexity and benefits.

Parallel to the development of e-government, channels of communication, through which e-services are provided and delivered, managed to experience a level of development, varying in type; from front desk and phone to website based, and promoting various modes of communication; conversation, consultation, allocation, registration and transaction, reference number [8]. As e-government projects moved ahead from a phase to another, a rising mismatch of channel preferences and increasing difficulties of communication between governmental entities and citizens came to the surface, reference number [19], the fact that
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

47

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-13 Video-Mediated and Live Interaction Based Communication Channels: Towards Better E-Government Performance Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

stimulated the prospect for multiple and innovative channels of communication capable of keeping pace with the demands placed on them. 1-1 Aim and Objectives: Reacting to current miscommunication challenges and the rising mismatch of channel preferences, the paper aims at studying the possibility of proposing a model for innovative channels of communications, moving a step toward overcoming these challenges, minimizing the mismatch and increasing e-government performance. For the aim of the research to be attained the following objectives are to be accomplished: - Exploring miscommunication challenges in e-government projects and investigating the reasonability of searching for new channels of communication. - Deriving the main attributes of the demanded innovative channels. - Sketching a draft model of video-mediated and live interaction based channels, investigating how these channels can be design and implemented. 1-2 Methodology: For the aim of the research to be attained, the motives that stimulate the demand for innovative channels of communication are presented, current miscommunication and mismatch challenges of existing channels are explored, the opportunities offered by the rapid advancement of computer and networking technologies are introduced, prospects toward innovative channels are highlighted, and the lessons learnt from the Communicative Home (comHOME) application are briefly introduced. In a following part, the main attributes of the demanded innovative channels are derived from the reviewed literature. Upon completion of addressing these attributes, a draft model is sketched and how the proposed innovative channels can be designed and implemented is briefly discussed. 1-3 Scope and Limitations: In this paper, the reasonability of looking for innovative channels capable of overcoming current miscommunication and mismatch challenges, their main attributes, and possibilities of applications are studied; while the design and implementation of these channels as well as the technical requirements needed remain the issue of another work. As for the type of services provided by the e-government and delivered by citizens, the paper stresses only on the interactive category of services, as they are intended to be strongly affected by the offered innovative communication channels; rather than the informational and transactional categories. As a reference point, a scope is given to Dubai e-Government (DEG) as a leading project in the Middle East region; i.e. DEG has been internationally recognized as the 21st in the world according to the United Nations study conducted in 2001, and the 9th in the world in Privacy & Security and 18th in the world in Digital Governance according to the E-Governance Institute/National Center for productivity by Rutgers University in 2003, reference number [2]. As shown in figure 3, the approach, scope, aim, methodology, target and mission of the research are briefly introduced. 2- WHY INNOVATIVE COMMUNICATION CHANNELS? " studies should focus not only on whether agencies have a Web site and the volume of information and services available on e-government sites, but also on the way the sites deliver those information resources and services to the individual user and on how the Web sites serve the needs of entire communities of users within societyResearchers who study e-government also have a key role to play in fostering user-centered e-government. By turning the focus of research toward the interactions between e-government Web sites and the users of those sites, researchers can help to identify best practices in creating and maintaining user-centered egovernment Web sites and can help to find new ways to improve the process of developing usercentered e-government sites", reference number [4]. In investigating what stimulates the interest in searching for innovative channels of communication, three key motives appeared to be the most notable: challenges of existing communication channels, the rising prospects toward innovative channels and therefore better communication, and the opportunities offered due
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

48

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-13 Video-Mediated and Live Interaction Based Communication Channels: Towards Better E-Government Performance Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

to continuous and rapid advancements in computer and networking technologies. In this part of the paper these three motives are spotlighted. 2-1 Challenges of Existing Communication Channels: In a study done by Ebbers et al, reference number [8], types of services, different characteristics of channel types and various modes of interaction are analyzed, figure 4. As argued in the study, there is a gab between the communication channels governments prefer and those that citizens prefer. Governments prefer website based channels being guided by rational arguments like the cost efficiency of channels. On the contrary, citizens prefer front desk and phone, especially for conversation and consultation, the fact that points to a gap in the preferences both sides have towards service channel management. Similarly, recent studies from Switzerland (Berner Fachhochschule & Unisys, 2005), Canada (Erin Research, 2003), Australia (Australian Government, 2005), and The Netherlands (Bongers et al., 2004) showed the dominance of front desk and phone as the most preferred communication channel types, reference number [8], table 1.

CHALLENGES:
COMPLEXITY AND AMBIGUITY OF SERVICES. COMMUNICATI ON DIFFICULTIES. PERSONAL CHALLENGES: AGE, ILLITERACY, ..ETC MISMATCH OF PREFERENCE BETWEEN

APPROACH:
WHERE ARE E-GOVERNMENT PROJECTS? & WHERE ARE THEY GOING?

OPPORTUNITIES:
CONTINUOUS ADVANCEMENTS IN COMPUTER AND NETWORKING TECHNOLOGIES. LESSONS LEARNT FROM COMHOME, COMZONES, VIDEO-

SCOPE:
Channels of Communications

PROSPECTS:
MULTIPLE INNOVATIVE CHANNELS. ENABLEMENT. COSTUMER-CENTRIC

AIM:
STUDYING THE POSSIBILITY OF RATIONALLY REACT TO THE POSED CHALLENGES, ENABLING THE OFFERED OPPORTUNITIES, AND MOVING A STEP

METHODOLOGY:
INTEGRATING CURRENT COMMUNICATION CHANNELS WITH THE ADVANCEMENTS IN COMPUTER AND NETWORKING TECHNOLOGIES, BENEFITING FROM

TARGET:
a draft model of multiple innovative communication channel IN THIS RESEAR CH

MISSION:
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

FUTURE WORK

OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES

CLASSIFICATION OF SERVICES

TECHNICAL INSTALLATIONS

SPATIAL CONFIGURATIONS

Figure 3: The approach, scope, aim, methodology, target and mission of the research

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

49

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-13 Video-Mediated and Live Interaction Based Communication Channels: Towards Better E-Government Performance Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Source: Ebbers et al (2007) Figure 4: Types of services, channel modes and channel types

Table 1: Percentage of channel preference

Source: Ebbers et al (2007)

In explaining why a certain channel of communication is preferred by citizens, 3 key factors seemed to announce themselves: personal factors, task and problem factors, and situational factors. Age and educational level are argued the most influential personal factors. As for the task and problem factors, complexity and ambiguity are argued important determinants of channel preference. According to the Australian findings (Australian Government, 2005), users prefer the Internet for low complex and low ambiguous problems and face-to-face interaction for high complex and high ambiguous problems. The situational factors; such as the date and time of transactions, the availability of channel, and the need for closure, are disputed to strongly affect the channels preferred by citizens. As for the government, success of e-commerce, new public management, cost reduction, better performance, and greater transparency are argued the rational motives behind the preference of the website based channels, references numbers [20], [22] and [25]. To overcome the mismatch, Ebbers et al, reference number [8], have built a new multi-channel management model containing three channel types and two channel modes, figure 5.

Source: Ebbers et al (2007) Figure 5: Ebbers et al proposed multichannel management model


- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

50

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-13 Video-Mediated and Live Interaction Based Communication Channels: Towards Better E-Government Performance Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

In Dubai e-government project, as a reference point, the mismatch of preferences between front desk and phone channel types and website based types is noticed severe and meaningful. As shown in figures 6 and 7, online chat and e-mails are noticed far below expectation comparatively with telephone calls. As documented in Dubai eGovernment 2006 4th quarter report, the number of requested online text chats was only 54 and the handled e-mails comprised for 793 emails, where the total number of answered calls reached 34250, reference number [6].

Source: www.dubai.ae Figure 6: The Interface of 'ask Dubai' e-service

Source: DEG (2006) Figure 7: The disparity between communication channels in Dubai e-Government

2-2 Prospects toward Innovative Channels: Studies of the Canadian Customs and Revenue Agency (CCRA) have shown that e-services are, on average, 20 times less expensive than face-to-face services, reference number [22], not to mention the improving service levels, the increased transparency, and the greater convenience, references numbers [20] and [25]; the fact that explain why in recent years there has been increasing pressure on governmental entities as well as the private sector for better e-government performance. What is meant by better performance is not just more efficient and effective government but better customer services and better ways of interaction with citizens, reference number [10]. "the impact of e-government at its broadest level is simply better government, better policy outcomes, higher quality services, and greater engagement with citizens Government websites should show citizens that their involvement matters by developing feedback mechanisms and encouraging their use" reference number [10]. According to the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI), citizen satisfaction with e-government should not decline; otherwise e-government would be losing ground to its private sector counterparts. The decline in online satisfaction shows that the government may be losing an opportunity to get the most out of its most efficient channel and to enhance citizen perceptions of the service government is providing. Therefore, loyalty should be assigned to website based channels and online interactions, references numbers [9] and [12]. "As e-government Web sites have become such a prevalent part of interactions between governments and citizens, user-centered e-government should rise in priority. With ever increasing levels of government information and services moving online, and with many government agencies having the ultimate goal of offering many functions exclusively online, agencies need to design e-government Web sites to ensure that universal access is afforded to the users of the sites", reference number [4]. In a study done by Paul T. Jaeger (in press), it is demonstrated that many e-government websites insufficiently consider the needs of not just users with disabilities, but of all users. Contact information provided by websites is an apt example of this lack of consideration of users. For websites to be usercentered, user feedback is essential. Gaps in communication are not a small issue, as users are best able to identify functionality, usability and accessibility problems on a site. In addressing where e-government projects are going, innovative multiple channels are disputed central to development proposals and future prospects. In DEG, as an example, e-services are intended to be provided through multiple innovative channels in a customer-centric manner. The target is to enhance the overall quality and support enablement, reference number [19]. Summing up, functionality, usability,
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

51

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-13 Video-Mediated and Live Interaction Based Communication Channels: Towards Better E-Government Performance Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

accessibility, enablement, innovativeness of communication channels can be considered perceptible indications of consideration and regard, which any user-centered e-government should pay attention to. 3-2 Advancements in Computer and Networking Technologies "While Information Society developments are placing new pressures on government, ICTs are at the same time enhancing its capacity for improved performance", reference number [10]. In this part of the paper, advancements in computer and networking technologies are briefly introduced; as far as they would contribute to deriving the attributes of the demanded communication channels. 3-2-1 Rapidly Increasing Computer Capacity and Network Bandwidth "When the PC was first introduced in the early 1980s, who could ever expect the use of PCs to become what it is today?" reference number [5]. Computer technology is developing towards micromation, super powerful function, intelligentization and networking. Human-machine interface is becoming more friendly. New technology, new material and new design principle will trig the revolution of super computer technology. In parallel, electronic technology is seen to have revolutionary progress. As an example, IT chip RAM capacity doubled every 18 months in average and the evolution speed of integrated degree has raised from 4 times every 3 years to 4 times every 2 years, and the 21st century will be the period for its real rapid development. Further, there are around 300,000 kinds of new materials registered in the world, with a growth rate of 5% every year; such as the 3G semiconductor materials. In addition, fibre optic material, as the best information transmission media, has an overall trend of developing towards low consumption and low nonlinearity. At present, Audio/video frequency technology is the most active and the most rapidly developed technology in the high-tech field. Modern communication technology is developing towards digitalized, intelligent and broad-brand orientations. Modern communication technology mainly includes carrier communication, satellite communication and mobile communication technologies. Satellite communication is moving towards the world covered broadband personal system. It is estimated that transmission rate of inter-satellite laser communication will reach 40Gb/s before year 2010. Optic fiber communication will develop towards high capacity, high speed and distant communications. Transmission technology has been transited from traditional synchro system of point-to-point transmission to synchro system of open optic interface. Optic transmission net will be the developing direction of communication net in the future. Combination of wireless and wired communication technology is the new development trend. The third generation (3G) communication technology is the new wireless technology developed in very fast speed. 3G is characterized by fast transmission of information, and according to the present developing status, it will reach 2Mbps (2 million bit per second), about 35 times of telephone dialup, and even 200 times of the current general mobile phone. Based on this speed, not only the e-mail, but also the high quality video and sound effect will be easily presented. To use mobile phone for Internet browsing, image transmission and even sharing data, audio frequency and ideas with equipment will not be just a dream any more. Office clerks can keep in touch with each other blue-tooth equipment while walking everywhere. Summing up, dialup to the Internet at anytime and anywhere will be possible, reference number [1]. 3-2-2 The Rise of Telepresence: According to reference number [18], there have been many applications showing telepresence to become a reality. But before talking about these applications, one should know what presence, telepresence and presence at a distance mean. Presence can be defined as 'the sense of being a part of an environment' (Freeman et al, 2001), while telepresence can be considered 'the sensation of being at the remote worksite rather than at the operator's control station' (Minsky, 1980; Held & Durlach, 1992). In other words, presence at a distance is defined as 'the subjective experience of being in one place or environment, even when one is physically situated in another'. Via adopting the principles embraced by these definitions, numerous applications have come to the surface, rationally reacting to existing communication challenges and notably enabling a number of opportunities. Among these applications is the 'Ambient Telepresence: Colleague Awareness in Smart Environments' where informal awareness in distributed collaborative work is supported, to promote a sense of presence of people who are in fact not co-located.
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

52

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-13 Video-Mediated and Live Interaction Based Communication Channels: Towards Better E-Government Performance Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

Information is transmitted to remote sites, where it is rendered for peripheral awareness, reference number [13]. Further applications; such as the 'Video-Mediated Communication in the Classroom to Support Sick Children: A Case Study' (Deborah, Fels1 & Patrice), 'Towards Multi-Site Collaboration in Tele-Immersive Environments', reference number [23], 'Private and Public Spaces; the Use of Video Mediated Communication in a Future Home Environment' and 'User Study of Video Mediated Communication in the Domestic Environment with Intellectually Disabled Persons', references numbers [15] and [16], are argued capable to produce the sense of reality at a distance across networks. As a new medium that creates 3D photorealistic, immersive and interactive experience between geographically dispersed users supporting two-way collaboration, telepresence is gained wider acceptance as an important and effective instructional tool, (Gowan & Downs, 1994; Benford et. al., 1998) in: reference number [11]. As a result, traditional activities experienced a level of telepresence shifting into the synchronous/remote mode of communication, and the use of the terms tele-working, tele-education, telelearning, tele-medicine, tele-conferencing, references numbers [3] and [21], virtual marriage, and synchronous virtual communicative spaces has become commonplace, reference number [18], figure 9.

Tele-conferencing

Synchronous virtual communicative spaces Source: (Knudsen et al 2002)

Virtual marriage

Figure 9: Applications of telepresence

3-2-3 Learning from the comHOME: The communicative home (comHOME) application is a solution for the integration of Video Mediated Communication (VMC) into the home environment. The comHOME can be considered a concept dwelling of the future designed and built as a full-scale model in collaboration with a telecom operator. The principal problem investigated is the various aspects of private and public zones when using VMC in a home environment, references numbers [15] and [16]. The solution concerns the integration of different communicative zones (comZONES), where the resident can be seen and Source: Junestrand et al (2003) heard at different levels varying in time and space, Figure 10: WorkSPACE and redesigning the home figure 10. built spaces The different comZONES are expressed by technical solutions such as screens and cameras but also by the use of architecture; i.e. spatial forms, colors, light, and materials. The architectural space can then, in combination with ICT solutions, form an interface to the digital world. The technical design of the video and audio space in the comHOME is based on several short-range cameras and microphones being mapped and
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

53

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-13 Video-Mediated and Live Interaction Based Communication Channels: Towards Better E-Government Performance Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

routed through a common media switch. The issue here is to support telepresence based activities such as tele-working, tele-conferencing, tele-celebration and tele-communication. On the perspective of the demanded video mediated and live interaction based communication channels, the lessons learnt from the comHOME application can be summarized as follows: - ComHOME application is seen to effectively exploit ICTs to create communicative spaces in a practical manner; opening the door on further applications and developments. - It is possible to integrate architecture closely with ICTs formulating what has been termed comZONES to support remote and synchronous communication. - The application is argued to prove well and serve many purposes; i.e. tele-work, tele-conferencing and tele-celebration, via adopting four different scenarios: workSPACE, videoTORSO, comTABLE, mediaSPACE in four different built spaces according to the varying contexts, figure 11. - The comHOME application is extremely focusing on the user; mostly those living in it (usercentric approach), providing the ground on which strong social relationships among family members and scattered families can exist. - As the teamwork argued, the development of new VMC set-ups for built environments should be closely linked to the general design of a smart architecture, both from the user and producer perspective.

workSPACE

videoTORSO

comTABLE Source: Junestrand et al (2003)

mediaSPACE

Figure 11: Four different scenarios in the comeHOME

3- A VIDEO-MEDIATED AND LIVE INTERACTION BASED COMMUNICATION CHANNELS- A


PROPOSED MODEL:

In this part of the paper, the main attributes of the demanded communication channels, which are able to overcome existing challenges and contribute to e-government performance, are derived, and a draft model of video-mediated and live interaction based communication channels is sketched. 3-1 Key Attributes of the Demanded Channels: "To move forward and develop universally accessible, usable, and functional e-government services, there is a need to understand that user demands, needs, and requirements for egovernment services and resources will vary, change, and become increasingly sophisticated over time. Functionality, usability, and accessibility are a useful beginning point not an
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

54

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-13 Video-Mediated and Live Interaction Based Communication Channels: Towards Better E-Government Performance Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

ending point for effective user-centered e-government services. Together, they can provide important perspectives from the actual users of e-government services" references number [4]. Based on the reviewed literature and being stimulated by existing miscommunication challenges, the prospects for innovative channels and the demand for better role of websites, being geared by the rapid and steady advancements in computer and networking technologies, and learning from the numerous integrated applications of telepresence, the key attributes of the demanded communication channels are derived. However, these attributes can be classified into three broad categories; having strong correlation to the government, the citizen and the communication process. On the government perspective, the website is to take the priority over front desk and phone, having the capability to support real-time feedback, cost reduction, transparency and better performance. In view of citizens, the demanded channel should be attractive, satisfactory and user-centered, supporting better communication and paying more attention to the disable. On the communication perspective, the channel is to be innovative, interactive, accessible, functional, multiple, integrated, website-based, telepresence-oriented, more than text chat, appropriate for complex and ambiguous situations, reduce mismatches of preference, and keep pace with computer and networking technology. 3-2 VIDEO-MEDIATED AND LIVE INTERACTION BASED CHANNELS: A PROPOSED MODEL The main idea of the proposed model is to incorporate the face; either the face of the employee only in a downloadable video material, or the faces of both the employee and the citizen in telepresence-oriented live interaction through networks; videoconference based interaction. Videoconferencing technology implies having a camera per participant; transmitting the image and voice to all the others. Here it is not just a video conferencing for chatting; it is a way to provide and deliver e-services. Therefore, the proposed model appears to support moving a step towards overcoming the barriers of traditional keyboard-and-mouse computing, offering an innovative way of communication and interaction between the service providers and delivers. In this context, the traditional face-to-face relationship between employees and citizens; that managed to experience a level of informational mode shifting into the display-to-display prototype, seems to be resorted in an unconventional format through innovative communication channels; telepresence face-toface, figure 12. Although the transmission quality is often poor due to limited bandwidth, we should separate problems that are solvable with increasing computational power and faster networks from those that are inherent in the communication channel (Cooperstock; Fels; Buxton & Smith). "The face is an extraordinarily rich communication channel and a detailed face conveys a vast amount of subtle information, whether we wish for it to do so or not" [7]. It speaks for itself that the proposed draft model is far from complete. As the model holds multiple dimensions, it needs further developments; i.e. readdressing the offered opportunities and the imposed challenges in view of the local context, classifying e-services according to the degree of complexity and ambiguity, estimating the technical requirements needed, and investigating the spatial configurations. Yet, without a theoretical framework to examine these dimensions, the paper is to stimulate further research in the direction of settling these issues helping the model to move a step forward. 4- CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK: In this paper, a draft model of video mediated and live interaction based communication channels is sketched. The aim is to overcome existing communication challenges; i.e. miscommunication challenges and mismatch of channel preferences between the government and its citizens. For the aim to be attained, the paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, an introduction is given, highlighting the aim, methodology and scope of the work. In the second part, challenges of existing communication channels, the rising prospects toward innovative channels, and advancements in computer and networking technologies are introduced as the influential motives that stimulated the research. In the third part, key attributes of the demanded channels are derived and the draft model is sketched. As mentioned in the body of the paper, the proposed draft model can not be limited to what have been explored in this research, the fact that shows the need for further research to become crucial. In response to that, the paper is proposed to be extended in, but not limited to, four directions; readdressing the offered opportunities and the imposed challenges in view of the local context, classifying e-services according to the degree of complexity and ambiguity, estimating the technical requirements needed, and investigating the spatial configurations, to become the issues of future work.
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

55

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-13 Video-Mediated and Live Interaction Based Communication Channels: Towards Better E-Government Performance Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

GOVERNMENT PERSPECTIVE
MINIMIZING FRONT DESK & PHONE BASED CHANNELS

COMMUNICATION PERSPECTIVE

CITIZEN PERSPECTIVE

WEB-BASED

INTERACTIVE ACCESSIBILITY AND ENABLEMENT INTEGRATED APPROPRIATE FOR COMPLEXAMBIGUOUS SITUATIONS FUNCTIONALITY

ATTRACT USERS USER ACCEPTANCE AND SATISFACTION USERCENTERED SUPPORT BETTER COMMUNICATIO N BETTER SERVE THE DISABLED

KEY ATTRIBUTES

REAL-TIME FEEDBACK COST REDUCTION BETTER PERFORMANCE

INNOVATIVE

MULTIPLE MORE THAN TEXT CHAT FEWER MISMATCHES OF PREFERENCE KEEP PACE WITH COMPUTER/NET WORKING

TRANSPARENCY

TELEPRESENCE BASED

METHODOLOGY

VIDEOMEDIATED AND LIVE INTERACTION BASED CAPABILITIES

E-SERVICES

INTEGRATING VIDEO-MEDIATED AND LIVE INTERACTION BASED COMMUNICATION CAPABILITIES CLOSELY WITH EXISTING WEBSITE BASED CHANNEL TYPES AND E-GOVERNMENT SERVICES.
OUTCOME ALTERNATI VES

DOWNLOADABLE VIDEO MATERIALS

LIVE INTERACTION BETWEEN GOVERNMENTAL EMPLOYEES AND CITIZENS

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES


ECONOMICS OF VIDEO MEDIATED AND LIVE INTERACTIVE BASED ESERVICES. READDRESSING THE OFFERED OPPORTUNITIES AND THE POSED CHALLENGES IN

CLASSIFICATION OF SERVICES
CLASSIFICATION OF SERVICES ACCORDING TO THE DEGREE OF COMPLEXITY AND AMBIGUITY. SELECTION OF SERVICES TO BE OFFERED AND DELIVERED

TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS
SOFTWARE. HARDWARE. CABLING SOLUTIONS. BANDWIDTH: TRANSMISSION CAPACITIES.

SPATIAL CONFIGURATIONS
QUALIFYING GOVERNMENTAL OFFICES TO PROVIDE SERVICES THROUGH THESE INNOVATIVE CHANNELS. NEW BUILT SPACES TO SUPPORT DELIVERING THE

Figure 12: Video-mediated and live interaction based communication channels: a proposed model

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

56

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-13 Video-Mediated and Live Interaction Based Communication Channels: Towards Better E-Government Performance Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef

1- REFERENCES:
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] "Advancement and Development Prospect of IT", TODO Network. Cited in : www.ecdc.net.cn/newindex/chinese/page/sitemap/reports/IT_report/english/01/03.htm Al Bastaki, Mahmood (2007) "Dubai e-Government Achievements & Upcoming Challenges". Dubai: Dubai e-government. Allan, Mary and Thorns, David (2007) "Access Grid and Video Conferencing as Real Life Simulation". eResearch Australasia 2007, Brisbane. Bertota, John Carlo & Jaegerb Paul T. (2006) 'User-centered e-government: Challenges and benefits for government Web sites'. Government Information Quarterly, Volume 23, Issue 2 , 2006, Pages 163-168. Bjorkdahl, Per (1999) Implementations and Challenges Facing The Intelligent Building Industry, Sweeden: TA Control Pte Ltd. Cited in: http://www.automatedbuildings.com/news/sep99/articles/tacc/tacc.htm (15-06-2005). DEG (2006) "2006 Q4 Report: Dubai eGovernment eServices Division", Dubai eGovernment, UAE: Dubai. Donath, Judith (2001) "Mediated Faces". Computer Science; Vol. 2117 archive Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Cognitive Technology: Instruments of Mind. Ebbers, W. E., et al., Electronic government: Rethinking channel management strategies, Government Information Quarterly (2007), doi:10.1016/j.giq.2006.11.003 'E-Government Citizen Satisfaction Declines for Third Straight Quarter' (2007), American Customer Satisfaction Index. Cited in: http://www.theacsi.org/images/stories/images/govsatscores/e-gov_1207_press_release.pdf 'eGovernment: More Than an Automation of Government Services' (2003), Information Society Commission. Fels, Deborah I. & Weiss, Patrice L. (2001) "Video-mediated communication in the classroom to support sick children: A case study'. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 28, Number 5, November 2001 , pp. 251-263(13) Freed, Larry (2004) 'E-Government Satisfaction Index'. American Customer Satisfaction Index. Gellersen, Hans-W & Beigl Michael (1999) "Ambient Telepresence: Colleague Awareness in Smart Environments". Germany: University of Karlsruhe. Cited in: http://www.teco.uni-karlsruhe.de/~michael/publication/manse.pdf Jaeger, P. T. (in press) "Assessing Section 508 compliance on federal e-government websites: A multi-method, user-centered evaluation of the accessibility of e-government", Government Information Quarterly. Junestrand, S., Keijer, U., Molin, G. & Tollmar, K. (2003) 'User Study of Video Mediated Communication in the Domestic Environment with Intellectually Disabled Persons'. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 2003, Volume 15, Number 1, pp. 87-103. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, New Jersey, USA. Junestrand, S. and Tollmar, K. (1999) "Video Mediated Communication for Domestic Environments - Architectural and Technological Design". In Streitz et al. (eds.) Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1670, Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany. Junestrand, S. and Tollmar, K. (1998) The Dwelling as a Place for Work. In Streiz et al (eds.), Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1370, Springer- Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany. Knudsen, Claus; Naeve, Ambjrn & Handberg; Leif (2002) "Video Mediated Communication Producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality", ISEC conference. Canada: Calgary Lootah, Rehab & Geray, Okan (2006) "Dubai eGovernment Case Study". OECD/UNDP Meeting. Pascual, Patricia (2003) 'E-Government'. Philippines: e-ASEAN Task Force and Malaysia: the UNDP Asia Pacific Development Information Program. Tonkin, Emma L. & Tourte, Gregory J. L. (2007) "Video Streaming: Remote Participation and Engagement in the Conference Environment", IADIS Web Based Communities. SPAIN: Salamanca. Van Dijk J.A.G.M. (1999) "The network society, social aspects of new media". London: Thousand Oaks. Wuy,Wanmin; Yangy, Zhenyu; Nahrstedty, Klara; Kurilloz, Gregorij; & Bajcsy, Ruzena (2007) "Towards Multi-Site Collaboration in Tele-Immersive Environments", MM'07. Germany: Augsburg, Bavaria. ACM 978-1-59593-701-8/07/0009. www.dubai.ae Yildiz, Mete (2003) "E-government research: Reviewing the literature, limitations, and ways forward". Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Government Information Quarterly, Volume 24, Issue 3, July 2007, Pages 646-665.

[16]

[17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

57

1-Theme One: New Technologies and their Use in Providing eServices


1-14 Saudi Aramco Healthcare Link (SAHL): The Automation of Interlink Of Medical Services

Eng. Saeed O. Amoudi

1-14 SAUDI ARAMCO HEALTHCARE LINK (SAHL): THE AUTOMATION OF INTERLINK OF MEDICAL SERVICES BETWEEN SAUDI ARAMCO AND MEDICAL SERVICE PROVIDERS

Eng. Saeed O. Amoudi


Saudi Aramco, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia AHMEDSO@aramco.com

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
Saudi Aramco Healthcare Link (SAHL) is an Aramco Internet-based application that interlinks all medical facilities and services providers around the Kingdom with Saudi Aramcos Healthcare system. SAHL scheme serves more than 300,000 Aramco staff and their families throughout 92 health centre and hospital. It provides quick, secured and reliable services using a combination of various systems. The introduction of SAHL reduces greatly the amount of hard copy of information that is being exchanged between Saudi Aramco and the Medical Facilities and services providers. This has the following benefits: Reduction of the communication time which is spent on sending requests and receiving approvals Improvement of the accuracy of information being processed. Improvement of the communication time that spent in verifying data and payment. Improvement of the referral processes. Enhancement of capturing medical information of the patients The above benefits has led to an improvement of patient care and safety, and a better vendorcustomer relationship between Saudi Aramco and their medical facilities and services partners-inbusiness. SAHLs concept and methodologies can be used as a template for any public or private medical sector which are looking to provide similar applications of the medical services over the Internet.

Keywords:
Saudi Aramco, Healthcare, SAP, Medical, automating

Biography:
Eng. Amoudi graduated from King Fahd University of petroleum and minerals, with B.Sc. in computer engineering in 2005. Since then he works with Saudi Aramco as a system analyst in Healthcare Applications Division. Eng. Amoudi is a SAP ABAP development certified consultant. He was involved in developing several Portal, Webdyn Pro and ABAP applications. He also participated in the preparation of number of technical events including Mawhiba Science & Eng Fair, Robots, and Nano Technology first Lego League.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

58

2- Theme 2: Building the e-Services Culture and Society Awareness of it

- :

2- Theme 2: Building the e-Services Culture and Society Awareness of it

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

59

2- Theme 2: Building the eServices Culture and Society Awareness of it 2-1 Is Medium the Massage?

Mr. Ahmad Zahidah

2-1 IS MEDIUM THE MASSAGE? Mr. Ahmad Zahidah, M. Sc. PGD,


New Media Business Manager MBC Group Dubai Media City- UAE Email: ahmadz@mbc.ae

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
As a mature news broadcaster with over 60 million viewers, the challenge of diving into emerging new media platforms like WWW, Mobile, IPTV created new set of dilemmas. The fundamentals of delivering news, like credibility, relevancy, not any longer a crucial questions, as much as the nature of those new platforms. Their distinctive features, abilities, spread, and their users needs and desires introduce necessary modification into the massage. In this paper, the question of the impact on the massage to be delivered via new vehicles is investigated. Based on practical experience, in Alarabiya News Stations, several models are being discussed. The opportunities and challenges of this new media are forming a framework to share the rich experience of Alarabiya. In whatever field was your organization functioning, certainly it is delivering a massage. Considering the medium, Alarabiya is sharing in this paper insight into how to tackle your target audience with tailored massages.

Keywords:
New Media, Online marketing, Online Advertisement, Content, E-news, usability, Accessibility.

Biography:
Ahmad Zahidah looks after the new media business in MBC Group, the largest Middle East broadcasting organization. He is responsible for commercialization, Marketing that includes the Ecommerce platform. He manages large scale internet project, such as launching social networking web & mobile bases, Digital content, IPTV, VOD in addition to maintain the relationship with advertisers. Ahmad obtained his M. Sc. In E-business and Post graduate diploma in Interactive technologies for E-commerce from UK, and his B. Sc. in Business Administration from the University of Jordan. Ahmad consults in Internet, Mobile related projects, as well as design and deliver training relevant fields. His research interests include, Socio- Techno issues, Arabic Usability, Accessibility, E-learning, EBanking in addition to New Media.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

60

2- Theme 2: Building the eServices Culture and Society Awareness of it 2-2 Introducing Eservices: the Challenge of Managing the Change

Eng. Faisal M. Al-Naim

2-2 INTRODUCING ESERVICES: THE CHALLENGE OF MANAGING THE CHANGE

Eng. Faisal M. Al-Naim, M. Sc., MBA


Administrator, Information Protection Center Saudi Aramco Manager of IT Unit of FED faisal.naim@aramco.com

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
At present, the management of change in the business environment is one of most significant challenges facing todays business leaders and the transformation of business services to e-services would be definitely a difficult task to manage. This presentation suggests a systematic approach towards the management of change in businesses with particular emphasis on the role of the human factor in the transformation process. The paper discusses firstly the rapid accelerating change in the business environment and the type of challenge that the change would stimulate. The presentation demonstrates 23 years of personal experience in technical and administrative fields. It highlights successes, risks and challenges, the presenter has experienced throughout his long career. The presentation would hopefully have a positive impact on attendances approach to the change management and it would provide them with the knowledge about the right approach that should be followed towards managing change in the business environment.

Keywords:
eServices, Business Environment, Change Management, Human Aspects of Change, Saudi Arabia.

Biography:
Faisal Al-Naim: Graduated from KFUPM with a BSc. in Industrial Management and Information systems in 1984. In 1989, Faisal received his MSc. Degree in computer science from California State University. Three years later, Faisal got his MBA degree from KFUPM. For the past 23 years, Faisal has been working in the IT field. Faisal had worked in the Institute of Public Administration in the areas of training, consultation, research, and administration of the computer center. Faisal Joined Saudi Aramco in 1991 and had worked in various sections of the IT department. Faisal had spent 6 years in Computer Training Group, 4 years in Web Development, 6 years in awareness and risk management, and recently he was assigned as an Administrator of the Information Protection Center. At present, Faisal is leading the IT & Communication services in the OPEC Summit. Faisal has 4 internationally recognized professional certifications in information security, e-business, and project management. Mr. Naim has just completed his executive training in Duke University this summer. He has participated in the management of some non-profit organizations such as the Saudi Computer Society. Faisal delivered presentations in tens of national and international professional symposiums and conferences.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

61

2- Theme 2: Building the eServices Culture and Society Awareness of it 2-3 Cyber Law and the Saudi Arabia Kingdoms Responsibility

Mr. Abdu A. Albur

2-3 CYBER LAW AND THE SAUDI ARABIA KINGDOMS RESPONSIBILITY Mr. Abdu A. Albur
IT Manager General Directorate of Education-Eastern Province Saudi Arabia albur@edueast.gov.sa/albur1@yahoo.com

This paper was presented in the symposium, then refereed and accepted for publication in this Proceedings Book as a Scientific Research Paper in its final form as follows:

Abstract:
The Internet penetrates our life in an unprecedented way, it impacts our way of communications with the outside world. Long distances do not separate people around the world and people can live and communicate now in a new world which the cyber world. This world has its political, economic, and social rules. In this new world, there is no limitation of space, speed, and interaction. In the real world, rules and laws have been developed from peoples experiences of interaction and communications. Unfortunately, this is not the case in the cyber world. The e-technology has been developed to one of its peaks without precise regulations, and principles that would punish hackers and potential criminals. This paper highlights the history of the cyber law and the efforts of the international agencies to regulate the Internet use. It discusses the responsibility of Saudi Arabia government, and citizens towards the use of the cyber world, and the application of the new IT Criminal Law in the Kingdom. These points are highlighted to attract citizens, government bodies, and the private sector attention to the cyber law which is disregarded for a long time. On the other hand, there was a dramatic change in the world particularly after the 9/11 attack. Cyber law was considered to be an international law which can cross the national borders. Anyone is responsible for the cyber crime which he committed in his/ her country or across the national borders. Saudis have to be vigilant more than ever, and aware of the precautions that they should undertake whenever and wherever they virtually navigate in the cyber space. The new Saudi IT Criminal Law and Cyber crime Unit constitute a good start point toward the application of effective and practical measures that would create a secure e-environment for the citizens of the kingdom.

Keywords:
Cyber law, Saudi Law, Cyber crime, Jurisdiction.

Biography:
Mr. Abdu Ali Albur was born in Taif, Saudi Arabia in July 1965. He graduated from King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals in 1988, with B.S. in Physics. At present, he doing his Master degree in E-commerce at University of Maryland in U.S.A. Mr. Albur works as an IT manager in the General Directorate of Education in the Eastern Province. He participated in many national and international educational conferences. He is a member of the "National Geographic Society ".

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

62

2- Theme 2: Building the eServices Culture and Society Awareness of it 2-3 Cyber Law and the Saudi Arabia Kingdoms Responsibility

Mr. Abdu A. Albur

1- INTRODUCTION The Internet was originally created by the U.S. government to protect its military infrastructure from a nuclear strike. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was created primarily to deliver this promise, and from within this project came the first interconnected system, ARPANET, in 1969 (Marsden, 2001; Napier, Judd, Rivers, & Adams, 2003). However, the real age of cyberspace began in the early 1990s, fueled by the development of the World Wide Web and the statutory authority granted to the National Science Foundation (NSF) to commercialize what was then called the NSFNET. Cyberspace is defined as a virtual, non-physical, space based on software code and on information and communication exchange; it permits the exchange of digital products and information goods such as music, computer code, money, text and video (Marsden, 2001). Cyberspace includes the Internet and also commercial online services, private databases, and private networks. The Internet itself today includes e-mail, the World Wide Web, file transfer protocol (FTP), newsgroups (Usenet), and Internet Relay Chat (IRC). There is no question that the information technology revolution has opened up new opportunities, previously thought to be impossible, by its ability to compress and bypass time and space. Being in two places at once, or at two times at once is no magic in cyberspace. In other words, being online means that you are everywhere and are able to interact with others, in real time and with equal opportunities. You can have your own identity, create a new one at your preference, or be anonymous. All this can take place with no fear of surveillance, legal intervention, or public retribution, which normally accompanies our interaction in the physical space. This situation raises an important question about the regulation of content and behavior in cyberspace. The Internet is a creation of governments and educational institutions, and continues to be regulated by governments and with private corporations as a proxy for governmental agencies. However, there is growing evidence indicating that cyberspace may no longer be as open and free of supervision as it used to be. With the increased popularity of the Internet, the demand for greater structure is also gaining momentum; there is an intensified push for a more reliable level of security and law regulations. And the change, though slow, is away from the Internet-free-concept, not towards it. The world economy is becoming more competitive, more global, and increasingly dominated by information and communications technology (ICT). Many governments believe that e-commerce is essentially a global, rather than a national, issue and that it is important to monitor e-commerce development carefully to ensure consistency with their own policies. In addition to this, the Internet is driving an inevitable political, economic, and social integration both locally and globally. This requires the integration of the disciplines of law and economics with international relations, which will ultimately lay the foundation of the cyberlaw. To assert this trend, many initiatives have been taken by organizations such as Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in a cryptography conference of October 1998 and the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) in a Model Law on Electronic Commerce. Furthermore, many countries are willing to insert the WTO into e-commerce issues as authentication, commercial contracts, privacy, consumer protection and content regulations (Marsden, 2001). In the early days of the Internet, the self-regulation idea prevailed and had good support from Internet users, interest groups and other nongovernmental agencies, such as Internet Service Providers (ISPs). Individual Internet users could monitor their own use and that of others, prevent malicious acts and report harmful materials on the Internet. Parents could control their children's browsing manners and use many available software products to protect their childrens privacy. And ISPs could establish a code of conduct to what they offered to their subscribers. However, the Internet is no longer controllable by individuals and interest groups. The number of Internet users is increasing tremendously (more than one billion according to the latest figures (Table 1)), and consequently cybercrimes are in a continuous rise. The ethical code of conduct is not enough to deter perpetrators or to stop them from committing their crimes.
Table 1: Internet Industry Perspectives (Internet Industry Perspectives, 2004).

Worldwide Internet users (#M)

1985 0.015

1990 2.1

1995 45.1

2000 420

2005 1050

2010 1700

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

63

2- Theme 2: Building the eServices Culture and Society Awareness of it 2-3 Cyber Law and the Saudi Arabia Kingdoms Responsibility

Mr. Abdu A. Albur

If moral, ethical, and legal boundaries that define and regulate our behavior in the physical world are not defined in the virtual world, what forms of regulations should be implemented to curb illegal activities in the cyberspace? Are there effective bodies patrolling and regulating the cyberspace with a mission to protect vulnerable and incent people and to enforce the law? What are the responsibilities of the Saudi government and its citizens in this new cyber world? And how can we alert our citizens, government agencies, and the private sector about cyber laws? This paper will address these questions in relation to three main areas of concern to the Kingdom. First, it will consider the various means of regulation, governmental or private, national or international, that are currently in place, and the Saudi bodies fighting computer-related crimes. Second, the paper will highlight the IT Criminal Law recently approved by the Shoura Council and issued by the Kingdom Council of Ministers. One of the most important articles of this law imposes imprisonment not to exceed 10 years and a fine no more than SR5 million, or any of the two punishments, of any person developing a Web site for terrorist organizations on the Internet, or on a computer (Yesser, 2007). Finally, the paper will outline the main crimes that are committed using the Internet and how these crimes are addressed by the IT Criminal law. 2- INTERNET AND CYBERCRIME REGULATIONS The Internet has transformed societies' commercial and communication fabric, and created a new law cyberlaw - for its new world - cyberspace. Today, the emphasis is shifting from a borderless Internet to borderless law. In the first stages of cyberlaw regulations, it was visualized that by entering cyberspace a person would literally enter a new jurisdiction. The inhabitants would govern this new space, and the authors advocated a decentralized, self-regulatory model in which Internet users created rules best suited to their needs (Geist, 2003). It was not until 1990 when a broad level of international consensus emerged about some basic principles for the governance of cyberspace. And technologies facilitating geographic identification have enabled both business and government to bring geographic borders to the online environment. With new technologies that are capable of identifying the exact location of a user, such as EdgeScape and Quova, the Internet is fast becoming a bordered medium that varies noticeably depending upon geographic location of the user. For example, Google, the world's most popular search engine, has acknowledged using geographic identification technologies to meet variations in local laws by delivering different search results to users in different countries. 2-1 Cyberlaw Jurisdiction Sklyarov is a Russian programmer who designed a software program that decrypts the encryption used by Adobe in its e-book software. When he visited Las Vegas, NV in July 2001 to present a paper on the strengths and weaknesses of software used to protect electronic books, the American authorities arrested him. He was charged with violating the American Copyright Act, and if convicted he could face up to 25 years in prison, and fines up to $ 2.25 million. The Anti-cyber-squatting Consumer Protection Act (ACPA) is another example on borderless cyberlaw. For example, an American court in Virginia ordered the cancellation of a domain name -- globalsantafe.com that took precedence over an order from a Korean court blocking the local registrar from effecting the cancellation. The court then ordered VeriSign, which maintains the root server, to override the local registrar by deleting the domain in question from the root server (Geist, 2003). In a survey conducted by McConnell International, LLC, hundreds of companies, large and small, in all business sectors in 45 countries, were asked how they perceive and deal with legaljurisdictional uncertainties and risks in their Internet activities and which jurisdictional issues posed the greatest concern. The first on the list was litigation and jurisdictional risks (McConnell International, 2000). In the United States, the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) applies to commercial Web sites and online services in any state or foreign nation. And in May 2002, the European Union's Article 29 Data Protection Working Party released a document that assessed the international application of the E.U. data protection law to personal data processed on the Internet by non-E.U. based Web sites (Geist, 2003). Furthermore, The PATRIOT Act extended the U.S. government's ability to prosecute criminals involved in cybercrimes that are used in a manner that affects interstate or foreign commerce or communication of the United States, even if the activity in question may be lawful within its country of origin. Similarly, Malaysia's Computer Crimes Act, which took effect in 2000, includes extra-territorial provisions that state clearly that " the provisions of this act shall, in relation to any person, whatever his nationality or citizenship,
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

64

2- Theme 2: Building the eServices Culture and Society Awareness of it 2-3 Cyber Law and the Saudi Arabia Kingdoms Responsibility

Mr. Abdu A. Albur

have effect outside as well as within Malaysia" (Geist, 2003). Nevertheless, the question remains: Why is it so easy to commit crimes in the cyberspace? 2-1 Cybercrimes Cybercrimes can be broadly classified into two categories: new crimes using Internet-based tools (such as hacking and planting viruses), and old crimes using new cyber tools (fraud, identity thefts, stalking, etc.), (Jewkes, 2002). Regarding the easiness in committing cybercrimes: first, the new forms of communications that the Internet creates and the relative anonymity that it permits have made it easy to commit cybercrimes. Second, the Internet has provided offenders with a range of new opportunities for committing traditional criminal activities on a global scale. Third, the Internet has created some entirely new criminal opportunities which have generated novel forms of behavior on a global scale. 2-2 Some Serious Cybercrimes: This is a list of major cybercrime categories: Trespassing or hacking/cracking: the unauthorized access of computer systems where rights of ownership or title have already been established. A distinction is increasingly being made in the literature between the principled trespasser the hacker and the unprincipled trespasser the cracker; Acquisition and deception: often referred to as cyber-theft, this category describes the different types of acquisitive harm that can take place in cyberspace, such as identity theft and intellectual property right infringements; Pornography/obscenity: the trading of sexually expressive materials within cyberspace, which may include the exploitation of minors; and Violence/hate crimes: describes the violent impact of the cyber-activities of the perpetrator upon an individual, or a social or political grouping, such as defamation (Ball and Webster, 2003).

2-3 Examples: identity theft and spyware Identity theft is the fastest growing crime in many countries. An identity theft occurs when the criminal obtains confidential information from an individual or business and uses it to access private financial accounts. According to Brody, Mulig and Kimball (2007), 53 million identities have already been stolen and 19 thousand more are stolen every day in the U.S. Companies, on average, spend 1,600 work hours per incident at a cost of $40,000 to $92,000 per victim. Furthermore, U.S. losses have reached approximately $52.6 billion per year. And since the Internet is a global environment, this type of crime will reach every corner of the cyberspace. To shed some light on this important issue, these are some of the e-threats to your identity: Phishing: a person gets an e-mail that appears to be from his bank or an online service instructing him to click on a link and provide information to verify his account; Pharming or spoofing: hackers redirect a legitimate Web site's traffic to an impostor site, where the person is asked to provide confidential information; Smishing: this is phishing done with text messaging on the person's smart phone instructing him to visit a bogus Web site; Spyware: a user unknowingly downloads illicit software when he/she opens an attachment, clicks on a pop-up or downloads a song or a game (refer to the second paragraph for more detail); Vishing -- voice phishing: the person gets an automated phone message asking him to call his bank or credit card company; and Bank-card skimming: perpetrators use a combination of a fake ATM slot and cameras to record the person's account information and ID when he uses a cash machine. His credit or debit card also can be skimmed by a dishonest store or restaurant worker armed with a portable card reader.

On the other hand, spyware is defined as software that collects information about a user activity when visiting a Web site. This type of monitoring poses a serious privacy risk because spyware can secretly capture and transmit a user's personal information and passwords typed in online transactions. Spyware is often classified into four types of software: system monitors, Trojans, adware, and tracking cookies. Spyware
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

65

2- Theme 2: Building the eServices Culture and Society Awareness of it 2-3 Cyber Law and the Saudi Arabia Kingdoms Responsibility

Mr. Abdu A. Albur

legislation should address the most widespread and flagrant problems by introducing laws against adware, deceptive and harmful software installation and operation, and fraud and other criminal acts accomplished through spyware (Sun, 2007). 2-4 Cyberlaw and Government Regulations The nature of modern communications, including the Internet, makes international cooperation in cybersecurity of increasing importance. The perpetrators of many recent cybercrimes, such as the distributed denial-of-service (DoS) attacks in February 2000, were hackers in foreign countries. For example, the programmer who spread the I Love You virus, which caused over $10 billion in damage around the world, was not prosecuted in the Philippines because that country lacked adequate criminal laws. And because he did not violate Philippine law, the double criminality principle precluded him from being extradited to other countries pursuant to general extradition treaties (Personick & Patterson, 2003). The recent case of U.S. v. Gorshkov, in which an FBI agent conducted a cross-border search of a Russian computer to obtain evidence to indict a Russian citizen on extortion charges, is an example of how courts look at cross-border searches in the current environment and how it might become the norm in the absence of formal international coordination. Increasing cross-border criminal activity highlights the need for common international standards and objectives for cyber-security. Different countries have different laws and practices, making prosecution of these criminals very difficult (Personick & Patterson, 2003). Governments are more than ever involved in Internet regulations. For example, The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) was considered a self-regulatory body in which the stakeholders governed themselves, free from government interference. However, the European Union recommended that ICANN always consult governments on policy matters, and that it should be able to ignore or reverse governmental advice only by a two-thirds vote of its board (Geist, 2003). The regulatory bodies of the Internet, such as the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and ICANN, started as self-regulated bodies and with minimal direct government interference, but nevertheless are governmental funded agencies (Marsden, 2001). 2-5 Who are in charge? The Internet is not a free ride anymore. There are technical, ethical, and judicial regulations governing its practices. These are some important regulatory bodies setting the Internet general rules: Governments: in general governments maintain tight control over the flow of information and the online interaction that takes place in their countries, powered by political leaders, legislative bodies, and courts desired to enforce law and discipline in the cyberspace; Internet Service Providers (ISPs): ISPs continue to serve as gatekeepers to cyberspace; Local Telephone Companies: telephone companies still servealong with the ISPsas major gatekeepers to cyberspace. And the emergence of digital subscriber line (DSL) services may serve to enhance the role of telephone companies in this context; Builders and Custodians of the Internet Backbone: backbone lines are the high-speed fiber optic cables that transfer information through the Internet at speeds that can reach 155 million bits per second. While major telecommunications companies own most of the high-speed fiber optic lines and lease these lines to other backbone firms, no single company or group controls the entire network. The backbone system also consists of large hubs through which all the high-speed lines merge to reroute billions of packets of data and sends them either to a requesting Internet service provider or to another hub for further rerouting.

On the other hand, these are some agencies that set the technical and self-regulatory rules and regulations: 1 Internet Society (ISOC): sees itself as the ambassador of the Internet and works to assure the open development, evolution and use of the Internet for the benefit of all people throughout the world; The Internet Architecture Board (IAB): serves as the technical advisory group of the Internet Society, providing oversight of the process used to create Internet standards, and serves as an appeal board for complaints;

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

66

2- Theme 2: Building the eServices Culture and Society Awareness of it 2-3 Cyber Law and the Saudi Arabia Kingdoms Responsibility

Mr. Abdu A. Albur

3 4

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF): decides on technical standards for the Internet; the IETF has no power to enforce its recommendations; The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C): an international organization that works to maximize the full potential of the Web by developing common protocols that promote its evolution and ensure its interoperability; ICANN: assigns domain names and IP addresses and resolves litigations concerning domain names conflict if asked to do so by the litigators. ICANN is an internationally organized, nonprofit corporation that has responsibility for Internet Protocol (IP) address space allocation, protocol identifier assignment, generic (gTLD) and country code (ccTLD) Top-Level Domain name system management, and root server system management functions. The Domain Name System (DNS) helps users find their way around the Internet. ICANN is responsible for coordinating the management of the technical elements of the DNS to ensure universal resolvability so that all users of the Internet can find all valid addresses. ICANN is governed by an internationally diverse Board of Directors overseeing the policy development process. Over 80 governments closely advise the Board of Directors via the Governmental Advisory Committee, and the Kingdom is represented by the Communications and Information Technology Commission. The Saudi Network Information Centre (SaudiNIC) is responsible for the administration of the domain name space for the country code of Saudi Arabia; and International Telecommunication Union (ITU): the leading United Nations agency for information and communication technologies. Its main task is to promote for international cooperation aimed at proposing strategies for solutions to enhance confidence and security in the information society. It will build on existing national and regional initiatives to avoid duplication of work and encourage collaboration amongst all relevant partners (International Telecommunication Union, 2007).

3- THE INTERNET AND THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA REGULATIONS According to Hancock (2007), the number of Internet users in the Arab world stood at 26.3 million at the end of 2005, a stark increase in comparison to 14 million users in 2004 and 4.5 million users in 2002. Furthermore, Arab Internet usage is forecast to double to 50 million by 2009 among the 290 million people in the region. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as the world's 13th largest merchandise exporter and the 23rd largest importer, has an estimated population of 24 million (as of end-2004), with around 90% living in urban areas and about 6.5 million of working age. According to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), there were around 3.7m fixed phone lines at end-2004, equivalent to 15.4% of the population, compared with 14% in 2000. According to the June 2005 report of the US-Saudi Arabian Business Council, the number of Internet users exceeded 2.2m in 2004, up from 350,000 users in 2001, and the number of subscribers approached 900,000, representing a penetration rate of about 10% (Saudi Arabia technology, 2006). PC ownership by end-2004 represented more than one-third of the population (Table 2). According to the Economist Intelligence Units e-readiness score, the Kingdom was rated 4.85 (out of a maximum of 10) in 2005, placing it 46th out of 65 countries (Telecoms & technology data, 2006). All these figures indicate a bright future for the Internet use and its applications in the Arabic world in general, and in the Kingdom in particular. At the same time there is a need for more regulations and laws to enhance the effective and safe use of this technology. The access to the Internet was made legal in February 1999, and the Kingdoms first Internet service providers (ISPs) came online shortly afterward. The Communications and Information Technology Commission (CITC) is responsible for regulating and supervising the Internet. The Internet Services Unit at the King Abdul Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) was monitoring all Internet traffic and barred access to sites considered inappropriate. The government decided in 2003 to shift the responsibility for regulating and supervising the Internet from KACST to the Communications and Information Technology Commission (Saudi Arabia technology, 2006). This move was necessary to impose more effective technical regulations and efficient laws to govern the cyberspace in the Kingdom and to harmonize many initiatives to regulate the Internet both from government and private sectors. Regulations are more than simply blocking certain Web sites, even though very important, but to prepare the Kingdom for its main 2010-e-government target.
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

67

2- Theme 2: Building the eServices Culture and Society Awareness of it 2-3 Cyber Law and the Saudi Arabia Kingdoms Responsibility

Mr. Abdu A. Albur

Table 2: Telephone main lines, mobile subscribers, Internet users, broadband subscriber lines, personal computers, software sales, IT (Telecoms & technology data, 2006).

Telephone main lines(000) Telephone main lines (per 100 population) Mobile subscribers (000) Mobile subscribers (per 100 population) Internet users (000) Internet users (per 100 population) Broadband subscriber lines (000) Broadband subscriber lines (per 100 population) Personal computers (stock per 1,000 population) Packaged software sales (US$ m) IT hardware spending (US$ m) IT services spending (US$ m) Total IT spending (US$ m)

2000 3,000 14.0 1,460 6.8 350 1.6 0.0 0.0 63 206.2 654.5 576.4 1437.0

2001 3,100 14.0 3,195 14.5 900 4.1 1.0 0.0 77 230.9 653.8 581.0 1465.7

2002 3,300 14.5 5,000 22.0 1,300 5.7 2.8 0.0 107 329.9 802.5 555.1 1687.5

2003 3,500 15.0 7,306 31.3 1,455 6.2 5.8 0.0 134 365.6 893.8 603.7 1863.1

2004 3,695 15.4 9,176 38.3 1,586 6.6 25.4 0.1 154 405.6 971.0 661.1 2037.7

2005 3,800 15.4 11,200 45.5 1,950 7.9 64.5 0.3 167 448.3 1107.2 728.1 2283.5

3-1 The Kingdom and International Laws E-government services are becoming more widely available all over the world, and the number of citizens using these services is increasing. E-government services in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries are growing at an unprecedented rate. Saudi Arabia and the UAE are moving more and more of their services online. For example, all Saudi commercial banks now have Web sites, and all offer online banking services. In June 2004, Saudi Arabian Airlines launched its e-Business Centre using IBM WebSphere technology to develop and deploy its e-business (Saudi Arabia technology, 2006). Promoting awareness in target users is getting more attention and many conferences are addressing this issue. And many GCC countries are taking practical measures to protect their e-government structure; for example, The UAE's Telecom Regulatory Authority (TRA) started a plan to form a special anti-cybercrime body, the United Arab Emirates Computer Emergency Response Team (aeCERT), which will facilitate the detection, prevention and response to cybercrime (Hancock, 2007). On 11 December 2005, the Kingdom became the 149th member of the World Trade Organization (WTO). One of the WTOs agreements is the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Including Trade in Counterfeit Goods. This agreement includes rules regulating copyright, intellectual property right, trademarks and service marks, geographical indications, industrial designs, and patents. In addition, the International Intellectual Property Alliance, during its early 2006 meetings with Saudi officials, urged the Kingdom to ratify and fully implement the World Intellectual Property Organization's Copyright Treaty on e-commerce (Saudi Arabia technology, 2006). The Kingdom signed and ratified these international copyright treaties before joining the WTO: 1. Berne: Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, Berne, 1886, came into force 1887; 2. UCC Geneva: Universal Copyright Convention, Geneva Act, 1952, came into force 1955; 3. UCC Paris: Universal Copyright Convention, Paris Act, 1971, came into force 1974; and 4. TRIPS: Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Marrakech, 1994, came into force 1995.
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

68

2- Theme 2: Building the eServices Culture and Society Awareness of it 2-3 Cyber Law and the Saudi Arabia Kingdoms Responsibility

Mr. Abdu A. Albur

The Berne Convention requires its signatories to recognize the copyright of works of authors from other signatory countries (known as members of the Berne Union) in the same way it recognizes the copyright of its own nationals, which means that, for instance, Saudi copyright law applies to anything published or performed in Saudi Arabia, regardless of where it was originally created. On the other hand, the UCC was developed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization as an alternative to the Berne Convention for those states that disagreed with aspects of the Berne Convention but still wished to participate in some form of multilateral copyright protection. Finally, TRIPS is an international agreement administered by the WTO that sets down minimum standards for many forms of intellectual property regulation; it is considered to be the most comprehensive international agreement on intellectual property to date. Furthermore, on 12 November 2007, Saudi Arabia signed the United Nations Convention on the Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracts. The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) is the core legal body of the United Nations system in the field of international trade law, and its laws on Electronic Commerce apply to any kind of information in the form of a data message used in the context of commercial activities (UNCITRAL, 2007). 3-2 The Kingdom E-Government Initiatives The government of Saudi Arabia realized the importance of e-government in enhancing and improving all services to its citizens and increasing the efficiency of the national economy. Accordingly, the supreme Royal Decree number 7/B/33181, dated 10/7/1424, September 7, 2003, included a directive to the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (MCIT) to formulate a plan for providing government services and transactions electronically. Therefore, MCIT established the e-Government Program in conjunction with the Ministry of Finance and the Communication and Information Technology Commission (CITC) named Yesser. The main objectives of Yesser are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. Raising the productivity and efficiency of the public sector, Providing better and more easy-to-use services for individual and business customers, Increasing return on investment (ROI), and Providing the required information in a timely and highly accurate fashion. The National Information Technology Plan (NITP): launched by a decree of the Crown Prince in late 2001, the plan includes a long-term vision for IT in the Kingdom over the next twenty years in addition to the first five-year IT Plan; The Telecommunications Act : was issued in the supreme royal decree number (M/12) dated 12/3/1422H , June 4, 2001, and is meant to regulate and restructure the communications sector; The Council of Ministers' decision no. 235, issued on October 4, 2004 directed government bodies to utilize electronic methods instead of documents and conventional methods " 3- Government bodies shall expedite the use of computers in all financial and accounting operations, shift from conventional methods in bookkeeping and preparation of accounts and financial statements to electronic methods and turn in their data for review on CDs instead of paper documents." The EForms project, carried out by the e-government transactions program Yesser is a step forward toward implementing such directive; E-Government Implementation Rules: the Council of Ministers Resolution no.40, dated March 27, 2006 in its 17th directive stated that "each Government entity shall form an internal committee to deal with issues related to e-government interoperability applications. The main function of this committee is to supervise and follow-up the implementation of the e-government plan, as well as to coordinate in this regards with the Program; and E-Transactions Law: The Council of Ministers, headed by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz, approved the e-transactions law in their session on Monday, 7th R. Awal, 1428H, March 26, 2007 . The law aims to protect the legal framework for electronic transactions and signatures.

To promote its e-Government Program, the Kingdom started many plans and initiatives (Yesser, 2007):

2. 3.

4.

5.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

69

2- Theme 2: Building the eServices Culture and Society Awareness of it 2-3 Cyber Law and the Saudi Arabia Kingdoms Responsibility

Mr. Abdu A. Albur

3-3 The Saudi's cyberlaw The purpose of criminal law is to deter future crime and punish perpetrators. Criminal threats to critical information infrastructures include unauthorized access to computer networks (either from an insider or an outside hacker), malicious code (such as viruses and worms), and distributed denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. The conventional wisdom is that prosecution of computer crimes will help reduce the number of future computer attacks. However, laws that govern the cyberspace are not given the required attention. These laws, which are the same as security measures, are essential to encourage people to take advantage of the simplicity and ease of online services, since the provision of these services is practically a must for the financial and retail industries and is fast approaching necessity for the government sector (Conway, 2007). To assert this importance, according to Symantecs latest Internet Security Threat Report, the GCC countries are ranked high in originating attacks of all types, and of those countries targeted by DoS attacks and Bot-infected computersthe UAE ranked at 50, Saudi Arabia at 61, Kuwait at 55, Bahrain at76, and Qatar at78 (ArabianBusiness.com, 2007). This implies that implementing laws to deter such activities is very important at this stage of advancing GCC e-government initiatives. The UAE discovered an Internet fraud ring in which criminals targeted investors by pretending to operate out of the Dubai International Financial Centre. Furthermore, hacking attempts on several e-Government Websites resulted in service downtime as well as the loss of large amounts of data. The Kingdom has passed a number of laws related to computer crime, stemming from its basic principle which states that the Quran, and the Hadith (sayings) and Sunna (tradition) of the Prophet Mohammed, are the constitution of Saudi Arabia. These laws are generally focused on hackers and other individuals who use computer networks for illegal purposes. The Council of Ministers, headed by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz, approved the IT Criminal Law in the council session, held on Monday 7th R. Awal, 1428H, 26th of March 2007; 16 sections of the law have been approved by the 120member Shoura Council. The law curtails IT crimes, by defining such crimes and relevant punishments. The IT Criminal Law came into force on Sunday 29th Rajab 1428H, 12 August 2007. The above law strikes an important balance between the right of the society to benefit from new technology and the right of the consumer for protection of his/her privacy. It also paves the way for establishment of an IT legal system that safeguards the rights resulting from the legal use of computers and information networks. Finally, it aims to protect public interest, morals, public ethics, and the national economy. The maximum punishment under the new legislation is a prison sentence of ten years and a fine of SR5 million, which can be imposed on anyone found guilty of hacking into government networks to steal information related to national security or using the Internet to support terrorism. Creating Web sites that defame humanity, advocate drug use or that contain pornographic material can lead to sentences of up to five years in prison and/or a fine of SR5 million. The same punishment will also apply to anyone found guilty of creating Web sites or programs that violate any of the Kingdoms general laws, Islamic values or public ethics. Any person who gains unauthorized access to a public network or who installs viruses on that network will be subject to a fine of around SR3 million and/or up to four years in prison. According to Article 3 of the law, people eavesdropping on private e-mail messages without any right or misusing mobile cameras will be sentenced to jail and a fine. Those who try to disrupt the Internet service or remove information on the network will also face punishment. Other punishable cyber crimes include setting up Web sites for trading in pornography pictures and videos or facilitating drug trafficking and sales. The law will punish those who establish Web sites for terrorist organizations and facilitate contacts with their leaders and members or promote their ideologies or publish information on how to make bombs and explosives, as well as those who try to obtain secret information related to national security. Article 8 warns those who contact organized criminal gangs, as well as those who entice women and small children to exploit them, and they will face punishment. The law, however, acquits those who help security authorities to foil criminal plots before they happen by providing them with information on people involved in the crime and the equipment used for it (Abdul Ghafour, 2006; Saudi Gazette, 2007; Armstrong & Forde, 2003). In a move to implement and enforce these laws, the Ministry of the Interior (MOI) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is now in the preliminary stages of building a cybercrime unit as a part of the public security
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

70

2- Theme 2: Building the eServices Culture and Society Awareness of it 2-3 Cyber Law and the Saudi Arabia Kingdoms Responsibility

Mr. Abdu A. Albur

section of the Ministry within the investigations unit. The unit will contain forensic labs, and there will be a training program to train Saudi officers to manage cybercrime technology (ArabianBusiness.com, 2007). 3-4 The Saudi Intelligence Service Conference and Cyberlaw The three-day International Technology and National Security Conference in Riyadh, organized by the Saudi Intelligence Services and chaired by the Crown Prince Sultan bin Abdel Aziz, emphasized the importance of introducing the new cyberlaws to criminalize the use of communications technology to spread terrorist ideologies that concern all countries. There are over 17,000 Web sites which fuel Al-Qaeda ideology, and the number is increasing by some 9,000 Web sites per year (Bowman, 2007). In this conferencewhich I attended--Prince Sultan stated that "communications technologies are just as important strategically for terrorist groups as the militant operations they carry out as cyber-terrorism enables sophisticated cooperation between cells and brings awareness and credibility to attacks." An important recommendation from this conference is the implementation of enhanced training programmers designed to educate both security specialists and the general public about cyber-terrorism, as well as cooperation between various security agencies, both within the Kingdom and abroad. The main recommendations regarding cyberlaw, reported as essential, from the conference are: 1. Forming a special department responsible for combating cybercrimes and this is something already started in the Ministry of Interior- by the name Electronic Security Department. This department should have the necessary authority to put the rules and regulations for implementing the cyberlaws; The Higher Judicial Institute and Islamic Law Colleges in the Kingdom have to start teaching their students cyberlaw, and introducing cyberlaw courses in their curriculum; Teaching the regional and international cyberlaw regulations to gain experience and to foster more cooperation; Teaching pre-college students about the importance of Internet security and basic cyberlaws; The necessity of a Computer Forensics Major in the Kingdom's universities, which teach students the required skills in dealing with and investigating computer related crimes; and The implementation of more specific and specialized cyberlaws in information security, and raising the competencies of police and law officers and judges in dealing with computer and information crimes.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

4- HOW TO GOVERN OUR OWN CYBERSPACE? As an educator I will shed some light on how to deal with cyberspace in matters related to children. First of all, we shouldn't blame the Internet but rather the people who misuse it. The Internet, in general, simplifies and enhances our children's lives. The Internet can be an excellent way for children to bond and share a common interest. Children will be able to improve their communication skills online and meet people from other countries and cultures, sharing information, photos, and stories with the world and other family members. They learn not only to be creative but to share their creativity. Children can also research school projects right from home and can keep in touch with teachers (Aftab, 2000). Children surf the Internet to find: current events, sports information, scores and sporting events, games, and research information. However, there are certain areas online we need to be extra careful about including: Internet Relay Chats (IRC) and newsgroups, and certain activities like chatting, searching for Web sites, instant messaging, registering at a site, joining online programs, posting personal profiles, and building a personal Web site. 4-1 Protecting Our Children The most important thing is to educate our children about the dangers in the cyberspace. Teaching children about the Internet risks so they can avoid them will make the biggest difference most of the time. The same old things that we say (do) to our children can be said (done) in the cyberspace, but in a new form: 1. Look over your shoulders;
71
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

2- Theme 2: Building the eServices Culture and Society Awareness of it 2-3 Cyber Law and the Saudi Arabia Kingdoms Responsibility

Mr. Abdu A. Albur

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Dont talk to or accept anything from strangers; Dont say nasty things about other people; saying nasty things about other people in cyberspace is called flaming; Dont take things that aren't yours; Be polite and respectful of others; Dont tell people personal things about themselves, and don't tell personal things about their family; Use an alias (it is not lying); and Learn accountability.

5- CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Cyberspace is a new frontier for both individuals and governments--a frontier to explore and utilize its vast resources and capabilities. All statistics indicate the great need for the Internet to promote government eservices, and the great increase in the number of citizens using the Internet either to use these services or access information databases. Consequently, the need for more secure and reliable e-structure is a top priority. Science has done its homework successfully; it is the time for governments to protect this achievement by using its power and authority to enact laws and enforce punishments for those seeking the destruction or impediment of this e-homogenous-structure. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as the custodian of the two holey mosques and the largest oil producer, is an international leading country and plays a pivotal role in enhancing the welfare and security of the world. E-government initiatives are advancing in an unprecedented way, and the responsibility to secure this progress is very essential. The IT Criminal Law and cybercrime unit is a good start toward effective and practical measures to promote a secure e-environment for both citizens and government sectors. However, an important step is to educate all stakeholders about the basics in the Internet, computer crimes, and both national and international cyberlaws. Courts and judges should start implementing the new cyberlaw and those who committed such crimes should be publicly punished. The Saudis should carefully understand that the Internet is more supervised and scrutinized than before and that cyberlaws have no border. Enjoying the forgiveness and protection of our caring government today will not be the same when we travel abroad in an environment in which Saudis are characterized of being, unfortunately, terrorists rather than ordinary people. More cooperation needs to be fostered between ministries and agencies in concern with cyberlaw legislations and law enforcement to increase the efficiency and practicality of these laws. Furthermore, the new cyberlaw should be revised many times to accommodate new cybercrimes and to explain punishments in more specific ways for specific cyber-wrong deeds. Furthermore, e-commerce is thriving in the Kingdom and more companies are benefiting from it; also the number of Saudis using the Internet to buy and sell products and services is increasing. For example, the developers behind the UAE and Jordan's local online auction site, Souq.com, confirmed in January that the Saudi version of the online auction site would be up and running in the next three months. However, there are still no legislations in these e-commerce fields: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Intellectual property; Consumer protection; Contract law and dispute resolution; Basis of taxation and Zakah; Classification of e-commerce transactions; and Compliance and enforcement issues.

(See Appendix for a comparison between international cyber-issues and the Saudi's IT Criminal Law.) In conclusion, things have changed, especially after the 9/11 attack. Cyber laws have no boundaries and each one can be held responsible in one country for things he/she does in his own country. We have to be
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

72

2- Theme 2: Building the eServices Culture and Society Awareness of it 2-3 Cyber Law and the Saudi Arabia Kingdoms Responsibility

Mr. Abdu A. Albur

vigilant, more than ever, and know the limits and precautions that we should consider to be safe wherever we are going to be. REFERENCES
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] Abdul Ghafour, P.K. (2006, August). New Law to Prevent Electronic Crimes. Retrieved December 10, 2007, from http://www.saudigazette.com.sa/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=35317&Itemid=146 Aftab, P. (2000). The Parent's Guide to Protecting Your Children in Cyberspace. McGraw-Hill Professional, N.Y. Retrieved October 25, 2007, from NetLibrary database. ArabianBusiness.com (2007, March). Cybercrime hotspot. Retrieved December 14, 2007, from http://www.arabianbusiness.com/9857-cybercrime-hotspot?ln=en Armstrong, H.L. & Forde, P.J. (2003). Internet anonymity practices in computer crime. Information Management & Computer Security, 11(5). Retrieved December 10, 2007, from Emerlad database. Ball, K. & Webster, F. (2003). The Intensification of Surveillance: Crime, Terrorism and Warfare in the Information Age. Sterling, VA Pluto Press. Retrieved October 25, 2007, from NetLibrary database Bowman, J. (2007, December). Saudi urges action on escalating cyber-terrorism. Retrieved December 17, 2007, from http://www.arabianbusiness.com/505618-saudi-targets-cyber-terror?ln=en Brody, G.R., Mulig, E. & Kimball, K. (2007). Phishing, pharming and identity theft. Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies Journal, 11(3), 43-57. Retrieved December 13, 2007, from OneFile database Conway, B. (2007,October). National security. Retrieved December 14, 2007, from http://www.arabianbusiness.com/502272?ln=en&start=0 Geist, G. (2003). Cyberlaw 2.0.(Symposium: Intellectual Property, E-Commerce and the Internet). Boston College Law Review, 44(2), 323-358. Retrieved December 13, 2007, from OneFile database. Hancock, M. (2007, April). Closing the net. Retrieved December 14, 2007, from http://www.arabianbusiness.com/11348closing-the-net?ln=en International Telecommunication Union (2007). ITU Activities related to Cybersecurity. Retrieved December 25, 2007, from http://www.itu.int/cybersecurity/ Internet Industry Perspectives (2004). Host Computers and Internet Use, U.S. and Worldwide, 1985-2010. Computer Industry Almanac Inc. Retrieved January 10, 2008, from LexisNexis database. Jewkes, Y. (2002). Dot.Cons: Crime, Deviance and Identity on the Internet[e-Book]. Willan Publishing.

[14] Kamal, A. (2005). The Law of Cyber-Space. United Nations Institute for Training and Research, Geneva 10, Switzerland
[15] Marsden, C.T. (2001, Summer). Cyberlaw and international political economy: towards regulation of the global information society, (future of communications regulations). Law Review of Michigan State University-Detroit College of Law, p355-421. Retrieved December 13, 2007, from OneFile database. [16] McConnell International (2000). Risk E-Business: Seizing the Opportunity of Global E-Readiness. Retrieved December 25, 2007, from http://www.mcconnellinternational.com/ereadiness/EReadinessReport.htm [17] Napier, H.A., Judd, P.J., Rivers, O.N., & Adams, A. (2003). E-Business Technologies. Thomson Learning, Canada. [18] Personick, S.D. & Patterson, C.A. (2003). Critical Information Infrastructure Protection and the Law: An Overview of Key Issues. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. Retrieved October 25, 2007, from NetLibrary database [19] Saudi Arabia technology (2006, April). Saudi Arabia technology: Overview of e-commerce. Retrieved December 15, 2007, from EIU ViewsWire database. [20] Saudi Gazette (2007, August). Cyber Law comes. Retrieved December 10, 2007, from http://www.arabnews.com/?page=1&section=0&article=76236&d=13&m=8&y=2006 [21] Sun, L. (2007). Who can fix the spyware problem? Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 22(1), 555-575. Retrieved December 13, 2007, from OneFile database. [22] Telecoms & technology data (2006, February). Telephone main lines, mobile subscribers, Internet users, broadband subscriber lines, personal computers, software sales, IT. Retrieved December 15, 2007, from EIU ViewsWire database. [23] UNCITRAL (2007). United Nations Commission on International Trade Law. Retrieved January 10, 2008, from http://www.uncitral.org/uncitral/en/index.html 13 [24] Yesser (2007). The e-Government Program Yesser. Retrieved December 25, 2007, from http://www.yesser.gov.sa/english/default.asp

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

73

2- Theme 2: Building the eServices Culture and Society Awareness of it 2-4 The Impact of the Use of eServices on the Development of Learning Society in Saudi Arabia

Eng. Anwar A. Hasan

2-4 THE IMPACT OF THE USE OF E-SERVICES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LEARNING SOCIETY IN SAUDI ARABIA Eng. Anwar A. Hasan, M Sc.
Superintendent Yanbu and Rabigh IT Saudi Aramco Information Technology anwar.hasan@aramco.com

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
This paper discusses the impact of the use of e-services on the development of the learning society in Saudi Arabia. It presents two examples of current e-services use by companies namely: Saudi Aramco portal and Saudi Stock Exchange, to show the degree of effect of the provision e-services on the community. It also reviews a number of surveys that illustrate the penetration indicators of e-services in Saudi Arabia Kingdom. These indicators demonstrate that growth of the learning society is usually accompanied with the provision of e-services. This paper presents a survey conducted by the researcher and discusses the survey results. The researcher uses an impact assessment tool to demonstrate the type of relationship between the development of a learning society and the provision of the e-Services in Saudi Arabia. Finally, the paper discusses briefly issues associated with the provision of e-services and would hinder the growth of the learning society.

Keywords:
e-service, community, learning society, Saudi Arabia.

Biography:
Mr Anwar A. Hasan was born in Al-Medina Al-Munawarah District, Saudi Arabia in July 1962. He obtained his B.S degree in Computer Engineering from KFUPM with honor list in May 1985. He completed his Master in Electrical/Computer Engineering at KAAAU, Jeddah in 1993. He joined Petromin Services Company as a Computer Engineer in 1985 and had worked in different technical and management positions. He was promoted to the position of Supervisor of Systems Evaluations and deployment in Petromin Services Company and was in that position until 1989. He joined Saudi Arabian Marketing and Refining Company in 1990 as a manager of IT review and deployment department until 1993. In 1994 he joined Saudi Aramco Company and was working in different management positions in the Information Technology area. At present, he works in Saudi Aramco as the superintendent of Yanbu and Rabigh IT Division.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

74

2- Theme 2: Building the eServices Culture and Society Awareness of it 2-5 eGovernment: Hindrances and Solutions

Eng. Bahjat S. Fakieh

2-5 EGOVERNMENT: HINDRANCES AND SOLUTIONS Eng. Bahjat S. Fakieh


Lecturer Deanship of Information Technology King Abdulaziz University BFakieh@kau.edu.sa.

This paper was presented in the symposium, then refereed and accepted for publication in this Proceedings Book as a Useful Essay: (See the Arabic Volume of the Proceedings).

Abstract:
The Saudi government is making enormous efforts to apply the e-government across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The government is planning, creating committees, holding meetings and working hard to reach this goal with full support from senior government staff at all levels of responsibility. This paper discusses a curial problem which is the raise of many hindrances that may affect negatively the application of e-government. It focuses on how to find the best solutions to avoid to sort out these obstacles. This research has followed a methodology that uses field survey to investigate the application of egovernment in a number of government sectors. It defines the e-government and the possible egovernment benefits and success factors. Thus, it discusses the major hindrances and classifies it into administrative, technical, security and social hindrances. The paper draws a conclusion about these types of hindrances and where they would mostly exist and on which level. Thus, the researcher suggests possible solutions to overcome these obstacles and accomplish the e-government project goals.

Keywords:
e-government, management hindrances, technical hindrances, security hindrances, hindrances. social

Biography:
Eng. Fakieh was born in Holy Makkah, Saudi Arabia in SAFAR 1403 AH November 1982 AD. He obtained a B. Sc. at Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia in 1426 AH 2005 AD. He had worked in The Holy Makkah Municipality from 1426 to 1428 AH. At present, he is a faculty member and a lecturer at Deanship of Information technology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

75

2- Theme 2: Building the eServices Culture and Society Awareness of it


2-6 Computer Knowledge and Information Technology Attitude Among Saudi Universities Students: The Case of KFU Dr. Ahmed Alshoaib

2-6 COMPUTER KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ATTITUDE AMONG SAUDI UNIVERSITIES STUDENTS: THE CASE OF KING FAISAL UNIVERSITY Dr. Ahmed Alshoaibi
Dr. Ahmed Alshoaibi College of Administrative Sciences and Planning, King Faisal University, Hufof, Saudi Arabia aalshoaibi@kfu.edu.sa

* This paper was submitted then refereed and accepted for publication in this Proceedings Book as a Scientific Research Paper : (See the Arabic Volume of the Proceedings)

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to examine computer knowledge and information technology (IT) attitude of Saudi students. The author mailed surveys to 300 students at King Faisal University (KFU): 258 were returned with usable data. Although computer knowledge and students' attitudes towards IT were found to be influenced by a range of factors, statistical analysis showed that most of the surveyed students have fair knowledge in how to use computers and with positive attitudes towards IT. The results show that differences exist on computer knowledge based on several factors: student's gender, PC ownership, taking computer course, and participating in computer training course. On the other hand, the study has found no differences on IT attitude based on student's gender, PC ownership, and participating in computer training course. The study found that taking computer course is a factor generates differences among students. The study has thereafter introduced a number of recommendations for future research in this topic.

Keywords:
Computer, Information Technology, Higher Education, Student Attitude, e-learning.

Biography:
Dr Ahmed Alshoaibi is working as assistance professor at College of Management and Planning, King Faisal University (KFU). Since 2004, Dr. Alshoaibi is in charge of KFU Information Technology Center and he is lecturing at the Department of Management Information Systems. Recently, Dr. Alshoaibi was appointed as the Dean of Higher Education Development. Dr. Alshoaibi is a member in many committees and he has published numerous refereed papers and participated in many conferences and symposia in the Kingdom and abroad.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

76

2- Theme 2: Building the eServices Culture and Society Awareness of it


2-6 Computer Knowledge and Information Technology Attitude Among Saudi Universities Students: The Case of KFU Dr. Ahmed Alshoaib

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

77

3- Theme 3: eServices Information Security

- :

3- Theme 3: eServices Information Security

- : - 8002 ,Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February Book of Proceedings

87

3- Theme 3: eServices Information Security

- :

- : - 8002 ,Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February Book of Proceedings

97

3- Theme 3: eServices Information Security 3-1 eService Security Requirements: Objectives and Risks

Eng. Saleh M. Al-Ghamdi

3-1 ESERVICE SECURITY REQUIREMENTS: OBJECTIVES AND RISKS

Eng. Saleh M. Al-Ghamdi


System Analyst Information Protection Center Information Technology Saudi Aramco, Dhahran saleh.ghamdi.36@aramco.com

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
The rapid growth of the Internet Infrastructure in the past few years has been accompanied with the increase of e-services such as e-commerce, e-government, and e-health. The e-service paradigm focuses on building up reliable electronic service environment through the establishment of rigid and strong relationships between participants. Since the popularity of the e-services has grown in the past few years, the attacks on these services by malicious individuals have increased. This causes very serious security threats and raises the emergent need for new e-services security requirements. E-service security focuses on two components: communication between parties and access to the systems, and resources of each service. The communication component can be secured by protecting the confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of the message. The access control component security verifies that all parties are authorized to have an access to the system and resources. Network vulnerability would constitute a major threat to the systems and applications. As such, the network system must be provided with sufficient security systems and measures to protect the system and applications. This paper highlights crucial and common e-services security requirements and it focuses on objectives of the e-security and possible risks to the systems security.

Keywords:
E-Security, e-service.

Biography:
Mr Saleh obtained his B.S. degree in Computer Science from KFUPM in 1991. He had worked in KFUPM for one year and a half. He joined Saudi Aramco in January 1993. He got his MBA in the field of Project Management from AMA International University in Bahrain in January 2008. Mr Saleh had completed one year internship assignment in 2005 with McAfee Security in U.S.A as part of the professional development program. He obtained a certificate in Ethical Hacking (CEH) from the international Council of E-Commerce Consultants in U.S.A. At present, he works in the Information Technology Department at Saudi Aramco.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

80

3- Theme 3: eServices Information Security 3-2 Securing Eservices: Challenges and New Trends: A Practical Guide

Dr. Nasser ALMeshary

3-2 SECURING ESERVICES: CHALLENGES AND NEW TRENDS- A PRACTICAL GUIDE Dr. Nasser ALMeshary
Assistant Professor of Information Security, Computer Programs, Institute of Public Administration nmeshary@ipa.edu.sa

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract
Transformation to a digital society became one of the national major interests in all countries around the world. To achieve this dream, public and private sectors should be modernized and transformed and this can be done by the implementation of the e-information and communications technologies. EServices initiative can be considered as the vehicle which would accelerate the transformation and modernization of public and private sectors. It would enhance the quality of government and businesses services provided to citizens and to the business sector as well. This would inevitably led to an economic growth and improved gross domestic products. This transformation trend of eServices technology would impose unprecedented risks to government and private organizations. It promotes them to provide a secure environment to government and businesses e-information and e-services. A key success factor for any eServices is the establishment of confidence and trust of users in the safe use of eServices environment. Thus, the protection and security of government and businesses e-information and eServices is vital. This paper demonstrates the present security systems for eServices, the future developments and how they aim to meet upcoming challenges. It starts firstly by exploring the current situation of e-information security industry and risk drivers behind the development of e-security. Secondly, it discusses the security objectives that must be addressed, implemented and integrated into the security of any eServices system. Fourthly, it describes the traditional approach for securing e-information systems and eServices. The paper however argues that this approach is not sufficient and can not be applied at present. Finally, the paper provides a practical implementation layered-model to secure eServices. This layered-model would improve the national trust in eServices which is a key success factor of any national e-project such as eLearning, eHealth, and eGov.

Keywords:
Securing eServices, eServices Information States, secure eServices layered-model.

Biography:
Dr. Eng. Nasser ALMeshary, SSCP, CISSP, is an Assistant Professor of Information Security in Institute of Public Administration-Riyadh. He is also Information Security ex-Consultant in e-Gov Program Yesser, (MCIT), Riyadh. He has worked as information security officer, information security administration and IT specialist in F.I.T. Aviation, LLC in Melbourne, Florida, USA. Dr. Almeshary has more than eight years of experience in e-information security industry, more than 12 years of experience in training and more than 17 years of experience in IT industry. At present, he is a Network and Information security consultant in Saudi-CERT- Communications and Information Technology Commission (CITC), Riyadh, Alelm Information Security Company, Public Security-Ministry of Interior, and King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh. He is also delivering training and lecturing in e-information security to private and public organizations.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

81

3- Theme 3: eServices Information Security 3-3 Seeing the Unseen: the Online Identity Theft

Mrs. Manal Masoud Al-Sharif

3-3 SEEING THE UNSEEN: THE ONLINE IDENTITY THEFT Mrs. Manal Masoud Al-Sharif
Computer Security Consultant II Information Protection Division, Saudi Aramco

Manal.sharif@aramco.com
* This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
This paper describes the new techniques that online fraudsters and scammers use to steal financial and other confidential information. It highlights the difficulty of verifying 100% of the claimed electronic identity and how it would be easy for hackers to steal and fake it. The paper discusses a case study and reviews the present research and statistics that illustrates the extent of the serious threat of the online identity theft at present. Research studies pointed out that such threat is the fastest growing online crime in the world. It highlights the security measures that users should know and undertake to avoid hackers techniques. It introduces a number of advices on how IT professionals and organizations can stop the theft of their identity. These advices for the end user could be summarized in three simple but effective principals: be proactive, be suspicious and report identity theft attempts to the authorities. The three simple principals for the IT professionals would be: follow the best practices, educate and make the end user aware, actively monitor systems and network for suspicious activities.

Keywords:
Identity Theft, Fraudsters, Scammers, Social Engineering.

Biography:
Ms. Manal Al-Sharif was born in April 1979 in the holy city of MakKah. She graduated with first honor degree from King Abdulaziz University, Bachelor of Science in Computer Science, Jeddah in 2002 and joined Information Protection Division in Saudi Aramco in the same year. Ms. Manal got many information security certificates during her career with Saudi Aramco and considered to be the first Saudi female who entered this field. She has currently the title Computer Security Consultant II. Some of her important certificates are: Certified Ethical Hacker that is offered by the International Council of E-Commerce Consultants, ISO 27001 Lead Auditor/Implementer that is offered by the International Organization of Standardization, CISSP that is offered by International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium Inc. Manal is a professional expertise in the following areas: managing corporate information security projects, developing and updating information protection standards and guidelines, conducting risk and compliance assessments, conducting penetration testing. She also participated in several government information security events and activities, such as the review of the Ministry of Commerce IT Standards & Guidelines, the review of the GCC Cyber law draft, penetration testing for a number of governmental organizations websites and systems. She is also an official presenter and speaker in many corporate security and non-security related events

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

82

3- Theme 3: eServices Information Security 3-4 Development of Digital Electronic Systems to Protect Information From Spy

Major Dr. Mohammed A. Aseeri

3-4 DEVELOPMENT OF DIGITAL ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS TO PROTECT INFORMATION FROM SPY Major Dr. Mohammed A. Aseeri
Ministry of Interior- Border Guard- Riyadh- KSA dr.aseeri@fg.gov.sa

* This paper was presented in the Symposium then refereed and accepted for publication in this Proceedings Book as a Scientific Research Paper : (See the Arabic Volume of the Proceedings)

Abstract:
Spying is one of the oldest intelligent activities exerted by human beings. The World Heritage documents disclose the human innate skills in the field of espionage, since the ancient times in congresses, emperors palaces, resorts and noble villas, and war fields. At present, espionage has evolved and became a daily practice that relies upon governments to protect their own security, develop their industries, and dealing with other friendly or hostile government. Governments are spying on their competitors. They collect various types of published and secret confidential information about the strength and weaknesses areas of their competitors. They aim to find out the degree of awareness, morality and spirit of the community. They monitor the movement of the military personnel and the armed forces of the friendly and hostile countries and their alliances. Government agents are watching the extent of integrated or contradictory interests between countries and when the best chance to be an alliance with another country against a third one. At present, spying became more dangerous because of the impact of technological progress which has provided many precise and compact services and equipments that increases the efficiency of the interception and remote sensing. World super powers are leading the way of espionage and creation of e-spying equipments and this would constitute a potential threat to the Islamic world. The Islamic countries should develop strategic plans to encounter the risks of espionage. This paper discusses the definition and types of espionage, and highlights the role of digital electronic systems in maintaining the confidentiality of and protection of information and electronic systems that help to conceal and encrypt e-information. It also mentions various ways to combat general types of espionage and electronic espionage. It points out to a new type of electronic systems that is capable to preserve the confidentiality of information, whether it is written, audio i.e. sound& text though the use of Chaotic Signals.

Keywords:
e-spying, digital systems, e- information

Biography:
Dr. Mohammed was born in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia in March 1971. He obtained his B. Sc. and an M. Sc. Degrees from King Abdul Aziz University, KSA in 1994 and 1998, respectively. He got his Ph. D. Degree from Kent University UK 2003. At present, he works at the Ministry of interior Border Guard in Riyadh as Manager of the monitoring and surveillance Department. Dr. Mohammed published several research papers in journals and participated in many International and national conferences.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

83

3- Theme 3: eServices Information Security 3-5 eGovernment Applications: Challenges and Solutions

Mr. Yahya M. Ali Abu Mmaghaied

3-5 E-GOVERNMENT APPLICATIONS: CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS Mr. Yahya M. Ali Abu Mmaghaied, MBA
eGovernment Specialist and a Lecturer in the Cultural Institute, Riyadh Mgd1392@yahoo.com

* This paper was presented in the Symposium then refereed and accepted for publication in this Proceedings Book as a Scientific Research Paper : (See the Arabic Volume of the Proceedings)

Abstract
This paper aim is to focus precisely and briefly on the security of electronic services, which would be considered an important and urgent issue of e-government. The paper tackles three main interconnected issues; the concept and components of the security of e-government services, the main challenges towards the achievement of e-government security and the proposed solutions for such obstacles and recommendations. Throughout this paper, the researcher has used the descriptive inductive approach to explain the e-security issues particularly for those who have an interest in electronic applications security. The research recommendations are concluded through three main issues. Firstly, the importance of cooperative collective efforts of all concerned organizations at the national level to comprehend various challenges that encounter the electronic services in general and the e-government in particular. Second, it highlights the importance of the efforts of these organizations to achieve the proper security level for electronic services which would help in the development of solid electronic security system for all electronic applications at the national level. Third, it focuses on the development of IT knowledge and applications capabilities on both sides: the hardware and software. However, these recommendations cannot be achieved without the development of electronic knowledge and experience of individuals and without a radical shift from the consumption of the technology approach to the production and innovation of new technologies approach. Such shift would provide the essential tools for sustaining prosperous future for the nation.

Key words
Electronic Services Security , Information Security, e-Government

Biography
Mr. Yahya obtained a Bachelor of Administration, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, KSA, 1998. Thus he got a Master of Administration from King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA, 2003. His Master Thesis focuses on E-Government Application requirements in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. He is a specialist in Administrative Information Technology. He has 16-year experience of public administration. He published a book on E-Government: Revolution against Traditional Administrative Work. He presented papers in several symposiums and conferences. Also, he delivered several public lectures about the IT and Administration in general. At present, he works as a lecturer in the Cultural Institute, Riyadh. He is the manager of the Unit responsible for preparing and designing training programs and development of educational curriculum.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

84

3- Theme 3: eServices Information Security 3-5 eGovernment Applications: Challenges and Solutions

Mr. Yahya M. Ali Abu Mmaghaied

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

85

4- Theme Four: Limitations and Potentials of eServices

- :

4- Theme four: Limitations and Potentials of eServices

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

86

4- Theme Four: Limitations and Potentials of eServices 4-1 eServices: Challenges and Mechanisms in the Transition to eCommunity

Eng. Saeed Bawazir and Mr. Husam BenSeddeekk

4-1 ESERVICES: CHALLENGES AND MECHANISMS IN THE TRANSITION TO ECOMMUNITY Eng. Saeed A. Bawazir and Mr. Husam A. BenSeddeekk
e-Doc Division Saudi Aramco P.O.Box 15801 Dammam 31454, Saudi Arabia1 P.O.Box 5392 Dhahran 31311, Saudi Arabia2 eMail: saeed.bawazir@aramco.com husam.benseddeek@aramco.com

* This paper was presented in the Symposium then refereed and accepted for publication in this Proceedings Book as a Useful Essay : (See the Arabic Volume of the Proceedings)

Abstract:
eServices is one of key elements which attracted significant interest from all countries at the level of decision-makers including the nations leaders. It promoted countries to expedite the building up of infrastructure for e-Services, utilize the international experience, and business process reengineering. Governments usually have two basic objectives behind the provision and application of such services. One of these is the Return of Investment (ROI) that will be gained from implementing such services. Despite this objective is important, but it is not sufficient to highlight it and neglect other objectives as this would led to a major failure in public acceptance to the e-services. The second objective is that eServices would be useful for the nation and society to facilitate transactions that are undertaken in types of e-services provided to citizens. The objective of this paper is to discuss and analyze the challenges that would be encountered through the transition to the eCommunity and recommendations of how to overcome them. The paper highlights the community's awareness about eServices and to which extent the community would accept changes in services process. The paper describes a proposed proper environment that should be provided to e-services users. The research uses Saudi community as a case study and it discusses possible ways to facilitate the community access to e-Services, to enhance eservices and set recommendations accordingly.

Keywords:
eServices, Information Technology, Internet, eCommunity.

Biography:
Eng. Bawazir graduated from King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) in Computer Engineering with First Honor degree in 2004. In 2004 he joined Saudi Aramco as Systems Analyst in the Corporate Applications Department (CAD). Eng. Bawazir accomplished several researches published in scientific conferences in the area of evaluating the performance of IT and e-Government systems. Mr. BenSeddeek graduated from Computer Science faculty, King AbdulAziz University (KAAU) with Honor degree in 2002. In 2002, he joined the Corporate Application Department, Saudi Aramco as a Systems Analyst. He participated in numerous IT projects such as e-Government, Enterprise Content Management, Imaging Solutions, Workflow systems Correspondence Management and Saudi Aramco business lines systems. Both researchers received a certificate of appreciation from the Vice-President of Saudi Aramco Information Technology for excellence in the establishment of the e-Government System for the Ministry of Petroleum and Minerals- Minister's Office in Riyadh.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

87

4- Theme Four: Limitations and Potentials of eServices 4-2 Smart City Mobile World

Eng. Ammar Enaya

4-2 SMART CITY MOBILE WORLD Eng. Ammar Enaya


Sales Director Aruba Networks Middle East and North Africa.

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
Smart Cities is a new concept which applied to a green sustainable cities interconnected by affordable communications services. The main goal behind the creation of a smart city is to attract local and foreign investments to commence business and to relocate staff and their families to these cities. A strong IT infrastructure is the major factor that would attract people and companies to move in to these new cities. However, people expect their applications, security parameters, and connectivity to stick with them wherever they move in or out of the city. Thus, full mobility should be established and enabled with quad-play support and security and this is what this paper discusses.

Keywords:
Smart cities, wireless. E-communications

Biography:
Ammar Enaya has B. Sc degree in Computer Engineering from KFUPM in 1991. In 1996, Ammar joined Fore Systems and was assigned a position as Middle East technical manager. In 1999 he Joined Cisco Systems as sales manager for Oil and Gas sector in Saudi Arabia. In 2004, Ammar moved to Aruba Networks and was assigned a position of Sales Director for the Middle East and North Africa.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

88

4- Theme Four: Limitations and Potentials of eServices 4-3 Managed Services, What, Why and How? Arabian Internet and Communications: Awalnet

Eng. Fahad Al-Hussaini

4-3 MANAGED SERVICES, WHAT, WHY AND HOW? ARABIAN INTERNET AND COMMUNICATIONS: AWALNET

Eng. Fahad Al-Hussaini


AwalNet President fhussain@AwalNet.com

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
This paper discusses some important issues of HCL Technologies which is one of the worlds leading global IT services and product engineering companies, providing value-added, software-led IT solutions and services to large- and medium-scale organizations. HCL Technologies presence across 17 countries gives us global reach and a vast rollout support capability. Also, HCL believe that in technology there are no half-measures. HCL growth has been a result of unique business model and clearly defined growth strategies. Best shore-led, technology-centric, powered by domain expertise and a comprehensive understanding of diverse business verticals, the primary ones being Banking and Financial services, Insurance, Retail, Semi-conductors, Life Sciences, Automotive, Aerospace, Telecom and EUP (Energy Utilities & Process). We seek to provide simplified infrastructure management solutions through our global delivery model for complex, distributed infrastructure environments. HCL ISD addresses not only the growing demand for cost-effective management of IT infrastructure, but also helps Fortune and Global organizations across the world to transform their operations.

Keywords:
IT Services and Product Engineering, HCL Company, Awal Net, IT Infrastructure Management, Organizations Operations transform.

Biography:
Eng. Fahad started his career after getting his master degree from university of California Loss Angeles. He mastered the engineering of many national infrastructure projects, after that he joined the leading ISP AwalNet then became the president in 2005. He managed to lead AwalNet toward the largest profits, market share, and business opportunities among ISPs that ended by the acquisition of STC. Also he is one of the founders of the Arab Regional ISPs & DSPs Association (ARISPA).

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

89

4- Theme Four: Limitations and Potentials of eServices 4-4 eLearning and Virtual Classes: Naizak Global Engineering Systems

Eng. Basheer M. Al-Ghazali

4-4 E-LEARNING AND VIRTUAL CLASSES: NAIZAK GLOBAL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS Eng. Basheer M. Al-Ghazali
Account Manager E-Learning and Training Department Naizak Global Engineering Systems basheer@naizak.com.

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
This presentation discusses a number of important issues of e-learning such as: What is e-learning? Its benefits and components? How the institution can utilize the different types of e-learning and it presents a comprehensive e-Learning solution. The focus of this paper is on (Centra), a well-known elearning system. This system enables the institution to process, monitor and control its learning activities and services effectively. It is flexible enough to be integrated with the institutions IT Center. The system comprises mainly two components: Self-paced System and Virtual Classes System. Finally, the paper demonstrates a number of successful Centra implementations in academic institutions and other organizations.

Keywords:
e-learning, virtual classes, self-paced, training.

Biography:
Mr. Al-Ghazali was born in Khobar, Saudi Arabia in July 1977. He obtained a B. Sc. and an MBA. Degrees from King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Saudi Arabia in 2000 and 2006, respectively. He is an Account Manager of the e-learning and training department of Naizak Global Engineering Systems Company. He has designed a number of web Sites and implemented e-learning and training solutions for a number of agencies, in Saudi Arabia.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

90

4- Theme Four: Limitations and Potentials of eServices


4-5 The Use of Technology to Sort out Business Problems: the Business Systems of Al Alamiah Institute for Computer and Technology Mrs. Nadia y. ALsaleh

4-5 THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY TO SORT OUT BUSINESS PROBLEMS: THE BUSINESS SYSTEMS OF AL ALAMIAH INSTITUTE FOR COMPUTER & TECHNOLOGY Mrs. Nadia y. ALsaleh
Project and marketing manager Al-Alamiah teaching and training company

nadia.alsaleh@alamiah.edu.sa * This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
This research has a number of the objectives; namely: to describe and analyze the business systems at Al Alamiah Institute for Computer & Technology (AICT's) and how these business systems would help staff; to find out the relationships between AICT's and e-commerce and web-enabled systems, to define support operations for various business areas; to appreciate the value of research as a source of information, to appreciate the importance of business research as a management decision-making tool. In general, the scientific research is valuable to find out different sources of human knowledge such as traditions, authority, trial and error, and logical thinking processes. The paper describes basic components of successful system; namely: (1) the business perceptions of IT which is the core of any organization's operating capabilities as it supports decision making process within the organization; (2) to consider the sections of the organization as an integrated system; (3) the IT department which facilitates the organization activities and provide support to encounter major challenges; (4) the business systems and how these systems would help the organization; (5) the prospected benefits behind the use of e-commerce or web-enabled systems; (6) the type of systems available to support decision making process within the organization.

Key word
Information Technology, IT department, E-Commerce.

Biography:
Nadia.Y. A. Al Saleh has a Master Degree in Business Administration from Malaysia Open University, and B. S. Degree in Computer Science from Basra University in 1989. She worked as a member of Baghdad's University faculty 19891995 and a Lecturer of computer science courses. She has a number of training certificates such as: British Technical Council Certificate BETC as internal supervisor; Awareness Training in ISO 9001:2000 Requirements Certificate; Customer service certificate from the Canadian Center; Management leadership and the seven management habits certificate. Since 2008, she has been serving as project and marketing manager of Al-Alamiah teaching and training company, thus, as regional manger for Alalamiah Institute. She is managing six training females centers awarding a 2-year Diploma. She has published several training and teaching articles and books about the following subjects: teaching skills and technology, the ethics of the profession of teaching, fundamentals of education, etc. She presented a number of articles and presentations in workshops and conferences.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

91

5- eServices experiences and successes

- :

5- Theme Five: eServices experiences and successes

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

92

5- eServices Experiences and Successes 5-1 Achivements of the Emarah of Al-Baha Region in eGovernment

Prince Salman Ben Faisal Ben Mohammed Ben Saud

5-1 ACHIVEMENTS OF THE EMARAH OF ALBAHA REGION IN eGOVERNMENT

Prince Salman Ben Faisal Ben Mohammed Ben Saud


eGovernment of Al-Baha Region, Supervisor

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
This presentation aims at demonstrating the accomplishments of Albaha Emarah Region in the field of eGovernment. The presentation discussed these successes in a chorological oreder as follows: Introduction about Albaha Region, The first stage of eGovernment effectuation, Embarking of Emarah Web Site, The implementation of eGovernment services, Embankment of the universal office for citizens services, Electronic messaging and e-mailing, Future services for eGovernment.

Keywords:
Establishment of eGovernment Services, Albaha Emarah, Saudi arabia.

Biography:
His Royal Highness Prince Salman Ben Faisal Ben Mohammed Ben Saud Ben Abdulaziz has obtained a B. Sc. Degree in Computer Engineering. He has been studying towards an M. Sc. Degree in Administration Information Systems. He is now the General Manager of eGovernment in Emarah.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

93

5- eServices Experiences and Successes 5-2 The Eservices in the Ministry of Health: Sharqiyah Health

Dr Khaled AlTurki

5-2 THE ESERVICES IN THE MINISTRY OF HEALTH: SHARQIYAH HEALTH

Dr Khaled AlTurki
General manager of Primary Health Care The Eastern Province

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
Official recording is considered one of the most significant right of children, as stated in the charters of the United Nation and its different sub organizations. Saudi Arabia has signed and agreed on such amendment. Although official recording started since the midst of the 17th Century, there are still 50 million yearly born unrecorded children. This fact has made it a target for world organizations which care for the wellbeing of children to record all children of the world by the year 2015. Saudi Arabia has started official birth recording of its new born infants since more than 50 year ago. The country has issued regulations to retrain those who delay or fail to record their new born children. Initiating e-Birth recording in the Eastern Province will grantee higher accuracy, efficiency and effectiveness than manual birth recording. E-birth will facilitate the exchange of information among the partners of the system, e. g., the Ministry of Health, the civil Records, Education Ministry, etc. Moreover, it provides better ground for future planning of services and production facilities which depend on such an interactive and updatable birth information database.

Keywords:
E-Birth Recording, the Eastern Province, Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia.

Biography:
Dr. AlTurky is a consultant physician for family and society medicine. He is the General Manager of primary Health Care in the Eastern Province. He is also the Dean of the Medical Science College in Dammam. Besides, Dr Alturky was the superintendent of Medical Higher institutes in the Eastern and the Northern Provinces from 1413-1415 H. Since 1416 H., he has been the Manager of technical follow up and Quality Assurance Program.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

94

5- eServices Experiences and Successes 5-3 E-Training Service: E-Government Trail in Education Environment

Dr.Ibrahim Al Saikhan and Mr. Naif Al Harbi

5-3 E-Training Service: E-Government Trail in Education Environment

Dr.Ibrahim Salim Al Saikhan and Mr. Naif Ghazi Al Harbi


Director of Training & Scholarships Dept.

fil@hotmail.com
Head of Computer Unit. naf@ar-exp.com

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
The paper discuses the experience of the Department Of Educational Training and Scholarship at the General Department of Education in the Eastern Province regarding the implementation of e-government system. It explores the extent of acceptance of the beneficiaries of the e-government system and identifies the type of obstacles which may raise during and after the implementation. The paper highlights the extent of acceptance of the system and volume of positive change that made by the e-government system which would include: the enhancement of the work quality, easiness of work procedures and enabling transparent and clear processes. In addition, the paper discusses the level of impact of the e-government on organizations structure regarding to the processing of administration and management jobs and tasks through the system. The paper argues that it possible to replace the infrastructure PKI with the use of BarCode scanner which is capable of verifying the authenticity of electronic signatures and identity of the user.

Keywords:
E-Government,Education,Electronic Signature, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Biography:
Dr. Ibrahim Al Saikhan got B. Sc in sociology and community service 1405H, Diploma in Psychological guidance 1407H, Master degree in mental l guidance 1417H, and PhD in mental guidance 1429H. He currently works as a director of training and scholarship department and he is the founder of educational services center in Eastern Province and had supervised it during the period 1418H 1427H, author of Sitoor bulletin. He is the author of the book Your educational and career future, and the manual of mental, educational and sociological Services and member of many scientific committees. Naif Al Harbi got B..sc in Math 1417G, presently works as the head of computer section at department of training and scholarship, supervision, computer training programs. He is a member in many committees devoted to Computer and Education. He has more than 10 years experience in field of systems analysis Information security and websites development. He is a developer of cell phone SMS transferring protocol on Application Layer which is currently used. He is the developer of many auto communication software that include: Cell Phone Land telephone, Fax and E-mail.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

95

5- eServices Experiences and Successes 5-4 eServices at Jubial Industrial College

Mr. Eid F. Al-Rasheedi

5-4 E-SERVICES AT JUBIAL INDUSTRIAL COLLEGE

Mr. Eid F. Al-Rasheedi


Management Information Systems Center Manager Jubail Industrial College Eid_fr@jic.edu.sa

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
The paper describes briefly the e-services offered by Jubail Industrial College and administrative information systems Center. These e-services can be classified into the following aspects. The paper firstly explains the structure of Jubial Industrial College. It highlights the role and mission of Management Information Systems Center. Thus, it demonstrates the software applications that are used in Jubail Industrial College and e-services that are provided by IT centre. Finally, it discusses the role of IT department regarding the security of information.

Biography:
Mr. Eid Falah Al-Rasheedi was born in Hail, KSA in 1978. He graduated from Computer Science& Information Technology College at King Saud University in Riyadh in 2000 with a bachelor's degree in Information systems. He has worked in JIC since graduation and he was promoted to be the director of MISC in 2007.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

96

5- eServices Experiences and Successes 5-5 The Esystem for Comprehensive Service in the Royal Commission of Jubail

Mr. Ali M. Uqaily

5-5 THE ESYSTEM FOR COMPREHENSIVE SERVICE IN THE ROYAL COMMISSION OF JUBAIL Mr. Ali M. Uqaily
Senior Systems Analyst Project Manager, Comprehensive Service Center System Uqailya@RCJubail.gov.sa

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
This presentation discusses the experience of the Royal Commission's regarding the transition from traditional paper-based transaction processing to fully automated electronic processing, through the deployment and improvement of the Comprehensive Service Center System (CSCS). At present, this centre provides a central linkage and hub point between the staff Center, investors and other RC departments which provide investment-related services. The presentation includes a brief description of the system, its components, how it interacts with service users, and how it internally tracks and records service request processing progress. It also discusses the benefits of the system, its capabilities, operational statistics of services that are provided and number of service users, the difficulties and obstacles that the Center experiences and feasible solutions thereto.

Keywords:
Traditional paper-based transaction processing, e-transaction processing, comprehensive service center system, the Royal Commission for Jubail.

Biography:
Mr Uqaily had Worked for Aramco from 1969 to 1980; 6 years as a mainframe computers Operator. He joined RC in 1981 and had worked mostly as a manager of Development & Maintenance of systems. He creates and help in creation of over 90 major applications for the various administration requirements of the Royal Commission. His activities include design, analysis, coding and implementation of applications for HRM, finance, security, control, workflows, etc. He trained many co-op students from several universities, colleges and institutes. Authored/co-authored/translated all RC computers, applications and maintenance contracts He developed and conducted several bilingual training programs about computer architecture, programming and applications. Presently, he is project manager of the Automation of Comprehensive Service Center.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

97

5- eServices Experiences and Successes 5-6 ERP Project (Safeer) in the Directorate General of the Royal Commission in Jubail

Mr. Musfer Ali Al-Ghamdi

5-6 ERP PROJECT (SAFEER) IN THE DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF THE ROYAL COMMISSION IN JUBAIL Mr. Musfer Ali Al-Ghamdi
Executive Manager of ERP Project (SAFEER) Directorate General of the Royal Commission in Jubail

ghamdim@rcjubail.gov.sa

Abstract:
This paper discusses the ERP project at the Directorate General of the Royal Commission in Jubail (SAFEER). In 2003, the senior management of the Royal Commission in Jubail decided to implement Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system based on Oracle e-Business Suite for finance, human resources, supply, projects and asset maintenance. This is made within a plan that aimed at the automation of work and documentation procedures in the Royal Commission to set a foundation for an e-Government (SAFEER) Project. The plan also aimed at promoting information technology solutions that would maximize productivity and efficiency of Royal Commission Departments. Thus, the IT network have been upgraded in terms of speed, capacity and range. The information center was provided with an adequate number of file servers, computers, and advanced information security systems. The capabilities f technical staff was enhanced and upgraded. In 2005, financial, human resources, supply and asset maintenance applications were launched. The Directorate General of the Royal Commission in Jubail is working hard to apply all ERP system procedures based on Oracle eBusiness Suite, without making fundamental changes to the program to smooth the progress of future updates, apply standards of evaluating system performance efficiency, and embrace the total quality culture.

Keywords:
Royal Commission, ERP project, SAFEER, Finance, Human resources, Supply Chain, Projects, Asset Management.

Biography:
Mr. Al-Ghamdi joined Royal Commission since 1986, He was assigned different positions in the Personnel Department (Recruitment Section Head, Compensation Section Head, Employee Relation Section Head, and Policy & Procedures Section Head). Thus he moved to the Stock Control Department as a head of the Stock Management Section. Afterwards, he became the head of the archive & filing Section. In 2003, Mr. Al-Ghamdi assigned as a Supply Chain Team Leader of the ERP project at the Directorate General of the Royal Commission in Jubail (SAFEER). Thus he was appointed as the Executive Manager of ERP Project (SAFEER).

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

98

5- eServices Experiences and Successes 5-7 eHealth In Jubail Industrial City

Eng. Abdul-Aziz Mohammed Al-zahrani

5-7 EHEALTH IN JUBAIL INDUSTRIAL CITY Eng. Abdul-Aziz Mohammed Al-zahrani


Technical Services Supervisor Health Sercives department Royal Commission - jubail zahraniam@RCJubail.gov.sa

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
E-health services are considered as the most sensitive services in the medical and health sector because of the increase of dependency on e-information and the e-health and e-medical procedures. Electronic services in the medical and health sector encounter many difficulties and obstacles and some of these is discussed in this paper. The paper investigates in-depth a number of electronics health services capabilities and whether they are capable to support the medical decisions in Jubail industry city. It discusses the application of IT in the medical sector on two levels: to benefit people who can utilize the health services, and for the enhancement of quality of medical and health services and creation of effective electronic environment. Finally, the paper discuses all achievements which have been made and the future ambitious plans.

Keywords:
Informatics System, eHealth, Health Sector, Jubail Industrial City

Biography:
Eng. Abdul-aziz Mohammed Al-zahrani Tech. Services supervisor in Health Services department in Royal Commission in Jubail. He was born in Al-baha , in May 1980.. He obtained his B. Sc Degree in computer science and engineering from KFUPM 2002. He is certified as a IT Specialist by the Certification Board of SAVE international. He got a professional training in IT Strategic Management Certificate. He is a Member in many Committees of the Royal Commission. He started his career in RC as an application Supervisor (Managing and planning the HIS systems), thus he became an IT projects Manager. Since 2006, he had worked as Technical services supervisor which include IT, Biomedical Engineering and telecommunication.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

99

5- eServices Experiences and Successes 5-8 eEducation in the Schools of the Royal Commission For Jubail

Mr. Abdulaziz Abdullah Al-Musnad

5-8 E-EDUCATION IN THE SCHOOLS OF THE ROYAL COMMISSION FOR JUBAIL

Mr. Abdulaziz Abdullah Al-Musnad


Director , Department of Education Services Royal Commission for Jubail musneda@rcjubail.gov.sa

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
The Royal Commission of Jubial is committed to the provision of educational services in the industrial city of Jubail and keen to provide and update technology that is required for educational process and development. In the past few years, there was an accelerated move to introduce various modern techniques into schools systems, as well as preparing the infrastructure for the electronic users interaction and communications. This creates a suitable environment for the introduction of e-Learning. It promotes the adoption of an electronic education project for the academic year 1426-1427 to sustain and support all previous initiatives. The revolution in E-learning and the use of digital information offer huge potential to deliver interactive educational information to learners within very short time and less effort. The e-learning system would strengthen more the abilities of learners, teachers and upgrade their knowledge and experience. This is discussed fully through this paper.

Keywords:
eEducations, general Education, Saudi Arabia.

Biography:
- Mr Al-Musnad has a degree in Educational Administration from the University of King Saud. He worked as a principal of a school and the president of the educational supervision and director of the Department of Education Services at Royal Commission for Jubail. - He authored a book about the shift to knowledge cities across the education gate. Also, he presented a paper at the knowledge cities, Shah Alam city, Malaysia.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

100

5- eServices Experiences and Successes 5-9 Net Parks in the Industrial City Al-Jubial

Mr. Melab Ashwei Aldhafeerie

5-9 NET PARKS IN THE INDUSTRIAL CITY AL-JUBIAL

Mr. Melab Ashwei Aldhafeerie


Computer O.P Supervisor Royal Commission for Jubail

deferim@rcjubail.gov.sa

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
The net parks project was launched as a response to the concept of the comprehensive role that should be played by the RC of Jubail in the development of property services that offered to the community and the aim to shift to the knowledge society at Jubail Industrial City. The project has the following objectives: To motivate the society to use and interact with the electronic services provided by the Royal Commission such as: educational services and public server public. To provide the e-information and communications services free of charge to all members of society which would contribute to the process of social and economic development. To benefit from the net parks to develop knowledge and awareness. To encourage the community members to acquire electronic skills and to spread the digital culture among the community.

Keywords:
E-parks, wireless Internet service, Saudi Arabia

Biography:
Mr Aldhafeerie has a Diploma in Computer by the general board of education, Al-Kuwait. He was a computer operator for more than 9 years thus he moved to the Royal commission for Jubail and Yanbu, where he works as an administrative. He was promoted to databases specialist thus Computer O.P. Supervisor.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

101

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-10 The Ministry of Higher Education Implementation of Management of Information Technology of KAOSP Prof. Abdullah Abdul-Aziz AlMousa

5-10 THE MINISTRY OF HIGHER EDUCATION IMPLEMENTATION OF MANAGEMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY OF KING ABDULLAH OUTSIDE SCHOLARSHIPS' PROGRAM (KAOSP)

Prof. Abdullah Abdul-Aziz AlMousa


The General Director of Scholarships Affairs and KAOSP Ministry of Higher Education Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia drmosa@yahoo.com

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
The experimentation of MOHE in electronic Administration of King Abdullah outside scholarships' Program is a perfect example of what the MOHE has used and implemented, through electronic admission system to receive requests of students to different levels of higher education (bachelors, masters, PhD and fellowships) Then the request goes through electronic system through many scanning phases of announcements, scan, editing, corresponding and printing-up approved documentation of scholarships and air fair. The system also can be used by students for to fellow-up through the MOHE website and through MSS messaging, and provide applicants with all necessary information and required completion of application if required such as University Admission during editing phase and etc, the system is considered fully combatable with electronic government requirements by reaching out applicants through-out the program phases.

Keywords:
Ministry of Higher Education, King Abdullah outside scholarships' Program (KAOSP), Scholarships' Students.

Biography:
Currently, Dr. Abdullah Al mosa is working as the General Director of Scholarships Affairs and (KAOSP). Before that he was the Head of the Computer and Information Section, Ammam University then the Collage Dean, after that he became the Acting Dean of Science Collage. Dr. Abdullah has as many as 22 research papers, books and publications in Electronic Education and Computer Instruction. He is a member of many education boards and a chief of Scientific Committee of Computer Science Authors of Ministry of Education. Dr. Abdullah also worked as a consultant for many Ministries (such as Higher Education, Ministry of Labor, Islamic Affairs, The tow Holy mosques Affairs, etc.)

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

102

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-11 The E-Government Program Yesser: Recent Achievements And Project Management Methodology Yesmethod Eng. Suhail M. Al-Almaee

5-11 THE E-GOVERNMENT PROGRAM YESSER: RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY YESMETHOD Eng. Suhail M. Al-Almaee
Director, Strategic Planning & Supporting Initiatives E-Government Program Yesser salmaee@yesser.gov.sa

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
Significant improvements have been made in the E-Government domain recently. As per the UNPANs E-Government Readiness Index recent report, the kingdom has moved up 35 ranks in the last 5 years. The presentation shows the recent achievements and efforts related to E-Government in the kingdom, such as: related regulations, e-services projects, Yesser (e-government) projects; infrastructure, integration, national applications, standards, frameworks, manuals and methodologies. One of the main reasons of such success is Yessers adoption of YesMethod, a simple project management methodology developed by Yesser according to the international standards of the Project Management Institute (PMI). The presentation gives a brief about YesMethod and the implementation approach used, along with the services and reports provided by Yesser Project Management Office (Yesser4Yesser).

Keywords:
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, E-Government, Yesser, E-Services, Project Management, Methodology, YesMethod, PMO, Yesser4Yesser.

Biography:
Eng. Suhail currently works as Director of Strategic Planning and Supporting Initiatives Department at the Ministry of Communication and information Technology , E-Government Program ( Yesser ), Saudi Arabia. Eng. Suhail earned his bachelors degree of science in Computer Technology Engineering from Eastern Washington University , Washington Status, USA. Eng Suhail has huge experience in private sector , he was working as General Manager of Al Faisaliah Electronic Services, a subsidiary of Al Faisaliah Group Holding Company . Then as Vice President / Project Management office and Outsourcing Services of EBTTIKAR Technology for Al Faisaliah Group . He was responsible for running all EBTTIKAR projects in terms of planning, running , costing, Profit, delivery, invoicing, and help in collection. EBTTIKAR has more than 170 projects with total value of 500M SR. In addition to running the outsourcing business and establishing the project management office. Then he has joined Devoteam as a consultant for E-Gov program (Yesser) to assure that the Program projects are implemented according to international best practices and customized to meet the local needs. After that , Ministry of Communication and information Technology , E-Government Program ( Yesser ) assigned him to be EGov Program Consultant. Currently he is a Director of Strategic Planning and Supporting Initiatives Department.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

103

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-12 eCollege as an Integrated Institutional Solution for Providing eServices in the Faculty of Environmental Design- KAU Dr. Mohamed Maatouk

5-12 E-COLLEGE AS AN INTEGRATED INSTITUTIONAL SOLUTION FOR PROVIDING E-SERVICES IN THE FACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN- KAU Dr. Mohamed M. H. Maatouk
Associate Professor Faculty of Environmental Design (FED), King Abdulaziz University Manager of IT Unit of FED mmaatouk@kau.edu.sa

This paper was presented in the symposium, then refereed and accepted for publication in this Proceedings Book as a Scientific Research Paper in its final form as follows:

Abstract:
This paper discusses number of important issues of the e-College such as: What is e-College? Why e-College? What are the e-College components? How the educational institute would define their needs, goals and strategy of the e-College. This paper presents a real life application of the implementation of an e-College Project in Faculty of Environmental Design (FED), King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The paper focuses on the methodology and implementation process and style of the eCollege which constitute foundations of an integrated solution for the provision of e-services. This solution enables FED to process, monitor and control its activities and services effectively. It enables FED to increase the productivity and performance of their staff, students and administration. The solution is flexible enough and can be integrated with the University IT Center and other institutions. The eCollege of FED comprises five Components: E-College Portal, E-Learning, Archiving and Workflow System, IT Infrastructure of e-College, and IT Unit of FED. This paper discusses these components and highlights their main characteristics, obstacles that each component encountered, and opportunities and potential of improvement. Lessons learned from this experience could contribute to the e-services applications in other academic institutions across the region.

Keywords:
eCollege, eEducations, University Education, Saudi Arabia.

Biography:
Dr. Maatouk was born in Minia, Egypt in April 1965. He obtained a B. Sc. and an M. Sc. Degrees from Assiut University, Egypt in 1987 and 1993, respectively. He got his Ph.D. Degree from Minia University (in a joint supervision program with Texas A&M University, Texas, U.S.A.). He is an Associate Professor in Minia University. Since 2005, he is a faculty member in the College of Environmental Design, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah. He is the manager of the IT Unit of the College. Dr. Maatouk published several research papers in journals and participated in many conferences. He has designed a number of web Sites and Portals for a number of agencies, in Egypt and Saudi Arabia.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

104

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-12 eCollege as an Integrated Institutional Solution for Providing eServices in the Faculty of Environmental Design- KAU Dr. Mohamed Maatouk

1- INTRODUCTION: There has been a mad rush by universities, venture capitalists, and corporations to develop online courses, virtual universities, e-colleges, education portals, and courseware. The number of online classes offered by universities and colleges has grown rapidly. In 1999 one in three U.S. colleges offered some sort of accredited degree online, and approximately one million students took online classes out of 13 million take traditional classes. E-learning has become on every educator's and corporate leader's agenda", and that we are at the beginning of an "E-learning Revolution" [1]. According to specific studies, the ratio of traditional educational institutions that have delivered courses and academic learning packages reached to 48% in the year 1998 and increased to 70% in the year 2000 [2]. Also, it was anticipated that online elearning industry achieves 23 billions of American dollars in the year 2004 [2]. So, it is anticipated as the second wave of e-commerce [1]. Faculty of Environmental Design (FED) recognizes that it is now appropriate to develop a distinct eCollege system, ensuring that it is developed with a clear vision and purpose, and is sustainable. Some issues of that vision will be discussed here and highlighted. 1-1 Why is e-College? The present-day university is an organization fragmented into academic specializations, primarily for the purpose of furthering knowledge in specific fields of study. Shortcomings of such an organization include isolation from societys real needs, hindering of interdisciplinary coordination, and the tendency to be taskinstead of process-oriented. This is besides, the external changing environment that is characterized by heightened customer consciousness and demands, rising education costs, increasing competition in the form of new and alternative sources of learning and information, and the increasingly presence of information-age technologies, particularly the Internet. All of these have made it necessary for universities to seek new and innovative ways of delivering education, as well as looking at alternative models in terms of structure, work organization, and the management of knowledge, information, and course content [3]. 1-2 What is e-College? The modern university can be viewed as a network or a chain of activities centered around teaching, research, and community services, which, in turn, involve educational design, educational delivery, assessment, research and development, and outreach activities. Each of these processes add value to the total educational package provided to students, and supporting these processes are the activities of recruitment, admission, enrollment, academic services, and alumni support. The e-College is an integrated system designed to support these processes by either automating them or providing tools for their management. While some systems support administration and decision-making, and others facilitate online learning, eCollege seeks to do both in an integrated manner [3]. 1-3 What are Target Users of e-College? The e-College as an integrated solution has to provide e-services to a wide range of users. These users mainly are: Students Faculty Administration External Users (other institutions and industry partners).

It is in terms of the functions available to these various users the objectives of the e-College could be clearly defined. 1-4 What are e-College objectives? The e-College system enables FED to process, monitor and control its activities and services effectively. It enables FED to increase the outcome of its staff, students and administration. The system will help its administration, faculty and students to interact online and will provide information that will be secure, reliable and updated. FED e-College is not an internal or limited system but the solution should be flexible
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

105

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-12 eCollege as an Integrated Institutional Solution for Providing eServices in the Faculty of Environmental Design- KAU Dr. Mohamed Maatouk

enough to be integrated with the University Administration and other external institutions. Objectives of FED e-College are defined according to needs and requirements of target users as mentioned before. Objectives are stated locally and in collaboration with Aldaleel Information Systems [4]. Following are few of the key objectives of the e-College categorized according to the target users: Students: E-College should enable them:
o o o o o To view announcements and news from the college administration or instructors. To view programs details with their courses and their schedules of each instructor. To view assignments to be done, to submit assignments online and to view results of assignments, mid terms and final exams. To contact with each others, with staff and administration through email and discussion forum. To publish their projects through work gallery. The projects could be searched and viewed according to different criteria. To download assignment files, make students assessment and upload results of assignments, mid terms and final exams. To view progress report of a student per course of the semester. To upload lectures materials (slides, videos, notes, etc.), that can be viewed online. To publish their information of academic and professional experiences (CVs). To deliver online lectures and to manage chat sessions with their students.

Faculty: E-College should enable them:


o o o o o

Administration: E-College will facilitate and support decision-making process through providing them:
o An Archiving System that enables them to save and archive a huge amount of digital data. The data then could be searched and retrieved according to different criteria. The paper documents could be scanned, saved in digital format and archived in the system. A Workflow system that enables them to monitor, control, accelerate and manage all administrative transactions among different hierarchical levels of administration. To strengthen its external links by communication and information sharing between other institutions and between industry partners (potential employers of FED alumni).

External users: E-College will enable FED:


o

2- WHAT ARE E-COLLEGE COMPONENTS? The e-College of FED comprises five Components. Each one achieves number of the previously mentioned objectives. The paper here attempts to explain these components and shed some light on their main characteristics, obstacles facing them, and opportunities and potentials for their improvement. 2-1 IT Unit of FED: The College Dean of FED has established an IT Committee in August 2007 then has promoted it to an IT Unit in December 2007. This Unit has to group qualified members enough to manage the e-College Project during all stages of implementing, operating and maintaining the system. The Unit now depends on some of FED Staff members and research assistants but still has a shortage in technical positions. This will be overcome soon by hiring number of full time technical jobs to join the Unit. The researcher is the Manager of the IT Unit and the Webmaster of the e-College Portal.

2-2 E-College Portal:


Through the portal different web applications and components of the e-College will be accessed. The educational portal applications have been described in e-commerce literature as the "Education Portal Industry" [1]. The Portal will strengthen FED relation with its external links as mentioned before and shown in Figure 1. The Portal has been programmed using ASP and depends on Microsoft Access databases. It contains different modules such as: News, College Administration, Academic Departments, Staff Information, Students Projects Gallery, College Awards and Exhibitions, Courses, College Scientific Journal, Internet Links, Alumni, Calendar, Sitemap and Content Management Module. Figure 2 represents the main interface of FED Portal. A mechanism is needed to collect portal information in the purpose of ensuring it's up datedness. This mechanism has to be accepted, authorized and stimulated by the college administration.
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

106

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-12 eCollege as an Integrated Institutional Solution for Providing eServices in the Faculty of Environmental Design- KAU Dr. Mohamed Maatouk

Source: Faculty of Environmental Design (2006).

Figure 1 FED e-College is an Educational Portal Based Solution

Source: Faculty of Environmental Design (2007).

Figure 2 the Main Interface of Faculty of Environmental Design Portal

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

107

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-12 eCollege as an Integrated Institutional Solution for Providing eServices in the Faculty of Environmental Design- KAU Dr. Mohamed Maatouk

2-3 E-learning: E-learning is defined as the use of information and communication technologies to deliver, support and enhance teaching, learning and assessment. It includes elements of communication within and between communities of learners and teachers, as well as the provision of online content, which may be locally generated or developed elsewhere [7]. E-learning comprises two components: E-learning System and Elearning Content as shown in Figure 3. The well known e-learning system Moodle [8] is used as a Learning Content Management System (LCMS) in the e-College of FED. Figure 4 represents the Login Page of Moodle. It is an open resource system that is based on PHP programming language and use My SQL database. E-learning content (courseware) is implemented through three stages. The first one is Collecting Course Materials from Staff members with different format (PPT presentation, Flash animation, video, audio, graphics, text etc.). The second stage is Course Processing in the purpose of transforming course materials into web pages then downloading them into Moodle. The task in the third stage will be the Course Enhancement whereby the course materials will be developed and enhanced locally in the IT Unit of FED or externally by a specialized company. The main obstacle of the e-learning project is the resistance of some staff members to publish their work on the Internet. This problem could be completely overcome if the college purchases the copyright of staff courses.

E-learning

E-learning Content

E-learning System

Source: Faculty of Environmental Design (2008).

Figure 3 the Two Components of E-Learning System

2-4 Archiving and Workflow System: The eDoX software is used as an Archiving and Work Flow system to facilitate and support decisionmaking of FED Administration. It can save, archive, search and retrieve data files; also it can automate, monitor, control and accelerate the ongoing actions among hierarchical administrative levels in the college. eDoX is owned by a joint venture of Aldaleel Information Systems (in Jeddah) and Buraq Integrated Solutions (in Pakistan). eDoX has a bilingual interface and supports two languages; English and Arabic. It uses SQL and Oracle databases and also it has many features that can be reviewed on the web page of the software [10]. Figure 5 represents an Index Card of eDoX. The Index Card is the basic object that holds the user index fields as well as the related documents. These documents files can be either images or electronic files, such as scanned images (of paper documents) or simple text files [11]. Figure 6 represents the Workflow Report in eDoX. As mentioned before Portal, Moodle and eDoX use different database engines, so the main obstacle of implementation of a sustainable integrated system will be the integration and transformation of different databases into Oracle.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

108

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-12 eCollege as an Integrated Institutional Solution for Providing eServices in the Faculty of Environmental Design- KAU Dr. Mohamed Maatouk

Source: Faculty of Environmental Design (2008).

Figure 4 the Login Page of Moodle System

Source: Aldaleel Information Systems (2002).

Figure 5 Viewing Index Cards in eDoX

Source: Aldaleel Information Systems (2008).

Figure 6 Workflow Report in eDoX


- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

109

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-12 eCollege as an Integrated Institutional Solution for Providing eServices in the Faculty of Environmental Design- KAU Dr. Mohamed Maatouk

2-5 IT Infrastructure of e-College This represents the backbone of e-College Project that includes: hardware, software, network and Internet connections. FED has 1200 Internet connections which are distributed among studios, classrooms, lectures rooms, staff and administration rooms. The College has many labs which are equipped with new hardware and software. It also has a Servers Room which has 11 servers for different applications of the eCollege. The main obstacle of implementation is the delay of contractor time plan of hardware and software delivery, installation, configuration, testing and users training. Also the slowness of Internet Speed and small bandwidth is a real problem. 3- INCREMENTAL MODEL OF SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION Incremental Model is best suited for the e-College of FED. It is best suited for the systems that evolve over a period of time and with tight deadline. System will be developed in increments; in each increment there is a prototype that will be developed, that will be a part of system that is fulfilling set of requirements. And this will be able to test and assure its quality and the requirements can easily be verified and validated. And work on other set of requirements will be started. And in this way next increment will develop a prototype, and so on [4].
Analysis Design Code Test

1st Increment
Code Test

Analysis

Design

2nd Increment

Analysis

Design

Code

Test

3rd Increment nth Increment


Source: Aldaleel Information Systems (2006).

Figure 7 Incremental Model of Developing FED e-College

4- RELATED WORK AND CASE STUDIES: Many efforts of educational institutions of online learning are reviewed such as; Moodle [8], Blackboard [12], Web CT of King Saud University [13], Web CT of King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals [14], Syrian Virtual University [15], Jones University (the first virtual university in USA) [16], University of Illinois Online [17], and e-College of Computer Studies in De La Salle University (DLSU) in Philippines [3]. Most of these efforts support and facilitate e-learning process but e-College of Computer Studies in DLSU is a good example of an integrated system which supports both of e-learning process and administrative decision-making. This experiment is very close and related to the philosophy and approach of FED eCollege. So the paper attempts to shed some light on its main characteristics. E-College system of Computer Studies in De La Salle University (DLSU) is equipped with an e-learning subsystem to automate educational delivery. The system includes a faculty information system that provides support for decision-making in human resource functions such as hiring, promotion, and matching faculty skills with specific needs. The system automatically provides graduates with alumni accounts, allowing them to maintain contact with the university and to update their records themselves in the purpose of ensuring greater data reliability and up datedness. The system can provide graduates, advisors, and guidance counselors with a facility that supports communication and manages information related to thesis program activities. External users of the system include feeder schools and employers of its graduates. The system
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

110

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-12 eCollege as an Integrated Institutional Solution for Providing eServices in the Faculty of Environmental Design- KAU Dr. Mohamed Maatouk

will allow feeder schools to evaluate the quality of their high school graduates. Industry partners who are employers or potential employers of alumni are given a built-in electronic recruitment assistant. The system is implemented using Java technology includes facilities for supporting students, faculty, alumni, feeder schools, industry partners, and administration [3]. 5- CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS: Faculty of Environmental Design (FED) establishes an e-College system as an integrated institutional solution for providing e-services. This solution enables FED to process, monitor and control its activities and services effectively. This paper discussed some important issues of FED e-College such as: Why is eCollege? What is e-College? What are target users of e-College? What are e-College objectives? What are eCollege components, obstacles and opportunities of their implementation? The paper then briefly discussed some case studies of related work. Some keys of future directions should be identified as follows: The first prototype of FED e-College will be launched in February or March 2008. The system functions should be tested to assure its quality and the requirements can be verified and validated. The work on a new set of requirements will be started to produce the second prototype of system according to the Incremental Model discussed before. Some requirements that support some of target users such as alumni, industry partners and feeder schools should be added or enhanced the same way as e-College of Computer Studies in DLSU discussed before. The problem of the integration among system different databases should be dealt with and overcome. The new members of teaching assistants joining the IT Unit should be trained with eDoX and Workflow, content management of Moodle and Portal, course enhancement, and web pages design. A mechanism for system maintaining and collecting information has to be established to ensure it's up datedness and sustainability.

Finally, it is hoped that lessons learned from this experience could contribute to the field of e-services applications in academic institutions.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT: Many thanks and deep appreciation go to Dr. Hossny Aziz Alrahman the Dean of the Faculty of Environmental Design (FED) and the Founder of the e-College Project to give me the opportunity to supervise this project during the implementation stages and to give me the responsibility of managing the IT Unit.
REFRENCES: [1] Werry, Chris (2001), "The Work of Education in the Age of E-College", First Monday, volume 6, number 5, May. Available at: http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue6_5/werry/index.html . )( [3] Sison, Raymund, Pablo, Zelinna Cynthia, and others (2000), "Value Chain Framework and Support System For Higher Education", Southeast Asian Regional Computer Conference (SEARCC) 2000. Manila, Philippines. Available at: http://mysite.dlsu.edu.ph/faculty/sisonr/Paper%20-%20PCSC%202000%20-%20with%20citation.pdf [4] [5] [6] [7]

[]

Aldaleel Information Systems (2006), "Proposal of eCollege Project For Faculty Of Environmental Design, King Abdul
Aziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia", Aldaleel Information Systems, Jeddah. Faculty of Environmental Design (2006), "Proposal of e-College, submitted to the University Computer Center", Faculty of Environmental Design, King Abdul Aziz University (KAU), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Faculty of Environmental Design (2007), Portal URL: http://www.kau.edu.sa/faculties/fed/ Lewisham College (2004), "Lewisham College eLearning Strategy 2005-2008", Lewisham College, UK.

Available at: http://www.lewisham.ac.uk/beacon/docs/LewishamCollegee-learningStrategy(2005-2008).pdf [8] http://www.moodle.org [9] Faculty of Environmental Design (2008), "The First Presentation of e-College", Faculty of Environmental Design, King Abdul Aziz University (KAU), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, January 15. [10] Aldaleel Information Systems (2008), eDoX website: http://www.eDoX.ws/about-us.asp - : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

111

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-12 eCollege as an Integrated Institutional Solution for Providing eServices in the Faculty of Environmental Design- KAU Dr. Mohamed Maatouk

[11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17]

Aldaleel Information Systems (2002), eDoX User's Guide, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. http://www.blackboard.com/us/index.Bb [http://webct.ksu.edu.sa/webct/public/home.pl http://webcourses.kfupm.edu.sa/ webct/public/home.pl http://www.svuonline.org/sy/eng/ http://www.jonesknowledge.com http://www.online.uillinois.edu/

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

112

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-13 eHealth Strategies to Manage Cost, Market Potential, and Business Opportunities Among Four Middle East Countries Eng. M. Qurban & Mr. R. Austria

5-13 E-HEALTH STRATEGIES TO MANAGE COST, MARKET POTENTIAL, AND BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES AMONG FOUR MIDDLE EAST COUNTRIES Eng. Mustafa H. Qurban* and Mr. Richmond D. Austria**
Computer Services Department King Fahd Military Medical Complex, Dhahran, K.S.A *mhq2007@gmail.com **richmond.austria@gmail.com

This paper was presented in the symposium, then refereed and accepted for publication in this Proceedings Book as a Scientific Research Paper in its final form as follows:

Abstract:
The booming development of IT in the e-health field in the Middle East has generated unprecedented interest among policy-makers who set strategies to utilize the e-technology and to provide accessible services to the citizens. This has created profound market potential and lucrative investment opportunities for e-technologies such as the Internet to facilitate the delivery of such services and interaction between various and key stakeholders such as G2G, G2B, G2C, B2B, or B2C. To capture such benefits, this paper demonstrates the best practices for setting e-health strategies to manage cost, market potential and business opportunities in the delivery of e-health-related products and services. This is an exploratory research which uses content- and data-analysis of information obtained from WHO, CIA, EMRO, UNDP, ESCWA, World Bank, IWS, WTO and e-government sites to find out the business opportunities of e-health such as the market forecast, ICT performance, trends of e-government programs in three GCC countries (UAE, Oman, and Saudi Arabia) and a non-GCC which is Jordan. Results confirm that ICT developments among these four countries were relatively different suggesting the emergent need for a unified initiative to boost regional cooperation. General spending on healthcare is relatively lower than the regional average. Also, the market size forecast showed that these countries have sufficient untapped (potential) Internet users that should be captured by current and future players of Internet providers and ICT traders. Moreover, the five-year forecast (2008-2012) of the trade of pharmaceutical products, electronic data processors, and telecommunications equipment confirm that such commodities would grow. Correspondingly, such opportunity should be captured optimally by opening wider market channels using both online and offline business presence. Hence, the use of click and mortar business strategy could be the best practice to potentially expand the market, capture these business opportunities and manage cost of the delivery of such e-health-related products and services. Such strategy could be supported by the presence of e-trade and e-commerce initiatives such as the Tejari.com which could be regarded as a regional best practice.

Keywords
eHealth, eTechnology, eGovernment

Biographies:
Engr. Mustafa H. Qurban, M.S. is currently working as a Computer Consultant and Director of Computer Department at KFMMC, Dhahran, KSA. He has participated in many national and international conferences. Engr. Qurbans research interests include E-Health, IT Strategic Planning, Business Process Re-engineering, Software Engineering Project Management Practice, and Computer Networking Design and Implementation. Richmond D. Austria had worked as a Research Analyst (Intelligence and Data Services) of XMG Asia Pacific, a global ICT research, advisory and consulting firm headquartered in Victoria, Canada. He had also worked in the academic institution and other corporate institutions as a researcher. Mr. Austria is a BS Biology alumni of the University of the Philippines Manila and an MS Biology candidate at De La Salle University-Dasmarias, Cavite, Philippines. His research interests include e-health, clinical trials, biotechnology, disease management, market intelligence, competitor and competitive intelligence, human capital management, project management practice, and performance management. He is currently working as a Biostatistician at KFMMC, Dhahran, K.S.A.
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

113

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-13 eHealth Strategies to Manage Cost, Market Potential, and Business Opportunities Among Four Middle East Countries Eng. M. Qurban & Mr. R. Austria

INTRODUCTION The development of e-health and e-business opportunities across various e-government initiatives in the Middle East region has opened greater linkage among stakeholders whether government-to-government (G2G), government-to-business (G2B), government-to-clients (G2C), business-to-business (B2B), or business-to-clients (B2C). e-Health is defined by EMRO as the use, in the health sector, of digital datatransmitted, stored, and retrieved electronically-for clinical, educational, and administrative purposes, both at the local site and at a distance[1]. Currently, most health services in the region are based on the curative model which is expensive to maintain. It has been shown that nearly 80% of hospital beds are in the public sector in most MENA countries where occupancy rates are less than 65%. Yet, most governments are focused on the development of infrastructure (building hospitals, clinics) instead of improving and investing on the current pool of technological advancements offered by the ICT sector such as e-health [2]. Moreover, the healthcare and ICT sectors remain to be of less priority in many MENA countries. A report mentioned that if the spending on public health measures is too low, in most countries, the only ways to increase it are to expand general revenue spending overall, or to increase the share of those revenues devoted to public health [3]. Hence, healthcare delivery needs to focus on the investment potential and wide array of business opportunities that can be gained out of effective e-health strategies to increase general revenue and manage cost in the delivery of care [2]. As such, this paper seeks to provide e-health strategies to manage cost, market potential, and business opportunities in the delivery of e-health-related products and services. METHODOLOGY This is an exploratory paper prepared by using content- and data-analysis of information obtained from WHO [4], CIA [5], EMRO [6], UNDP [7], ESCWA [8], World Bank [9], IWS [10], WTO [11] and egovernment sites to determine the business aspect of e-health such as the market forecast, ICT performance, and current to future state of e-government programs. This paper covers four Middle East countries, three GCC members (UAE, Saudi Arabia, and Oman) and a non-GCC (Jordan). Only four Middle East countries were selected to limit the focus of the paper. Forecasting on the business potential of e-health and/or egovernment-related products and services is based on the regression line:
y= m (x) + b

This equation represents the linear trend where y is equal to the forecast value, m is the slope, x is the year, and b, the intercept. Data were processed using the regression forecast feature of Microsoft Excel. Such forecast follows estimation until 2012 to provide a five-year assessment (2008-2012) similar to UNDPs Five Year Development Program in the Middle East [7]. Also, forecasting mainly focused on the import (from the world) and export (to the world) of e-health and/or e-government-related products such as pharmaceuticals, electronic data processing and office materials, and telecommunications equipment. The forecast also included the number (count) of Internet users and GDP per capita based on Purchasing Power Parity. These e-health business indicators were based on descriptions made by Whitten et al. [12], Steinfield et al. [13], and Kirigia et al. [14]. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1-General Profile and Market Performance 1-1 ICT Performance UAE and Jordan were able to be above the average MENA spending on ICT (Table 1). Both Oman and Saudi Arabia were below the MENA average, suggesting the need to boost the ICT spending by a minimum of 1%.of GDP. Also, all of the four countries were able to be above the regional average on the mobile subscriber density, secure Internet servers, international Internet bandwidth, broadband subscriber density and total telecommunications revenue. However, only UAE, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia were able to be higher than the regional average on the PC density. In addition, only Saudi Arabia and UAE were able to above the regional average on the telephone main lines, whereas, both Oman and Jordan were able to exceed the regional average on the total telecommunications revenue. These data confirm earlier reports on the widening gap between and among countries in the Middle East suggesting the need for unified development projects on both the healthcare and ICT sectors toward regional and global cooperation on e-health programs [8]. Such digital divide calls for measures to address the performance management, fiscal allocation, and legislation.
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

114

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-13 eHealth Strategies to Manage Cost, Market Potential, and Business Opportunities Among Four Middle East Countries Eng. M. Qurban & Mr. R. Austria

Table 1 Comparison of ICT Performance among the four Middle East countries and the MENA region
ICT Indicators( 2005) ICT spending (Percentage of GDP) Telephone Main Lines (per 1000 people) Mobile Subscribers (per 1000 people) PCs (per 1000 people) Secure Internet Servers (per 1 million people) International Internet Bandwidth (bits per person) Broadband Subscribers(per 1000 people) Total Telecommunications Revenue (% of GDP) Total Telecommunications Investment (% of revenue) Source: World Bank (2005); * 2004 value from ESCWA [8] p. 34 UAE 3.6 273 1000 197 54.4 923 28.3 2.7 12.9 Jordan 8.4 119 304 56 4.1 58 1.9 8.3 16.7 Oman 2.4* 103 519 47 3.4 194 3.3 2.3 43.3 Saudi Arabia 2.3 164 575 376 4.6 33 0.9 3.2 12.3 Middle East and North Africa 3.1 160 229 48 0.7 9 0.5 1.3 19.8

1-2 Healthcare Spending The three GCC countries tend to have relatively similar healthcare spending from 2000 to 2004 which range from 2.9% to 4.7% of GDP (Figure 1A). However, Jordan has the highest expenditure at 9.4% to 9.8% of GDP among the four. In addition, these countries have relatively flat growth rate on their healthcare spending which indicates a uniform priority level on healthcare within the five-year expenditure (20002004).However, The three GCC countries spent relatively lower than the world average of 5.8% among middle-income countries (Figure 1B). Meanwhile, Jordans healthcare spending is similar to those of highincome countries despite being a non-GCC (where oil is not part of their economic growth). As such, diversified economy has been the major driving force for the increased healthcare spending of Jordan. It seems that the three GCC countries tend to be almost similar with the healthcare spending among the low-income countries at 4.7% of GDP (Figure 1B). Correspondingly, UAE and Saudi Arabia are considered as to high income countries while Oman and Jordan as middle income [4]. Also, the average total healthcare expenditure within the MENA region is 5.6% of GDP which indicates that the three GCC countries were not able to meet the regional average, suggesting the need to increase the budget allocation (Figure 1B). Thus, the three GCC countries (UAE, Saudi Arabia, and Oman) should provide higher fiscal allocation on healthcare which could be derived from both the private and government sectors. The over-all healthcare budget should be increased through enhanced private-public partnerships. Moreover, it should be noted the relationship between health expenditures and health outcomes is not always clear. Higher spending does not necessarily translate to better health outcomes. Although the evidence slightly shows a positive relationship between public spending on health and selected health indicators, the definition could not always be provided. The quality of a countrys institutions also plays a key role in determining the effectiveness of health spending [15]. As such, healthcare outcome is a combination of expenditure, resource allocation, and management which all dictate for the quality of care. Hence, it is recommended that the government of these four countries should diversify their economic policies to allow greater investments on healthcare products and services in order to generate revenues and boost governmentprivate sectoral reforms such as e-health initiatives. Also, they should efficiently manage those resources by strategically allocating funds for total quality assurance, evaluation and development.
12 10
Percent of GDP

High-Income Countries
UAE Jordan Oman Saudi Arabia

7.7

8 6 4 2 0 2000 2001 2002 Year 2003 2004

Low-income Countries Middle-Income Countries Middle East and North Africa 0 2 4

4.7

5.8

5.6 6 8 10

Percent of GDP (2001)

Source: WHO (2007)

Source: Schieber et al (2007)

A. Four Middle East Countries

B. Regional Average Expenditure

Figure 1 Trend of healthcare spending based on percent of GDP


- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

115

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-13 eHealth Strategies to Manage Cost, Market Potential, and Business Opportunities Among Four Middle East Countries Eng. M. Qurban & Mr. R. Austria

1-3 Market Size of Internet Users among the four Middle East countries The current (as of September 30, 2007) market size of Internet users indicates that Saudi Arabia has the highest number (count) of Internet users followed by UAE, Jordan, and Oman being the least (Figure 2). Also, if the Internet population penetration of UAE (42.9% of their population in 2007; the highest in the Middle East) would be taken as the ideal proportion, then Saudi Arabia would have 5.63 million potential users (untapped users from its current 19.5% Internet penetration) to be at par with UAE. Similarly, Oman has potentially around 0.7 million (730,000) untapped users from its current 13% Internet population penetration, while Jordan has an estimated of 1.5 million potential users from its current 14.8%. This justifies the lucrative business opportunity available within Saudi Arabia for Internet Service Providers (ISPs) on both current and future players. This also indicates the high potential for the entry of PCs to accommodate the increasing demand for Internet usage among the remaining potential users. Similarly, Jordan and Oman also experience this business opportunity owing to its relatively high untapped users; making it ideal for the entry of new players in the ICT- or Internet-related businesses. UAE is highly penetrated by the Internet though it is considered to be relatively lower than the North American Internet penetration average of 70.2 % [10]. This takes their business potential towards the expansion (to be comparable with the North American), continuation and sustainability of the dominantly online populace. Correspondingly, UAE has a lucrative investment potential for those new players or competitors with the capacity to provide better quality, lowcost and innovative Internet services (ISPs) to capture more users.
6,000,000
Internet Users 2007

5,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 0 0 Oman 5,000,000 10,000,000 15,000,000 Population 2007 20,000,000 UAE Jordan

Saudi Arabia

25,000,000

30,000,000

Source: IWS (2007) Figure 2 Market Size of Internet Users across country population

The Internet has the potential to be a more strategic tool than any other IT innovations due to its extensive reach and flexibility. To fulfill the Internets promise, healthcare organizations need to value opportunities beyond cost cutting when identifying criteria for Internet investment. As such, healthcare organizations need to emphasize key measures for their e-health strategy, such as customer acquisition, customer satisfaction, relationship building, and improvements in the quality of care [16]. Hence, the Internet could be utilized as a market channel for the trade of e-health-related products and services to efficiently deliver care. Previous studies would show that the click and mortar business model could be used as the optimal strategy in the delivery of e-health-related products and services [12, 17]. The model has been extensively used in e-business and e-commerce whereby online and offline channels are integrated in the delivery of ehealth products and services [13, 18]. Such model is seen as a guide to boost the performance of e-health initiatives and other e-related transactions across the region. Correspondingly, one portal seen to achieve this goal is the Tejari initiative (www.tejari.com) branded as the Middle East Online Marketplace [19]. Such ecommerce initiative is strategic to the development of regional e-trade system where stakeholders get sufficient linkage across various transactions (G2B, G2C, B2B, G2G, and B2C) 2- Business Potential and Opportunities: Forecast on e-health-related Products and Services 2-1 United Arab Emirates 2-1-1 Forecast on the Trade of Pharmaceutical Products The forecasts on both the import and export trade channels remain lucrative for the pharmaceutical industry. Regression analysis estimates that the import of pharmaceutical products would reach to 1.26 billion USD by 2012 (Figure 3A) while the export would be at 624 million USD by then (Figure 3B). Hence,
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

116

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-13 eHealth Strategies to Manage Cost, Market Potential, and Business Opportunities Among Four Middle East Countries Eng. M. Qurban & Mr. R. Austria

to capture this business potential, both online and offline channels should be strengthened over the next five years (2008-2012) to deliver pharmaceutical products efficiently. Hence, it is best to align future business goals on capturing such opportunity within the pharmaceutical sector in support of the governments e-health initiatives and its implementation. Correspondingly, the pharmaceutical industry could look forward to a better business climate upon utilizing e-government/e-health portals such as the Tejari.com to facilitate online channels along with offline transactions to open more avenues for trade. With this, G2B, G2C, and B2C channels can be easily integrated to UAEs e-health/e-government backbone to enhance trade relations on various pharmaceutical products towards a click and mortar business environment. Hence, the pharmaceutical sector should be ready and expect a shift from a multi-million dollar pharmaceutical import capabilities to a billion dollar industry for UAE within the next five years.
1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1995 y = 84.143x - 168039 R2 = 0.9042 UAE (Actual Value on Import of Pharmaceutical; (WTO, 2007)) Forecast 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1995 y = 41.679x - 83233 R2 = 0.976 UAE (Actual Value on Export of Pharmaceutical; (WTO, 2007)) Forecast

USD at current prices (Millions)

2000

2005 Year

2010

2015

USD at current prices (Millions)

2000

2005 Year

2010

2015

A. Import

B. Export

Figure 3 UAEs trade forecast on the import of (A) and export (B) of pharmaceutical products

2-1-2 Forecast on the Trade of Electronic Data Processing and Office Materials The growth of e-health-related products such as PCs is expected to rise over the next five years (20082012). Regression analysis revealed that the import value of data processing and office materials would increase to 9.92 billion USD by 2012 (Figure 4A) while the export value would be at 8.65 billion USD (Figure 4B) by then. This means that the electronic data processing and office materials industry would continue to be a multi-billion dollar business venture in UAE. This would create a profound effect on the ICT development projects in the UAE especially in Dubai (the ICT hub of UAE and other Arab states due to the boost in the ICT sector such as Dubai Internet City, Dubai Silicon Oasis, Dubai Media City, and Dubai Knowledge Village among others [20]) as a result of development programs toward the comprehensive implementation of e-health projects. Such initiative would then require investments on data processors such as PCs and other office materials. Hence, the ICT sector particularly the computer hardware industry should create a better business relation and linkage (G2B, B2B, and B2C) with the healthcare sector to capture the expected rise in the demand for telemedicine hardware infrastructure, video-conferencing equipment, and household/office PCs over the next five consecutive years.
12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1995 y = 770.68x - 2E+06 R2 = 0.9281 UAE (Actual Value on Import of Data Processors; (WTO, 2007)) Forecast 10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1995

USD at current prices (Millions)

USD at current prices (Millions)

UAE (Actual Value on Export of Data Processors; (WTO, 2007)) Forecast

2000

2005 Year

2010

2015

2000

2005 Year

2010

2015

y = 705.25x - 1E+06 R2 = 0.9128

A. Import

B. Export

Figure 4 UAEs trade forecast on the import of (A) and export of (B) electronic data processing and office materials

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

117

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-13 eHealth Strategies to Manage Cost, Market Potential, and Business Opportunities Among Four Middle East Countries Eng. M. Qurban & Mr. R. Austria

The UAE government recognizes that the private sector is of major importance towards their economic diversification. The creation of an ideal business environment has encouraged both local and foreign investors. The major incentive strategies of UAE include first-class industrial facilities and business support services, the reduction of red tape and streamlining of administrative procedures, commercial laws, tax laws, and political stability among others to foster enhanced transparency, international obligations, and investment protection. In fact, UAE has created several incentives such as the creation of Dubai Airport Free Zone Authority (DAFZA) to establish free zones in the UAE such as the Jebel Ali Free Trade Zone [21]. The click and mortar business model could be highly adopted in UAE for the creation of offline and online e-health trade channels due to the Tejari-Middle East online market place initiative (www.tejari.com [19]). Previously, the Tejari initiative was created to facilitate online government procurement transactions with business establishments (G2B) but later on pushed towards the development of B2B, B2C, and G2C channels via Internet [21]. 2-1-3 Forecast on the Trade of Telecommunications Equipment Regression analysis revealed that UAE would increase both the import and export of telecommunications equipment within the next five years (2008-2012). It is estimated that the import of such commodities would reach around 13.036 billion USD by 2012 (Figure 5A) while the export at 10.146 billion USD by then (Figure 5B). This indicates that the multi-billion dollar telecommunication industry could promise sustainable telecommunications equipment within UAE. Hence, business opportunities over the trade of these commodities would remain viable and resilient against threats of competition due to the high demand of the market for innovative and technology-driven telecommunication equipment especially on mobile services and fixed line channels.
USD at current prices (Millions)

14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1995 y = 900.04x - 2E+06 R2 = 0.7115 2000 2005 Year 2010 2015 UAE (Actual Value on Import of Telecom; (WTO, 2007)) Forecast

USD at current prices (Millions)

12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1995 y = 743.29x - 1E+06 R2 = 0.7724 UAE (Actual Value on Export of Telecom; (WTO, 2007)) Forecast

2000

2005 Year

2010

2015

A. Import

B. Export

Figure 5 UAEs trade forecast on the import of (A) and export of (B) Telecommunications Equipment

The telecommunication presence within UAE is very high. Etisalat has a fixed exchange line capacity of 1.4 million telephone lines, 100% digital, of which around 50,000 are ISDN in addition to the leased lines [22]. Moreover, mobile line distribution is 100% (as mentioned in Table 1) indicating a very high mobile phone penetration in UAE. Innovations within the telecommunication industry are highly favored due to UAEs drive against piracy as an active member of the World Intellectual Property Organization. In fact, the country adopts agreements on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) under the WTO [22]. Hence, this indicates that UAE has the capability to embrace at a national scale, various e-health development programs due to the very high market penetration of, and the high future demand for, telecommunication equipment suggesting the success of connectivity between and among e-health/egovernment stakeholders (G2B, B2B, G2G, B2C, and G2C). 2-1-4 Forecast on the Number (Count) of Internet Users Regression analysis shows that the number of Internet users in the country could eventually reach to 2.3 million (2,295,548) by 2012 (Figure 6). This means that more people would most likely get access to the Internet for online transactions on e-health-related products and services once given an opportunity. Other egovernment initiatives include the creation of e-government portal via www.duabi.ae/ [23]. Hence, there would be an increase in the demand for click and mortar channels to accommodate the increasing trend of transactions on both online and offline market. Hence, e-commerce strategies among business and government institutions should be strengthened to accommodate the entry of more users. Correspondingly, online and offline market channels should be opened up efficiently by conducting extensive information and
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

118

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-13 eHealth Strategies to Manage Cost, Market Potential, and Business Opportunities Among Four Middle East Countries Eng. M. Qurban & Mr. R. Austria

advertising campaigns on e-health/e-government-related products and services via using websites. Further, it is recommended that websites for e-commerce should be updated, secured, and protected to increase user satisfaction in line with service-level agreements with consumers/users who seek for online trade transactions such as the Tejari initiative. Hence, newer but similar initiatives are encouraged in the marketplace to accommodate and link more users on online transactions while mitigating the risks of security threats and unsolicited promotional hoaxes over the Internet.
2,500,000 2,000,000
Users (Count)

1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 0 1995

UAE (Actual Internet Users, IWS) Forecast Value

y = 127309x - 3E+08 2 R = 0.955 2000 2005 Year 2010 2015

Source: IWS (2007)

Figure 6 Forecast on the number (count) of Internet users in UAE

The Internet backbone of UAE has been ideally designed to accommodate upgrades on the transmission capacity. In fact, the Fibre Optic Gulf (FOG) project, a fibre optic cable link between UAE, Qatar, Kuwait, and Bahrain, could accommodate transmission capacity of 5Gbps (billions of bits per second) per fiber pair and upgradeable to 10Gbps per fiber pair. Moreover, there is a Fibre Optic Link around the Globe Cable System which connects Europe to the South Asia via UAE. This connection could be strategically used to connect online transactions within UAE and across the globe towards the trade of e-health/e-governmentrelated commodities as well as telemedicine network and the like. This could solve enormous Internet traffic via broadband ISDN, Internet, Video-on-demand and other services to accommodate the growth on online users over the next five consecutive years (2008-2012). Current telemedicine options in UAE include the Arab TeleMedicine Network, TelDermServ, TeleMedicine Egypt Network, and the Hospital for sick Children Teleheath program [22]. Expansion plans for telemedicine and health teleconferencing remain promising for UAE especially on emirates other than Dubai. Hence, it is expected that the strengthening of ehealth programs on telemedicine and video-conferencing could generate profitable business avenues due to the increasing demand for, and efficient delivery of, healthcare services within UAE and offshore. 2-1-5 Forecast on the GDP per capita based on Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) Regression analysis revealed that the GDP (PPP) per capita of UAE would eventually reach to an estimated value of 87,240 I$ by 2012 based on CIAs previous to current assessment (Figure 7) [5]. This indicates that UAE citizens have a high capacity to pay for available products and services. Hence, the demand for e-health/e-government-related products and services would still be high in order to sustain the capacity of the populace to purchase ICT equipment upgrades and maintain high expectations on the ICT innovation and development. Such opportunity is in line with the UAEs development plans for 2008-2011 as reported by UNDP [7].
100,000 90,000 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 Year

International Dollars

UAE (GDP per capita (PPP)) Forecast

y = 7740x - 2E+07 R2 = 0.849

Source: CIA (2007)

Figure 7 Forecast on the GDP (PPP) per capita in UAE over the next five consecutive years (2008-2012)
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

119

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-13 eHealth Strategies to Manage Cost, Market Potential, and Business Opportunities Among Four Middle East Countries Eng. M. Qurban & Mr. R. Austria

The drive towards economic diversification has prompted UAE to prioritize economic and social development on various sectors such as ICT and healthcare under UNDPs ICT for Development in Arab Region and the UNs Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia [22]. Expansion plans and corporate entry among ICT businesses remain lucrative if appropriate linkages could be established with the healthcare sector to meet their increasing demand technology infrastructure. Moreover, newer job opportunities could be expected for both expatriates and nationals in the country to match the infrastructure build-up on both ICT and healthcare sectors. Hence, business opportunities remain very promising in UAE over the next five consecutive years due to their highly diversified economy as a result of better business climate and incentives offered by the government. 2-2 Jordan 2-2-1 Forecast on the Trade of Pharmaceutical Products Regression analysis estimates that the values on the import and export of pharmaceutical products would reach to 446.75 million USD (Figure 8A) and 498.89 million USD (Figure 8B) by 2012, respectively. Such increase would require the opening of online and offline market channels towards the click and mortar strategy within the next five consecutive years (2008-2012). For the online channel, the Tejari-Jordan [19] could be utilized as an online portal to facilitate the trade of pharmaceutical products. Hence, the multimillion dollar pharmaceutical sector could look forward to a higher demand on these commodities while enhancing the network of market channels and portals across Jordans booming ICT industry.
500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1995
USD at current prices (Millions)
USD at current prices (Millions)

600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1995 y = 30.179x - 60220 R2 = 0.9198 Jordan (Actual Value on Export of Pharmaceutical; (WTO, 2007)) Forecast

Jordan (Actual Value on Import of Pharmaceutical; (WTO, 2007)) Forecast

2000

2005 Year

2010

2015

y = 26.321x - 52512 R2 = 0.9951

2000

2005 Year

2010

2015

A. Import

B. Export

Figure 8 Jordans trade forecast on the import of (A) and export (B) of pharmaceutical products

Jordan has been known as the only Arab country which has enforced Pharmaceutical Clinical Research Legislation based on the Helsinki Declaration (GCP). For instance, Organon, an international pharmaceutical company developed a pharmaceutical product called Ganrilix that was clinically studied in Jordan before it can be approved in the United States. Similarly, Takeda clinically tested the anti-inflammatory drug called Danzen [24]. Such legislation has opened great business opportunities for the Research and Development (R&D) programs among pharmaceutical companies for low-cost clinical trials. Hence, Jordan remains suitable for the expansion of various international pharmaceutical companies due to the governments support on pharmaceutical R&D. 2-2-2 Forecast on the Trade of Electronic Data Processing and Office Materials Regression analysis revealed that the import and export of electronic data processing and office materials would reach to 245.64 million USD (Figure 9A) and 41.93 million USD (Figure 9B) by 2012, respectively. Correspondingly, the import value is much higher than the export counterpart indicating the need to open both the online and offline channels to widen the marketplace. In addition, the forecast on the entry of the commodity (import channel) remains more stable than the export channel (R2 values are 0.8285 and 0.6898, respectively). As such, secured online portals (such as Tejari-Jordan [19]) are recommended to accommodate the demand for importation of these commodities and expand the market for export. Jordans e-government initiatives remain promising due to aggressive ICT reforms towards economic diversification. As a result, the trade of electronic data processors such as PCs and office supplies is expected to grow over the next five years (2008-2012). Jordan education sector has been increasingly playing a substantial role in their development programs like the National Broadband Learning and Research Network,
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

120

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-13 eHealth Strategies to Manage Cost, Market Potential, and Business Opportunities Among Four Middle East Countries Eng. M. Qurban & Mr. R. Austria

a high-speed broadband network connecting all public schools [20]. With this, business opportunities remain viable within several medical schools in the country as well as on the demand of PCs among households and students as target clientele.
300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1995 y = 14.071x - 28066 R2 = 0.8285 Jordan (Actual Value on Import of Data Processors; (WTO, 2007)) Forecast 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1995 2000 2005 Year 2010 2015 y = 2.5x - 4988.1 R2 = 0.6898 Jordan (Actual Value on Export of Data Processors; (WTO, 2007)) Forecast

USD at current prices (Millions)

2000

2005 Year

2010

2015

A. Import

USD at current prices (Millions)

B. Export

Figure 9 Jordans trade forecast on the import of (A) and export (B) of Electronic Data Processing and Office Materials

2-2-3 Forecast on the Trade of Telecommunications Equipment Regression analysis shows that the import and export of telecommunications equipment are expected to rise to 937.54 million USD (Figure 10A) and 285.14 million USD (Figure 10B) by 2012, respectively. This indicates that more people would buy telecommunications products over the next five consecutive years (2008-2012) making such sector to be profitable due to the increasing demand for such commodity due acquired from e-government efforts such as e-health. E-government efforts within Jordan would strengthen the requirements on newer telecommunication technologies in support of e-government initiatives such as ehealth and e-education.
1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1995

USD at current prices (Millions)

USD at current prices (Millions)

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1995 y = 23.571x - 47141 R2 = 0.8798 Jordan (Actual Value on Export of Telecom; (WTO, 2007)) Forecast

Jordan (Actual Value on Import of Telecom; (WTO, 2007)) Forecast

y = 71.107x - 142130 R2 = 0.7938 2000 2005 Year 2010 2015

2000

2005 Year

2010

2015

A. Import

B. Export

Figure 10 Jordans trade forecast on the import of (A) and export (B) of Telecommunication Equipment

There are government efforts to reduce the cost associated with the registration and submission of forms for telecommunications operator licenses as well on the aggressiveness to process accurately the notification on auctions, new licenses and regulatory changes within the sector. In addition, improved business environment is expected in Jordan within the telecommunications industry to attract investors towards their goal on e-government [25]. Moreover, the liberalization of the telecom market (mobile and fixed line) makes Jordan a unique environment for telecom investment and has already attracted substantial foreign investment. As such, Jordan ended the fixed line monopoly in December 2004 which provides numerous opportunities for investors. Also, Fastlink, MobileCom, Xpress and Umniah serve Jordans mobile market [26]. Thus, e-health/e-government initiatives could promise a brighter business climate among investors over the next five consecutive years (2008-2012). 2-2-4 Forecast on the Number (Count) of Internet Users The forecast on the number (count) of Internet users indicates that by 2012, it could reach to an estimate of 1.25 million (Figure 11). As of 2005, eight ISPs have offered dial-up, leased lines, ADSL, ISDN, frame
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

121

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-13 eHealth Strategies to Manage Cost, Market Potential, and Business Opportunities Among Four Middle East Countries Eng. M. Qurban & Mr. R. Austria

relay, IPVPN, Internet roaming and subscription-free Internet. ADSL service covers a speed of up to two Mbps while the IPVPN remains ideal for businesses allowing them to connect to over 220 locations around the world [26]. E-commerce has been particularly promising as Jordan diversifies the economy through ICT investments and trade. In particular, Tejari.com has been vital to the realization of better trade relations through the Internet [20]. Correspondingly, Jordan has been giving telemedicine services for more than a decade now [8]. As such, it is expected that the use of telemedicine would most likely increase Internet users over the next five consecutive years (2008-2012) due to the increasing Internet users who could avail of such e-health service. As more and more people become educated on the use of ICT, e-health networks could remain promising. Hence, ISPs could look forward on capturing more clients as Jordan becomes more aggressive to implement e-health and e-education initiatives.
1,400,000 1,200,000
Users (Count)

1,000,000 800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 0 1995 y = 88210x - 2E+08 R = 0.9449 2000 2005 Year 2010 2015
2

Jordan (Actual Internet Users, IWS) Forecast Value

Source: IWS (2007) Figure 11 Forecast on the number (count) of Internet users in Jordan

2-2-5 Forecast on the GDP per capita based on Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) The forecast on the GDP (PPP) per capita of Jordan is estimated to reach 5,980 I$ by 2012 (Figure 12). This indicates that Jordan should continue to diversify their economy by establishing macroeconomic measures to uplift public-private partnerships. The ICT industry has attracted both foreign and local investments which generated high value jobs and produced substantial levels of export [26]. Hence, the purchasing power of their currency could remain resilient against threats as long as investments in various sectors such as ICT, education, and healthcare would continue to diversify and stabilize Jordans economy despite being a non-GCC.
7,000
International Dollars

6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 Year y = 200x - 396420 R2 = 0.8929 Jordan (GDP per capita (PPP)) Forecast

Source: CIA (2007) Figure 12 Forecast on the GDP (PPP) per capita in Jordan over the next five consecutive years (2008-2012)

2-3 Oman 2-3-1 Forecast on the Trade of Pharmaceutical Products The forecast on the trade of pharmaceutical products estimates that the import would reach around 198.6 million USD (Figure 13A) while the export at around 4.4 million USD by 2012 (Figure 13B). The import of pharmaceutical products grows sufficiently while the export remains relatively of low volume. This indicates the investors could look forward on higher volume of import of pharmaceutical products. Correspondingly,
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

122

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-13 eHealth Strategies to Manage Cost, Market Potential, and Business Opportunities Among Four Middle East Countries Eng. M. Qurban & Mr. R. Austria

new players in the import channel may look forward on their entry in the market over the next five consecutive years while current players in the export channel may continue to sustain their presence. Hence, the import channels remain more dynamic than the export one owing to the large disparities in the market volume of these commodities.
250 200 150 100 50 0 1995 y = 11x - 21933 R2 = 0.9749 Oman (Actual Value on Import of Pharmaceutical; (WTO, 2007)) Forecast

2000

2005 Year

2010

2015

5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 1995

USD at current prices (Millions)

USD at current prices (Millions)

Oman (Actual Value on Export of Pharmaceutical; (WTO, 2007)) Forecast

2000

2005 Year

2010

2015

y = 0.3x - 599.2 R2 = 0.75

A. Import

B. Export

Figure 13 Omans trade forecast on the import of (A) and export (B) of pharmaceutical products

The emergence of pharmaceutical competitiveness could be attributed to Omans medical tourism, offering low cost medical care than that of the US or Europe. Also, the Free Trade Agreement has resulted to intellectual protection of innovative pharmaceutical products created in the country; thereby protecting the local manufacturers. Moreover, the growth of expatriates creates a higher demand for healthcare within the private sector since these patients are not included in the public healthcare scheme [27]. Lastly, the ecommerce and e-trading sites such as Tejari Oman could be taken as a strategic initiative to boost the performance of capturing such increase in the demand for pharmaceutical products [19]. 2-3-2 Forecast on the Trade of Electronic Data Processing and Office Materials The import forecast for Oman on electronic data processing and office materials could reach to an estimated value of 247.8 million USD by 2012 (Figure 14A) while the export remains less predictable (R2=0.6207) though seems to be declining from 2000-2004 (Figure 14B). As such, investment potential remains viable for the import channel than the export one. With this, the forecast on the import of data processors such as PCs is stable enough to predict that the demand for the commodity would most likely increase over the next five consecutive years (2008-2012). This indicates that the market would still remain resilient over threats of low PC penetration (47 out of 1000 inhabitants, a little below the MENA average of 48 as shown previously in Table 1).
UISD at current prices (Millions)
USD at current prices (Millions)

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1995 y = 15x - 29932 R2 = 0.9012 Oman (Actual Value on Import of Data Processors; (WTO, 2007)) Forecast

2000

2005 Year

2010

2015

10 9 Oman (Actual Value 8 on Export of Data 7 Processors; (WTO, 6 2007)) 5 Forecast 4 3 2 1 y = -1.2x + 2408.8 0 R2 = 0.6207 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Year

A. Import

B. Export

Figure 14 Omans trade forecast on the import of (A) and export (B) of Electronic Data Processing and Office Materials

It is strongly recommended that the government should push for aggressive measures to enhance the publics access to ICT tools such as PCs by encouraging the use of e-government infrastructures and programs. For instance, Knowledge Oasis Muscat (KOM), a technology park, is involved in the production and assembly of PCs. It establishes customer contact and service centers for Arab countries and provides arabization of products. KOM targets to produce and design advanced computer hardware and software
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

123

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-13 eHealth Strategies to Manage Cost, Market Potential, and Business Opportunities Among Four Middle East Countries Eng. M. Qurban & Mr. R. Austria

products [28]. Hence, from these initiatives, the import would accommodate several e-government programs such as e-health which requires more volume of PCs and office materials in the market. 2-3-3 Forecast on the Trade of Telecommunications Equipment Regression estimates that by 2012, the import value of telecommunications equipment would approach to 472.6 million USD (Figure 15A) while export remains unpredictable (R2 is 0.3939) though shows declining tendency since 2001 (Figure 15B). The lucrative investment potential for those companies that import such commodities to Oman remains promising over the next five consecutive years (2008-2012). With this, Omans Telecommunication Regulatory Authority handles the issuance of licenses, establishment, operation and maintenance of telecommunication services. As such, the agency allows 100% foreign investment and ownership in the IT sector [28].
500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1995

USD at current prices (Millions)

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 y = -3.1x + 6253.2 R2 = 0.3939 Year Oman (Actual Value on Export of Telecom; (WTO, 2007)) Forecast

USD at current prices

Oman (Actual Value on Import of Telecom; (WTO, 2007)) Forecast

y = 28.8x - 57473 R2 = 0.5579 2000 2005 Year 2010 2015

A. Import

B. Export

Figure 15 Omans trade forecast on the import of (A) and export (B) of Telecommunication Equipment

The telecommunications and teleconferencing for medical-use are not widely used. The Ministry of Health is making strategies to develop the Continuous Medical Education with the National Telecom operator to build large tele-education infrastructure using IP over ATM. Pilot projects include 5 hospitals and the Ministrys headquarters. Currently, IT resources are used to maintain in-house HIS and related applications such as telemedicine [28]. Further, the Tejari Oman could play a vital role on the trade of telecommunication equipment upon implementing these e-health initiatives. 2-3-4 Forecast on the Number (Count) of Internet Users The number (count) of Internet users could reach to 472,256 by 2012 (Figure 16). It is expected that the increase in the volume of Internet users could be supported by e-government initiatives that encourages people to utilize the advantages of the web. In this case, the government-owned OmanTel, the major provider of fixed line and Internet services, could provide sufficient promotional advertisement on the current egovernment programs such as e-health initiatives together with Tejari-Oman [19].
500,000 450,000 400,000 350,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 1995

Users (Count)

Oman (Actual Internet Users, IWS) Forecast

y = 31024x - 6E+07 R = 0.9814 2000 2005 Year 2010 2015


2

Source: IWS (2007) Figure 16 Forecast on the number (count) of Internet users in Oman

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

124

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-13 eHealth Strategies to Manage Cost, Market Potential, and Business Opportunities Among Four Middle East Countries Eng. M. Qurban & Mr. R. Austria

Omans Internet backbone could provide digital data network, mobile fax and data service, SMS, ISDN, ATM, WLL, VSAT and SDH among others. OmanTel plans to increase the bandwidth for the Internet connectivity to support fast and efficient transactions. It also recently joined the growing network of institutions in the Tejari Oman marketplace [19]. In addition, OmanTel is affiliated with the Thuraya Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd based in UAE which operates a mobile satellite system spanning 106 countries, with the ability to switch its services through satellite transmission when users travel outside GSM network [28]. This indicates the wide-array of Internet options for users to choose from. Correspondingly, telemedicine network could be easily implemented with the growing number of potential e-health users. Hence, Internet users would increase over the next five consecutive years allowing access to several egovernment efforts such as e-health services. 2-3-5 Forecast on the GDP based on Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) The GDP PPP per capita could potentially reach an estimated value of 21,300 I$ by 2012 based on CIAs initial assessment (Figure 17) [5]. Omans e-government efforts remain promising due to the great job opportunities for those who would like to work in either the ICT or Healthcare sectors. Government efforts to strengthen the education system would be vital for the growth of the purchasing power among citizens through the build-up of their knowledge economy. Such initiatives focus on the vocational and technical training. Also, the Sanad Fund offers low-interest loans for young Omani entrepreneurs to start their own business towards entrepreneurship. Many Omani firms have partnered with private US IT educators to establish IT institutes in Oman [28]. Correspondingly, the growth of e-health initiatives would open job opportunities within the ICT and healthcare sectors. Hence, there is an expected increase on the number of ehealth enthusiasts which could be supported by the Oman governments plan and initiatives to build the ICT sector and encourage public-private partnership.
25,000
International Dollars

20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 Year Oman (GDP per capita (PPP)) Forecast

y = 1260x - 3E+06 R2 = 0.6912

Source: CIA (2007) Figure 17 Forecast on the GDP (PPP) per capita in Oman over the next five consecutive years (2008-2012)

2-4 Saudi Arabia 2-4-1 Forecast on the Trade of Pharmaceutical Products Regression analysis estimates that by 2012, the import value of pharmaceutical products would reach to 3.04925 billion USD (Figure 18A) while the export at 207.85 million USD (Figure 18B). This supports that the pharmaceutical industry remains to be a lucrative business sector over the next five consecutive years (2008-2012) especially on the import channel which continues to be a multi-billion dollar investment. To capture this opportunity, pharmaceutical companies should focus on current e-health programs of the government and create bilateral agreements on efficient delivery of pharmaceutical product to various hospital channels within the Kingdom. Moreover, it is recommended that both online and offline market presence should be captured to expand the linkage of transactions. Saudi Arabias pharmaceutical industry is the largest in the Gulf with an estimated of 2,400 pharmacies and more than 4,600 registered drugs (generic and patented) [29]. However, the Saudi Ministry of Health is still applying a non-pricing policy and takes unilateral decisions related to pricing of pharmaceuticals. Also, the process for obtaining marketing approval in Saudi Arabia is lengthy [30]. Hence, it is recommended that the Saudi Arabian government provides a bilateral agreement with traders to facilitate better business climate over the trade of pharmaceutical products. In this way, the expected growth in the market could be easily realized over the next five years (2008-2012).
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

125

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-13 eHealth Strategies to Manage Cost, Market Potential, and Business Opportunities Among Four Middle East Countries
3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1995 y = 188.82x - 376859 R2 = 0.9617 Saudi Arabia (Actual Value on Import of Pharmaceutical; (WTO, 2007)) Forecast 250 200 150 100 50 0 1995 y = 16.686x - 33364 R2 = 0.7403 Saudi Arabia (Actual Value on Export of Pharmaceutical; (WTO, 2007)) Forecast

Eng. M. Qurban & Mr. R. Austria

USD at current prices (Millions)

2000

2005 Year

2010

2015

USD at current prices (Millions)

2000

2005 Year

2010

2015

A. Import

B. Export

Figure 18 Saudi Arabias trade forecast on the import of (A) and export (B) of pharmaceutical products

2-4-2 Forecast on the Trade of Electronic Data Processing and Office Materials Regression analysis estimates that by 2012, the import value of electronic data processing and office materials would reach to 2.1912 billion USD (Figure 19A) while the export at 94.96 million USD (Figure 19B). The forecast on the import value remains more predictable than the export channel (R2 are 0.7868 and 0.5246, respectively) though both follow an increasing trend until 2012. This indicates that the demand for the import of data processors such as PCs would increase over the next five consecutive years (2008-2012). Traders should capture this opportunity by utilizing both online and offline channels to optimize market presence and build competitive advantages.
USD at current prices (Millions)

2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1995 y = 163.79x - 327346 R2 = 0.7868 Saudi Arabia (Actual Value on Import of Data Processors; (WTO, 2007)) Forecast

2000

2005 Year

2010

2015

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1995

USD at current prices (Millions)

Saudi Arabia (Actual Value on Export of Data Processors; (WTO, 2007)) Forecast

2000

2005 Year

2010

2015

y = 8.1714x - 16346 R2 = 0.5246

A. Import

B. Export

Figure 19 Saudi Arabias trade forecast on the import of (A) and export (B) of Electronic Data Processing and Office Materials

The growth of PCs in the market is a public-private partnership through initiatives such as the Home PC program which targets to deliver millions of PCs to Saudi homes. It enables citizens to own high-end PCs, at reduced prices, through a low cost monthly installment. The package includes desktop applications, monthly free Internet access hours, and wide range of Arabic digital literature. In this way, online and offline market channels are doable due to promotional campaigns on the use of ICT tools such as PCs. Moreover, the Ministry of Health has launched the Electronic Health Record (EHR) database that connects to all HIS in the kingdom to allow the transfer of data and records electronically and build a national electronic healthcare system [31]. Hence, e-health programs would continue to mobilize the high demand for data processors to accommodate the increasing requirements on these commodities as these initiatives become more popular. 2-4-3 Forecast on Trade of Telecommunications Equipment Regression predicts that the import of telecommunications equipment would reach to 5.1453 billion USD (Figure 20A) while the export at 100.28 million USD (Figure 20B) by 2012. The telecom industry in Saudi Arabia is expected to support the e-health programs by providing telemedicine and teleconferencing hardware infrastructure. Currently, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH&RC) facilitates these initiatives using a wide-area network of various MOH hospitals. Moreover, the National Telemedicine Network connected-sites were increased allowing regional clinic to be connected [31]). Hence, telecommunication equipment is expected to rise over the next five consecutive years to accommodate the increasing demand for telecommunication infrastructure.
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

126

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-13 eHealth Strategies to Manage Cost, Market Potential, and Business Opportunities Among Four Middle East Countries Eng. M. Qurban & Mr. R. Austria

USD at current prices (Millions)

6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1995 y = 385.75x - 770984 R2 = 0.8676 Saudi Arabia (Actual Value on Import of Telecom; (WTO, 2007)) Forecast

USd at current prices (Millions)

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1995 y = 7.2571x - 14501 R2 = 0.733 Saudi Arabia (Actual Value on Export of Telecom; (WTO, 2007)) Forecast

2000

2005 Year

2010

2015

2000

2005 Year

2010

2015

A. Import

B. Export

Figure 20 Saudi Arabias trade forecast on the import of (A) and export (B) of Telecommunication Equipment

2-4-4 Forecast on the Number (Count) of Internet Users The number (count) of Internet users in Saudi Arabia is estimated to reach 7.3 million (7,308,621) by 2012 (Figure 21). The Internet penetration in Saudi has a high potential owing to their large population base. Though Internet provision has been liberalized, access to online channels remains regulated by the King Abdul Aziz City for Science and Technology and the Saudi Network Information Center that restrict offensive websites. Currently, there is no fee for a domain name registration under .sa. Also, the domain name registration has no expiration and the registration does not need to be renewed either [31]. Hence, ecommerce initiatives related to the trade e-health/e-government products and services remains promising for businesses seeking for online presence. Such an approach, could lead to better click and mortar strategies to expand the market through e-commerce opportunities within the Kingdom.
8,000,000 7,000,000
Users (Count)

6,000,000 5,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 0 1995 2000 2005 Year 2010 2015 y = 596897x - 1E+09 2 R = 0.9522 Saudi Arabia (Actual Internet Users, IWS) Forecast

Source: IWS (2007) Figure 21 Forecast on the number (count) of Internet users in Saudi Arabia

The governments e-government initiatives such as e-health programs could be utilized as a portal to which citizens could get access to several programs such as online trading and e-commerce. The use of Tejari Saudi Arabia LLC (www.saudi.tejari.com [19]) remains to be an ideal portal where businesses (G2B and B2B) and other Middle East governments (G2G, G2B, and G2C) could be linked with the Saudi Arabian online market [19]. Similarly, Saudi Arabias Yesser initiative (www.yesser.gov.sa) plays a fundamental role towards G2B, G2C, and G2G linkages in the realization of e-government programs. Other initiatives such as EasyNet and e-Award remain promising towards the efficient e-health/e-government programs [32]. Hence, online and offline market channels could be easily opened for Internet users to gain access to e-government services such as e-health due to increasing volume of users. 2-4-5 Forecast on the GDP based on Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) The GDP (PPP) per capita of Saudi Arabia could reach to 17,450 I$ by 2012 (Figure 22). Though Saudi Arabia has the a very high nominal GDP among the Arab countries due to the trade of oil, it is still not at par with the GDP (PPP) of UAE and this could be attributed to the high population base of Saudi Arabia. Hence, more aggressive economic diversification is recommended in order to meet the demanding result of population expansion. From there, newer and more job opportunities among Saudi nationals could be seen as
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

127

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-13 eHealth Strategies to Manage Cost, Market Potential, and Business Opportunities Among Four Middle East Countries Eng. M. Qurban & Mr. R. Austria

an ideal strategy to reduce the rate of unemployment and empower citizens to purchase commodities [33]. In addition, the development of e-health programs would open job opportunities among nationals who seek employment within the ICT and healthcare sectors. Hence, e-health initiatives remain vital to the saudization efforts and knowledge economy within Saudi Arabia.

20,000 18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 Year

International Dollars

Saudi Arabia (GDP per capita (PPP)) Forecast

y = 750x - 1E+06 R2 = 0.9599

Source: CIA (2007) Figure 22 Forecast on the GDP (PPP) per capita in Saudi Arabia over the next five consecutive years (20082012)

3- STRATEGIC E-HEALTH DEPLOYMENT Strategic partnerships between the healthcare and ICT sectors are the wave of the future, as health systems are implemented. The extent at which strategic partnerships with the ICT sector will evolve into dynamic e-health alliances is directly related to the quality of national and regional governance leadershipthe ultimate nexus of evolving e-health systems of the future [34]. Also, the probability that e-commerce can revolutionize healthcare delivery depends on the profitability of several different and simultaneous business development activities. Obstacles in the path of health e-commerce are numerous and include future data standardization, privacy regulations, and legislation as well as market downturn which may limit the development resources [35]. Hence, strategic alliances on the implementation of e-health-related business opportunities should be taken as an intelligent step towards regional cooperation. The increasing demand for ICT commodities would ensure faster return on investment (ROI) despite the high initial investment that should be allocated to facilitate trade of these commodities. There is also an apparent increase in e-commerce sites such as Tejari.com, ArabTrade.com and many others that allow for better stakeholder linkages. However, security of online transactions remains to be a limiting factor that restricts full adoption of these online options [12]. Despite of this threat, the click and mortar business model remains resilient and could still be considered as the best practice in developing e-trade and e-business opportunities for e-health deployment along with other e-government initiatives. 4- CONCLUSION The e-health initiative should be taken as an opportunity to increase general revenue through privatepublic partnership. Such economic diversification efforts could streamline the necessary public protection on healthcare by giving opportunities to patients to utilize the benefits of ICT infrastructure in the delivery of care through the synergy of ICT and healthcare sectors. Also, business opportunities across several egovernment initiatives such as e-health remain promising due to the increasing demand for ICT commodities that drive patients to acquire healthcare services using technological advancements. The five-year market forecasts on the import (from the world) and export (to the world) of pharmaceutical products, data processors, telecommunication equipment as well as the number (count) of Internet users and GDP (PPP) per capita could be taken as a support to the growing business potential within the Middle East for the delivery of e-health-related products and services. Such expansion of these ICT business agenda could be well utilized if larger market channels could be opened to allow customers and institutions to choose on a variety of portals. This can be resolved by the development of both online and offline channels for transactions and linkages whether G2B, B2B, B2C, G2C, or G2G.
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

128

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-13 eHealth Strategies to Manage Cost, Market Potential, and Business Opportunities Among Four Middle East Countries Eng. M. Qurban & Mr. R. Austria

It is recommended to utilize the click and mortar business model in the delivery of e-health-related products and services as a strategy for the expansion of the market. This also provides a double-edged reform program in providing extensive healthcare options while leveraging the protection of ICT investment in managing cost for trade due to faster ROI. Hence, the click and mortar business model could solve the expansion of market channels in order to optimally capture the increasing demand for e-health-related products and services over the next five consecutive years (2008-2012). Correspondingly- e-trade and ecommerce options such Tejari.com could be taken as a regional best practice towards regional cooperation on e-government initiatives. 5- REFERENCES
[1] [2] [3] Al-Shorbaji, N. (2006), WHO EMROs approach for supporting e-health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region Eastern Mediterrnean Health Journal Vol 12, Supplement 2. S238-S252. Borthwick, J. and Horton, R. (2006), The Middle East and Health The Lancet Vol. 367, March: 961-964. Musgrove, P. (2004) The Economics of Choosing and Financing Public Health Services In: Pierre-Louis, A.M., Akala, F.A. and Karam, H.S. (eds) Public Health in the Middle East and North Africa, WBI Learning Resource Series, The World Bank, Washington, D.C. WHO (2007). Data and Statistics http://www.who.int/research/en/ CIA (2007) World Fact Book, http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ EMRO (2007) E-Health in the Eastern Mediterranean <http://www.emro.who.int/his/ehealth/ehealthPlan.htm UNDP (2007) New Country Programme Documents http://www.undp.org/arabstates/cpd.shtml ESCWA (2005) Regional Profile of the Information Society in Western Asia http://www.escwa.un.org/information/ publications/edit/upload/ictd-05-6.pdf World Bank (2005) ICT at a Glance http://go.worldbank.org/FDTYJVBR60 IWS (2007) Internet World Stats http://www.internetworldstats.com/ WTO (2007) WTO Statistics Time Series http://stat.wto.org/StatisticalProgram/WSDBStat ProgramHome.aspx? Language=E Whitten, P. Steinfield, C. and Hellmich, S. (2001) E-health: Market Potential and Business Strategies http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/APCITY/UNPAN013622.pdf Steinfield, C., Adelaar, T. and Liu, F. (2005) Click and Mortar Strategies Viewed from the Web: A Content Analysis of Features Illustrating Integration between Retailers Online and Offline Presence http://www.msu.edu/~steinfie/ EM_2005.pdf Kirigia, J.M., Seddoh, A., Gatwiri, D., Muthuri, L.H.K., and Seddoh, J. (2005) E-health: Determinants, opportunities, challenges and the way forward for countries in the WHO African Region BMC Public Health Vol. 5. No 137: December Schieber, G., Baeza, C., Kress, D., and Maier, M. (2006). Financing Health Systems in the 21st Century http://files. dcp2.org/pdf/DCP/DCP12.pdf ODell, S. and McGoldrick, C. (2001) Realizing positive returns from your e-health investments Healthcare Financial Management. Vol. 55. No. 2, February: 51-55. Rawabdeh, A.A.A. (2007). An e-health trend plan for the Jordanian healthcare system: a review International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance. Vol 20, No. 6:, 516-531. Rappa, M.A. (2004). The utility business model and the future of computing services IBM Systems Journal, Vol 43, No. 1, 3342. Tejari (2007), Tejari: The Middle East Online Marketplace, http://www.tejari.com/English Dutta, S., Shalhoub, Z.K., Samuels, G. (2007) Promoting Technology and Innovation: Recommendations to Improve Arab ICT Competitiveness World Economic Forum, Enhancing Drivers of Growth in the Arab World http://www.weforum.org/pdf/Global_Competitiveness_Reports/ Reports/chapters/2_3.pdf MAIT (2003) Dubai ICT Industry Country Intelligence, Vol. 19 September, http//www.elcot.com/maitreports/MAIT%20country%20Intelligence%20eNews19.pdf ESCWA (2005) National Profile for the Information Society in the United Arab Emirates United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia http://www.escwa.org.lb/wsis/reports/docs/UAE_2005-E.pdf Sofiane, S. (2005) E-government in the Arab Gulf: Government Transformation vs. Government Automation eGovernment Workshop 2005, Brunel University, in Wes London, UK, 13 September Al-Saket, I. (2005) e-Health in Jordan. Euro-Mediterranean Conference, in Barcelona, 14-15 Nov Al-Omari, H. (2006) E-Government Architecture in Jordan: A Comparative Analysis Journal of Computer Science Vol 2, No. 11, 846-852. MOICT (2005) Invest in ICT in Jordan: Jordans growing and competitive ICT landscape offers attractive investment opportunities http://www.moict.gov.jo/MoICT/downloads%5CInvest%20in%20Jordan.pdf Piribo (2007) Oman Pharmaceuticals and Healthcare http://www.piribo.com/publications/country/middle_east/ oman_pharmaceuticals_amp_healthcare.html

[4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]

[21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27]

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

129

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-13 eHealth Strategies to Manage Cost, Market Potential, and Business Opportunities Among Four Middle East Countries Eng. M. Qurban & Mr. R. Austria

[28] ESCWA (2005) National Profile for the Information Society in Oman United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, http://www.escwa.org.lb/wsis/reports/docs/Oman_2005-E.pdf [29] Saudi Embassy (2006) Political and Economic Reform in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia http://saudiembassy.net/ReportLink/KSA%20Report%20Dec06.pdf [30] PhRMA (2007) Saudi Arabia Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America. http://www.international. phrma.org/.../download/1124/6207/file/Saudi%20Arabia%202007%20Special%20301%20Submission.pdf [31] ESCWA (2005) National Profile for the Information Society in Saudi Arabia United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, http://www.escwa.un.org/information/publications/edit/upload/ictd-07-TP-3-e.pdf [32] CITC (2005) Saudi Arabia-towards the Information Society Communications and Information Technology Commission, Saudi Arabia, http://www.yesser.gov.sa/documents/ksa-to-information-society.pdf [33] Looney, R. (2004) Saudization and Sound Economic Reforms: Are the Two Compatible? Strategic Insights, Volume 3, No. 2, February [34] Caro, D.H.J. (2005) The Axis and Nexus of e-Health Alliances in 2020 Canadian Journal of Public Health. Vol. 96, No. 4, Jul Aug: 291-293. [35] Parente, S.T. (2000) Beyond the Hype: A Taxonomy of E-health Business Models Health Affairs, Vol. 19, No. 6, November/December: 89-102.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

130

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-14 The Features of the Web Site of the Branch of The Industry and Commerce Ministry in the Eastern Province Mr. Mousa Jaafar AlKhadhabah

5-14 THE FEATURES OF THE WEB SITE OF THE BRANCH OF THE INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE MINISTRY IN THE EASTERN PROVINCE Mr. Mousa Jaafar AlKhadhabah
Branch of The Industry and Commerce Ministry In the Eastern Provice

mosa.jaffer@gmail.com * This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract
The presentation discusses the following issues: The services of the Branch of Industry and Commerce Ministry Services: the ministry of Commerce branch offers many services, such as settling commerce documents, fighting fraud, issuing licenses to hotels, exhibitions and restaurants, issuing certificates of origin, combating commercial concealment, issuing licenses to businesses and commercial agencies. It also issues the commercial registration handbook which is the most important service that is offered by the branch. Computer systems: The ministry website and all computer systems are linked to a central sever and controlled by the Information and Computer Center in Riyadh. Thus, there was a question mark about which the type electronic services that can be provided by the branch. The answer was to provide einformation about the branch procedures and to create official forms that can be used by the public. Website Design: The branch website was designed to provide customers with general information, procedures and forms, branch news, and how to contact the branch. It also includes some web sites links. Future Plan: This service is considered to be the first step, and there is a hope that all services of the branch can be accessed through the web site in the near future.

Keywords:
Web Sites, e-Information, Industry and Commerce Ministry.

Biography:
Mr. Mousa Alkhadabah was born in Shawal 1390 H. He works now as a Deputy Chair of the Computer Department in the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, the Eastern Province. He has more than 18 years experience in several programming languages. He worked as a computer programmer in preparing the training and mission programs of the Ministry of Health at Riyadh. He also worked in the Ministry of commerce in Riyadh and Dammam. He was responsible for programming and data processing of various types of commercial permits, law cases for the legal department in addition to designing the web site of the branch.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

131

5- eServices Experiences and Successes 5-15 Prince Mohammed Ben Fahad Uiniversity Eservices Experience

Mr. Osama S. AlSaif

5-15 PRINCE MOHAMMED BEN FAHAD UINIVERSITY ESERVICES EXPERIENCE Mr. Osama S AlSaif, MTA, MBA
Acting CIO and MIS Director Rince Mohammed Ben Fahad Uiniversity oalsaif@pmu.edu.sa.

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
This paper discusses the successful implementation of the eServices at Prince Mohammad University. Prince Mohammad University (PMU) was established in 2006 under the instruction; supervision and close care and attention of HRH Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd, Governor of the Eastern Province. The land designated for the project was a donation from HRH and is located in the half-moon bay in Azeezyah. The first academic semester has already started with around 600 students from both genders. Information Technology (IT) has helped to facilitate workflows by using the University web site for online registration of students, student admission and through the use of course management suit (Blackboard) to facilitate interaction between the student and the tutor. Also, the wireless network on the campus has guaranteed fluent accessibility to the campus eservices and the Internet. The online educational subject registration and the subscription to English Language Institute (ELI) mean that PMU eservices are no longer restricted to time and place. Also plans are drawn to implement electronic gates to access and enter to the University buildings and to facilitate the internal e-Purse initiative. The use of the Blackboard application would achieve an interactive student-tutor interaction, monitor the number of visitors to the online services, help to reduce the effort, traveling time for students. Thus it proves that application of the suitable technology would led to an interactive and successful learning environment. The IT Infrastructure services at PMU depend on what is feasible, practical and could achieve the academic objectives and scientific research purposes. This would be made through the implementation of Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP), High Speed Networks and the application of the e-technology in PMU lecture halls.

Keywords:
eServices, eEducation, University Education, Saudi Arabia.

Biography:
Mr Osama was born in Qatif, Saudi Arabia in March 1971. He graduated from KFUPM with a BSc in ICS in May, 1994. He got his Master in Management of Information Technology from Sunderland University in 2000 and his CAPM from PMI in 2005. Recently, he completed the MBA program at the University of Liverpool. At present, he works at Prince Mohammad University as Acting CIO and MIS Director.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

132

5- eServices Experiences and Successes 5-16 Neelwafurat.Com Library: Neelwafurat.Com Experience in Selling Arabic Books over the Internet

Mr. Salah Chebaro

5-16 NEELWAFURAT.COM LIBRARY: NEELWAFURAT.COM EXPERIENCE IN SELLING ARABIC BOOKS OVER THE INTERNET AND HOW TO BENEFIT FROM THE GROWING ECOMMERCE SECTOR Mr. Salah Chebaro
Managing Director of Neelwafurat.com Site schebaro@asp.com.lb

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
The presentation overviews a number of major stages that Neelwafurat.com went through, what has been achieved, what are the future plans and vision for the online book store and electronic commerce as a whole in the Middle East region. Also, it discusses the problems and obstacles and possible remedies would be and how the use of e-commerce could be promoted in the Middle East region.

Biography:
Salah Chebaro is a Lebanese citizen born in Beirut in 1974. Graduated with a BS degree of Computer science from Lebanese American University in 1996. Worked in several IT programming fields such as multimedia projects and databases and as an editor of the Internet World magazine. Finally he has been the directing manager of Neelwafurat.com since 1999.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

133

5- eServices Experiences and Successes


5-17 Achievements of Information Technology Department at Saudi Organization Of Industrial Estates & Technology Zones (SOIETZ) Eng. Saleh Al-Rasheed

5-17 ACHIEVEMENTS OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY


DEPARTMENT At SAUDI ORGANIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL ESTATES & TECHNOLOGY ZONES (SOIETZ) Eng. Saleh I. Al-Rasheed
IT & Telecommunication Manager Saudi Organization for Industrial Estates & Technology Zones (SOIETZ) srasheed@soietz.gov.sa.

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
SOIETZ Information Technology Department is promoting the use of IT as the way of the future. It has embarked several projects that aim to facilitate the smooth and efficient provision of e-services to its clients, the industrialists, and provide a better environment for its employees. The following projects would enable SOIETZ to offer high quality services to its clients: MS Great Plains Dynamics: This ERP system from Microsoft serves as a financial tool for all account related issues for generating account statements, budgets and statistical reports. It can also be used for HR development. SOIETZ Intranet include the profile for each employee, employees directory, SOIETZ news and memos, SMS messages and IT and electronic services support through the IT Help Desk. The IT Department has developed a new dynamic interactive SOIETZ Website that contains indepth information, statistics and links which would assist the potential investors to gather information and for decision making. Received Queries can be answered within one working day. The Online e-land request project, automates the process of land lease application submission, follow-up and contract signing. Thus it enables smooth communications between the investors and SOIETZ. A dedicated Internal Network Infrastructure, including wireless network, firewalls and anti-virus security system, VPN facility and newsletter. Compulsory ICDL training for employees. Projects that are under implementation include electronic linking of SOIETZ branch offices, IP Telephony System and Property Management System.

Keywords:
SOIETS, Website, Online e-land request, Saudi Arabia.

Biography:
Eng. Saleh was born in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in August 1978. He holds a Bachelor Degree in Computer Science from King Saud University, Riyadh. He was the IT Infrastructure Manager in Saudi Telecom (STC). Eng. Al-Rasheed had worked as Chief of Internet Services at Sultan Bin AbdulAziz Program for Educational and Medical Telecommunication (MeduNet). He is currently the IT & Telecommunication Manager at Saudi Organization of Industrial Estates and Technology Zones (SOIETZ). He has vast experience in IT Infrastructure Management and had several certificates in that field.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

134

5- eServices Experiences and Successes 5-18 Human Resources Website (HR Online) at Saudi ARAMCO

Mr. Isa M. Al-Hashem

5-18 HUMAN RESOURCES WEBSITE (HR ONLINE) AT SAUDI ARAMCO


.

Mr. Isa M. Al-Hashem


Business System Analyst Human Resources Services Optimization Division, Personnel Department Saudi Aramco hashemem@aramco.com.sa

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
This paper provides an overview of Saudi ARAMCO experience in leveraging technology to offer HR information and services for its employees through the HR Online web site. This web site was launched by the Personnel Department in 2002. The site contains HR services that employees can reach remotely from their desktop without the need to visit the HR services department. The web site also has a section called My Personal information which enables staff to view their own information and update it on a regular basis. The Personal Information section includes monthly salary statement, job history, training history and statement of the pension that the employee will get upon retirement. In addition to it contains data about the employee and his eligible dependent family members. The paper also examines some HR services such as: employment certificates, immunization and blood group certificates, booking and cancellation of medical appointments, service awards, donation programs, e-files, vacation planner etc. The web site has also a feedback feature that enables employees to send their comments and suggestions for improvement of the site which would be used to ensure that the site remains update to date with the latest developments in e-technology and HR services. The paper concludes by providing some statistics related to the usage of HR Online and a summary of the various HR Services that will be added to the site in the near future.

Keywords:
e-Services, Human Resources Services, Employees Services, Saudi ARAMCO.

Biography:
Mr. Isa was born in Dammam, Saudi Arabia in June 1980. He obtained a bachelor degree in Computer Science from King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Saudi Arabia in January 2004. He joined Saudi ARAMCO after graduation as an SAP System Analyst in SAP Design Department. Thus, he moved to the Human Resources Services Optimization Division, Personnel Department as a Business System Analyst. Mr Isa is responsible for the development and the support of the HR Online web site.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

135

5- eServices Experiences and Successes 5-19 eGovernment Projects in Alahssa Municipality

Mr. Hamdan Odah AlBalwi

5-19 E-GOVERNMENT PROJECTS IN ALAHSSA MUNICIPALITY Mr. Hamdan Odah AlBalwi


Alhasa Municipality General Manager of IT

halaradi@alhasa.gov.sa

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
Mayor of Alhasa District Eng. Fahed M.AlJubeer has established IT Department to be responsible of converting all project in the Municipality to be computerize at the end of 1426. The Managenebt of IT achievements during the last two years in reference to the Ministry Council decision to transfer it into General Management for Information Technology (G.M.I.T) at the end of 1428 . After municipality finishing internal network connection in the main building and external network connection in sub branches and link all with each others in one main server, all concentrations now go towards requalification of stuff. A study has already been prepared covering almost all employees. It focuses on how municipality stuff may accept electronic changes. Projects include electronic entry website for Alhasa Municipality. Through this website more than 15 electronic services have become effective and available to citizen some of these service include direct search of: any daily transaction in or out from municipality, land information system especially in majestic orders, new projects and announcing about time of introducing applicants from contractors, investment projects, project inside cities and suburbs, shop's license and realize from renewed, all learning courses which introduced to our stuff for developing their skills, licensed shop attached with history file about activity, any licensed shop to see all violations, licensed engineering offices, new employment applications, and daily accidents and death. The IT System offers also SMS messages to be circulated online with citizen and promptly reply to their questions. It also include an electronic communication management system allowing in and out daily mail; it's access now is by barcode machine. Moreover, the IT System of AlHassa Municipality has other programs for personal affairs avd payroll and for general information system which include more than 10 electronic services systems covering support, utility, licensing (vocational healthy technical), follow up, rents and contracts, collection, and land information. All databases are joined with the main server at the main building. The IT Department has a self service system, fixed one computer in main building, anyone can use easily, introduced free internet service in summer carnival which named Hasana Fallah. The Department published copybooks for the awareness of egovernment concepts, it held several conference meetings with other government agencies related to municipality functions through network connections such as work office, electric company, communications.

Keywords:
SOIETS, Website, Online e-land request, Saudi Arabia.

Biography:
Eng. Hamdan Awdah AL-Aradi AL-Balawi is the Genral Manager of Alhasa Municipality IT Department. He got his B. Sc. Degree from King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah in Computer Science. He got Project Management PMP and Network Engineer MCSE certificates. He is a member of Saudi Council of Engineers and the Saudi Computer Society.
- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

136

5- eServices Experiences and Successes 5-20 Electronic Social Insurance (eGOSI)

Mr. Nawaf M Al Badia

5-20 Electronic Social Insurance (eGOSI) Mr. Nawaf M Al Badia


IT Department, General Organization for Social Insurance Senior System Engineer nalbodiaa@gosi.gov.sa

This paper was presented in the symposium as a working paper; written text is not available. To get a copy of the presentation, see the web site.

Abstract:
This paper highlights eservices that are provided by the GOSI to individual subscribers, as well as eservices to organizations, hospitals and government agencies. This paper includes a summary of the experiments and electronic projects that were undertaken by GOSI throughout more than three decades since the foundation of GOSI. GOSI has developed its website GOSIOnline to become a digital portal to its main SIMIS system, which provides subscribers an access to their personal insurance system and can make inquiries about their subscriptions. GOSIOnline website contains many features that would facilitate and accelerate services to the subscribers. To promote communications between the GOSIs system and subscribers, GOSI has provided mobile phone short messages service as a channel of communication and that seems to be the fastest way for subscribers to get information. Among the services provided to the subscribers is the possibility of making payment through the ATM machines that interface electronically with the system and report about the payments that has been made so far. GOSI also has worked hard to establish a communication mechanism between its system and the systems of organizations, hospitals and government agencies. To achieve this effective connectivity GOSI has provided different channels continue to suit the needs of these subscribers who can benefit from electronic services provided at Gosionline. To achieve the highest level of the enterprise networking automation technology, GOSI adopted Web Services technology to create a suitable environment to communicate between B2B sectors. However, some of these sectors were not able to communicate through this technique; thus they are provided with other channels of communication, such as the capability of data loading on the web site or use special solutions tailored to the user. GOSI accomplished various successful projects which have unique features such as the security feature of the firewalls, digital certificates, electronic signatures, Web Services, XML-HTTP and mobile phone short messages.

Keywords:
eServices, eGovernment, Interoperability, GOSI, General Organization for Social Insurance.

Biography:
Mr Nawaf holds a B. Sc. degree in Computer Science from King Saud University at Riyadh city. He is preparing MS degree at the same university. He had worked as project manager for KACSTs Search Engine Project, and participated in many open community projects. Currently he is working as senior system engineer at GOSI and member of the advance developers group. He is mainly involved in the core systems at GOSI as a solution architect. He is also GOSIs SOA team architect and consultant. His main area of interest is interoperability between heterogeneous systems, SOA design patterns and enterprise systems development. Mr Nawaf is a member of Saudi Computer Society, JCP, ACM and IEEE community.

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

137

Final Recommendations

FINAL RECOMMENDATIONS
the name of Allah; all praise to Allah; and peace be upon the Messenger of Allah, and upon his family, companions, and followers. After the conclusion of the activities of Third e-Services Symposium in the Eastern Province- the next step, the attendances came to the following recommendations: First: The symposium attendances extend their gratitude and appreciations to His Royal Highness Prince Mohammed Ben Fahd Ben Abdulaziz, the Prince of the Eastern Province, for his patronage of the Symposium; to His Royal Highness Prince Jelwy Ben Abdulaziz Ben Musaad, the Deputy of the Prince of the Eastern Province, for his opening of the Symposiumthe; and to the Government of the Custodian of the Two Holly Mosques for the support it offers to the eService in the Eastern Province. Second: The symposium attendances agreed on the following recommendations: 1- Adopting a strategic approach to the improvement of the means and mechanisms to provide eServices and to upgrade the communication among all users and beneficiaries in the government, and in the public and private sectors. 2- Urging all public and private sectors to extend their use of eServices applications and cooperate and coordinate their undertakings among themselves and with the Technical Committee of eServices in the Eastern Province. 3- Adopting proper national legislations which compel all eServices providers to apply the minimum accepted user security and protection measures. 4- Acting toward spreading societal awareness of the positive role of eServices in life improvement and community development. 5- Encouraging and supporting progressive research work in the field of eServices. 6- Adopting the culture of managed change in facilitating and offering eServices. 7- Encouraging investments in the eServices sector to support the bases for building the society of knowledge. 8- Holding the Fourth e-Services Symposium in the Eastern Province during the period from 12-14 Rabee I, 1429 H corresponding to 9-11 March 2009.
In

Recommendations Committee

- : - Third eServices Symposium: The Future of eServices: The Next Step? Khubar 26-27 February, 2008 Book of Proceedings

138