FINAL YEAR PROJECT ON LINE FOLLOWER ROBOT / BUGGIE

BY

JOBIN JOSE AQUIB KHAN NARAYAN THEVAR

209EX100 209EX102 209EX111

.........................INDEX INTRODUCTION .........................6 ........................ 3 BLOCK DIAGRAM ............... 5 APPLICATIONS ... 5 LIMITATIONS ……………...................................................................................…........4 ADVANTAGES ........................................................................... 3 THEORY OF OPERATION ..................................................................................................... 5 REFRENCES …………................................................

it’s easier to control the DC motor than by directly controlling the voltage across it.) How to control a DC motor Instead of applying a constant voltage across a DC motor. Then. Theory of operation How to sense a black line The sensors used for the project are Reflective Object Sensors. Also. By PWM method. so we can detect the black line somehow by measuring the current. The control is done in such a way that when a sensor senses a black line. the motor sees the average voltage while it depends on duty cycle of PWM pulses. When a light emitted from the diode is reflected off an object and back into the phototransistor. . The single sensor consists of an infrared emitting diode and a NPN Darlington phototransistor. This is done by sending a train of PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) pulses to a power MOSFET in order to turn it on and off. a duty cycle. a power MOSFET consumes only negligible power in switching. Then the difference of rotation speed makes it possible to make turns. which triggers the base current of the phototransistor. A circuit inside takes an input signal from two sensors and controls the speed of wheels’ rotation. if the sensor somehow senses a black line. we repeat switching on and off the motor with a fixed voltage (Vcc) applied to the motor. in order words. In our case. The speed of rotation is proportion to this average voltage. depending on the amount of infrared light. the motor slows down or even stops. I decided to make a line-follower robot. the amount of light reflected off a black line is much less than that of a white background. in the figure on the right. All we have to do is to modulate pulse width. For instance. 0PB710F that are already ready in the Electronic Lab. and two DC motors drive wheels moving forward. output current is produced.Introduction For our final project. (This current is converted to voltage. The robot has two sensors installed underneath the front part of the body. This simple robot is designed to be able to follow a black line on the ground without getting off the line too much. the wheel on that side slows down and the robot will make a right turn.

Block Diagram .

Limitations • Once the circuit is made on a PCB its layout cannot be changed.Advantages • Reliability and durability due to compact nature of the circuit especially needed for mobile applications like robotics. • PCB leads can burn at higher values of current rendering it useless for further use • PCB designing can be a tedious and time consuming process. Large number of circuits can be made with a greater accuracy and at a cheap cost. • • Chances of loose connections get eliminated. Applications • For repetitive tasks which use the same path things like following one on the floor of a factory to remove the need for a human operator . • Easy debugging.

cmu.avrfreaks.com/home. articles and project ideas.atmel.andrew.Reference • Atmel Corp.htm • Small Robot Sensors http://www.com • AVRbeginners.avrbeginners.edu/user/rjg/websensors/robot_se nsors2.net http://www.net/ • AVR assembler tutorial Tutorial for learning assembly language for the AVRSingle-Chip-Processors AT90Sxxxx from ATMEL with practical examples.html • Robotics India An Indian site devoted to robotics.seattlerobotics.org/ . Must see http://www. Makers of the AVR microcontroller http://www.williamson-labs.com/ • Seattle Robotics Society http://www.avr-asm-tutorial.. http://www.roboticsindia.net • Williamson Labs Nice animated tutorials. http://www.net/ • One of the best sites AVR sites http://www.

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