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Electric Power Systems Research 50 (1999) 219 225

Transient stability enhancement using self adjusting-exible variable series capacitor compensation
A.M. Sharaf a,*,1, M.Z. El-Sadek a,b, F.N. Abd-Elbar a,b, A.M. Hemeida a,c

Department of Electrical/Computer Engineering, Uni6ersity of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton E3B 5A3, Canada b Department of Electrical Engineering, Assiut Uni6ersity, Assiut, Egypt c Aswan, High Institute For Energy, Aswan, Egypt Received 5 June 1998; accepted 27 October 1998

Abstract The paper presents a novel exible, self-adjusting variable series capacitor compensation(VSrC) scheme to enhance transient stability of an interconnected AC system. The scheme is regulated by an error-driven, error-scaled non-linear transigmoid controller. 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Flexible variable series capacitors; Transient stability enhancement; Error driven non-linear controller

1. Introduction The concept of exible AC Transmission system(FACTS)has been advocated [1], and enhanced by new technologies in fast power semiconductor switching devices, converter topologies, novel intelligent control strategies. Series and/or shunt compensation schemes as well as small embedded back-to-back HVDC transmission systems [210] can be utilized effectively in enhancing voltage, transient, SSR or harmonic instability conditions in interconnected AC power systems. The key to successful implementation of FACTS-Technologies are: fast, effective, robust and self adjusting control schemes with additional regulating/supplementary loops to ensure on line adaptive compensation levels. Self tunable, Adaptive and A.I. based control strategies were proposed [1116]. In this paper the feasibility of a simple transient stability enhancement tool using FACTS-self controlled, error driven, error-scaled variable series capacitor compensation(VSrC) is studied, and the stabilizing performance of (VSrC) is validated and veried by digital computer simulation on a singlemachine innite bus system(SMIB). The two (VSrC) schemes are.
* Corresponding author. 1 Currently with the E.E. Department., UAE. Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.

1. A continuous series capacitance modulation-lter scheme (ic), ic,min B ic B ic,max. 2. A two-level switching series capacitor bank (ic,min or ic,max). Both proposed (VSrC) schemes utilize the same intelligent nonlinear Tansigmoid with a self-squashable activation block[16], and an error driven hyperplane with error vector-magnitude scaling. Fig. 1 depicts the conguration of the (SMIB) system with the (VSrC) series compensation scheme and a dynamic nonlinear load with voltage and frequency dependent components. Fig. 2 shows the block diagram of the proposed nonlinear self adjusting, error-driven(VSrC) damping controller scheme. Machine, system, control, models, block diagram and parameters are given in full detail in the Appendix. The unied system was modelled using Matlab/Simulink software. Fig. 3 depicts the systemfunctional block comprising the generator, transmission line, VSrC. Nonlinear dynamic load, AVR/EXCITATION, Governor/Speed and the proposed Tansigmoid nonlinear damping (VSrC) controller. The two proposed variable capacitor (VSrC) schemes were validated for large system contingencies, including the generator local bus three-phase short circuit for (Dt =100 ms.) and a prime mover step disturbance. The system dynamic response and the stabilized states validated the effectiveness of both (VSrC) schemes, and the robust-

0378-7796/99/$ - see front matter 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved. PII: S 0 3 7 8 - 7 7 9 6 ( 9 8 ) 0 0 1 4 9 - 7


A.M. Sharaf et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 50 (1999) 219225

ness of proposed novel nonlinear self adjusting controller using only speed deviation, and accelerating power (e, ep) damping signals. 2. Digital simulation The unied AC system of Fig. 1 was simulated using the Matlab/Simulink software. The two new (VSrC) schemes were validated for three-phase short circuit fault and a prime mover step disturbance. Due to space limitation only the results of three-phase short circuit fault at local generator bus are presented. Fig. 4 depicts the unstable system dynamic response without the (VSrC) schemes. Fig. 5 shows the stabilizing effect for the continuous (ic) version of the nonlinear controller of Fig. 2. Fig. 6 depicts the stabilizing action of the discrete two-level switched version of the VSrC compensator, using the same nonlinear Tansigmoid controller. The error-phase portraits illustrate the fast, self-adjusting, and self-scaled stabilization action of the two proposed novel (VSrC) series capacitor compensation schemes as evidenced by the generator state deviations (l, ).

3. Conclusions The paper presents a simple variable series capacitor compensation scheme for transient stability enhancement using a exible self adjusting, error-driven, errorscaled nonlinear damping controller. Two (VSrC) compensator versions (continuous, discrete) were validated on a single machine-innite bus system with the proposed nonlinear tansigmoid controller in the presence of the dynamic nonlinear local generator load with voltage and frequency dependent components.

Appendix A. Machine-model Relating to the system, the following set of rst order differential equations can be write as: dl = 0 dt d 1 = (T Te D) dt 2H m dEq 1 = ( Eq (Xd Xd)id + Vfd) dt ~do (A1) (A2) (A3)

Fig. 1. Single machine-innite bus system with (VSrC) and non-linear load.

Fig. 2. Novel non-linear self-adjusting controller.

A.M. Sharaf et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 50 (1999) 219225


Fig. 3. Matlab/Simulink system functional block for SMIB with VSrC.


A.M. Sharaf et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 50 (1999) 219225

Fig. 4. (a, b) The system dynamic performance under 3-ph. short circuit without VSrC.

dVfd 1 = (KeVref KeVt Vfd) dt ~e The set of algebraic equations are: V =V +V

2 t 2 q 2 d


DVe = K0 Re Vc = DVcdt

(A5) (A6) (A7) (A8) (A9) (A10)


1 e heT 1+ e heT

(A15) (A16)

Vd = Eq Xqiq Rsid Vq = Eq Xdid Rsiq Vd = Vb sin (l)+ Reid Xeiq Vq = Vb sin (l)+ Reiq Xeid Te = Vdid +Vqiq Rs(i 2 +i 2 ) d q

h is the specied tansigmoid exponential order h=2 3.The nal control signal Vc is used to derive the compensation level ic as shown in Fig. 2.

Appendix C. Sychronous machine parameters in p.u Xd = 1.7; ~do = 5.37 s; D= 0.01; X % = 0.245; HB d 2.37 s; 0 B 377 rad/s; Rs = 0.0011; Xq = 1.64; Re = 0.02; Xe = 0.6; Tm B 0.5 p.u.

Appendix B. Controller equations ep = Pm Pe = m(Tm Te) e = ref m eT = k1ew +k2ep Re =

e 2 + e 2 w p (A11) (A12) (A13) (A14)

Appendix D. AVR and Excitation parameters Ka = 100; ~a = 5 ms.

Appendix E. Governor system parameters in p.u Kg = 20; Tg = 2 s.

A.M. Sharaf et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 50 (1999) 219225


Fig. 5. (a c) The system dynamic performance under 3-phase short circuit with VSrC (ic =0.0 0.8 p.u.).


A.M. Sharaf et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 50 (1999) 219225

Fig. 6. (a c) The system dynamic performance under 3-phase short circuit with VSrC (i= 0.4 p.u., i= 0.7 p.u.).

A.M. Sharaf et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 50 (1999) 219225


Appendix F. Nonlinear load parameters h= 2.0; i =2.0; XLO =1.0; RLO =2.0; K1 = 1.0; To =0.25; l =1.0; k=1.0; KR =1.0; KL =1.0; K2 = 1.0; T1 = 0.7 s; T2 = 0.3 s; TL =1.0 s; TR =2.0 s.

Appendix G. Controller parameters Ko =100; k1 =0.5; k2 B1.0; h = 3.0; i1 =0.4 p.u; i1 = 0.7 p.u.

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