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# TRIGONOMETRY

Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that studies triangles and the relationships between their sides and the angles between these sides. Trigonometry defines the trigonometric functions, which describe those relationships and have applicability to cyclical phenomena, such as waves. The field evolved during the third century BC as a branch of geometry used extensively for astronomical studies.Trigonometry is usually taught in middle and secondary schools either as a separate course or as part of a precalculus course.
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## It has applications in both pure mathematics and applied mathematics,

where it is essential in many branches of science and technology. A branch of trigonometry, called spherical trigonometry, studies triangles on spheres, and is important in astronomy and navigation. A few more branches include Hyperbolicgeometryand Elliptic geometry. Hyperbolic geometry is Geometry in a concavely curved surface. Elliptic geometry involves geometry on spherical surfaces Trigonometry is an advanced math topic. It is also the most widely used advanced math topic. Many fields including scientific research and ocean navigation require the knowledge of trigonometry. Trigonometry is fairly easy once you firmly know the basics, and key to do well on trigonometry is memorization. There are a great of deal of formulas and values that are needed to be well memorized. The concept of trigonometry is based on right triangle. There are three values in a right triangle. They are the lengths of the two legs and the hypotenuse. Trigonometry also has three basic values. They are called sine (sin), cosine (cos), and tangent (tan). These three values are the values of the non -right angles of the right triangle. The sin value of a non-right angle of a right triangle is equal to the length of the side opposite to the angle divided by the hypotenuse. The cos value of a non -right angle of a right triangle is equal to the length of the side adjacent to the angle divided by the hypotenus e. The tan value of a non-right angle of a right triangle is equal to the length of the side opposite to the angle divided by the length of the side adjacent to the angle. These three values are very important part of trigonometry and should be committed t o memory.

Until now we have only approach trigonometry from the right triangle point of view or triangular trigonometry, which can only cover the angles up to 90 degrees, but what about the angles over 90 degrees? How are we going to find the sin, cos, and tan values of the angles greater than 90 degrees? The answer is the circle or circular trigonometry. We start with a concept calle d the unit circle. A unit circle is a circle with radius of one, and therefore it has area of P and circumference of 2P . We di vide the circle into twelve parts with twelve points. So the first point is P /6; second point is P /3; third point is P /2 and so on. The last point or the starting point is 2P because the circle has just completed

If one angle of a triangle is 90 degrees and one of the other angles is known, the third is thereby fixed, because the three angles of any triangle add up to 180 degrees. The two acute angles therefore add up to 90 degrees: they are complementary angles. The shape of a triangle is completely determined, except for similarity, by the angles. Once the angles are known, the ratios of the sides are determined, regardless of the overall size of the t riangle. If the length of one of the sides is known, the other two are determined. These ratios are given by the following trigonometric functions of the known angle A, where a, b and c refer to the lengths of the sides in the accompanying figure:

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APPLICATIONS OF TRIGONOMETRY
Amongst the lay public of non-mathematicians and non-scientists, trigonometry is known chiefly for its application to measurement problems, yet is also often used in ways that are far more subtle, such as its place in the theory of music; still other uses are more technical, such as in number theory. The mathematical topics of Fourier series and Fourier transforms rely heavily on knowledge of trigonometric functions and find application in a number of areas, including statistics.

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Among the scientific fields that make use of trigonometry are these:

acoustics, architecture, astronomy (and hence navigation, on the oceans, in aircraft, and in space; in this connection, see great circle distance), biology, cartography, chemistry, civil engineering,computer graphics, geophysics, crystallography, economics (in particular in analysis of financial markets), electrical engineering, electronics, land surveying and geodesy, many physical sciences,mechanical engineering, machining, medical imaging (CAT scans and ultrasound), meteorology, music theory, number theory (and hence cryptography), oceanography, optics, pharmacology,phonetics, probability theory, psychology, seismology, statistics, and visual perception, education. There are an enormous number of uses of trigonometry and trigonometric functions. For instance, the technique of triangulation is used in astronomy to measure the distance to nearby stars, in geography to measure distances between landmarks, and in satellite navigation systems. The sine and cosine functions arefundamental to the theory of periodic functions such as those that describe sound and light waves. Fields that use trigonometry or trigonometric functions include astronomy (especially for locating apparent positions of celestial objects, in which spherical trigonometry is essential) and hence navigation (on the oceans, in aircraft, and in space), music theory, acoustics, optics, analysis of financial markets,electronics, probability theory, statistics, biology, medical imaging (CAT scans and ultrasound), pharmacy, chemistry, number theory (and hence cryptology),seismology, meteorology, oceanography, many physical sciences, land surveying and geodesy, architecture, phonetics, economics, electrical engineering,mechanical engineering, civil engineering, computer graphics, cartography, crystallography and game development. Basic trig is used for many purposes. Here are a few: 1. Buy seaman and pilots for navigational purposes (no roads to follow in the sky and on the seas) 2. Used in cartography - i.e. surveyors use it to get co-ordinates that will form the basis of maps and atlas'. 3. In engineering, used in resolving forces in structures. i.e. you know the force that is being carried but the members carr ying this force are at different angles. Using trig we can determine the proportion of forces carried in the different members 4. In engineering used to resolve velocities in kinematics 6. In astronomy 7.In electronic warfare 8.In civil engineering - building of bridges 9. Oceanographers use trig in calculating wave profiles 10 Propulsion shaft alignment

## How these fields interact with trigonometry

The fact that these fields make use of trigonometry does not mean knowledge of trigonometry is needed in order to l earn anything about them. It does mean that some things in these fields cannot be understood without trigonometry. For example, a professor of music may perhaps know nothing of mathematics, but would probably know that Pythagoras was the earliest known contributor to the mathematical theory of music. In some of the fields of endeavor listed above it is easy to imagine how trigonometry could be used. For example, in navigation and land surveying, the occasions for the use of trigonometry are in at least some cases simple enough that they can be described in a beginning trigonometry textbook. In the case of music theory, the appli cation of trigonometry is related to work begun by Pythagoras, who observed that the sounds made by plucking two strings of different lengths are consonant if both lengths are small integer multiples of a common length. The resemblance between the shape of a vibrating string and the graph of the sine function is no mere coincidence. In oceanography, the resemblance between the shapes of some waves and the graph of the sine function is also not coincidental. In some other fields, among them climatology, biology, and economics, there are seasonal periodicities. The study of these often involves the periodic nature of the sine and cosine function. The most important use of trigonometry is graphing. The most commonly seen trigonometric graph is the graph of the sound wave. Trigonometric graph is very straightforward if you follo w the pattern. Before we dive into the trigonometric graph, there are some basic concepts we need to know. The first one is called Period . A period is one complete graph of a trigonometric equation without repeating itself. The second one is called Amplitude . Amplitude is the distance between the ranges of the graph. The third one is called Domain . Domain is the same as the domain on any graph. The fourth one is called Range . Range is also the same as the range on any graph. The last one is called t he Frequency . Frequency is equal to 1/Period. After knowing these terms, we can start to graph with trigonometry. We take a trigonometric equation, for example, y = 3 sin 2x. First we can determine this graph is a sine graph. The value 3 in this equation is the amplitude. The value 2 in this equation is divide into the standard period for sine, cosine, secant, and cosecant graphs, which is 2P, to get the period for these graph s. The standard periods for tangent and cotangent graphs are P . If there is a negative sign in front of the equation, you just flip the graph of the positive equation. Below are the standard graphs of most common trigonometric equations.

y = si x

## THE INVERSE OF TRIGONOMETRY

Until now we have only been dealin g with the trigonometric values that we known. But what about the trigonometric values we dont know and we dont have calculators to find out? This is where the inverse of the trigonometry comes into place. The standard form for the inverse of trigonometr y is y = sin(or any other trig signs)^ -1 x. But we usually write this way: y = arcsin(or any other trig signs) x. These two equations are the same, and they all mean that a trigonometry value has value of y. For example: arcsin = 4 /6 + 24 K and 54 /6 + 24 K. You have to add 24 K because arcsin goes on forever. There is also a finite version of arcsin called Arcsin with capitalized A. Arcsin is finite and is also called the principle value. Here are the limits for Arc:

y = Arctan x

y = Arcsin x

y = Arccsc x y = Arccos x

y = [ -4 /2, 4 /2 ] y = Arccot x

y = Arcsec x

y = [ 0, 4 ]

So Arcsin = 4 /6. We can also convert arcsin to principle value to + - Arcsin + 24 K. We can use the inverse of trigonometry to solve all kinds of equations. Following is an example: sin^3 x cos x sin x cos^3x = -1/4 sin x cos x (sin^2x cos^2x) = -1/4 2 sinxcosx cos2x = (sin 2x)(cos 2x) = 2 sin 2x cos 2x = 1 sin 4x =1

## THE PRACTICAL USE OF TRIGONOMETRY

Now we can translate this into arcsin 4x = 1. Lets assume 4x = y and we get arcsin y = 1. The result is y = P + 2P K. Because y = 4x, so we divide y by 4 and P /2 + 2P K by 4, and we get P/8 + P K/2 for x. There are many uses of trigonom etry. The most common use is to calculate linear velocity. The equation for linear velocity is V = Wr, where V is the linear veloci ty, W is the angular velocity in radian which is acquire by multiply the speed by 2P , and r is radius of the thing that is r otating. Following is a sample problem:

V = Wr V = 45 x 2P x 1 V = 90P Ro a io Feet er Mi

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