LIST OF SYMBOL USED

Design of the Recoil Mechanism for 175mm Gun Introduction A recoil system is the part of a Gun which takes care of the firing loads on the supporting structures by prolonging the time of reaction force caused to the projectile fired and propellant gasses. Construction of the recoil system.

As referred to the figure the piston has two heads joined integrally by a shank. whose size is again varied with the velocity of the recoil. It has no piston rod in it and moves freely as the gas undergoes change in its volume.The recoil system consists of three basic components: A recoil buffer. The floating piston separates the liquid from the gas within the recuperator. .If the recoiling mass is moved very fast then there is a chance of the whole gun to topple down. The magnitude of this restricting force is a function of the fluid flow through one or more orifices. The recoil energy absorbed by this resisting force is ultimately dissipated as heat. Now as the gun has moved rearward on the cradle so it has to be brought back in its battery position which is done with the help of a recuperator . seals etc. a counter recoil mechanism which includes the recuperator. this is prevented by a component known as the buffer. Apart from these the system has different valves. Functioning A force is generated opposing the recoil force by the restricting the fluid flow through the hydraulic cylinder.

• Thus at the end of the counter recoil the weapon is again ready for the second firing.From this it is quite clear that the part of the areas of the force-distance curve which represents the stored counter recoil energy is predetermined • At the end of the counter recoil phase.This force of counter recoil should never be less than the weight of all the recoiling components . The buffer should be designed such that the recoiling parts just stop at the end of the counter recoil. The recoiling parts reach the maximum velocity when the retarding force reaches the propellant gas force. and the recuperator is of gas spring type. • As the gun is fired. This control valve is designed such that at the end of the counter recoil. recoil system of the gun has to be determined. • At the completion of the recoil stroke. Now as the barrel starts moving. which prevents the jerk. the remaining counter recoil energy in the system is absorbed.In this report an attempt has been made to design the recoil system of 175mm field gun which is capable of launching a 74kg projectile with a muzzle velocity of 700m/sec. the recuperator starts acting and the energy in the compressed gas is utilized in pushing the whole recoil mass to the battery position of the gun . while determining the total recoil force. Definition of the problem On the basis of the given inputs such as the Caliber of the weapon. different components of the recoil system such as the . weight of the ammunition and the muzzle velocity. there is control valve. Description of the Recoil Cycle. The recoil system designed is of Single recoil type for simplicity. initially only the recuperator and frictional forces acts against the recoil force. With the recoil piston moving rearwards. which occurs at the end of the recoil. the oil from the recoil cylinder is transferred to the recuperator cylinder through a valve which pushes a floating piston and compresses the gas which is present on the other side of the piston. along with above forces the hydraulic force also starts acting against the recoil force as the gun traverse.

Mathematical model of the Recoil system Considering the basic equation of the recoil system we have d2x = PA − H − Precup Arecup + M r g sin θ − µM r g cos θ − Fs dx 2 Mr The above equation is based on the d’Alembert’s principle.buffer. recoil velocity and recoil length should be realistic enough for the gun structure stability and laying of it at different angles. K = H + Fr + R − WR sin θ Solution of the problem using Matlab and Simulink . which defines that summation of all the external forces is equal to the inertial force. So we have the total braking force as. we consider the inertial force of the recoil assembly is equal to the total recoil braking force acting in the opposite direction of the inertial force. It should also be ensured that the total recoil force. recuperator and the control valve has to be designed. Now to convert the above dynamic problem to problem of static equilibrium.

a braking force is generated. which is given by H= (1 − v x ) 2 ρQ 3 2 Vrx 2 ξ 2q x .• Based on the inputs given in the problem and referring to the standard references. The output from this gain is then double integrated to first get the velocity and then the displacement. The velocity and the displacement so obtained is then utilized by two different wings or branch . the recoiling mass. Frecup = Precup × Arecup • Hydraulic braking force (Buffer force) (H) When the recoil fluid passes through the narrow orifice of the control valve. which equals to the mass of the recoil system. sealing and sliding frictions are determined and all these inputs are fed into a summation box. • Recuperator Force (Frecup) For a hydro pneumatic type of recoil system the pressure in the recuperator cylinder is given by Precup = Pinitial  Vrecup   Vrecup − ax      1. This recuperator pressure when multiplied with recuperator cylinder area gives the recuperator force which is again fed into the control feedback loop in the equation of motion.3 Where x is the only variable on which the recuperator pressure depends.One of which is the recuperator and the other is buffer. this value of x is derived from the integration of the acceleration as we have discussed earlier. • • • The output of this summation box is multiplied with a gain. All other values such as the recuperator piston area and the initial volume of the recuperator are assumed.

8 2 We get In equation no …. Considering the maximum area of the orifice as 3.14 ×10 −4 m2 We have q x = −9. We observe that the orifice area is a function of x 2 . B and C are constants. The sealing friction is considered to be 200N. considering the gun is elevated at 20 degrees we have the weight component as 11970.3 × 3500 ×10 × cos 20 =9867N.14 ×10 −4 Therefore by modifying the equation Q  2   q − 1 QρVr   x  2 × 0. .1 ×10 −5 x 2 + 3. • Sealing friction.Where v x = q x / Q q x = Ax 2 + Bx + C (Considering that the orifice area is being varied in terms of a parabolic function.mat file. this square of the displacement variable is obtained in a similar way by doubly integrating the acceleration and then squaring it. • Weight of the recoiling mass at a particular angle It is given by M r g sin θ . • Frictional forces in the guide system Frictional force at 20 degrees is given by µM r g cos θ = 0. DESIGN CALCULATIONS. This pressure versus time graph is converted into a 795 by 2 cell matrix and thus transformed to a . where g =10m/sec 2 (Approximately). • Pressure force The pressure force curve versus time is taken as an input to calculate the variation of the force which is acting through the centerline of the barrel to the breech by multiplying. So equation no… is obtained by multiplying gain value which equals to constant A and then doing the necessary algebraic calculation.) Where A.1N. The other constant value which does not depend on the displacement variable x and is used as an input to the main equation of motion are.

initially some of the physical dimensions of the recuperator cylinder are assumed based on the space constraint.73 Mpa. Thus ri = 66mm t = 7mm ro = ri+t = 73mm σt (max) = 12 . Maximum force of the recuperator Area of the recuperator piston Or from equation we have maximum pressure in the recuperator cylinder Fr e c u= p1.73 M pa = 126. Similarly the maximum tensile strength σr (max) = −Precup max σr (min) = 0 (At the outer radius of ro2 − ri 2 Now.61 Mpa Now for the calculation of factor of safety we will use St Venant’s principle . In the present context. Once the values are obtained. following data which has been calculated and optimized through SIMULINK can be taken as an input.72 × 73 2 + 66 2 73 − 66 2 2 σ t (max) = Precup ro2 + ri 2 [ ] or [ ] σr (max) = −12 .Design of Recuperator • Design of the Recuperator cylinder For the design of the recuperator cylinder. these are checked for the failure criteria as follows…………. Ultimate tensile strength σut = 745 Mpa Yield tensile strength σy = 350 Mpa From Lame's equation of thick cylinder we have The maximum radial stress and minimum radial stress is the cylinder). Materials selection: ASTM A542/A542M Quenched and tempered. inner radius of the cylinder can be calculated from the area of the recuperator and the outer radius can be calculated simply by adding the thickness of the cylinder to it.01375 m 2 * Precup max = 12.7 5 1 50N (from the figure) × Arecuperato r = 0.

3 for 175mm gun floating piston. k =1.73 =9.1 b 20 Or.536 Mpa Pspring = k −K p Kp Pm Now Pspring = 1.39 4 × 4 .72 = 16 .34 = 2. K = Or by putting this value in equation we have 4 × 4.93 Mpa Or This multiplied with the crossection of the seal on which the pneumatic pressure is given by 2 2 Fspring = Pspring ×π × ( rso − rsi ) = 9.615 + =1.3 −0.73 ×12 . Or Pr = 1.2 N τ= KF spring D (1.72 0.615 + and 4C − 4 C C= D 82 = = 4.σr (max) = t σy 126.1 .5h + 0.61+12.5 Approximately • Design of the pneumatic seal Material selection: The radial pressure acting on the packing materials is given by Pr = kPm Where.Or Or Or σ (max) .93 ×π × (73 2 − 58 2 ) =61300.1 − 4 4 .73 = FOS = FOS 350 FOS 350 139 .3 ×12 .9b) b2h2 Where K is the Wahl’s stress factor K = 4C −1 0.1 −1 0.

39 × 61300 .45 Nmm Now the section modulus of the flange is given by Z = 0.25 And the total deflection is given by the equation Now based on this axial force the seal fixing spring can be designed. As there is a lot less space and huge force is required to seal so. 53 .93) × π × ( 73 2 − 58 2 ) = 139823.577 σ y =0.25Mpa 20 2 ×12 2 Now maximum shear stress is given by τ= τ = 0.65 N Or the moment due to this is given by M f 2 2 Faxial = Frecup ×π × ( rso − rsi ) + Fspring = Faxial ×ro = 10207126. conservatively. This flange from the side view can be considered as a cantilever with the axial force acting due to the gas pressure in the recuperator.79. by treating a sector cut out by a small angle. Total maximum axial force is given as Faxial = (12.5 mm3 . rectangular type of spring is used.577 × 350 =202 Mpa Therefore the factor of safety is FOS = 202 = 3.72 + 9.9 × 20 ) =53. Or induced shear stress is given by • Design of the flange: • Design of the Floating piston The strength of the flange is determined.2 × 82 × (1.1.5 ×12 + 0.5×35×732 = 93257.

within a given time and depending on the rate of fire requirement of the gun.4 5 93257. A suitable value of the recuperator force can be calculated from the equation below .5 = 109.45 Mpa Factor of safety is given by FOS = σy 350 = = 3.2 σ b 109 .Or the bending stress is given by σ b = M Z = 10207126.45 Initially based on the requirement that the gun should be moved back to the battery position after the recoil.

. Once Arecup is calculated. Thus as the loop goes on. the value of maximum pressure in the recuperator cylinder is can also be calculated using Pr e c u p= Fr es u p Ar e c u p The pressure obtained from the above equation is again multiplied with area of the cylinder and fed into the feedback loop. the recuperator force is calculated with the incremental values of the recoil displacement or the stroke length.Frecup = λ ( M R g sinθ + µ M r g cosθ + F friction) Where λ =1.9 ×10 5 N Arecup = 0.09 m 2 or d recup = 338 mm Pecup =8 Mpa r Design of the buffer • • Initially a suitable value Maximum pressure in the .. following values are obtained Frecup = 9.15 (constant) After calculating this approximate recuperator force. Based on the above procedure. inner diameter of the recuperator cylinder is estimated based on the space as well as the weight constraint. From this area the volume of the recuperator cylinder is calculated.

GIVEN DATA L = 1800mm Vm=700m/sec Wr=3500kg Wg=12kg vf = v m (W p +Wc ) W =16m/sec Er + Wr sin θ L Fr = = 260632.2N .

405 M pa P1  V0  =  P0  V1    V1 = V0 − ∆V n = 1.405 0.3 1 V0 = 1.0088 x     x   0 K a = APx = 0.0080 Px n 1.0088 Pm = Recuperator force: FR A =29650000N/mm^2 F1 = λ (WR sin θ + µWr cosθ + f p ) = F1 = 37612 .059 − 0.14 Initial recuperator pressure = Volume displaced recoil) P0 = F1 A = 4.5 1.059   Px = P0   V − ∆V  = 6.5 P0 = 6.27Mpa (Recuperator pressure at the end of = 0.3 n Velocity of counter recoil ..This is the total recoil force used.366 V0 − 0.016m^3 P 1 =1.0158  V0  0. Assuming a recoil piston diameter as 106mm The area on which the pressure is acting is A= π 4 2 ( Do − d 2 ) = 0.3 = 1.

the kinetic energy of the counter recoiling mass when it first contacts the buffer is: E cr = Wcr −Ws And the approximate recoil velocity is vr = 2 E cr Mr Buffer Force: The buffer force should be such that is should provide the weapon stability . σr =1000Mpa . Ws = F1 Lcr Where F1' is the static resistance to the counter recoil which is expressed as F1' = Wr sin θ + µWr cos θ + f p Initially just before the recoil there is no resistance to the fluid flow. Recoil piston rod : Material selected: EN36B. where as in the case of heavy guns a high counter recoil velocity is undesirable. It should be such that the gun should move very steady and at the same time it should stop at the end of the recoil and not affecting the stability of the gun. Higher counter recoil is desired where a high rate of fire is required as in the case of a air-defense gun.The buffer force is based on the kinetic energy of the recoiling parts. E Fb = cr Sb = Design of Recoil mechanism components.The counter recoil velocity is very important when the stability of the gun is a concern. In the present design the recuperator is a mechanical spring so the available energy is given by: Wcr = 1 ( F2 + Fs 2 ) × Lcr 2 Some of the recuperator energy is used to overcome the static resistance of the system. the static resistance and the recuperator force.

K σ r = KT R AP Fillet radius of the rod----2mm Diameter of the of the rod 50mm Diameter of the stepped rod 30mm D 50 = =1. σr is the radial stress σt is the hoop stress of the cylinder Now the yield strength of the cylinder can be estimated as .67 d 30 From the stress concentration table we have Kt =1.The diameter of the piston is determined by the fluid pressure required to be withstand by the recoil system.9 Pfluid = 29 .65 M pa From the above equation the diameter of the piston can be found out A= D piston = Design of the recoil cylinder Pm is the maximum fluid pressure Pp is the proof pressure.