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K-V-01 2











AFPR~VED: (150.124001)

[ES& latest changes; d~~bny superseded pages. toTAL NUMBER DF PAGES IN THIS DOCUMENT

IS 124,



Page No. i thru xi l-1 thru 1-10 2-L thru 2-101

Original Original Original


The Apollo/Saturn ing volumes: Yolume Volume Volume Volume I II Ill IV

V Facilities

and CSE Description

document consists

of the follow-

KSC Industrial Area and Remote Facilities Description Launch Complex 39 Facility Description KSC Provided Saturn V GSE System Description KSC Apollo Facilities and 6% System Description by the KSC

This document is prepared in accordance with the requirement established Apollo/Saturn V Document Tree, dated October 25, l.956.

SECTION I 1.1 1.2 1.3 II 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.2*1 2.2 2.2*1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2e4.2.2 2.4.2.J %.4.2.6 i! .5



purpose =*rC*C_=_r=C_=__I_______________C_aLC_C_------scope -r----r-----r_-r_-_e*~~*~***---~****--*~**--*--~ System Description --_l--r-C-__-CrrFr-___r______r_______ GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT NO-001)
Crawler/Transporter __________________________

1-1 1-l I-1











2-1 2-1



f-Jraw~er-Trucks __________-_____________________________ Power System ~**%%.-c.- ___-__________ d-s- -**- *IrrCY Hydraulic Controi Systems--------------------------------Air-CJpditioning and Ventilation -----_------------------Communications ________________I_______________________ Operators Statio~~~r~~~~~~~~~~~~~--~~------------------~ Lightning protection _______________________________I__ Launch Umbilical Tower -.._ ___e_L_I___I________L___IP_PI Funsfinn ____________________________________s___-----Location ___a__e.+d_-__-_-__________-___________________ Description -------------------_rbr___C_rl_rCC_C_CC_*-~Holddown Arms (System No. 04$1====-=-==--=-----=-===-= Function r_-pr_rr_-__crc_rc____CeC_e__CCe___C__CC~-=-~= Description ___________________________ II ____r__r___l____ Service Arms (Systems, No. 021) Function ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,C,,,,,,,,-,,,-,--,,-,,,,=~==== General Description rrr---r_rl-rcrrl-***_______rr_______ Arm Retraction lle=*lpl_--=_lsl=l-_~-~-----l-l--~-~==---=-----------------_---------Umbilical Carrier Withdrawn -l-_P_-I__--_LsI-L-Irr--------Line Handling Devices -----------l-r------------m-r--r

2-3 2-3

2-7 2-9 2-9 2-9


2-9 2-9 2-9 2-13



2-15 2-15
2-113 2-15 z-24

Access Co[,traI Service Service

p~atform-----------------------~~~~~~~~~~~------. _____I_______________s___________ mwr.?------e Li~e$-~~~*~~~~~~~~~~-----------~-----------~=--Masts (Systems No. 022) ----=-*-*=*-=----------


2-27 2-33





SECTION 2,5.a 2.5,2 2,6 2.4.1 2.6.2 2.3 2.7.1 2,7,2 2.8 2.8.1 2,8.2 2.9 2.9.1 2.9.2 2,9,2.1 2B9.2.6 2.10 2.10.1 2.10.2 2.10.2-2 2.11 2.11.1 2.11.2 2.311.2.2 2.12 2.12.1 2.12.2

TITLE ----------------------------------d^-C**CPL FUflUiWl D~s~riptj~~~-~~=~~~~~~~~-~~~~~-~=~~~~~~-~~-~~~~~-----Rp-1 System (System iiJo* 004) ---------~~~~~~~~~~~~~ __l____-_e__et___*-_**-*-**~--r--r~~-Function ~~.-.--.-.-c_cc_s .- r_rrC_-_--------.~ Rescription LH2 System (System No. 005) _________ _.m_________ s-m_ r--v_--------Function _.ms____w-m_ cc-erere-tv-ec----Description ______________________________ a_ass.w=sm-mme LQX System (System No, 006) _____.s_s=_e s-e.._ e__r__r__=__--_--______-_-_**=**-~*--~-~~~~-~~-~-~Functiorl Description -------1--------1----------I--~-D---cLIcNitrogen Svstem (System No, 014) -=====--------cc----ffunction _==_-CC-__==_==_____--~----~ wIr.--rC-F-I----c__c___c_ _.----__~_-~ ___________ A--A Description CcqverterjCempressor Facil jty --------------------------VAfJ High Bay and Low Bay ___.._- --.-c_ eFrr .-_-----_ Utility Annex ____-_ _ _r_r__________ ~~~_~_-~~~~s-=~~~~r~ Launch pad ____________________~---=-----~.~--------Launch umbilical Tower --. -.-.-___-_rT ---------.-c Mobile Service Structure rC__________I_ -_--.._ Monitoring and Control for Launch ---=--==---=I-=------Helium System (System No. 0171 --===----=--cc-------Function -c-c__ r____e.____.mse_______-- me.mrmrrr-v---- --

PAGE 2-33 2-36 Z-37 2-37 2-37

2-39 Z-39

2-39 Z-40 2-40 2-40 2-41

2-4 1

2-41 2-4 1
2-41 z-4.1

2-42 2-47

2-47 2-47

Description ~____-___-___________________la_e_ee_~~_-~ ~~nverter/~*mpress~r Facility ___-__--l--_ls=_cec_cr_c_

Vehicle Assembly f&ilding _crc_I--c-_rp-----_-------~-~ Launch Pad r------r-rrPr-r-----_------------------r-LUT pneumatjc System =-_ -cc-.~-cc-I.-c-~F-F _-----Monitoring and Control for Launch _____p_l___-_-_-c=cc_c


Gaseous Hydrogen System (System No. 007) ---------==Function ___=l-----_sl__-__l-____I_cI__c__cc__c_r---Description rP-..Clw-rSSrrr-v----_---=----------==-== -jtorage Pr_**_--a_c_-_--__-_~~--~~-**~*****~--------~Transfer and C)jstrjbution-------mFrr-r _ -------T1-edlmsw Control ----_-----r-r-----l----_ -_ ____ ~~-~L..~-.-~~CCPFlame Deflector --c-r----------___________ --IIIcI..--._.-- -.--s .-.---.eCC--. sCP__fC_r_yrF _-__ Function ------ ------ m---I-l-sPsLocation s-W ..~~~-~c~*r -r-r---

2-47 2-48 2-48 2-48 2-4P 2-49 2-49 2-49 2-49 2-49 2-49 2-50 2-50 2-50 2-50




SECTION 2.12.3


PAGE 2-50

2.13 2.13.f 2.13.2 2.13.3 2.14 2.14-l 2.14.2 2.X4.2.3 2.15 2.15.1 2.15i1.2 2.15.2

Vehicle Auxiliary Support Equipment r--e+--------------S-[C Engine Sewicing platforms ____________ a--=~escecee
platform Transporter **************

S-Ii and S- IVB Engine Servicing Platforms -=-C---P-----Propellant Tanking Computer System (System No. 0091 a-= Function ________--__________--~-~-~~~~~*~~*~~~~-~--General Automatic Manual (Iperatian Description Operation dperation of S-[C _ec-cccer_c_c___rc_-ccI____________ rr rr__c____________________ -____-__r-_rfr_C__eC__C______________ PTCS _______E______ ~.Ic~~Bcc-cFc~F---d_bdac-c

2-50 2-51 2% 51 2-52 2-52 2-52 2-52 2-55


Timing and Countdown Systems (System No. 047) -------Timing System _____________________r_cr____________c_ General Description _____________-___________1_c_e_cr__ Central Timing Station--------------------------------Sub-Central Timing S@tiop rr-__f__-lr-_r_--_---------Timing Tefmina[ Unit* ___________________________ ~---WY Countdown Timing System __________ 4-a __-_ -r,wr+-wre-eGeneral Description -______ ___________________________ Genera~or/Encoder ~ece~ver/j-Jeco&r (-Jontgol Displays ______________________I_____________ _________________-___________________

2-57 2-57 2-57 2-57

2-59 2-59 2-59 2-59 2-42 2-62 2-62 2-62

2*15.2*2 2-15.2.4


panfl****-**********--------------------*~~*~* -cc----____-___--_-c____c_r__relrr_crrsr~----

2.16.1 2,16.2 2.17 2.17.1 2.17.2 2.18

2.X3*1 2.18.2 2.18-2.1

Environmental Control System (System No. 018) ---A----Function _*___t_____-------______r___P___________--.-Description -_-CC-f--CPFr*_C**CZ~-~~~~---e-elefCr



IU Cooling System (System No, 026) -----------------e-__s._______ sm.. ..___rt-r Function -_ e-s-.... _ ____ess.._..___ a. Hazards Monitoring System (System No, 071) Function --_--__el_cII-cI_-----------~~~---------General Description _rrr _ _rr___rrr_rrrfr______-----

2-68 z-.4$3

2 I.. Description _r-__ c_c______________cr_crc_r_________


2-71 2-71

2.X8.2.2 2.19 2q19.1 2.19.2

pad A Apa ______________________________^_rrc_____-Z-71 LaunchUmbilical Tower _______________ s-w-CCr----- 2-73 a-__

Mobile Service Structure _____rr______________ ___a- _..rr Offset Frequency boppler System --C-----C-------------Function -------------------_____________pss_c__---2-73

z-3: -

General Description ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,----------,,I,,,,,,,





SECTION 2.19.3 2.20 2.20.1 2.20.2 2.21 2.21*1 2.21.2 2.21.3 2.21.4 2.22 2.22.1 2.22.2 2.23 2.2%. 1 2.2f.2 2.23.2.X 2,2%.2.2 2,2%.2,6 2.24 2.24.1 2.24:2 2,24.2,2

TITLE - -----____-***r***__*_ ODDP Systems - ----I-_***Ic..-* Meteorological and Lightning Prediction System ------*C-C Launch Complex 39 Meteoroiogical -----___-r_~~--_-_p-AFETR Meteorological System ---_-_e_ecc-----l-_c*~~-__---___ -Fe_ --____ -__. Surface Observing S&$ystem-----Tropospheric and Stratospheric Measuring Subsystem __II* Meteorological Cellters ----- Cfb-m--F-- ,---- --cFce- ---- -Lightning Instrumentation System (System No. D72) ---I-Air Force Long Range Prediction System ------*C-----S-Potential Gradient Monitor __r-------_---_--ee---r---r Corona Current Monitor -------rrr-----p--_scc_c________ Sferics Receiver System _--_r-----ll--____________L_r__ Apollo Command Module Oxygen Conditioning System (System No, 036),-----------,,,,,---------,rrrr----Function -e_--------_-LC__r-^_______I_C__C_______--~_CeCrs ------ -___s_ _-----_ --_- **---_ General f&cription Central Instrumentation Facility Telemetry -------S---C--c*_r--------_____rr__---l-----~***----~-----*--Function -f-13pI ------__leP _ ----- - eseCr --_ System Description RF Distribution *IF_ ---____ eL*Isw -----_ _e *r_----_-*___ VHF/UHF Receivers -I___F*re----__-l*CF______PC______ Tape Recorders w-r--.m____ e__..m___r____-mm C__-r_ s.s.s-m_ Signal Distribution Csr. _r----___ -LswtCy ---- --lsc-v---els Data Core -----------C--r_ ---- ----_Iccc_cr----_*_cr-r Single Sideband Processing Equipment -----------------FM Processing Equipment --cc_*_------c----*-________r Analog Distribution ----lr----------_---________acc____ Direct-Write Recorders _d--s ---- -----I..CCwr ----- w-w..wBr Optical Oscillograph Recorders -----*C-*----------C----Data Transmission System and Data Display System (Systems Noa 908 and 051) ___-----_P-_rfrr----------Data Transmission System Function ------------------C-C Data Transmission System Description -l----f----------________ - __C_______-__eClf____ Data Handling Equipment Modem Equipment *C-**r----__-lC*t---_---eZB-C---***-------** Display Equipment -** Cr---__ -__* *________ -__ _rC____ -.,,. Simulation Equipment ----- .**Cf-----*l***IC--------*-*

BAGE 2- 74 2-76 2-76 2-78 2-78 2-75 2-80 2-81 2-82 2-82 2-82 2-82 2-83 2-81 2-83 2-83 2-83



2-84 2-85
2-87 2-87

2-87 2-87

2-87 2-87 2-89 2-89 2-89 2-89





TiTLE 2.24.3 2.24.4 2.25 2.25.1 2.25.2 2.26 2.26.1 2.26.2 2,27 2.27.1 2.27.2 2.28 228..1 2.28.2 2.28.2-Z 2.28-2.4 2.29 c___ Card Tester ---- -= rr_t_C_C____ _____________P_. ~C Interface5 -----------2bt*_-*tlC_CC_______________I--Data Display System Function -----C-eYC_C_I------_la-F &&a Display System Description __---------l_--=rp____ RF Checkout Equipment fSy;tem No, 065) ----F-F-----Function ---__--_CICCt_..b--r------------=*----------------___---s***F_*_FCrr___rl_l_L______Description LCC Measurement System isystem No, 062) --=--C----C purpose ----cc_-Pc-r-----p-----------****~~~-~-----General Description *r_-------_--l---_-*_r___________z~ Telemetry Checkout Equipment -------------=---*-------r**c-_-----------___________z_el_____-~Function
Description z_r--r-------------~_____c__clrpr______l~

PAGE 2-89 a-89 2-90 2-90 2-90 Z-90 2-90 Z-92 2-92 2-92 ,,2-93 2-93 2-93 2-94 2-94 2-94 2-95 2-95 2-9 $I; 2-95 .2-95 2-95 2-98 2-98 2t98 2-100 2*1QQ Z-100 2*100 2s100 2-109 2-200 Z~lQQ 2-1QQ f 2*1QQ 27103

2.29.2 2.39 2.30.1 2.30,2 2.31 2.31.1 2.31.2 2.32 2.32.1 2.322 2.32.3 2.32.3.? 2.33

Facilities Measuring System --P------~~---------_---------_--__c------_----________L____c__rrrr--Function -**e*r--------____---~--*~-***~~--------Description Digital Acquisition System (System No. Qb7) C-T------*Vibration Gata A-,guisition System (System No. 0481 ---Hazardous Monitoring System (System No. 0711-**-*---Acoustic System ------ ----I--__-_CCIF--rCrr---------*** Transportable Measuring System -=-------V--------=-C__ Digital Acquisition System (System No. 067) ---*---------*_*PL-*-Y*-b__r----------------~-~~-**~--Function
~~~~ripti~n --------Z__*P_**_-_f___rrC_C_______a___C-

Vibration D;?ta hcyuisitinn System (System No, 068) --r--r-c-__---lLl_**_______c_r_cr______l--Function C---------I___*-*C_-r___r__rf__________eDescription Apollo k;iunch Data System ------~~-=-~~~~~~~-~------~ Function ---_-l_LI****C-----_-------~----~-***-----~-
~~~~riptj~n c*_cerl--------_--_*____c__cc___________-


Vehicle Measurements Ground Support Equipment ------== -----*l___*_r--_----_pz___scc_____16 Function ------Description*-*-------------------------------**------&[ibr&jon Test Station --__-Pf*-r-C----*Z-*_IC--~---~~-!Xgital Data Acquisition System ---------------=-----*Analog Record &it _-*__F-Cr_---------*____r_________ Remote Aut~matjc calibration System -----------------Handling and ,&,ccesf System f--CC-----_---e-------~---

... Vlll




SECTION 2.33. I 2.33.2 2.34 2.34.1 2.34.2

TITLE Function _l__----l--l---_l________________I______--General Description ------________E__ c __r-------_____l Spacecraft Piping and Auxiliary Propulsion System -----Funciion .._____-_-------____--.--------------------General Descriptiotl _----- -----------______ ----- ----_I

PAGE 2-101

2-101 2-1(jl






CrawIerjTrar,sporter _^ -.----l--l--------------------_-

2-l 2:;
2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-10 2-Iii 2-12 2-13 2-14 2-15 2-16 2-17 2-18 2-19 -2-20 22-21 22-22 2-23 2-24 2-25 ~-2-26 > 2-27 2-2s 2-29 2-30 2-31 2-32 2-33 2-34 2-35 2-36 2-37 2-38 2-39








Graw!er/Transpnrter Electric Power Systems F-C--------Crawler/Transporter Single Line Propulsion System _rl-___.-_______l___l-----------Er-Schematic Cra\EJler/Tr,tl;spor&er Hydraulic System -----------------Launch Umbilical lowers at Refurbishment Area --------Launch Umbilical Tower Hammerhead Crane ------------Ho,&-Jow,, Am, _.-~--.__- __-_-__-_____________I__________ Service Arm j-ocatjo{js _____C_______--____-__F_ r-e--~S-K intertank Arm (Preflight) -------------m-----c----S- jC Forward Arnl (Prefl igjlt) _-.--_________-_____------Se ,, Aft Arm (pref,ig,lt) ____________________----------S-II Intermediate , ,111 (in-Flight! ---------------------5.m,j Forward ,&,,; (,!7-,=[ jg[,t) __--______--_------------S-I,,@ Aft Aurn (,nmF,ight) _I____ _ __________-_______--^ S-IVjj Forward,[U Arm (In-Flight) ------c e-ICCI--C--F-.-

2-2 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-8 Z-10 2-12 2-14 2-16 2-17 2-18 2-19 2-20 2-21 2-22 2-23 2-24 2-25 2-34 2-43 2-45 2-53 Z-58 2-60 2-61 2-43 2-65 2-69 2-72 2-75 2-77 2-79 2-85 2-96 2-88 2-91 2-94 2-97 2-99

Service j\,Jo(lule Arm (In-F1 ir+:) ---------c---c---------Command Module Access Arm (Preflight,) ---------------Service Masts ____l________---l__r--w--------------Ground Pneumatic System, Block Diagram -------I-----Launch Umbilical Tower, Pneumatic Distribution, Block Diagram--------------------------------------Propellant Tanking Computer System -l---------------fKSC Timing System _____________-____________________ Operations and Checkout Station and Distribution Building, Sub-Central _r----------_---_--r_l__r__l__ Timing

LCC Sub-Centra! Timing Station and Distribution -------_--rl--ECS Mechanical Air and GN2 Syst.em Schematic ECS Mechanical Cooling System Schematic --------_--ICooli~~g Urlit Ffo~~vgDiagram ___--__ I_________-_e-err--Hazard Monitoring System (Typical Each Pad) ---------_O[jOp Data Flow _________________-__-------~-------Launch Complex-39 Meteo&ogical Measuring System ---I ETR Meteorological System, Functional Diagram -------One Module in CIF Telemetry Station, Block Diagram ---Data Core, Block Diagram -__-___-----r--e----------DTS Functional Diagram _____-__________ e--e--a------r Real-Time Data Launch Complex Launch Complex Launch Complex Display System, Block Diagram --------39 Acoustics, System ___s_________-__i 39 Digital Acquisition Svstem - - - - - I - - 39 Vibration Data Acquisition System ---

LIST OF TABLES TABLE l-1 ;:; 2-2 TITLE Numerical System Listing ---__---_-c__--_--__er__l__r_r Alphabetical System Listing ------cIc-------------~---Functions of Service Atmt ____-__-_----_C1__-_r__LICIC Functions of Service Masts ~ulIc--~-~~~~c--~~-r~---~--PAGE 1-1 l-2 2-27 2-35





This volume provides a reference handbook of general information pertaining to Saturn V ground support equipment and systems of Launch Complex 39 (LG-39) located at John F. Kennedy Space Center. 1.2 SCOPE test, trans-

These systems and equipment provide for Saturn V launch vehicle assembly, fer, and launch.

Basically, the volume has been arranged in accordance with KSG Apollo/Saturn Top Specification Tree as equipment and systems listed under Saturn V Ground Support (Refer to Apollo/Saturn Configuration Management Plan, K-AM-OS.) Equipment. 1.3 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Tables l-l and l-2 provide a numerical and alphabetical listing, respectively, of all the names and numbers of systems provided by the Kennedy Space Center (KSG), Manned Space Center (MSG), and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFGI. Tables l-l. and 1-2 also classify the system into a general category and indicate if it is described in this volume.

Table l-l. System No. 001 002 OO? 004 005

NI nerical System Listing Described Herein Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

System Name Graw!er/Transporter Operational Operational RP-1 Liquid Hydrogen Television Intercom

Svstem Gatesorv Support System Support System Support System Propellants Propellants and Pneumatics and Pneumatics


Table l-1. S;rStem No. 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 016 017 018 021 022 023


Sbtstem Listing

(Continued) Described Herein Yes Yes Yes Yes NO NO NO No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Nb Yes No NO No Yes

System Name Liquid Oxygen Gaseous Hydrogen Data Transmission Propellant Hypergolic Tanking Computer Servicing Equipmeni

System Category Propel Iants and Pneumatics Prope!lants Propellants Propellants Propellants Propellants Propellants Propellants and Pneumatics and Pneumatics and Pneumatics and Pneumatics and Pneumatics and Pneumatics and Pneumatics

Flush and Purge Pneumatics Propel /ants Nitrogen Helium Environmental Service Arms Service Masts Mobile Launcher Hydraulic IU Cooling Inert Prefilf F-l J-2 Firex Hydraulic Hydraulic Control

Propel Iants and Pneumatics Propellants Propellants LUT GSE LUT GSE LOT GSE LUT GSE LUT G$E LUT GSE LUT GSE LUT GSE and Pneumatics and Pneumatics

027 028 029 035


Table l-1. System


System Listing

(Continued) Bescribed Here in Yes Ye5 GSE -Yes


System Name Command Module Oxygen Industrial Water and han-

System Category LUT GSE LUT GSE Mechanical

037 038 039 040 041 042 043 044 045 046 047 048 04'3 050 051 052 '053

LV Transportation dling

Q Ball Cover Retract Engine Service Platform (Pad) Holddown Arms RCA 1lOA Computer

Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Electrical Electrical

GSE GSE GSE GSE Control and C/O Control and C/O

NO Yes Yes No Yes Yes

Emergency Detection Power Control and Distribution Alignment System

Electrical Electrical Electrical 3ectrical 3ectrical Electrical Ilectrical 3ectrical 3ectrical

Control and C/O Control and C/O Control and C/O Control and C/O Control and C/O Control and C/O Control and C/O Control and C/O Control and C/O

NO No Yes, Yes NO

Computer Interface Clock and Timing Digital Event Evaluator

Terminal Countdown Overall Test Set Control and Display Equipment Ground Equipment Substitute Test Set

No NO No




l- 1.


System Listing

(Continued) Described Herein No NO NO NO NC!

System No. 054 a55 056 057 058 059 O&O 041 062
053 044 065 044 067 Q68 059 Q7Q 072 072

System Name Range Safety Equipment Ignition Sequencer

System Category Electrical EleCtrical Electrical Electrical Electrical Control and C/Q Control and C/Q Control and C/Q Controi and C/Q Control and C/Q

Pad Safety Equipment Guidance and Control Base and NASA Communications

Telemetry Checkaut Equipment

Electrical Electrical Electrical Electrical Electrical

Control and C/Q Control and C/Q Contra1 and C/Q Control and C/Q Control and C/Q


Measurement Calibration LCC Measuring Integration ESE

Yfi?S No N# Yes Ye5 Yes Yes Yes Ye5 Yes Yes

Remote Control RF Checkout Qigital Qata Acquisition

Ground instrumentation Electricai Electrical Control and C/Q Control and C/Q

Qigjtal Acquisition Vibration Acoustics Data Acquisition Measuring Measuring

Ground Instrumentation Ground Instrumentation Ground Instrumentation Ground Instrumentation Ground Inctrumentation Ground In~trumentatiDn


Hazard Monitdring Lightning Warning Detection and


Table l-1. System NO. 073


System Listing

(Continued) Described Herein


System. Name Signal Conditioning Patching Analog Recording System Propulsion - S/C

System Category Ground Instrumentation Ground Instrumentation Ground Instrumentation Manned Spacecraft Manned Spacecraft Manned Spacecraft Manned Spacecraft Manned Spacecraft Manned Spacecraft GSE GSE GSE GSE GSE GSE

074 075 076 077 078 079 080 081 C-J82 08? 084 085 086 087 089 030 091

No NO No No No No No NO

Reaction Contro! Navigation Electrical Electrical and Guidance Distribution Power and Instru-

Gommtini~ation mentation ~flv~ronm~ntal Pressurization Purge Handling

Control - S/C

Manned Spacecraft Manned Spacecraft Manned Spacecraft




Manned Spacecraft Manned Spacecraft Manned Spacecraft Manned Spacecraft Manned Spacecraft Manned Spacecraft

Earth Lnding Crew Pyrotechnic Launch Escape Automatic Checkout

Table 1-2, System No.


System Listing Described Herein Yes No NO No NO

System Mame Acoustics Alignment Analog Recording Automatic Checkout Measuring

System Category Ground Instrumentation Eiectrical Control and C/O

069 045 075 093 058 047 036 08-L 046 051 001 087 008 067 066 048 086 079

Ground instrumentation Manned Spacecraft GSE Electrical Control and C/O and C/D

Base and NASA Communications Clock and Timing Commbld Module Oxygen and Instru-



Ye5 Yes

CUT GSE Manned Spacecraft GSE

Communications mentation


Computer Interface Control and Display Equipment ~ra~ler~Transporter Crew Data Transmission Digital Diyital Digital Acquisition Data Acquisition Event Evaluator

Electrical Electrical

Control and C/O Control and C/O

NO No Ye5 NC) Yes Yes YES Yes NO NO

Support System Manned Spacecraft GSE Propellants and Pneumatics

Ground Instrumentation Electrical Electrical Control and C/O Control and C/D GSE GSE

Earth Landing System Electrical Distribution - S/C

Manned Spacecraft Manned Spacecraft


Table 1-2. System



System Listing

(Continued) Described Herein No Ye5 Ye5 Yes


System Name Electrical EmergeflCy Power - S/C


System Category Mantled Spacecraft E!ectrica! Mechanical Propellants GSE

080 043 040 01% 082 02% 035 011 007 052 057 085 071 017 041 010

Control and C/O GSE and Pneumatics GSE

Engine Service Platform (Pad: Environmental Environmental F- 1 Hydraul ic Firex Flush and Purge Gaseous Hydrogen Ground Equipment Test Control Control - S/C

Manned Spacecraft LUT GSE LUT GSE

No Yes NC4 Yes NO ND NP Ye5 Yes Yes NC?

Propef!ants and Pneumatics Propel [ants and Pneumat its Electrical Electrical Control and C/O Control and C/O GSE

Guidance and Control Handling Eytiipment Hazard ~onitarjng Helium ~olddo~~n Arms ~ypergolic rlzilt ignition Servicing Equip-

Manned Spacecraft

Ground lnstr~mentation Propeiiants mechanical Propellants and Pneumatics GSE and Pneumatics

055 037 027


Electrical LDP GSE LUT GSE

Control artid C/O


industt ial Water Inert Prefi II

Yes N5


Table 1-2, System No. 063 026 029 090 062 072


System Listing

(~ontinued~ Described f-ierein No


System, Name

System Category Electrical I-LIT GSE LUT GSE Manned Spacecraft Electrical GSE Control and C/O

integration IU Cooling J-Z



No No Yes Yes

Launch Escape LCC Measuring Lightning Warning Detection and

Control and C/O

Ground lnstrunlentation

305 006 038

Liquid Hydrogen Liquid Oxygen LV Tran5port~iotl Hand1 ing Measurement Meteorological and

Propellants Propellants Mechanical

and Pneumatics and Pneumatics GSE

Yes YES Yes

calibration Measuring


Control and Cl0

YtXi Y-3 NO

Ground Instrumentation LUT GSE Manned Spacecraft electrical Propeilants GSE

Mobile Launcher Hydraulic navigation Networks Nitrogen Operational ~perat~oflal Intercom Television and Guidawe

No No Yes Yes Yes N#

Control and C./O and Pneumatics

Support System Support System Electrical Control and C/O

Overail Test Set


Table 1-2.


System Listing

(Continued) Described Werein NQ NQ hio


System Name Pad Safety Equipme:!t Patth ing Pneumatics


System Category Electrical Control and C/O

Ground instrumentation Propellants Electrical and Pneumatics Control and C/O

Power Con&o! and Distribution Pressl~r~~ation

Pro~3el IantS

iijlanned Spacecraft Propellants


No NO Yes IN0 NQ NQ No NQ No

and Prwmatics and Pneumatics GSE GSE GSE


Tanking Comptiter


Propulsion s/c Purge Pyrotechnic ?y Bail cover Retract Range Safety ~~uip~~eil~ RCA 1 lQA Computer Reaction Control Remote Control RF Checkout RP-I Service Arms Service Masts

Manned Spacecraft spanned Spacecraft Manned Spacecraft ~~ec~an~ca~ GSE Electrica!

Control and C,O

~~ec~lanical GSE ~anl~ed S?ac~cra~ GSE


Ground Instrumentation ~~~ctr~ca~ Control and C/D Prope t lants and Pneumat its LUT GSE LUT GSE

Yes Yes Yes

Table 1-2.
System NO.


System Listing

(Continued) Described Herein

073 053

System Name E__ ,.~. Signal Conditioning Substitute Telemetry


Ground lnstrumentatioi~ Electrical Electrical Contro! and C/O Control and C/O

Equipment Checkout Eq~uip-


Terminal Countdo~~~~ Vibration Data Acquisition

Electrical Growd

Control and C/O Instrumentation





2.1.1 FUNCTION. The C/T (Figure 2-l) is used to transport the Launch Umbilical Tower (LUTI and the Mobile Service Structure (MSS). The CUT, including the space vehicle, is transported from the Vehicle Assembly Buildinp rVAi3 to the launch pad. The MSS is transported from its parking area to and from the Launch pad. After launch, the LUT is transported to the refurbishment area and sul .quently back to the VAB. (See paragraph 2.1, Volume Il.1 The C/T is capable of lifting, transporting, and lowering the LUT or the MSS, as required, withod the aid of auxiliary equipment. The C/T suppiies limited electric power to the LUT and the MSS during transit. 2.X.2 5ES~R~~T~O~~ The C/T consists of a rectangular chassis which is supported through a suspension system by four dual-tread crawler-trucks. The overall length is 131 feet and.the overall width is 114 feet. The unit weighs approximately 6 million pounds. The C/T is powered by self-contained, diesel electric generator units, Electric motors in the crawler trucks propel the vehicle, Electric motor-driven pumps provide hydraulic power for steering and suspension control. Air-conditioning and ventilation are provided where required. The C/T can be operated with equal facility in either direction. Control cabs are located at each end and their control function depends on the direction of travel. The leading cab, irt the direction of travel, will have complete control of the vehicle. The rear cab will ( however, have override controls for the rear trucks only. Maximum C/T unloaded speed is 2 mph, 1 mph with full load on a five percent grade. 2.58 feet per second.1 It has a SOO-foot the LUT or.the MSS on the facility support mph with full load on level grade, and 5.5 (It is capabie of accelerating a maximum of minimum turning radius and can position pedestals within 2 two inches. Chassis. - The C/T dhassis is a rigid steel framework approximately 130 feet by 90 -rests on four crawler-trucks and supports the LUT or the MSS as well as housing the engines, generators, and all other auxiliary equipment.



The chassis can contain all stresses generated by propulsion and steering operations. The L&T and MS5 rest on the citassis on fQW points tQGated over the crawler-trucks. The sniy positive restraint between the C/T and the LUT ;r MSS are devices that allow harizontai sheaf ioads to be transmitted. This is a~~~~~~~~~~s~l~d restraining h~rj~~ntal by shear forces in both directions at the first snaport point, r:ne direction at the second support point, the other direction at the third support point, and unrestrained at the fourth support point. This arra~~~m~t~t isolates the LUT and MSS from the stresses internal to the C/T chassis.












i I


FIELD VOLTAGE FEELIEACK MOTIIR FIELD EXCITER A~PLIOYNE Hydraulic by electrically-drifter perform the functions

Controt Systems. Jhe hydrauiic systems (Figure 2-5) are powered -.pus195, Variotis control systems enable the hydraulic system to of sieering, levering, jacking, and load equalization, Steering System. Steering is accomplished by operating the front crawlertrucks as a unit I and the rear crawler-trucks as a unit. Steering is provided by a servocontrolled hydraufi~ system which actuates hydrautie steering cylinders. Two of these eylinder~s are used on each truck and operate in a push-pull MalWW. One end of each cylinder is connected to the chassis, the other tc the crawler-truck. ~u5p2rlsjQrl System. The slls~ension system provides for jacking, leveling, and load ~qual~~~t~e~~~ ihere are four hydraulic cylinders on each ~rav~ier-t~~k which surround the guide t~ube and ~~~~0~ the chassis vertical loads. Jhese cytinders and their associated t~~drau~~c contrui units comprise the ~~~~~~~~iQn system. These cylinders can be extended six fee: from i-heir retracted position. Limit switches prevent bottoming or e.+gessjtre extencj~tl_ Dupfcate pumps insure continuity of operation. Jacking operations r2qlJii2 ext,~!~~sion or retra~ti#n of all suspension system cylinders. I-his f~net~o~ wii! ~orrn~~~y be carried out only when steering is not r~quired~ due to the d~rn~nd~ pia~ed on the ~ydra,u~~e system. ~ontrois fur jacking and lowering are located in each cab. The ja~kj~~g input is su~~j;ed to each leveling axis and the vehicle level is maintained by the leveiing system. The jacking capability allows the LUT or the MSS to be raked from and lot~,~red to the supporting pedestals on location. The levering control is automatic and maintains the level of the chassis within the limits of plus or minus five rn~~~tes oi: arc at all times; with the further requ~r?ments that no point in the supped p&me wi!i be mrrre than two inches out of plane at any time. A servo an error plished diagonal system senses errors in fevef by means of a pressure manometer and provides signal which ~ontr5ls the hydraulic suspension cylinders. Levering is accomby transfer of ~ydra~ii~ fluid to and from cylinders on opposite sides of the two ieve~ing axes.

Load equaljzatjon provides a method of controlling the joad distribution on each af the four chassis summon ~~~~ts- The equalization system Causes the sum of the toads on one diagonal axis to eqwaf the sum of the loads on the other diagonal axis. Pressure is sensed in the su~~ensj~r~ ~yij~ders and when a minimum pressure differential is reached, a se~o-~ont,r~~ system actuates hydraulic pumps to provide the n~essa~ eqoaii~a~i~n~ In the event differential pressure exceeds 250 pounds per square inch gauge ~~sig~~ the system shuts down and will in a ~~no/gu~~condition.


2 ~1.2,6 Coi?~!~t~nicat~~fls. A sound power telephone communjcation system is provided between all ~,~~i,,~~ork stations on the C/T. This system may ais.0 be connected to the LUT and the MtsS through the appropriate interface. CpXitors Station. There are twa identical ~QntrQl cabs, one at each end of the C/T *-=7 ,ontroi functions are provided in each cab. These include control of propelling motors and brakes, steering, and jacking. Each Gab iS Capable of XGQI?lITlOdating threz men during instruction periods. 2 f I. 2.8 Lightning ProtectioIi. lightning in transit and at its perkily position. protection for the C/T is provided ahen

Ground rods driven along the center of the Crawle~ay median strip are connected to form a co~nter~~o~~~. Contact with the G/T, through sparking techniques is made by means of a drag chain. when in the parked position, It will be connected to ground rods by means of a ~ro~~~ding cable. The LUTand the Niss ,when on the C/TT, will be grounded to the C/T grounding system.

FU~CT~~~~ The fUnctiQn of the LUT is twofold: the LUf launch deck serves as a common base upon wkich the umbilical tower is pc nan~nt~y positioned and upon ~~bj~b the Saturn V space vehicle is assembled, checked oute and l~unehed~ the LUT base conta~n~ checkout and faunch equipment used during VA& and pad operations _


and ~~~~~b~~of the Saturn V space vehicle.

The LUY is located in the high bay of the VAB during erection With the fully a~~embied space vehicle on the launcher deck, the LUT is moved by the C/T via the C~a~le~ay to the Launch position on the pad. ~~r~r~g po5tIau~ch periods, the I.&T is returned to the LUT re~rb~~hment area iFigure 2-61 for ~~~p~ction and repair, prior to the erection of another vehicle.



The umbilical tower, an open steel structure 3Ei? feet big!?, pravides support for the equipment for the propellant, umbilical service arms, 18 work piatforn;:s , 3i?d distribulio~ pneumatic I electrical I and i:?sirLimetltat:nn systems i Two high speed elevators are Centrafly located within the umbiiical tower, These elevators service i8 landings, from IJJT level A of the C.UT base :o the 34siu-;oot tower ie:iei. Each elevator car has a load capacity of Zi50G pounds and is r.ap&h~ :offrave!i:lg at &30 feet per minute. These e!evators are provided vdi:h iocai controls v&ich permit operation vyith or without an attendant. No remote contro!~ are provided. A hammerhead crane (Figure 2-71 is installed on the 380-foot Ievei. Crane capacity is fD and 25 tons. The 25-ton e : capability extends out XI f-e.~. from the tower center line and the lo-ton capability extends out 85 feet. from the tower center iine. I%e book is capable of lowering to 468 feet below the top !e~el E38O fnrtlr of the umbilical tower, The crane is capable of 360 degrees rotation in either direction at one rp:m* Hoist speed is at 30 feet per minute with stepless control f Remote controi of the crane from the ground and from levels 0 through 360 feet of the umhi!icai tower is provided by portable plug-in type control consoie:. Six launcher-to~gr~~nd mount mechanisms are provided fer each LUT location (pad, V&3, and LUT refu~i~~me~t area2 _ Four extensibie ce1umns are provided at the pad to absorb the dynamic irjads ~e~~r~~~d by si.age ~~u~d~~~ before IQaff. At level W,~ three tail service masts provide 5-K stage suppoti. for electrical cables, liquid oxygen CLO>r) drain and RP-i fi!i and drain fines, hydraulic lines, and ~neumatie lines, ~ydrauliG and ~n~urnatj~ systems operate the tail service masts. Each mast is hydraus licaily locked in an extended positii?n uhtif tr;ggnred for automatic retract. Four &Ml-purpQSe support and ho~dd~~~~ arms are located between the outboard engines, Holddown is a~~orn~i~~hed by a oreloaded toggle linkage that applies a are-holddow~ force to the vehicle thrust structures The LUT base houses items such as the computer systems test sets, digital propellant loading equipment, hydratrlic test S&S, pro~~J~~nt and ~neurnat~~ lines, air-~QnditiQning and ventilating systems, electrical pourer systems I and water systems L chock-mounted floors and spring supports are provided so that cri&af equipment receives less than ~~~~t~ni~ ~~mpa~en~.~ within the LUP + 0.5 g mechanically-inou~ed vibrational &+e are provided with acoustical isolation to reduce the overall Saturn Y rocket engine noise levels to 92 decibels (dbl,. The air~onditioning and ventilating system for the tUT base provides environme~al protection for the equipment during operations, standby time, and in-transit to and from the YAE to the launch pad. The- s.ystem design is based on the f~liQWjn~ outside


conditions: summer - 95 degrees FBB, 79 degrees FWB; winter - 35 degrees F. Fueling onerations at the launch area require that the compartments within the structure be pressurized to three inches of water and that the supply air originate from a remote area free of contamination. Chilled water is supplied to the LUT at the VAB and the pad, from a remote area free of contamination, to provide cooling. There is one packaged air-conditioner which serves the areas requiring environmental control during transit. The computer room is maintained at 76-l-2 degrees FIX, and 45 percent relative humidity (RH) +-5 percent at all times excepTduring LUT transit. The primary electrica as follows: a. b. c. d. power supplied to the LUT is divided into four separate services

Instrumentation power. Industrial power. In-transit power. Emergency power,

fnstrumentation and industrial power are supplied to the LUT at 13.8 kv. These power systems are separate and distinct, Power is supplied from the C/T to a limited number of items during LUT transit from the VAB to the pad. This power is used for the water/ glycol systems, computer air-conditioning, threshold lighting, and obstruction lights. The emergency power for the LUT is from an engine generator located in the ground facilities. it is used for obstruction lights, emergency lighting, and for one tower elevator, Water is supplied to the LUT at the VAB and pad for fire, industrial poses, and at the refurbishment area for domestic purposes. 2.3 HOMETOWN ARMS (SYSTEM NO. 041) and domestic pur-

2.3.1 FUNCTION. The basic function of the four holddown arms, which are located on the LUT deck (level O), is to position, support, and restrain the vehicle on the launch pad during checkout at the VAB, transportation to LC-39, and subsequent launch of the vehicle. 2.3.2 DESCRIPTION. Each of the four holddown arms (Figure 2-81 is identical and is located between each of the four outboard engines of the S-K stage. Each arm is approximately 6 feet by 12 feet at the base and weighs approximately 37,000 pounds. Holddown is accomplished by a preloaded toggle linkage that applies the holddown force to the vehicle thrust frame. The preload prevents separation of the vehicle and the holddown arm anvil during thrust build-up and minimizes the dynamic loads imposed on the LUT structure at cutoff. Wind loads, engine misalignment, shock, and vibration are considered in the design of the structure, Each support and holddown arm contains a spherical compression block for load transmission. Level adjustment is accomplished by various shim thicknesses.


Simultaneous release of the holddown arms is controlled by a Launch Commit signal [this is received after receipt of the thrust OK signal from thrust sensing devices), which in turn, controls the holddown arms release control panel. The holddown arms release control panef, an command, directs high-pressure helium (He) to each holddown arm assembly activating the pneumatic ball-lack separator, separating the toggle linkage and thus releasing the holddown arms. 2.4 SERVICE ARMS ISYSTEM NO. c121)

2 -4.1 FUNCTION. The nine service arms (Figure 2-9) provide access to the launch vehicle and support the SewiGe lines that are required to sustain the vehicle at the site prior to launch. 2,4.2 GENERAL ~~SCRI~TI~N. Each complete structural assembly consists of two or three elements of truss-type construction employing tubular members and gusset plates. The arms, excluding the Ccmmand nodule KMI access arm, are secured to the LUT by two standard t~wer~m~unted hinges containing the arm retraction mechanism. 3% CM access arm is secured to the tower by two large hinge plates which provide the required rigidity between the tower and &n (Figures 2-10 throtigh 2-W. The service arms, excluding the CM access S-U aft arm, support the service lines that link the vehicle to the ground supply and control system. The preflight arms C+IC intettank, S-X fom!ard, and S-Ii aft3 are retracted at P-14 seconds and secured to the LUT by a latch-back mechanism. The inflight arms retraction system is actuated by liftoff switches Iaated on the holddown arms. The CM access arm provides an environmentally conditioned means of astronaut ingress and,egress to the Apollo spacecraft. The arm is .retracted at T-6 seconds and has the capability of being re-e&ended within 30 seconds. 2,4.2.1 Arm Retraction. Each arm is retracted by rotation of the arm after disconnection oft rier from the vehicle. .. Umbilical Carrier Withdrawn. All carriers, except the S-K intertank carrier arm, are pneumatically dis~~n~e~t~d from the vehicle by applying gaseous nitro= gea EN21 at 755 psi to the locking mechanism and push-off pistons located within the carrier housing. Since the S-K intertank carrier contains Pnly two mechanical lines, dis~~nne~ti~n is achieved through the locking me~banism in lieu of the push-off pistons. The inflight arms, excluding the Service Module CS?vTI arm, utilize a dual-cylinder withdrawal mechanism in conjunction with the pneumatic disconnection of the umbilical carrier from the vehicle. The withdrawal mechanism is mounted on the vehicle end of the arm and is bolted to the umbili~ai.~arrier which contains the various service lines.


Figure 2-9.

Service Arm Locations








!~,, ,,.


The mechanism is capable of following the relative displacement of the vehicle caused by wind loading, thermal bending, fuel weight compression, and thermal contraction due to the low temperatures of the cryogenic propellants. The major components of the mechanism are a high-pressure, pneumatic cylinder trunnion, mounted in a universal joint, and a hydraulic cylinder, mounted directly below the pneumatic cylinder universal joint. The above combination allows tracking of vehicle motion while the umbilical carrier is connected. The preflight and SM arms employ a mechanical lanyard system actuated by a pneumatic cylinder or airmotor for the SM arm mounted on the arm to retract the umbilical carrier from the vehicle. A secondary separation mechanism, which is common to the primary mechanisms, provides a completely mechanical method of releasing the umbilical carrier if primary pneumatic release fails. This mechanism consists of a spring-loaded drum and clutch, trip linkage, and separation and trip cables. The withdrawal mechanism allows t,he carrier to follow the vehicle upward while the separation mechanism allows cable to reel out until the pneumatic withdrawal cylinder rotates enough to tighten the trip cable and actuate the trip linkage. This action engages the clutch and stops the separation cable from reeling out. The separation cable then tightens and rotates the carrier cam ievers which mechanically unlock the carrier. Further rotation of the cam levers moves the carrier away from the vehicle. The S-II intermediate arm employs a mechanical lanyard system in addition to the withdrawal mechanism to retract the propellant line umbilical carrier. The retraction system is actuated by pneumatic cylinders mounted on the arm. Line Handling Devices. handling device to ensure tfia~iine modated without excessive bending. a, b. A propellant An electrical In addition to the above, each arm employs a line slack, developed during withdrawal, is accomTwo types of line handling devices are required:

line device. cable, air-conditioning

and pressure line device,

The propellant line retract system is installed on top of the arm behind the lines. This system consists of a pneumatic cylinder which drives a block and tackle. The output cable from the block and tackle is connected to a beam which joins the propellant lines, This system provides a pull on the propellant lines during retraction to prevent destructive compressive bending of the flex lines. The remaining service iines are handfed by a pivoted frame located behind.the support structure for the withdrawal mechanism. All lines, other than electrical, consist of a section of flex line at each end of the arm, with a section of hard line between. All pneumatic flex lines are extruded teflon tubes wrapped with a stainless steel wire braid. All cryogenic flex nes are corrugated flex lines stainless steel wrapped with a stainless steel wire braid. Air-conditioning are silicane and fiberglass supported by a wire helix.

2-26 Access Platform. Service arm extension platforms, located at the vehicle end of the second element, provide access to the vehicle and umbilical area. The second element contains brackets for supporting the extension platform box beam, which is composed of a bearing carrier assembly consisting of recirculating roller bearings In areas :vhere the horizontal vehicle deflections mounted on a T shaped carrier, exceed four inches, a T head is located at the end of the extension pl~qtform, The T head moves perpendicu!ar to the basic platforms on rollers to accommodata vehicle motion in the lateral direction. The basic platform utilizing the T head (S-II forward, S-IVB aft, S-IVB forward, and SM arms1 is connected to the vehicle through a coupler mounted on the IT head bumper assembly. The coupler connects to a hard point on the vehicle to form a link between the vehicle and extension platform. A small service platform replaces the T head on the S-K intertanks, S-IC forward, and S-II aft arms Since the vehicle and contacts the vehicle through a spring-loaded bumper assembly, horizontal deflections do net exceed four inches, the coupler employed with the T head arms is not required. Control, Control cabinets, conta,ning hydraulic and pneumatic acctimulators and Gontrol -or the arm retraction and withdrawal mechanism system, are located on the service arm level, The preflight arms utilize two cabinets. The second cabinet employed by the inflight arms actuates the redundant tower mounted cable retraction system, Cabinet number one controls the actuation of the arm rotation, disconnection, and retraction system. A hydraulic charging uni t, which consists of a stainless steel reservoir and two hydraulic pumping units, provides the initial charge and periodic replenishment for .he service arm control system accumulators. During the final phase of the launch countdown, the unit, which is mounted to the lower level of the LOT base, is de-energized and the launch sequence is completed with energy stored in the accumulator. specified Service Lines. in The type of service lines supported by each arm is as

Table 2-i.


of Service Arms Service Lines

Service Arm No. of Lines

S-IC Intertank

2 2 8

LOX Fili and Drain


Table 2-1.


of Service Arms (Continued) Service Lines

Service Arm No. of Lines Function Media Pressure Ipsig)

s-IC FWD Kotlt .I

LO2 Vent Valve Control PressUPe LOX Automatic Checkout 55 2

1 1

Umbilical (Elec .I Housing Purge Umbilical Housing ~i5~oiinect Supply LOX Pump Seal Bleed


S-Ii AFT S-II Intermediate

1 1 12 1



132 132

Fuel Transfer Electrieai LO2 Tank Fill and Vent Actuation LO2 Tank Valve and Pressure Switch LH2 tank Actuation Fill Valve Helium



37 750


1 1

Turbo Purge GH2 Start Tank Vent Control Engine Helium Bottle Fill

Helium Helium Helium

100 500



Table 2-1.


of Service Arms (Continued) Service Lines Media Pressure

Service Arm No. of Lines Function

S-II !ntermediate (Cant S

LO2 Tank Helium PrePress. and Receiver Press, GN2 Start Tank Fill LH, Pump Seal Orain



1 1 1

GH2 LH2-GH2 Helium

13QO 130 750 1300

Thrust Chamber Jacket Purge GH2 Start Tank Vent and Relief


406) 132 35 3250 750 1000 1~~~

LO2 Fill and Drain overbold bump Gas Generator Coo! Down Bleed Recirculation Pneumatic Control System GH Pressurization Sysshems Purge Pressure System Pressure -Regulatar checkout Recirculation Pressure Regulator Checkout







Table 2-1.


of Service



Service Arm No. of Lines

Service Lines . Function Media Pressure (psig) -~ 50~ 2 750 /,

S-II inte~ediate o3int .I

Recirculation LH Ret. Line Purge Elee d2 Elec e Disconnect Umbilical Hotisinq IJisconnect Supply A/C Engine Compartment Purge A/C Instrument and Purge Fuel Tank Vent Fuel Tank Press. and Vent LH2 Tank Pressure Switch and Vent Valve Pressure regulator System Pressure Checkout Cooiing GN2-Air Pcrge

1. 1




S-II Fwl2

2 3


22 153-3360

Helium Helium 14322.3


1000 756

LM2 Tank Vent and Valve Actuation Electrical Elec. Equip. Purge AK


8 1 1 1

Air GM2 GN2

2 750

Housing Purse Umbilical Housing ~jsconnect Supply

Table 2-1.


of Service Arms (Continued9 Service Lines Media Pressure (psig9

Service Arm No. of Lines Function

1 1

Main Stage Fuel Transfer Main Stage Oxidizer Transfer Fuel Tank PrePressurization 16X Tank Pre-Press. Press. and Purge Turbin Start Bottle GH2 Aux, Prop. System Helium Bottle Press. GHE Supply Bottle Engine Helium Bottle pressurization Turbine Start FH HottIe Vent and 2 elief Thrust Chamber Purge Faei Pump CaviiJ Drain Hef ium Helium


500 3000 Jr%OO-35 3090 3090 3000 800 50



1 1.

Helium Helium


Helium Helium

Helium *Xi0 psig = + - 250F 35 prig = + 5iPF 1 *This line dates not interface Air-Cond. and Purge GN2-Air

25 lnH$

th the vehicle.


Table 2-l.


ot Service Arms (Continu< Service Lines Media Pressure (psig) 50

Service Arm No. of Lines S-WE AFT Kant .I 1 Low Pressure C/Cl SUPPlY Electrical High Pressure C/O SUPPlY Umbilical Electrical Housing Purge Helium He! ium Function

6 1

Umbilical Housing Disconnect Supply Fuel Tank Venting Electrical Elec. Housing Purge and Purge QJ2 GN2-Air @JZ 2 42 In H20 3000 GH2 13



1 24 1 1 1


Air Bearing Sphere Pressurization Preflight Conditioning

60/ CH3QH 40% H20 I 200 GN2 2

1 Service Module


Housing Purge


Hydrogen Overboard Pressure Relief Nitrogen Overboard Pressure Relief







of Service Service

Arms (Continued) Lines Media Fressue (pig)

Service -Service Module Kht .I

Am No. of Line5 .-.Elec.



Ground Check-

E let _ Ground Power and Fuel Cell Oxygen Overboard Pressure Welie; Fuel overboard Pressure Relief SPS Oxidizer Overboard Pressure Relief Water/Glycol Ground Coolant Return Wat~r/Glycol Ground LOX sea





56 , 3 In Hg3 TBD

A ir-Cond Command Module *This 2.5 *Air-Cot-id. ,-

. and Purge

Air Air

line does not interface SERVICE MASTS

with the vehicle. NO, 0221


2.5.1 FUNCTION 1 The three service masts (Figure 2-19) which are located on the LUT deck (level O), perform similar functions servicing the launch vehicle prior to flight. Table 2-2 is a functionai listing for the service masts.



Functions Service

of Servtce Lines


(Mechanicai) Media Pressure (psig) 50


Masi Function


Fressure Swi:ch C/O Purge Bottle Fill Supply

High and Low AU*LO

GN2 Helium

3300 3300

Pressure Switch c/o Supply Fuel Fill

High and Low Auto


Tank Pre-Pressurized and Drain Gimbal Gimbai Chamber (RJ-1) (RJ-1)


He!I iutn RP-1

1450 565 2300 50 2300

Engine Engine Thrust

Supply Return Refill

liyd HYd Sodium Nitrate GN2 GN2 GNZ

- Jacket

Disconnect Purge 3-2 Fuel Bubbling LOX Bubbling Pre-Ignition) LOX Bubbling Pressure Switch Sensor Sup.ply Gas Generator Purge, Supply Kond _ Engine

3000 750 110 550


(Emergency) LOX Level

Hel iutn SN2

415 60

Fuel Injector


GM2 wi

250 50


Table 2-2.

Functions Service

of Service

Masts (Continued)

Lines !Mechanical) Media Pressure (psig) 3000 750

Service Mast Function


(Cent .I

Disconnect Valve Control Pressure (LOX Fill and Drain) Environmental Purge to Battery Container Environmental Air


GN2 Air GN2



Valve Control Pressure (LOX Fill and Drain) Valve Control Pressure (Fuel Fill and Drain) Auto. C/O Purge LOX Dome Purge and GG LOX Purge Control Pressure Bottle Fill LOX Tank Pre-Pressurized Pressure Switch Press. Regulated Low





500 3000

GN2 Helium Helium

3390 3000 750

Arming Tower Panel Purge Supply LOX Emergency Drain



2.5.2 DESCRIPTION. The basic construction of the three service masts consists of a structural steel base bolted to the LUT deck and a four-sided steel truss arm.


The base serves as a hcusing and a structure support for the rotating mast arms, and also serves as a storage compartment for the hydraulic actuators and hydraulic system. The mast umbilical carrier, which contains the service lines, is secured to the vehicle interface by a locking mechanism, located approximately in the center of the housing. As the vehicle rises, the lock assembly is actuated by the mechanictll linkage of the mast and forces the yoke of the locking piston away from the vehicle. The locking Further retraction of the piston piston retracts and releases the locking fingers. actuates the pneumatic push-off foot located in the locking piston and forces the carrier away from the vehicle. If the above primary system fails to perform its function, the four telescoping rods af the carrier force the push-off pistons against the vehicle; thereby, mechanically disconnecting the carrier from the vehicle, Retraction of the umbilical carrier and vertical rotation of the mast is accomplished simultaneously to ensure no physical contact between the vehicle and mast, Operation of the mast is accomplished by a closed circuit hydraulic system, whose fluid is supplied by a hydraulic power cart located in the LUT. In case of hydraulic failure, counter weights, located at the aft end of the arm, force the arm to a vertical position. In its retracted position, the carrier is protected by a protective hood actuated by a separate hydraulic system. The hood operation is triggered simultaneously with the retraction of the carrier and the mast. Operation of the hood is accomplished by use of two hydraulic rotary actuators with meshing gears. Pertinent data on the mast are: a. b. Length is 22 feet 7 inches.

Height is I.7 feet 6 inches in service position and 22 feet 5 inches ir retracted position. c. d. 2.6 RP-1 Width is 6 feet 10 inches. Weight is 26,608 SYSTEM (SYSTEM pounds. NO. 004) The RP-1 system stores and

2.6.1 FUNCTION. RP-It is the S-IC stage fuel. transfers the fuel to the launch vehicle.

2.6.2 DESCRIPTION. Prior to transfer and distribution, the RP-1 is stored near the perimeter of each pad area. The storage area contains three storage tanks,


Each storage tank has a capacity of 86,000 gallons. The tank has a carbon steel shell with a bonded stainless steel lining. There are two manholdes on each tank alcng with pressure and vacuum relief valves, sampling well I level gauge, etc. There are vortex eliminators on the suction outlets and a turbulence eliminator on the filling pipe. All appurtenances are stainless steel e A 2=psig GN2 blanket ullage pressure is maintained in the tank space to assist in contamination control, The transfer pump is a centrifugal single stage, double volt@, horizontal, with horizontal suction and discharge. It has a rated flow of 2,000 gallon per minute (gpm) at 178 psig. It is driven by a 3OO-hp, 3,6OO-rpm, motor with an explosion-proof housing. 440-v, Z-phase, 6O-cycle induction-type

The filter pump is a centrifugal single stage with horizontal suction. flow of 1,000 gpm at 56 psig. The driver is a 5O-hp, 3,6OO-rpm, 4O-cycle induction-type motor with an explosion-proof housing.

It has a rated 440-v, 3-phase,

The line drain pump is a centrifugal single stage8 single suction, horizontal, with horizontal end suction and vertical discharge, It has a rated flow of 30 gpm at 21 psig. The driver is a 1-hp, 220/44O, ?-phase, 6O-cycle induction-type motor with an explosion-proof housing. The jet eductor is capable of evacuating 500 gpm minimum of fuel at zero suction head and 8.5 psig head with an available inlet pressure of up to 200 psig, and an available inlet flow rate of up to 2,000 gpm, The transfer line is an eight-inch welded uninsulated Schedule 10, stainless steel pipe with three expansion joints, a liquid sensor, a strainer, a filter, a quick-discormect coupling, and two flexible hose assemblies. The strainer is the basket type with a ItOO-mesh naval steel screen. The filter is of a Y type design to remove solid particles with a stainless element. A 0 to 40 psig differential pressure gauge is installed on the filter. The clean filter pressure differential at rated flow will not exceed five psig. A six-inch aluminum quick-disconnect with dust caps is provided at the LUT interface. The main cross-country line supports are common with the liquid hydrogen transfer line. The RP-1 pad value complex consists of a booster line valve, vent line valve, liquid sensor, filter, relief valves, check valve, and associated plumbing. The LUT contains the fuel tanks through a tail service mast. to transport the RP-1 to the S-K stage


Sequencing and monitoring storage tanks to the S-K Computer System (WCS). 2.7 LH2 SYSTEM

of system equipment for transfer of RP-1 from the ground stage fuel tanks are controlled by the Propellant Tanking


NO. 005) stages. The

2,7,1 FUNCTION. LH2 is used as a fuel for the S-II and S-IVB LH2 system stores and transfers the fuel to the launch vehicle.

2.7.2 DESCRIPTION. Prior to transfer, LH2 is stored at the LH2 storage area, which is located near the perimeter of each pad. The storage area contains a storage tank, vaporizer heat exchanger, vent system, chilldown valve! main transfer line valve, liquid sensor, and other valves for filling and emptying the vehicle and storage tanks. The storage tank has a capacity of 850,000 gallons plus ullage space, It is 70 The tank has an inner shell Qf stainless steel and an feet in the outside diameter. outer shell of carbon steel. The annular space is filled with perlite and evacuated. The loss rate of LH2 will not exceed 0.075 percent per day. Maximum allowable internal working pressure is 90 psig. The storage tank is equipped with a carbon steel spiral stair from grade. A vaporizer heat exchanger is used to pressurize the storage tank to 75 psig. The vaporizer has a capability fQr converting approximately 342 gpm of LH2 to GH2 at minus 3OOF. The vent system consists of a normal boiloff system which vents to the atmosphere, and an extensive venting system which is connected to the burn pond. A purge system is connected to both the main transfer system and the vent lines. The cross-country transfer line consists of approximately 3.,500 feet of vacuumjacketed, lo-inch invar pipe. The outer jacket is stainless steel and the insulation of the invar line is of the radiant shield-type with a suitable getter material. There are three lO-inch, vacuum-jacketed, gimbaled expansion joints in the main transfer line. The piping is supported at 15-foot intervals on the same pedestals as the RP-L fuel piping, A quick-disconnect CQtJpling is provided at the LUT interface. Sequencing and monitoring Qf the LH2 system equipment for transfer of LH2 from the ground storage tank to the S-II and S-IV& stage fuel tanks are controlled by the PTCS.





NO, 004)

2.8.1 FUNCTlQN ~ LOX is used as the S-K I S-11, and S-IW3 stage oxidizer. The LOX system stores and transfers the oxidizer to the launch vehicle. 2.8.2 DESCRIPTION. The LOX storage area is located near the perimeter o; each pad area, opposite the LH2 and RP-1 storage areas, The storage area contains a storage vessel, vaporizer heat exchanger, main pumps, replenish pumps, pump chilldown valves, fill line vent valve, pump suction valves, tank vent valve, flowmeters, strainers, and other equipment for filling and emptying the vehicle atrd storage tanks. The storage vessel has a capacity of 9QQ,OQQ gallons plus ullage space. It has an outside diameter of 68 feet 9 inches. The tank has an inner shell of stainless steel and an outer shell of carbon steel, The annular space is filled with perlite and nitrogen atmosphere of slight positive pressure. An internal pressure of 10 psig will The 105s rate of LOX will not exceed Q-18 be maintained during all operations. percent per day. A vaporizer heat exchanger is used to pressurize the storage tank to 10 psig. The vaporizer has a capacity for converting approximately 600 pounds per minute of LOX to gaseous oxygen. The main transfer pump is a centrifugal single stage, double volute, radially split with a single suction. It has a rated flow of 10,000 gpm at 350 psig. It is driven by a 2,5QQhp, 1,8QQrpm, 4,16Q-v, 3-phase, $0~cycle induction-type motor with an explosion-proof housing. Two of these pumps are located in parallel so that one may he available for back-up. The strainers are of the flange screen type, conical in shape, with 8-inch mesh Q-063-inch wire. It will stand 30 psig without collapse. The flowmeter in the replenish line is of the orifice type while the flowmeter main transfer line is of the venturi type. by &inch

in the

A 14-inch aluminum, main transfer line and a 6-inch vacuum-jacketed line carry the LOX from the storage facility to the vehicle 1,450 feet away. There are eight 14inch expansion joints in the main transfer line composed of three hinged joints, two axial, and three gimbaled. Also provided, ia a disconnect coupling at the LUT interface and five relief valves. Three vacuum-jacketed, gimhaled expansion joints are included in the replenish line. The replenisll line has a disconnect coupling at the LUT interface and five relief valves.


Sequencing and monitoring of the LOX system equipment, for transfer of LOX from the ground storage tanks to the launch vehicle oxidizer tanks, is controlled by the Pies. 2.9 NITROGEN SYSTEM iSYSTEM NO, 016)

2.9.1 FUNCTION ~ The functions of the nitrogen system are to provide GN? for hazardous purging, service arm control, engine servicing and cleaning,atio iaf;e control. 2,9.2 DESCRIPTION. The nitrogen system for LC-39 (Figures 2-20 and 2-211 consists of all those components necessary for the storage, generation t and distribrttion of GN2. Ristribution is made to the pad, LUT, MSS, and VA/AB. The entire systems for hazard-proofing and environmental-proofing of electrical enclosures are aiso included. 2.9.2. P ~onve~er/~onl~ressor Facility KCF). The 6CF converts 4N2 to lowpressure Ghj2 and to high-pressure GN2. The facility consists of a 509,000 gallon capacity LN2 dewar, six high-pressure LN2 pump and vaporizer units, and two iow-pressure LN2 pump and vaporizer units. From the CCF, high-pressure nitrogen gasesare directed via overland pipe !ines to two storage batteries; one located at pad A, the other located just east of the VA&.

VAB High bay and Low E&y. The VAB contains a system for high-pressure GN2 distribution. This system is supplied From a storage bank located at the VAB storage building. The GN2 storage capacity is 6,000 cubic feet at 6,000 psig,

Nitgogen, at 5,000 psig, is delivered to the VAB via three-inch lines. The point of entry is at the ground floor of tower D. At this point, the lines are divided and valved such that one set of risers serves towers b, E, and F; another set passes through regulating stations No. 7 and No. 24, which reduces the pressure to 3,000 psig and supplies areas M and N. The other set passes through a tunnel under the transfer aisle to tower A. Shut-off valves are provided at the entrance and exit to the tunnel. In tower F,, the lines are divided again; one set serving towers A, B, and C; the other set passing through regulating stations No. 1 and No. 29, reducing the pressure to 3,080 psig and supplying areas K and L. These gases are used for vehicle and Ground Support Equipment GSE) purges to actuate vehicle and GSE pneumatically-operated components, and as a suppiy to clfeckout vehicle and GSE components. Utility Annex. Nitrogen gas at 190 psi-; and a flow of 30 Standard Cubic Feet per Minute ISCFW is provided to the Utility Annex from the regulating station located in the VA& area.

2-41 Launch Pad. Nitrogen, at 5,000 psig, is piped overiand via three-inch Low-pressure nitrogen at 150 psig is piped lines to the~~aJaJstorage battery. overland via a 14-inch line directly to the environmental controi system at the pad, The high-pressure storage battery provides storage for ? ,000 cubic feet of GN2 Nitrogen, at 3,500 psig, is distributed from the pad storage bank to the LOX, RR-l, LH2, and Erlvironmental Control System (ECSI control areas. Nitrogen, at 4,000 psig, is distributed to the LUT interface and to the water deluge system, 2 9.2 5 Launch Umbilical Tower (LUT), The LUT pneumatic system (Figures 2-20 and 2~p$ies, regulates, controls, and distributes high and low pressure GN2 to required G?% eqflipment and to the space vehicle, These gases are used for vehicle and GE purges to actuate vehicle and GSE pneumatically operated components, and as a supply to pressurize vehicle spheres during p~launch checkout and launch operaticns. From the LUT inte;fac.s, 6,000 psig GN2 is routed to compartment It3 of the LUT, where it is supplied through a manifold to the GN2 high-pressure distribution system and accumulator. The GN2 accumulator is charged to 6,000 psig. It is used as the emergency GN2 supply source, and as the source of GN2 pressure during transportation of LUT and space vehicle from the YAB area to the pad area, During the period of transportatlonr the LUT pneumatic system must supply tank pressures and purges as it is not connected to the ground system. From the GN2 distributor, the 6,000-psig GN2 is supplied to Valve Panel (VP) No. 11 and the S-K checkout console, which are locrlted in compa~ments 12A, and 13 A, respectively, of the LUT to the general service panel in each of the. holddown arms, to the MSS panel, and to the base of the LUT F In VP No. L1., the 6,000~psig GN2 is regulated to lower pressures and distributed to various subsystems. . In the S-K checkout console, the 4,000-psig GM2 is reduced to desired pressures and distributed to vario*js areas on the LUT to support the checkout and launch operations of the S-K stage. Propellant control consoles at levels 30, 750 psig. 120, and 200 operate propellant valves at.




Figure Z-21.

Launch Umbilical

Tower, Pneumatic Distribution,

&lack Diagram

All circuit breakers and J hoses are purged using 50 psig suppI. GN2 at ail tower levels. GN2 flows through a calibrated orifice with a relief vent on each enolosure There are about 500 such enclosures purged on the set for a two-inch water column. LUT. The LUT swing arms and tail mast are supplied GN2 for the launch vehicle, purging and pressurization, umbilical disconnect, and swing arm operation. (Tables 2-1 and 2-2). 2,9,2.6 Mobile Service Structure CMSS). The MSS tla~ard-proofing system disThe GN2 is supplied from the tributes GNz to all ~SS levels and work platforms. MS interfile panel on the LUT. As an alternate supply, GN2 is stored in ten 2200psig K bottles,

The topdressed air system is j~ter~u~n~~t~d can be used as an alte~~~ate ~ur~~~~ggas.

with the #itrogen purge system so that air

The launcher accessories subsystem monitoring and ~o~~oi for Launch. provides control and monitorjn~ of valve positjo~s and gas pressures for the GNz system aboard the LUT-

Converter/Con~pressor Facility. Gaseous helium is co1 lected in a common manifold from tube bank railroad cars. The helium is routed through a check valve and filter to a common inlet manifold feeding five high-pressure compressors, which increase the pressure to 4,~~~ psig from an initial pressure between 2,2X! psig and ~,~~~ psig. The helium is collecled from the high-pressare compressors by a common manifold and passed through a desiccant bank to remove any moisture contained and a filter to remove any remaining solids in the gas. Gas flow is controlled by a flow control salve and a back pressure regulator as the gas is prepared for distribution, The valve pads direct helium Flow to either or both the VAB high-pressure storage battery or the pad high-pressure storage batteries. Vehicle Assembly Building. The helium capacity at the VAB storage battery is 6,003 cubic feet. Helium, at 6,000 psig, is delivered from the storage battery to the VA& via three-inch lines. The point of entry is at the ground floor of tower D. At this point, the lines are divided and valved such that one set of risers serves towers D, E, and F; another set passes through regulating stations No. 7 and No. 24, which reduces the pressure to 3,000 psig and supplies areas M and N. The other set passes through a tunnel under the transfer aisle to tower A. Shut-off valves are provided at the entrance and exit to the tunnel. In tower A, the lines are divided again;.one set serving towers A, B, and C; the other set passing ,through regtilating stations No, 1 and No. 29, reducing the pressure to 3,000 psig and supplying areas K and I. These gases are used for vehicle and GSE purges, to actuate vehicle and GSE pne~rnat~~aliy operated components, and as a supply to checkout vehicle and GSE components2,10.2.3 Launch Pad. ~e~jum, at ~,~~~ psig, is piped overland via a threeinch line to the launch pad storage battery. The high-pressure storage battery provides storage for 9,000 cubic feet of helium at 6,000 psig. Helium, at ~,~~~ psig, is djstr~but~d to the LLIT interface.


The 5-K pneumatic consoles i, 2. 3, and 4 are used to regulate and supply gaseous helium to the S-K stage. The gas is put Into the stage through the tail service masts 1-2, 3-2, and 3-4. Pneumatic console 4 supplies helium through tail service mast l-2 to fill the helium storage bottles located in the LOX tank of the S-K stage, The storage bottles are used to pressurize the fuel tanks. Console 4 also supplies helium through tail service mast 3-2 for LOX bubbling. S-IC pneumatic console 3 supi;iies helium through tail service mast 1-2 to prepressurize the fuel tank prior to flight and pressurization by the on-board helium source. ;lelium for LOX tank pre~pressurization is furnished from pneumatic console 3 through tail service mast 3-2. The tower supply supplies helium to the upper ieuels of the urnb~~~~al tower. monitoring and Control for Launch. Control and monitoring in a manner similar to that of the nitrogen systems see paragraph 2.9-2. 2.11 2. I.111 and filling ~~~EO~~ HY~R~G~~ SYSTEM ~~Y~T~~ NO. 0031 is aG~omplished

F~~CTl~~. GH2 is supplied to the S-11 and S-IVE stages for chilldown of the J2 engine turbine start bottles.

2.11.2 ~~~C~~~T~~~. The %H2 system for f-C-39 consists of all components necessary for storage and distribution of GH2 used for the launch. Stpra~ge. The GH2 storage facility facility at the perimeter of each pad area. is located near the LH2 storage

There are eight storage vessels, each with a ~a~~~ty of 200 cubic feet {water volume), and holding the gas under a pressure of 6~~~~ psig. There are two vessef units on each of four manifolds. Each vessel is protested by a rupture disc desi~~~~ for a burst pressure of ~~,OOO to 1~~000 psig at 7% dashes F., and a fissure relief valve set at 6~600 psig v~nt~~~iafa a GM2 vent line, The storage vessel vent yalves are also ~~~~~~~~d to the GH2 vent line, The stooge vessels aFe charged prior to javnch vsing a motive char@-rg unit. Control. Controls for the filling oF the vehicle bottles are provided at the respective stage control panels at the LCC and also at the control consoles on the I8Cfoot level for S-II and 240-foot levet for S-IVB. Six tho~usand prig GH2 is supplied to the S-II regul~t~o~l and distribution console at level X80. The pressure is decreased within the console to 1,250 psig and the GH2 fed to a tH2 heat exchanger for cooling on the same level. The GH2 is then routed ~roogh the S-II pneumatic cont~ot console to the S-ii jntermedi~te interface plate and then into the S-II stage. At level 240 of the UT, 6,000 psig GH2 is ~rni~hed to the ~neurn~tjc console. The pressure is reduced to 1,500 psig and is routed through a heat exchanger for tooting and back into the ~~le~rn~tjc console before entering the S-IV& stage through the aft S- IVB interface.

quick-break disconnect switch. Controi for the distributiQn box is a por~tabie push button controller, one for each direction of travel of the transporter. Each controller case is heavy duty watertight stainless steel weighing about 10 pounds. lt contains Qne magnetic reed-type. push button switch and two hand-operated selector switches equipped with watertight caps, Control voltage is 115 v, 60 cycle. 2.13.3 S-II AND S-IV& ENGINE SERVICING PLATFORMS. A special engine servicing platfcrm and transparter is provided in the VAB for servicing &he engines Qn the S-11 and S-IVB stages. The vehicle stage is positioned on the transporter over a circular opening above a vertically movable servicing platform. The platfarm is raised and lowered by the electrical subsystem which includes four mQ~Qr-winches, distributors, and a portable motor controller. Each winch has a squirrel-page induction motor, 3 hp, 3-phase, 60-cycle, 440 v, mounted on a totally enclosed fan-cooled enclosure having a heater to maintain its temperature 50 degrees to 80 degrees above ambient to prevent condensation. Each of the motor-winch assemblies contains a junction box or distributor with a NEMA 4 enclosure containing the motor starter and overloads. Control for all four motors is through one hand-control unit having a separate select switch for each motor SO that Reel-in and reel-out commands are any ~Qmbination may be operated simultaneously. given by push-button switches, The hand unit weighs about 10 pounds. Limit switches stop tht motors automatically on reel-in and reel-out operations. 2-14 PR~P~Ll-ANT TANKING COMPUTER SYSTEM (SYSTEM NO. 009)

2.l.4.1 FUNCTION. The Saturn V Propellant Tanking Computer System (PTCS) (Figure 2-22) provides the means for accurately determining and controlling the quantities of fuel and oxidizer loaded on board each stage of the launch vehicle. The PTCS also maintains optimum propellant levels in the vehicle tanks during prelaunch activities by controlling the propellant replenish furrctions. 2.14.2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION. systems (fuel and oxidizer for each The PTCS consists of six propellant the three launch vehicle stages). tanking


The PTCS receives analog signals from mass sensQrs located in the launch vehicle propellant tanks. These signals are amplified and used to control the replenish valves for adjustment of the masses in the tanks to the desired amount. In addition, the ratio between the sens*r signal and the reFerence is computed and used to generate six discrete signals. These signals are sent to the prQpellant systems netwworks and are used to control various phases of prQpeilant loading. The percentage mass levels are displayed Qn LCG monitQr and control panels. The PTCS has simulation netwrirks They simulate the analog reference valtages for use in mainten~ce and ~alib~ti~. and also the mass quantity signals, which are in the form of analog voltages from se~Q-dr~ve~ potent,iometers within the stages.



All PTCS equipment is located in the LUT and the LCC. The PTCS may be operated in either an automatic or a manual mode. The principal purpose of the manual mode is to provide the redundancy necessary for overall system reliability. Automatic Operation. All systems are quite similar, and the following discussion, therofore, has been simpiified by considering oniy the S-W3 stage LQX tanking system. Subsequent discussion includes the variations existing in the other systems. The PTCS is located in level A of the LUT, It receives a LOX level signal from a level sensing system located within the S-IVB stage. The sensing system consists of a capacitance probe inside the LOX tank which drives a servo potentiometers The potentjometer output is sent to the PTCS via the distributor rack. The PTCS receives another signal from the S-W& the LGC, This signal is sent to the PTCS by the The signal represents the quantity of LOX that the present mission profile, and is referred to as 100 propellant monitor panel located at Data Transmission System QITS). S-1VB stage wili require for the percent FLIGHT ~~~I.

The signal from the level sensing system and the 100 percent FLIGHT MA~~ signal are compared by the automatic tanking computer within the PTGS. The result of the comparison process is an analog output signal that is sent to the ratiometer, also located ~i~in the PTQS, and to the replenish valve automatic control assembly on the Umbjlical Tower. The latter output does not control the replenish valve until the LOX tank is nearly full. The ~tiome~r accepts the analog output signaf of the automatic tanking computer and conveys the signal to a J.7-bit dig&f code word. The code word represents the ratio between the actual oxidizer levei and the I~~~ percent FLIGHT MAGI signal, to an accuracy of S-01 pereent,


networks on the Umbiiicdl operations a5 follows: a. b. c. d. e, f.

Tower and are used to begin or terminate


LOX loading

Start fast fi I I, Start cold gaseous helium load. Stop fast fill. Replenish normal. Stop Slow fill. Flight mass. 1. 2. Upper limit. Lower limit.

These same discrete signals are also sent, via the DTS, to the LCC control and monituring panel for monj&oring ourposes. The discrete generator outputs control LOX loading until the vehicle tank is 98 percent full. At this point, fast-fill is stopped, and the replenish valve autcmatic control assembly assumes the LOX loading function. The replenish sequence is controlled by the analog output s;gnal of the automatic *anking computer mentioned earlier, The analog signal is applied to an automatic contra! valve that generates a variabie pneumatic signal to control the position of the replenish valve. This salve operates only during the replenish sequence, and provides the inpat flow necessary to maintain a 100 percent FLIGHT MASS level in the S-W LOX tank. manual Operation. The manual mcde of PTCS operation is used in case of malfunction of the automatic equipment, or where abnormal propellant loading sequences are required. The PTCS manual equipment consists of a manual tanking computer and ~t~ometer essentiaily ident~eal to their automatic system counter~~s. The manual equipment dues not include a discrete generator; discrete signals are sent (via the DTS to the PTCS from manually operated switches on the LCC control and monitor panel, ~~~~ation of the manual equipment is basically the same as with the automatic system. The manual tanking computer compares a LOX level signal received from the S-WE stage and a 100 percent FLlGHT MASS signal received from the LCC control panel e The analog output of the manual inking computer is fed to the replenish vafve manual pontoon assembly and also to ratiome~r* The f7-bit output code word of the manual ~tiometer is sent &via the DTSI to a f~v~decimal-digit AXIAL MASS R~A~~~~? display located in the LC,Gc. The manual system does not inciude a discrete venerator to contra! ~ro~ell~t loading as does the automatic system. In the


manual mode, the test opera+x (rather than the discrete generator) provides the discrete signats by operating switches on the LCC controi and monitor panels. The discrete signals are sent (via the DTS) to the LUT propellant control networks on the Umbilical Tower _ The analog output signal of the manua! tanking computer is applied to a manual control valve, which controls the position of the replenish valve in the same manner as in the automatic mode. 2,14.2.3 Operation of S-K PTCS. The S-IC stage RP-1 and LOX systems differ slightly from the description given above. The level sensing systems consist of a combination capacitance probe and pressure transducer. The pressure transducers sense various tank levels up to 94.5 percent full, and the capacitance probe senses levels from this point through the remainder of the tanking operation. The RF-P-:. fuel is not a cryogenic fuei; ~onse~ue~tly~ a replenish ft;nction is not required. The PTCS overfilis the RP-1 tank initiaily, and then, just prior to launch, adjusts the level to the 109 percent FLIGHT M~SS~ with an automatic (or manual) adjust-levei-drain sequence. 2.15 2.Z5.1. fullowjng TIERING ANII ~~UNT~~~N T[M~N~ tasks: SYSTEMSYST-IMS (SYSTEM NO. 0471

The KSC timing systems are designed to perform the

a. Provide an extremely accurate and stable source of timing signals at rates, and in formats consistent with the needs of area instrumentation, mo~jtor~ display, and analysis. b. maintain ing stations. c. dards s d. activities. distribute time and frequency signals to various N~S~/~S~ and ETR synchronization witi the CKAFS timing system and national tim-

Provide precision

frequency signals references to universal

primary stan-


- -I__-

Figure 2-23.

KSC Timing System

vehicle or space system compof7ent. The countdown may continue for the total period preparatory to launch and total vehicle flight time, or a portion of such a period or time span. All events are correlated with an independent reference called countdown time, venerated and ~ontro~ied by ~ountduwn timing system comporlents. General description. in the systems conGeptr two sources of countdown timing are considered; those originating at the !aunch complex and those originating at !oca? test and checkout pQS&iQIlr?, Both consist of a countdown generator/decoder ~ornb~nat~on. The entry of~~ount data at the launch complex is automated dparalleled binary-added decimal input is accepted). The test and checkout positions include a remote control paneI for the entry of count data by a test conductors Each system is of modular ,~onstruction. The systems can count down from a preset time, and count up from the point of iiftoff. The count is in seconds, minutes, hours, and days, with a sign digit to indicate whether the displayed time is a countdown or a ~ountup. 2.15- 2.2 ~enerator/~nc~~er. The venerator a~~~mu~ates digital time from a 1 PPS input signal appropriately djvided to produce a count in terms of shrouds, minutes, hours, and days. It can count down from a preset time of count up and accumulate time after liftoff. The encoder develops a seriai~~e~ puise output in a mosque format for transmissjo~ over voice-quality telephone lines up to a djs~an~e of 40 miles. Both tone-burst and level-shift outhit are availably. 2 _ 15 I 2,s ~~~~~iver~,#e~~d~r- The countdowns time serial transmission is received and ~ernodu~ated- The decoder detects the serial input code, stores the time data in a shift register, tran$;lates this data into a seven-bar ~~s~Iay formati and provides driving power far a ~ax~murn of ten ~e,adout displays- More than one dec er is requires if mm than ten displays are to be used in one tocation. 2,* P5.2.4 ,~on~~o~ Panel* This panel can be connoted to a generator/~~~oder and wil! provide a m&hod of i~~od~~~~~ preset se~nds, ~~~ut~~~ hours, daisy and the plus 62 minus signs with dj~i~-w~eeI ~~~rQls= The a~~~muiaior can be started, stopped to hold the count, and jump set-t~~ero time ,to s~m~~at~ ~~~off* meadow off contrd sv~jt~b~s are also ~r~~~~ed- The ~~~~t~o~~ from an automate s5~r~~~ in a ~a~al~~~ data firms cafl replace the ~~~~~~~~ el input.
2. a6

~~~~~a~~- The r~a~~~t is

~~~~~~~~~~T~~ co ~~~~

a ~g~~~-~~~~ ~~~rn~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ty

able in &iree sizes. ~~~T~

Figure 2-26.

ECS Mechartical

Air and GN2 System Schematic 2



.--VP !
Ti ! I----

2.16.2 RE~G~IPTI~N. The ECS consists of both vehicle and ground suppert equipment with the attending control and monitor stations required to condition and purge vehicle interstage compartments. The system provides thermal conditioning to onboard electronic packages, and provides ground area cooling. The VAB high bay areas are suppiied with air-conditioning equipment to provide tempered, dehumidified air to space vehicles in the high bays, ECS equipment is located on the fifth floor and 330-foot level of tower E to service the vehicie in high bay No, 1 and at the same levels of tower F to service the vehicle in high bay NQ. 2. Air for the 5-K forward and aft compartments, S-H forward, aft engine and aft electric ~orn~a~ents, S-IVB aft compartment, IU, and CM is supplied by the equipment located on the fifth floor. With the exception of the CM, air for the above mentioned compa~ments is cooled and tempered by passing it ~wer cold and hot water coils. The water is supplied by equipment located in the VAR Utility Annex. CM air is cooled by a rekigerant system and tem~red by hot water coils. Conditioned air, from the fifth floor ECS, is delivered to interface ducting at the base of the LUT, Insulated ducting runs up the LUT and across the swing arms to the vehicle eom~~ents* CM air is cleaned to lever IV per ~~~-~-1~3, Equipment, by filters located on the LUT, Cleanliness Levels, -m- in Support

Nlobile units, installed at the 330-foot level of the VAB, deliver ~on~~i~iuned air to the Lunar hllodule (LMI vehicle hatch through GSE ducting on platform B. The units are of the refrigerant type with electric heaters and filters to temper the air and clean it to level IV. No provisions are made for enyir~nmenta[ ~onditjoning of the vehicle during tr~nspo~ of the LUf from the VAB to the launch pad. After the LUT is secured to the launch pad, the EC5 ducts are connected and the system ~~orman~e verified, The environmental faunch pad. control room is physically located adjacent to the PTCR on each

The EC5 provides a supply of air or nitrogen for the temperature control and inkling of the various ~Qm~~mentS Qf the space vehicfe, Thermal sensing elements in the 9 ehicfe ~~~ent~ eaff for coal- of warm air or GNZ as the oomp~ment t~~~~~r~ ~~po~ds to the effects of p~o~~i~t loading and other pretaunch u~rations* Processed ,o~doo~ air is used as the t~rn~~t~re ~on~~~ medium in the early p~~~ato~ stages and GNz is used as puking and tern~~t~~ control medium in the final stages of the ~~untdo~ period.

Prefiltered outdoor air is pressurized to approximately 2.5 psig and its moisture content reduced in passing through a cooling coil. It is then reheated as required by heating coils and conveyed through insulated ducts to the designated vehicle compartment. An arrangement of dampers and valves provides for changeover from air to GN2. The GN2 is processed through the same temperature control coils after pressure regulation. A chilled glycol/water solution is circulated to the cooling coils from a central storage tank. Several chiller units provide the cooling effect required to produce the desired temperature control in the cooling solution storage tank. An outdoor water cooling tower is employed for the final heat disposal from -he chiller units. Reheating of the air or nitrogen is accomplished individual supply line to each compartment. by electrical heaters located in the

The Gonditioned air or GN2 is supplied through an insulated duct system from the ECS rocm through a tunnel, across the launcher, and up the umbilical tower to the vehicle Gompa~ments~ as follows: a. b.. c. d. e. f. :: i. 2.17 lU/S- IV& forward s- IVl3 aft S- ii forward SM GM cabin S-II aft engine S-II aft electric S- IC forward S-K aft SYSTEM (SYSTEM 10 12 5 10 8 14 5 5 12 inch inch inch inch inch inch inch inch inch ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID


ND. 0261

2.17.1 FUNCTIONThe Instrument Unit (ItI) cooling unit is required for Gaoiing and servicing the 1U onboard cooling loop. The cooling unit is required during the IIJ checkout and prelaunch countdown procedures, The cooling load consists of the heat generated by the LU and the S-WE foray skirt onboa~ electroniG Go~~~~ents. The servicing functions include filling the onboard cooling loop with ~ater/methanol and purging the onboard cooling loop with gaseous flitrogen. 2.17.2 D~S~~IPTIDN~ The ground suppo~ cooling unit {Figure 2-281 is ~ili~~d to check out the IU prior to mating on the S-IVB, to provide preflight cooling for the S-IVB and IU, and to provjd~ for filling, draining, and egging of the onbo~rd acre me~anol coolant system. Cooling capacity of the unit is rated at ~,~2D~tu~


















The cooiing unit is located on the 13th level of the UT and is utilized for both VAE and launch pad checkout operations. The unit generally can be considered to consist of a refrigeration cycle and a cooling fttiid loop. The refrigeration cycle includes a motor-driven compressor, a fan-cooled condenser, a filter dryer, an expansion valve, and a heat exchanger. The circulating fluid loop includes a 70-gallon reservoir, a circulating pump, a filter, a manual contrrl flow regulator, and an automatic temperature controller. The refrigeration cycle heat exchanger and the IIJ preflight heat exchanger for the onboard thernra! conditioning system form a part of the cooling fluid loop. During preflight electronic equipment operation and checkout, ground-conditioned fluid is circulated through the IU preflight heat exchanger caoier which acts as the systlem heat sink for launch pad operation. The IU water boiler does not function as an active system heat sink until the vehicle reaches an altitude of approximately 115,000 feet; therefore f no active electronic equipment cooling is provided in the IU and S-WE during approximately the first 130 seconds of vehicle flight. Local controls include the following:

Start-stop. ba: Maximum cooling. G. Mode selector switch. d. Commit test. e. GN2 heater (on-off). Temperature selector. f. Coolant flow control. ii: GNz purge flow control. GN2 purge pressure regulator. i. Coolant or purge selector valve. j. k. Bypass control. Remote controls a. b. G. d. include the following:

Start-stop. Maximum cooling. Commit test, Temperature selector,

The automatic temperature control system consists of a temperature detecting device in the coolant su;lply line and an automatic tem~rature controller attached in the cooling unit. The t~m~rature controller can be manually ad&sted over a range of 14 degrees F to 60 degrees F and can maintain a tolerance of 2 2 degrees F at the actual set point. The remote m~imum cooling command to the temperature controller automatically adjusts the tem~e~ture setting to 14 degrees F.


The flaw rate of the coolant to the preflight heat exchanger is fixed and is set by manually regulating the bypass flaw returning to the pump, The temperature of the coolant supplied to the preflight heat exchanger is maintained at a constant value except under an emergency situation when the temperature rises excessively. if this situation occurs, a maximum cooling command is sent to two solenoid valves to allow maximum present coolant refrigeration. This full-open command causes the temperature of the coolant being supplied to the onboard system to drop to 14 degrees F. If the failure occurs in the onboard thermal conditioning system, the methanol/water solution is forced into the reservoir by purging the onboard system with GN2. GN2 is regulated to 60 psig and maintained to 120 degrees F by the 7-kw heater. Purging of the onboard thermal conditioning system requires approximately two hours. GN2 escapes through the <ent in the reservoir after being forced through the onboard system. 2.18 HAZARDS M~NIT~R~N~ SYSTEM (SYSTEM NO. 073.1

2.18.1 FUN&Tl~N. which may occur during The system is designed which will be activated present at any monitored

The hazards monjtoring system detects hazardous conditions storage and handling of propellants and pressurized gases. to provide discrete on-off visual indication and/or alarms before an explosive mixture, toxic level or concentration are area.

2.18.2 VENTRAL ~~S~Rl~Tf~N. The hazards monitoring system (Figure 2-29) provides hydrogen hazard detection in the p~xdarea, the LUT, MSS, and the fluid test compiex. Remote displays and alarms are provided on location in the LCG firing roorns~ the ground j~strumentatian room and the Complex Control Center. The hazard monitoring console interfaces with the meteorologiGa1, fire alarm, pne~ati~s and area baling systems. The hazard mo~jtor~ng system is activated only durjng the times Qf storage and ba~d4in~ of potentially hazardous materials. Hazard rnonitorj~~ is not necessary at times when iines, tanks, etc. I are not in use and purged ~~t~ inert gas. 2,lS.Z. graphs. 1 Pad A Area, ~ete~t~on equjpme~t is as described in the f~~~o~j~~

2,18.2.1,1 are located in

Leak dete~~i~~ sensors and fire det~~ti~












Figure 2-29.

Hazard Monitoring

System (Typical

Each Pad)

These sensors are located at valve complexes, vaporizers, joints. The detectors include hydrogen, leak, ultra-violet wire (TN) types.

and at flange and flexible flame (UTF) and thermo- Gaseous Hydrogen. Gaseous hydrogen leak detection is provided by general area monitoring, with careful placement of sensors at suspected leak points, gas buildup areas, etc. Areas receiving special attention include: a. b. c. d. conditions capability a. b, c. d. e. Mobile recharger. Storage bottles and manifold. Connection points. Vent piping to burn stack. Hypergolics. The UDMH, MMH, and N2C4 are monitored for hazardous in the following areas by the use of portable detectors. Remote monitoring is not available. Operations at the transfer units (storage). Cross-country lines. Valving complexes. Transfer unit. interface to MSS and LUT. Detection equipment is provided as Launch Umbilical Tower (LUTI. described in the following ~ragraphs, +1 Liquid Hydrogen. Monitor areas include disconnect piping transfer Both leak and fire detection is lines, valve complexes, and swing arm connection. provided, Detection is provided by leak, infra-red, and ultra-violet detectors. cluding flexible the MSS. 2,1&.2.3 described 2, conniptionsGaseous Hydrogen. Urtectors are provided at hazardous locatians connections and propellant control valves. Hypergolics. Hy~rgoli~ monitoring is similar to that described for in-

Mobile Service Structure (MSS). in the following paragraphs. Liquid ~yd~ogen~

Detection equipment is provided as

Monitor areas include transfer lines and flexible


2.18-2.3.2 Gaseous Hydrogen. following areas: a. b. c. Booster unit. 22-foot level flexible Service unit.

Monitor of leakage and fire is provided in the

line. Hypergolics. Monitoring of hypergolic fueling operations by portable hypergolic detectors to be used in the following areas: a. b. c. 2.19 2.13.1 Transfer (storage) units. Valving complexes. Interface connections. FREQUENCY DOPPLER SYSTEM (DDOPI

is provided



ODOP provides precise and dependable launch trajectory


2.19.2 GENERAL D~S~RlPTiON. determine vehicle position, velocity, is diagrammed in Figure 2-30.

ODOP uses phase comparison techniques to and acceleration, A simplified ODOP system

The ground interrogation transmitter radiates a precise 890-MHz signal to the vehicleborne transponder. The transponder receives the 890-MHz signal, coherently shifts the frequency to 960 MHz, and retransmits to the ground receivers. The ground transmitter also radiates a precise 53 ~/~-MHZ signal to the ground receivers as a reference from which doppler shift of the 960 MHz transponder signal can be measured. The accumulated doppler count of a receiver, if plotted, describes an ellipsoid with focal points at the transmitter and receiver. The vehicle is somewhere on the ellipstiid. If three receivers are employed, three ellipsoids will be generated; all with a common focal point at the transmitting site that will intersect at a point in space. A minimum of three receiver sites is required to provide data for a specific point of the trajectory. A~cura~y~ reiiability, and ~aje~to~ coverage is increased with additional ~~eiving sites. Trajectory data are derived by continuuus track of the vehicle ~diation source after I iftoff . 2.19.3 ODOP SYSTEMS. The KSC COOP sys~ms ean be divided into two eatego&s; ~~n~rd flongf baseline, and short baselineStandard and short baseline represents the physical spacing between receiving stations. geometrical station location dete~ines the portions of a trajectory where accurate data may be derived.



LNaLItm m CIF \ ZG-



Figure 2-30.

ODOP Data Flow

There are seven ODOP receiver stations, two ODDP transmitter stations, and a central recording station in the standard baseline system. These stations are within a 1%mile radius and are located on KSC, CKAFS, and contiguous areas. The standard baseline system provides continuous trajectory data from shortly after liftoff to the horizon. The ODOP short baseline stations are located in or near the launch pad area. Launch Complex 34 (LC-34) has five receivers in an L configuration around the pad, Launch Complex 37 (f-C-37) has seven receivers around the pad. Interrogation for LC-34/LC-37 launches is done from a site located on Cape Kennedy, Launch Complex 39 has five receivers in an L configuration at the pads and interrogation is done by an interrogator system located at the Instrumentation Building near the VAB. The geometrical relationship between the receiver sites and their nearness to the pad provide accurate early trajectory data. ODOP receiver analogue doppler information is transmitted, via telephone cable or RF link, to the central recording.station. There, the information is recorded, digitized, and formatted. The data, in digital format, are avaiiable for real-time postflight computation. The ODOP central data recording station is located in the C IF. 2.20 METEOROLOGICAL AND LIGHTNING PREDICTION SYSTEM

2.20.1 LAUNCH COMPLEX 39 METEOROLOGICAL. The micro-meteorological measuring system for LC-39 (Figure 2-31) defines the ,fine scale structure of the atmosphere over several thousand feet in the horizontal plane and 500 feet in the vertical plane and performs the following tasks: provides a warning system for eleotrical storms, measures magnitude of strokes on structures, gathers data on existing wind conditions, and provides information on relative humidity, temperature, and barometric pressure. The measuring system provides direct readouts and recording capability. Seismic and blast pressure data from the launch area also is recorded on magnetic tape. Anemometers and lightning sensors are placed on each LUT and MSS to furnish data during transit with direct readouts in the C/T cab. Anemometers and lightning sensors are also located near the launch pad. Data from the devices is recorded on strip chart recorders along with relative humidity, temperature, and barometric pressure data. The Digital Recording System (DRS), located in the PTCR, is used to record selected meteorological data in digital format. Direct readouts in the LCC provide a constant monitor on developing wind and lightning conditions (See paragraph 2-21 for lightning inst~mentation system information I.




( -~I i-----J



31wl L------



2.20.2 AFETR METEOROLOGICAL SYSTEM, The AFETR Meteorological System (Figure 2-32) provides meteorological information arid real-time data to KSC users to This system collects, processes and aid in planning and conducting test operations. furnishes data to the .KSC Meteorological System. The measurement of the atmospheric environment is accomplished by the use of standard and specialized meteorological instrumentation and equipment. The forecasting of significant phenomena is accomplished by applying standard professional prognostic techniques to measurements of existing conditions. The Eastern Test Range meteoroiogical a. b. G. instrumentation consists of the following:

Surface observing subsystems. Tropospheric and stratospheric Meteorological center.



These subsystems are predominantly composed of standard air weather service meteorological instruments, automatic data processing, and data transmission equipment. Surface Observinq Subsystem. The present surface observing subsystem, both in the launch area and at downrange stations, consists of standard meteorological equipment. Visual observations of clouds, visibility and weather phenomena are made by a trained weather observer, The range facilities are being expanded by the addition of substation I3 and meteorological towers on KSC, The towers are equipped to provide information to the lightning warning service and to the wind system. The wind system is a flexible data handling system for gathering meteorological information of use in computing the diffusion characteristics of the atmosphere in the launch area. It automatically gathers, processes, records, and displays these data.. Sensors on several towers at Cape Kennedy and KSC measure wind direction and.speed, air temperature and temperature difference, dewpoint temperature, and net radiation. The raw meteorological signal information is channeled over telephone lines to a PB 250 computer, and processed, The results are punched on paper tape and printed out The PB 250 is located in the Meteorological Center. for use by the meteorologist. 2.20.2,2 Tropospheric and Stratospheric Measuring Subsystem. Upper air meteorological data can be categorized as tropospheric and lower stratospheric information which affects missile testing significantly. The primary measurements are: a. b. c. Profiles of atmospheric density versus height. Profiles of electromagnetic refractive index. The horizontal wind field and vertical wind shear.











r I


Figure 2-32.

ETR Meteorological




Other upper atmospheric measurements rergired are temperature versus height; pressure, humidity, water vapor density; and speed of sound. Rawinsonde systems, including AN/GMD-1A and AN/GM@2, take meteorological measurements from the surface to approximately 100,000 feet. The systems are installed in the launch area, at downrange land stations, aboard most of the BRVs and in aircraft. Reflective RF spheres are used to measure high resolution wind-shear profiles to 60,000 feet. These spheres rise at approximately X,300 feet per minute and drift with the wind, High-altitude measurements are made to about 400,000 feet in the launch and impact areas by means of rocketsonde systems which use the Arcas and Loki If sounding rockets as payload boosters. Types of commonly used Arcas payloads are the ROBIN and the Arcasonde, which measure temperature, pressure, and density data versus The ioki II carries chaff payload altitude, in addition to wind~fie!d measurements. for tracking by radar to compute the wind field. Accurate refractive index information is required from ground level to about 100,000 feet to correct raw radar data, The index is obtained two ways: a. Measurement by refractometer refractometer is used as follows: 1. 2. Ground level installation. Aircraft installation. - Colorado Research Laboratory or other

b. Calculation from meteorological Data - Ground level atmospheric pressure, temperature, and humidity measurements are made at regular intervals at range and downrange sites, and transmitted by teletype or telephone to the meteorological center real-time computer for processing into index of refraction units. Measurements Of pressure, temperature, and humidity are also made at loo-feet altitude increments to 2,000 feet by meteorological balloon and radiosonde systems, and by aircraft flying over the downrange area. The meteorological center at Range Control Meteorological Centers. The forecast and weather briefing section, which Center consists of two sections. is the staff metearologists workshop, contains necessary communication equipment to collect test support meteorological data from the Range. Meteorological data is disseminated from the Center by briefings, vQioe, and data communications. Television briefing equipment is provided.


The balance of the meteorological center contains the data reduction section which includes a medium capacity computer. The presently used computer is the I&M 1620 data processing system and is used primarily to provide accurate reduction of upper air meteorological data. It consists of three separate units. One unit contains a 1620 computer, core storage, console panel, and type.tiriter. The second unit is the IBM 1622 card read/punch; the third, the lf3M 1623 for extra core storage. Rabvinsonde, wiresonde, meteorological rocket, and double theodoiite data are some of the data reduced by the system. A printed copy and a perforated tape are made of the incoming data. The raw data is then converted to IBM cards by means of a tape reader/ card punch. The input data cards are computer processed. The resulting output data cards are listed to provide tabular printout of altitude, pressure, temperature, and other meteorological parameters. Tabuiar printouts, as well as card output decks, are given to range users far use in test performance evaluations. 2.21 LIGHTNING INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM (SYSTEM NOI 072)

The Lightning Warning System at KSC comprises four separate instrumentation systems providing information which is assessed by the KSC Safety Officer to determine the extent of the hazard. These instrumentation,,systems ro not provide absolute indication of an expected lightning stroke, but only provide information on conditions regarding atmospheric electricity. Equipment, such as stroke counters, magnetic links- ~~&!ies+.airterminals, peak is installed on structures at LC-39 for instruvoltmeters, current transformers, etc. , mentation indications of a direct lightning stroke. A general outline of instrumentation on LC-39 and procedures involved are as follows: a. b. Stroke counters. Magnetic links. located on typical circuits in the


Peak voltmeters and dummy circuits, GSS, PTCR, and LCC. Visual observation

d. the VAB). e.

of the site during storms (most likely from the roof of




current) from LUT and MSS. of personnel safety require-

These measurements are desirabie fqr the establishment ments and for calibration of alarm systems.


2,22,X AIR FORCE LONG RANGE PREDICTiON SYSTEM. This system is denoted as the Atmospheric Electric Detection System (AEDS), and consists of three series (electromaynetic pulses) receivers located at Patrick Air Force Base, Bithlo, and New Smyrna Beach. The series return from the three stations is telemetered via telephone lines to an analog display at Patrick Air Force Base. This analog display is monitored by a television camera whose video signal is combined with a second video signal from a television camera monitoring an AN/CPS-7 weather radar unit. The composite signal is displayed on a 21-inch television tube which shows the radar cloud echoes superimposed on the series analog display. 2.21.2 POTENTIAL GRADIENT MONITOR,. This is an instrument which monitors and records the atmospheric potential gradient at selected stations. 2.21.3 CORONA CURRENT MONITOR. This instrument provides a measure of the corona discharge current associated with certain structures and probes. Eight corona current monitors are installed for LC-39. The recorder and associated equipment are located in the LCC. The system comprises a probe, a high-impedance amplifier, and an associated recorder. .Z. Z1.Q SFERICS RECEIVER SYSTEfvr. This system operates on the principle that a ligi~t~~i~lg stroke produces an electromagnetic pulse known as a sferic! which has a very broad frequency spectrum. Absolute am.p!itude information is not necessary for this system at KSC. Azimuth information is obtained by loop antenna at 70 degree angles feeding the hotirontal and vertical deflection plat~es of an oscilloscope. One hurldred and eighty degree ambiguity is eliminated with a whip antenna connected to the Z axis of the scope. The LCC is the focal point for the detection of lightning immediate area of KSC, and thunderstorms in the

Azimuth data of an approaching storm is plotted on an X-Y Plotter (located in the LCCI, The plotter tracks the coordinates of the azimuth obby manual operations, initially. tained by the sferics receivers by methods of iriangL:lation. Only two sferics stations are necessary for triangulation because normal storm trends at KSC are from the southwest to the northeasi, usually occurring in the midaft~rr~oon. The X-Y Plotter plots this triangulated-azimuth? storm information on a geograqhi~a~ map. The eight potential gradient and corona current detention sites are imposed on the X-Y pfo%er map by means of red and-green warning lights v&i& will illuminate [red) as a st, approaches the immediate area of LC-39. Various weather towers are located an Cape Kennedy and KSC which Aso s~tve as foca? points for obtai~ljt~g l~~f~t~~~ng stroke instrume~yt data. These towers vary in

heiyhi and are equipped with air terminals and magnetic are inspected periodically for Iishtning stroke activity. 2.22 APOLLO NO. C3fJ) COMMAND MODULE

link assembly arms.

The links




2,22.1. FUNCTION. The Command Module Oxygen Conditioning System provides gaseoktr oxygen, helium anu ::itrogen it 125 psig for testing and prelaunch checkout related to the Apollo. 2.22.2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION. The oxygen is maintained at 45 degrees F for cooling the interior of the Command Module, for human consumption during prelaunch operations, and for leak-testing the astronauts suits. The helium and nitrogen are used for leak-testing the Comtnand Module. The Apollo Command Module Oxygen Conditioning System is shut down prior to launch. The electrical equipment is a i .!lly ceives its oxygen from storage bottles as required before delivering it to the glycol jacketed line. The equipment switches, pump, cooler, and heats-r. controlled electrical-pneumatic system which reon the 3GG-foot level, adding heat or cooling Apollo gaseous oxygen module through a water/ include: switches, solenoid valves, pressure

Switching and logic are provided by a relay distributor on the oxygen conditioning console. The console has two separate banks of gaseous oxygen controls, either of which can automatically switch to the other if necessary. Pneumatic valves and gauges are also provided on the console for supplying gaseous nitrogen and helium to the Apollo gaseous oxygen i:;sdule. The Apollo gaseous oxygen module contains valves, pressure gauges, and indicating lamps. The entire oxygen conditioning equipment can be turned on from this module. 2.23 CENTRAL I~~STRUMENTATIGN FACILITY (CIF) TELEMETRY

2.23. b FU~~T~O~. The !iASA Ground Teiemetry System at KSC receives and processes telemetry data from prelaunch tests, flight readiness, and flight of NASA vehicles. This, processing includes acquisition and recording of telemetry data, digitizing, demodti~~ting~ decommutating, making of analog strip charts, and, generation of ~omputer~compat~bte digital tapes of telemetry data for computer reduction. The telemetry station is located on the second floor of the CIF, 2.23.2 SYSTEM DES~RlP?lG~~. The telemetry station is comprised of four modules Two of these modules are required which can be operated together or independentlyfor real-time support of a Saturn V launch or simulated flight test, and one module is required for supporting -a nonfiight overall systems test.


The modules incorporate advanced techniques oi : -lenretry processing, predetection recording, and read-time conversion of data to digital form. A typical module (Figure 2-33) contains the units described in paragraphs through RF Distribution. The RF distribution consists of amplifiers, multicouplers, and multicoupler distribution to the receivers. The incoming RF signals, acquired by the CIF antennas, are supplied to the module as one wideband mixed input. 2.23,2.2 VHF/UHF Receivers. The VHF/UHF receivers, in the telemetry module, receive signalsfrom RF distributron. Each receiver has outputs for predetection recording (heterodyned composite signal,, including the carrier), and post-detection recording. Receivers supply signals to video distribution for real-time data reduction and format conversion. 2.23* 2.3 Tape ~Recorders ~ Tape recorders, in the telemetry station, are 34-track machines that use one-inch wide tape. They are used to record predetection and postdetection outputs of the telemetry receivers. Playbacks of the tapes are fed to CIF computers~ displays, and other points as required. Siqnal Distribution, Signal distribution is accomplished through a patch panel which distributes predetection, timing, and test signals within the module. For instance, in real-time operation, the post-detecting output from the receivers is patched to the signal distribution panel which, in turn, routes the signals through the tape recorders and then to the processing equipment that consists of data core, FM discriminators, and Single Sideband ES51 equipment. Data Core. Data Core (Figure 2-34) is the system that converts all time division telemetry data (PAM and PCM) and continuous data (FM/FM) to a cammon digital formal for real-time computer entry. This system includes synchronizers, analog to digital converters, digital logic subsystem, digital bit regenerators, digital core storage, scanners, and digital to analog converters, The data core receives video from each time division telemetry link from the video distribution, The initial operation on all time division data is the generation of synchronization signals from the data. Next, the data are converted to lo-bit parallel djgital words, The L2-bit address words are generated, to identify each data channel - This digital information is then transmitted to computers in the Central Computation Facility for preliminary analysis, reduction to printouts in engi~~eering units, and arrangement into format for real-time displays and transmission to other GALA centers. Data for strip charts and analog displays are routed through digital to analog converters. The data core, an advance in the art of telemetry processing, will supply large quantities of real-time telemetry data input to computers. SSB processing equipment de2.23.2.6 Single Sideband Pro~e~~~~g equipment. modulates and separates the composite signals into individual data channefs suitable for analog display,

SNOIlVlS 33NVM NMOU % 33blVM dR M13dV k%Md L'.".- ---. .

Figure 2-34.

,Dtrta Core, Block Diagram; FM Proceszinq Equipment. FM processing equipment consists of bandpass filters, subcarrier discriminators, and low-pass filters. This equipment is used to filter out the FM frequency division subcarriers from the multiplexed data signals. The output signals .from this equipment are equivalent to the signals produced by the transducers on the vehicle. This output is in analog form and is digitized in the data core. The anaiog is distributed to displays and strip chart recorders. Analog Distribution. Analog distribution is accomplished through a patchboard that connects the analog data output of the data core, FM, and SSB processing equipment to recorders a&remote distribution systems. This patchboard permits selection of the analog measurements to be displayed and recorded. Direct-Write Recorders. Direct-write recorders are provided for recording analog data which vary slowly with time. These recorders are the paper strip charttype with ink pens for marking the lines. Timing is recorded on each chart along with the telemetry data. 2,23.2.10 Optical Oscillograph RecoJdcrs. Optical oscillograph recorders are provided for recording analog data that vary rapidly with time. This type of recorder uses photographic strip-charts-and an opticai system. for recording data. Since developing these charts equires photographic processing, a dark room is located next to the CIF telemetry station and is operated as part of the station. 2.24 DATA TRANSMISSION NO. 008 and 051) SYSTEM AND DATA DlSPLAY SYSTEM (SYSTEMS

2.24.1 DATA TRANSMISSION SYSTEM FUNCTION. The Data Transmission System UITSI (Figure 2-35) is used to transmit propellant and gas control and monitor information between the LCC and the Fad Terminal Connection Room (PTCR) located at the launch pad. 2.24.2 DATA TRANSMISSION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION, There dre approximately 990 discrete signals and 104 variable analog signals which must be transmitted from the launch pad to the firing rooms for monitoring purposes. Also, there are approximately 300 discrete signals which must be transmitted from the firing rooms to the launch pads for control purposes. A digital transmission system has been selected to transmit this information. This system requires four pairs of voice quality telephone lines, one in each direction, plus two alternate lines with automatic switch-over, At each location, there is equipmegt to sample the discrete and analog signals and convert them to PCM signals which are fed to shift registers, The modulated signals are then fed into the transmission line in serial form, using phase reversal modulation. At the receiving end, the signals are delivered to other shift registers and then converted to analog and discrete signals. The sampling rate is such that all signals are sampled once for errors during encoding, transmission, and decoding. The system incorporates accuracy checks in order to reject inaccurate data,


L--J coding, and processing, are:

. This equipment is capable of encoding, defor terminal use, two varieties of signals. The two varieties

a. CRl-OFF Signals - Signals of the ON-OFF type are single point signals derived from the Launch Pad/Control Center external logic circuits and sent to corresponding external logic circuits at the Control Cent~r/~un~h Pad Equipment. b. Analog Monitor Signals - Anaiog signals are continuously variable from 0 to 5 vdc derived frem the launch pad external circuits and sent to corresponding external circuits at the control center. 2 e24.2,2 Modem Equipment. The modem equipment has provisions for maximum security of transmission lines upon a specified number of errors or signal level. The data rate of the modem equipment is sufficient to transmit and receive all data once per second, PCM is used to encode the data for transmission carrier signal. Display Equipment. The display equipment consists of panel displays Status indications, available and controls for status indication and equipment control. at the control center area and those specified to be transmitted from the launch pad area, are displayed~ cm the control center area equipment display panels. The launch area equipment displays only its own status indications. Simulation equipment is provided in two units; 2-24.2.4 Simulation Equipment. one of which operates with the LCC and the other operates with the launch pad bTS equipment, It is capable of completely checking the ability of the 7TS tc transmit and receive accurately all input signals. in addition, it is capable of che&ing the proper operation of bTS SYNC and internal tuning. Also, the simulator is capable of .isolating malfunctions in the DTS inputs/~utputs to theextent that all system inputs/~utputs are gyrating satisfactorily. Card Tester. The card tester is capable,of testing each type of logic card within the DTS (including the simulation equipment and the card tester is required) ta determine the operating status of the card, and provides the capability of isolating component malfunctions with the assistance of standard laboratory equipment. 2.24,2.b a. b. c. d. e. Interfaces. The bTS interfaces. with the following systems:

RP-1 System. LOX System. LH2 System. environmental Control ,System, Propellant Tallking Computer System.


f. g. h. i.

Pad Safety Equipment. Power Control and Ristribution. Nitrogen System. Helium System.

2.24.3 DATA DISPLAY SYSTEM FUNCTION. The Real-Time Data Display System formats and displays computer processed telemetry and radar information for use during launch and flight operations. The system also displays weather information, flight TV, and preflight data profiles. Displays are located in the LCC and as required in other areas. 2.24.4 DATA DISPLAY SYSTEM ~~SCRIPT~~N. The data flow diagram for the Data Display System is described with reference to Figure 2-36, as follows: computer output data is fed into a Buffer/Distributor where the data are channeled to the proper display. Then the data are converted by the Data Formator and Converter into a video format. The converter stores the data at a 3&frame per second TV rate, thus alleviating the computer workload. Graphs, maps, and charts are stored and converted to video for display. Other forms of data are converted by TV cameras or are already in video format and can be interleaved directly into the system. The video data are then displayed on TV monitors at consoles or prc;ected onto large screen displays. Controls at the consoles allow the operator to select and expand the data displayed on the monitors, a5 required. The equipment for converting the data into video format and for video switching is IOcated in the CIF. Data display monitors, display control consoles, and large screen rear projection displays are located in the firing rooms within the LCC. Four large screen rear projection displays a 3 used in each firing room to support display requirements e 2.25 RF CHECKOUT EQUIPMENT (SYSTEMS NO. 065)

2.25.1 FUNCTION. The primary purpose of this station is to check out the operation of the Saturn V RF Systems and ensure their readiness for flight operations. 2.25,2 ~~SCRIPT~~N. The RF Checkout Station is located in the VAB at the 31%foot level of towers B and E, and each system services two bays. The checkout station has the capability to interrogate and monitor performance of the individual systems. RF systems are connected to the RF checkout station by antenna.coupler and waveguide or coaxial cable, when the vehicle is in the VAB. On the pad, vehicle systems are tested via open loop through antennas mounted on the VA& roof. Bench test checkout is utilized only when the test results indicate that checks or adjustments must be made requiring removal of the system from the vehicle,










The RF checkout station is capable of performing checks ranging from simple frequency and power output measurements to the more complex calibration checks of phase shift, etc. The RF checkout station consists u. b. c. d. e. Arusa checkotit of the foi towing:


C-Band checkout system. Command and communications DDDP checkout system. TV checkout system. system.

DDAS display and control console and certain common test equipment such f. as a spectrum analyzer, frequency counter, et:, 2.26 ~cc ~~A~~REM~~T SYSTEM(~Y~TEMNO. 062)

2.26.1 PURPOSE. The purpose of the LCC measuring station is to monitor the particular characteristics of vehicle performance by recording vehicle sensor outputs Monitorwhich are transmitted to the LCC firing room via DDAS to hardwire circuits. ing of the recording devices permits continuous evaluation of assigned vehicle systems The data is used for performance during checkout and launch countdown operations. quick-look and postlaunch system evaluation. 2.26.2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION. The LCG measuring station provides the capability to record critical launch vehicle parameters during systems tests in the VAB and during subsequent systems checkout and vehicle launch operations at either launch pad. A measuring station is located in each firing room of the LCC. Data to be recorded is transmitted through the DDAS, or via hardwire lines directly from the launch vehicle or GSE. The recording system permits both high and low frequency and level signals to be recorded. The equipment consists of analog strip chart recorders, optical and direct-write oscillograph recorders with required amplifiers and attenuators8 signal distributor, timing The measuring station operates distributors, and required communization equipment. in conjunction with the Vehicle Measuring Ground Support Equipment, Digital Data Acquisition System, Vehicle Stage Hardwire, and Ground Support equipment.






2.27.1 FUNCTION. The telemetry checkout equipment is located in Room 2PlO of the LGC. The primary use of this equipment is in the initial checkout of the vehicle telemetry systems in the VAB and in troubleshooting problems detected by the GIF in their automated checks of the stage telemetry system. 2.27.2 ~~SGRiPT~~N. The telemetry checkout equipment consists of several types of equipment. It is divided into four modules which are stage-oriented for the operational vehicles, racks of common operational equipment, racks of equipment oriented toward the additional telemetry syst.ems on the R and D vehicles, and racks required for the SSB measurements calibration. Each of the four stage-oriented modules contains equipment for receiving P~M/FM~ SS/FM, FM/FM, and PGM/FM signals. The SS/FM video outputs are routed to the ccmmon R and D equipment and measurements SSB calibration equipment, while the FM/FM and PGM/FM video outputs remain in the module for processing. The PAM/FM video is discriminated first and then routed to the R and D racks. The FM,/FM video is dis&r~minated and displayed on meters on a limited basis only. The PGM video shall be prdcessed by a TRS-1 for a quick-look display. Calibration and test equipment, as well as RF and video patch panels, also are located in each module. The common operational equipment contains two 7-channel magnetic tape retarders and associated Gomponetits, patch paneis, a data insertion system, and an os~iliograph recorder. This equipment is available for common usage by each of the stage-oriented modules and R and D racks for recording and playback of pre-demodulator and video informatjon~ The racks of common R and D equipment are used only with the R and D vehicles which carry P~M/FM and SS/FM systems as well. The dis~eiminated PAM signals from the four modules are decommutated and made available for scope displays. The SSE video signals are demuttipl~xed, eo~~d~t~oned, and presented on scope displays.; The SSB video from the four modules are ava~iabte for use by the KSG ~~asurem~ts Branch during their calibrz+tion of the airborne SSB signal cond~tioiie~s~ Other equipment provides for demuttiptexi~g of the signal, a scope displa,y and digital printout equipment. Ghe~ko~t of the Telemetry Gll~~kout ~qu~prne~t is performed prior to vehicle ~heGkout in the V~B by utilizing the built-in self-test ~a~bit~tjes~ The RF portion of the Telemetry Checkout Equj~ment is tested by applying an unmodulated RF signal to the components between the roof antenna and reweaver inputs. These components drive the reeceivers in each of the Telemet~ Ghe~ko~t equipment modules where the receiver signal strength and frequency &hara~ter~sti~s are checked. An RF signat, modulated with a PAN, SS or PCM video signal, amy be applied to the ~~ejv~~s to


give a dynamic check of the RF portion, and at the same t,ime check out the demultiplexing portions. A spectrum an;llyzer and telemetry ind~~~t~r are available For troubleshooting and IRIG channel monitoring. A ~AM/FM simulator output is switched into the PAM demul:~~lexer~ where the individual channels are separated and routed to an analog recorder and scopes far verification of correct operation. A build-in discriminator calibrator is used for setting up and tr~ublesh~~~ing the FM discriminatory. A SS/FM demultiplexer caiibrator is used to calibrate and tr~~bie~h~~t the SS/FM d~multiplexer$ where the individual channels are separated and routed to scopes for display. Each PGM station (TRS-11, located in the Telemetry Checkout Equipment modules, has self-checking capabilities. The station is contained in one rack with a PCM simulator built in. An operator may select the input source ~~C~~M RF air link, DDAS coaxial link nr simulator) and verify the stations operation an a quick-lcok panel and on its ten arralog outputs. If a.malfuncti~n czcurs in the Telemetry Ghe~k~ut Equipment, steps are taken using the built-in test equipment provided to isolate the malfunction. When the problem areas have been isolated to a particular assembly or subassembly, that unit is replaced by a validated unit fram spares supply, The improperly functioning unit is returned to the maintenance shop or laboratory. To assure that the problem was in the removed module, laboratory tests are made on the returned unit. Subsequent to the verification Qf the malfunction, the unit is repaired and revalidated for-future usage. After verification of the operational capability of the Telemetry the equipment is ready to support telemetry testing. 2.28 FACILITIES MEASURING SYSTEM Checkout Equipment,

2.28.1 FUNCTION. The Faciiities Measuring System at LX-38 mnonitors in real time, and records for later analysis, a wide variety of data such as: temperature, pressure, flow, vibrations, stress, and strain set-up in complex structuR by launch of the Ap~ll~/Sat~rn V vehicle. 2.28.2 ~~SCR~PT~~~. They are: a. b. Five major systems are included in Launch saluting,

Digital Acquisition System (System No. Db7). Vibratj~n Rata Aequi~~ti~n System (System No. 06&I.


i: e.

Hazardous Monitoring System (System No. 571). Acoustics Measuring System (System No. 569). Transportable Measuring System. Acquisition System (System No. 567). This system is described wal in paragraph 2 _29. described

Vibration Data AcquisiLion in paragraph 2.35.

System (System No. 0681.

This system is Hazardous Mol~i~o~ing System (Systen~No. scribed in paragraph 2.18.


This system is de- ~. The Acoustic, Data Measuring System for KSC (Figure 2-37) is capable of measuring the noise ?SVirbIlmeiik produced by large launch vehicles. The system makes simultaneous measurements in the immediate area of the launch pad. Acoustic data(sound pressure ievels and frequency) are recorded on multi-channel tape recorders for later analysis. The acoustic measurement system has a %-channel capacity in the area of, or adjacent to the pad, with microphones located on the LUT, in the PTCR, and at various positions around the launch pad, Recording equipment for these measurements are located in the PTCR and controlled remotely from the LCC. Six additional channels of acoustic measuring and recording equipment are portable for use in areas outside the KSC. Cystem. The Transportable Measuring System has an independent capability of 26c easurements, 255 of which are low frequency (digital) and 65 of which are high frequency (wideband) ~hannei~, This system is very versatile and is used for the C/T and mating tests. The measuring and recording equipment used is identical to and interGhangeab~~ with the measuring and recording equipment used elsewhere on LC-39. 2.29 51GlTAL A~Q~i~tTt5N SYSTEM (SYSPEtvi NO. 567)

2.29.1 FUN~Tl5N. The Digitai Acquisition System at LC-39 (Figure Z-38) is capable of 655 simultaneous measurements, combined at each LUT and pad, It is further Gapabie of expanding the number of measurements up to $55 channels at either the LIJT or the PTCR. These channels are interGhangeabie in groups of 155. 2.29.2 b~~~RlP~~5N. The use of versatile signal conditioning and multiplexing units permits many types of measurements, such as: pressure, temperature, strain, rate of flow, rpm, liquid level, di~pta~~ment, hydr~arbwn content, moisture content, relative humid~ty~ voltage, current,~ and frequenG~. To simplify maintenance and for versatility, plug-in modules are used throughout the system.


5 w

The data system includes a performance analyzer which automatically verifies the performance af the data system. This unit can be operated either manually or automatically, and either locally or remotely from the LCC. All low frequency analog data signals are conditioned by the system which converts analog data signals ta digital data signals, records data in digital computer format on magnetic tape, and transmits the data to the LCC For recording and/or a read-time disPh.





NO. 0$8) is used

2.3Q. 1 FUNCTION. The Vibration Data Acquisition for measuring the launch-induced environment.

System (Figure 2-39)

2.30.2 DESCRIPTIONThe Vibration Data Acquisition System has a capacity of 330 channels, 288 of which are in the LUT, with the r~rn~ailii~~g48 in the PTCR. Capability has been provided for 24 vibration rnea~ur~meilt~ to be displayed in real time at the LCC From each pad. information can be picked up and recorded on two magnetic tape recorders at a constant bandwidth of 2 KHz. The data, in addition to being recorded on two 14-channel magnetic tape recorders, can be monitored on an ascillograph, 12 channels at any given time, during preiaunch tests. The system in the LUT is designed tQ operate focally, or from the PTCR. The PTCR system can be operated focally, ar remotely from the LCC, and also permits LCC operation of the LUT system. In order to keep downtime to a minimum and to provide maximum fle~~bilfty, the entire system is ~~n~tru~ture of semi-conductor, plug-in modules. The modules operate indep~nd~ntiy with a minimum of cross-talk. The system is equipped with a confidence monitor and an automatic channel test to ensure reliable operation. The system can be operated either manually or automatically and is provided with quick-checks to show if each of the 336 channels are operating within tolerance. Prior to each test run, an internal system calibration run is made during which a dc step calibration and a 2~~*~y~~e ac ~aiibrati~n~ Fallowed by an eleven-bit channel identiFi~at~~t~, are recorded on the magnetic tape far each data channel, This calibration run is used to verify system integrity, and to provide reference levels for data analysis. The eleven-bit identification permits this analysis to be made by camputer. The vibration system is suff~~ientfy days without requiring adju~tment$, stable so that it can run for a period of up to five










2.31,1 FUN~TI~N. The ALDS uses two SDS 950 computers, located in the CIF, to format bath the uprange and downrange telemetry data for transmission (at a rate of 40.8 kbs) to the MCC-H in real time for flight control display purposes. 2.31.2 DESCRIPTION. The system is completely redundant end-to-end and !ransmits two identical bit streams to the MCC-H over geographically separated paths utilizing tvxr 301Bdata modems. The ALDS also assembles data for transmission (2.4 kbs) to GSFC. %,3% VEHICLE MEASUREMENTS ~RQ~N~ SUPPORT EQU!PMENT

2.32-L F~NG~I~N. The Vehicle Measurements Ground Support Equipment WMGSE) is used to test, verify, adjust, and record data from the various sensors and signal ~~nd~t~~n~ng units crf tne vehicle white it is in the VA& 2.32.2 ~~S~~iPTl~P~. The VM~SE comprises the ground portion of the measurements system, The VMGSE, for one vehicle, consists of four ~al~brat~~n Test Stations ACTS). The stations service the measuring systems in the three vehicle stages and the Instrument Unit, and are located on the third, fifteenth, twenty-second, and twenty-sever~th floors of the VAB. 2.32.3 ~AL~~RAT!ON TEST STATION. The ~al~brat~~n Test Station KTSI contains five Calibration Test Positions KTPI from which specific vehicle sensors and signal ~Qnditi~ning equipment can be tested or verified. The vehicle instrument system to be tested is addressed at the CTP through the Remote Automatic calibration System ~RA~S)~ information from the instrument system is acquired through the Digital Data Acquisition System AREAS) or hardwir~s and is directed, by the CTP, to a digital printed at the CTP or to the CTS Analog Record &it. 2.32.3.X Digital Data AGquisiti~n System. The BIAS consists of an inboard PCM telemetry system which samples analog measurement data, digitizes it, and transmits it by coaxial cable to the BDAS GSE in the CTS. Analog Record Unit, This unit ~~nt~~ns strip-chart and ~s~ill~graph recorders. The re&rders are used to provide r~ai~time~ analcg, hard copy rectirds of the DDAS, and hardwire measure~nts data. ~Remete Automatic ~a~ibrati~~ Systems RAPS is an inboard system which remotely switches relays at signtil ~~nditjun~ng modules placing the rrmdule in the desired test or ver~fi~ti~n mode.





2.33.1 FUNCTION. equipment for erecting, craft and LUT-installed a. b. c, d. e. f, 2,33.2

The Handling and Access System provides the necessary access, and maintenance of the space vehicle. The spacesystems are as follows:

Access arm erection. Stage erection. Spacecraft erection. Fin erection. Service mast access. ~olddown arm access, GENERAL b~S~R~~Tl~N* The system utilizes equipment such as:

b. :: e. f. E: i, jk. 1. m.

Siings. Support beams s Special tools, Fixtures. &races. &racket assembly. Adapter Iinks. Linkages. Shackles. Hoisting fixtures. Platforms. Ladders ~ Cable assembly.

2.34.1 Function. This system provides the necessary piping and control for fueling of the spacecraft and the Auxiliary ~ropui~ion System @PSI of the S-IVB stage. 2.34.2 FEMORAL ~ES~Rl~Ti~~. ~y~er~oli~ fluids tN2O4 and N2~~a~ used for the spacecraft, the Lunar Module propulsion System, and the S-IV3 Auxiliary ~ropuision System, Both fluids are conditioned and transferred by ~ropel~a~ transfer and ~o~ditjo~ing units ~~fhi~h.are mobile units), and are then piped, via the spacecpaft Af% piping withir the MSS, to the p~~~~l~~ vaiwe boxes on the MS% In turn, the fluid destitution system control units tem~rature~~ond~tio~ the fluids and control the propellant valve boxes for ioadin~ of the fluids.

_ : : .