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lnselt latest changes; destroy superseded pages.


Page No.

issue Original Original Original Original



2-1 thru 2-28

3-3. thru 3-26


The Apollo/SaturnV ing volumes: Volume Volume Volume Volume ! II Ill IV


and GSE Description

document consists

of the Follow-

KSC lndustria! Area and Remote Facilities Description Launch Complex 39 Facility Description #SC Provided Saturn V GSE System Description KSC Apollo Spacecraft Facilities and GSE System Description established by the KSC

This document is prepared in accordance with the requirement Apollo/Saturn V Document Tree, dated October 25, 1966.

_.. III



SECTKIN I 1.1 1.2 II 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.4 2e4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.6 2.6.1 2.5.2 2.6.3 ;*: 1 2:7:2 2.7.3 INTRODUCTION





Scope **___*__~_**~*****~*_______________I____** SPACECRAFT OPERATiONS AND CHECKOUT

--_ ----*AREAS



Manned Spacecraft Operations Building (M7-355) ----------== ----****-**------------**----***-*~*----*--*= Function Locatio~---------------------~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~



2-l 2-1 2-l. g:; ;:: 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12 2- 14 2- 14 2= 14 2-14 2-14 2-14 2= 14 2-14 2-14 2-14 2-14 2- 14 2-14 2-18 2-18 2-18 2-18 2-18

Administrative and Engineering Area------------------------Cafeteria and Mission Briefing Area----------=-------======= Laboratory and Checkout Apa ----I-=-c--I--------___I______ Assembly and Test Area --------------------_r_____ em---..-Buildiqg Services Area t-------____------w-----*-*---*-c** Timing System ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*~_P__________________~~~* Supply, Shipping, and Receiving Building (M7-505) ----==-== ~*~~~*~~~~~~~~~~~~*~_________________I__~*~~*~~~~ Function Location----------------------=**=*~*---*---------------*

., parachute Building (M7-657) -,,,,,,,,,-,,,,,,,-,,,,----,--Function------------------------------------------------Location **~~~~~~~~~~~~~*~~~~*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*~*~*~~


Radar Boresite Range (M7-843, M7-867) Function-------------------------------------=----=------Location *--*I=--**-**-----------*---------*------*-*---Description-----------------------------=-=------=---*-~-~


Ordnance Laboratory [M7=1417) -_-_------------I_--------~~~ctio~----------------------------------~-----~~~~~~~~~ Lo~ation---------------------------------------~~~~~~~~~~~ Description---------------------------------------------Ordnance Storage Facility (M7-1472) -=-=====-==--=--==-=-= Function------------------------------------------------Location *~~~~~~~~~~~~**~~~~*~~~~~~~~~~*~~~~~~**~~~~*~~~~





TITLE Pyrotechnic Installation Building (M7-14691-----------------Function--------------------------------------------------Location--------------------------------------------------Description ....-..~..--~~~.l-r..-~~~ --.....-rm,----- - ----- ----------Flight Crew Support Buildings tM7-4091~--------------------Function -------------------_________l__l_______--------Location -_-_-__*___C_C__r-__________1_____C__f_---------B,ascription --------------------_______l_____l_l____--------

PAGE 2-18

2.8 2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.9 z-9' 1 2x2 2.9.3 2,PQ 2,PQ.l 2.10.2 2.10.3 2.11 2.11.1 2.11.2 2.11.3 2.12 2.12.1 2.12.2 2.12.3 2.13 2.13.1 2.13.2 2.13.3

Environmental Systems Test Building No. 1 tM7-9611 Functjon--------------------------------------------------~ Location _--_--__---ce_-_-___s__c__11__1______----------@scription ----------,---------------------,----------------~


Hypergolic Test Buildings tM7-1210, M7-12129-----------------__*---__---_--____s_l________c__c_----Function-----Locatjon-------------------------------------------------~&scription -------------------_----------------------------

Cryogenic Test Buildings (M-1412, M-1410) Functjon-------~----------------------------------------Locatjon------------------------------------------~-------@scription -----------------------------------------------*


Fluid Test Support Building tM7-1061) ---------------------Functjon------------------------------------------------~-Location----------------------------------~---------------Description -__-____----------------------------------------

2-18 2-18 2-18 2-18 2-18 2-22 2-22 2-'22 2-22 2-24 2-24 2-24 2-24 2-24 2-24 2-24 2-24 2-27 2-27 2-27 2-27 2-27 2-27

General Structures Control Test


3.1 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.3


3-l ;:: 3-l 3-3 3-3 3-3 3-5 3-5

Umbilical Service

Tower -------------_-__------------------------Buildjng-------------------------------------------Ramp Facility m-I--------------- ----------------

Support Faci

I ities jJti 1ities


Ensemble &CAPE?




(Continued) PAGE


Electrical Water ps,rer and Distribution

3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.4 3.5 Z:$ ;*t 3:10 3.11 3.12 3.13


Air-Conditioning-------------------------------------------~ Communications----------------------------~---------------* Television propel/ant propellant Helium ------------------.-------------~~---------------Facilities Transfer Transfer ----c----_-lr_-_____o-_--I-_-------___ System-----------------------------------System--------------------.------------------~


High Pressure Gaseous Nitrogen System ---_------------------ACE-S/C Control and Monitor Transmission Links -------------Facility lnstrumenlation-------------------------------------Timing and Countdown--------------------------------------Area Warning System-----------------------------------------

3-6 3-I.6 3-16 3-18 3-18 3-19 3-20 3-25 3-25



FIGURE 2-l 2-2 2-3 52-4 '2-5

TITLE KSC fndustriai Area, Spacecraft Operations Area -----------------Manned Spacecraft Operations Building Layout -------------------ACE Data Links _-c---c--------________ ~---~~-.-...-. Spacecraft integrated Test Stands, GSE Locations and Communications _Tf-v _ .._____________.m_- - _--_e--_..-- m-sw -----r--Spacecraft Altitude Chambers, GSE Locations--------------------Supply, Shipping, and Receiving Building -----------------------parachute Bujidjng--------------------------------------------Radar Baresite Range------------------------------------------Ordnance Laboratory- *_C*FI*C_UI*_C-_-3_--------------C---C-Ordnance -----------------____________o________ pyrotechnic installation Building -------I--- ----- ---....-..--------Crew Suppo& _______- ------ws wms--w-----------Environmental Systems Test Building No, l----------------------Spacecraft Storage Building Flight Buildings HypergoIic Test Building No. 2 ___________-__ J& aw----wwms cm -------

PAGE 2-2 $1; 2-7 2-9 2-13 2-15 2-16 2-17 2-19 2-20 2-21 2-23 2-25 2-26 2-28 3-2 3-4 3-7 3-9 3-11 3-12 3-13 3-14


2-10 2-11 2-12 2-13 2-14 2-15 2-16 3-l 3-2 3-3 L3-4 3-5 3-6. 3-7 3-8 3-9

Fluid Test

Test Buildings
Suppo& Bujiding----------------



Propulsion Test Facility (Complex 161 -.-----_----------------..--Propulsion Test Facility (Complex 161, Service Building Work Pi&form Locations __--___---_---_------------. -s---s-m---------Propulsion Test Facility (Complex 161, Electrical Power Facilities ---------__-_----_____r_________________-----------Propulsion Test Facility (Complex 161, Facility Electrical Power Distribution (Single Line Block Diagram? ___-___-----_-_-_------Propulsion Test Facility (Complex 161, Wat,er System (Block Diagram)--- -----_----_---------_______________I____----Propulsion Test Facility (Complex 161, Pneumatic and water systems------------------------------------------------Propulsion Test Facility (Complex 161, Service Building AjpCondjtjc:~er -______ - _--- ----- -----------------------------Propulsion Test Facility (Complex 161, TV and Communications System [Location Drawing) -- ______--_-_-------_--------------Propulsion Test Facility (Complex 161, Operational intercommunication, TV Camera, and TV Timing Systems (Block Diagram) --____---------- ..e--C---..r - ------------------Propulsion Test Facility (Complex 161, Control and Signal Flow

3-15 3-21




FIGURE 3-11 3-12 3-13 Propulsion


TITLE Test Facility


PAGE 151, Typical Command

3-23 3-24



Propulsion Test Facility (Complex 141, Instrumentation Block Diagr~-------------------------------------------~-----Propulsion Test Facility (Complex IL), Warning System------------


... VIII




This volume is to be used as a reference document for obtaining general descriptions of the facilities and GSE systems located at the Spacecraft Operations and Checkout Area (Kennedy Space Center) and the Propulsion Test Complex (Cape Kennedy). 1.2 SCCPE

The facilities and GSE systems described herein have been provided for the assembly Section II contains a description of the facilities and test of the Apollo spacecraft. and GSE sy:tems at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSCI, and Section Ill contains a description of the facilities and GSE systems at Cape Kennedy (Air Force Eastern Test Range).







This Section describes the facilities and ground support equipment (GSE) systems in the Spacecraft Operations and Checkout Areas which are available for the assembly and checkout of the Apollo spacecraft. Figure 2-1 provides locations and listi~ng of the various facilities. 2.2 MANNED SPACECRAFT OPERATIONS BUILDING (M7-355)

2.2.1 FUNCTION, The Manned Spacecraft Operations (MSO) Building (Figure 2-2) is used for modification, assembly, and nonhazardous checkout of all manned spacecraft. 2.2.2 LOCATION. The Manned Spacecraft KSC Industrial Area on First Street. Operations Building is located in the

2.2.3 DESCRIPTION. The building is a multi-story structure of approximately 600,000 square feet providing floor space for an Administrative and Engineering (A&E) area, Cafeteria and Mission Briefing (C&M) area, Laboratory and Checkout (L&Cl are2, Assembly and Test (A&T) area, and Building Services area. Administrative and Engineering Area. This section is located in the north wing of the building and its primary use is office space for administrative and engineering personnel. There are conference rooms, storage rooms, equipment rooms, etc. provided. 2.2.3. Cafeteria and Mission Briefing Area. This section of the building is located between the A&E and L&C areas. The cafeteria provides services for both NASA and contractor pe,;onnei and can be used as a conference room. The mission briefing room accommodates approximately 300 personnel. Laboratory and Checkout Area. Laboratory space is provided for checkout and maintenance of spacesraft and GSE components. The Acceptance Checkout Equipment/Soacecraft (ACE-S/C) Ground Station is located on the third and fourth floors of this area. The astronauts quarters consist living quarters, exercise room, conference room, etc. , and are located on the third floor of this area. ACE-S/C System. ACE-S/C is an advanced, integrated, checkout SYStern that provides centralized, programmed control of Spacecraft Checkout Operations. It has the capability of testing the individual independent systems and up to and including the integrated spacecraft.






Buildinu M7-355 M7-409 M7-505 M7-657 M7-863 M7-867 M7-961 M7-1061 M7-1142 M7-1210 M7-1212 M7-1412 M7-1410 NJ7-I.417 ~7~~4~9 M7-~472


Name Manned Spacecraft Operations Building

Flight Crew Support Building Supply, Shipping, and Receiving Euilding

Parachute Building Radar Eoresite Radar Boresite Environmental Range, Tower Kange, Control Building Systems Test Building No. 1

Fluid Test Support Building Sewage Treatment Hypergolic Substation No. 2 No. 1 No. 1 No. 2

Test Euilding

Hypergo~jc Test Building Cryogenic Test Euifding cryogenic Test Building

O~nance ~b~r~~~~
P~te~bnjc ~nstallatjon

~rd~a~c~ ~~~~~









Figure 2-2,

Manned Spacecraft Operations Building


The system provides the remote stimuli control, monitoring, data conversion, processing, display, response measurement, and the communications necessary to ccnduct checkout of spacecraft systems. Larye quantities of test data can be processed and displayed in engineering units in real time and simultaneously recorded for later analysis. The ACE-S/C Ground Stations located in the MS0 Building operate in conjunction with the spacecraft carry-on checkout equipment, spacecraft-vicinity equipment, flight instrumentation, and onboard checkout equipment via the Data Link System (Figure 2-3). Assembly and Test Area. The assembly and test area is 86 feet wide and 650 feet long. One-third of this area has a crane hook height of 85 feet, and the remaining two-thirds has a hook height of 50 feet. Each of the three bridge cranes in the assembly and test areas has a capacity of 25 tons. Space is provided for two altitude chambers and two integrated systems test stands. Rising panel doors allow the mated spacecraft elements Lunar Module (LM), Command Module KM!, Service Module (SM) to be moved vertically from the integrated test area to the Vehicle Assembly Building WAB). Integrated Test Stand. The Integrated Test Stand (Figure 2-4) consists of a stee! structure with fixed and movable platforms, that provide access to the exterior of the spacecraft. The stand is located between columns 1 and 4, adjacent to the north wall of the Assembly and Test Area of the MS0 Building. The stand is approximately 39 feet wide by 76 feet long. The column foundations located on elevation minus 12 feet. A fixed platform is located at elevation zero, which is the main floor of the area. are

The stand is divided into t;vo areas. Each area has three movable platforms, positioned by a hoist system. Platform No. 1 may be located between elevations +lO feet and +20 feet; platform No. 2 may be located between elevations +25 feet and +35 feet; platform No. 3 may be located between elevation +40 feet and +45 feet. fn the east area, the fixed platform has a clear circular opening of 21 feet. Hinged sections lift to give a maximum opening of 23 feet 8 inches. Platforms No. 1, 2 and 3 each have an opening of 15 feet. fn the west area, the fixed platform has a clear opening of 15 feet. Hinged sections lift to give a maximum opening of 17 feet 8 inches. Platforms No. 1, 2 and 3 each have an opening of l-5 feet. Apollo Altitude Simulation System. The two altitude chambers (Figure 2-51 in the MS0 building are designed to support various pressure and simulated altitude tests of spacecraft systems. Each chamber is capable of achieving an altitude of 250,OOO feet within one hour, and eetuming to sea-level in 16 to 30 minutes under normal operation, or 2 minutes under emergency conditions.


P: I I I I I !






ACE - Spacecraft

Data Links

Electrical and fluid connections are provided through the chamber wall to furnish power, gases for cabin sea level leak checks, leak detection equipment, and Environmental Control System (EC.9 support. Additional connections for radio frequency (RF) closed loop checkout, ACE-GSE, television and intercom coverage, chamber evacuation equipment, and spacecraft system GSE are provided. The chambers are cylindrically shaped with an overall and an inside diameter of approximately 34 feet. length of approximately 50 feet

E?ch chamber is supported by four i-beam columns. The columns rest on elevation minus 12 feet of the A&T area of the MS0 Building. The top head is removable to allow the spacecraft to be positioned in the chamber. Electrical Power and Distribution. Electric power distribution to the integrated Test Stand and the Aititude Chambers is an integral part of the MS0 5uiltiing power distribution system. In this description, only those parts of the system involved in distribution to the Integrated Test Stand and the Altitude Chambers will be described. Sixty-cycle industrial power at 13.2 kv is supplied to substations in and around the MSCI Building. Power to the Integrated Test Stands and the Altitudeq Chambers is supplied by substations 5, E, J & Z. Substations D and E supply power at 480 v/277 v and substations J and Z supply power at 205 v/120 v. A switching provision in each of these substations allows power to be supplied from one of two feeders. This provides an alternate source of Emergency power could be made available by connecting power should one feeder fail. portable generator units to the connections provided for this in the substations. Communications. communication is provided by the RF operational lnte~ommun~cation System (OIS). This system provides voice ~om~uni~at~on between stations in the MS0 Building and can be interfaced with other audio systems in the Cape and KSC areas. The RF OIS system is a radio frequency, single sideband, multiplex system providing 112 separate communI:ation channels. ~peratiog channels are dial selected at each station. The low band covers channels 111 tbro~gh T.88, and the high band covers channels 211 through 268. Each statioti has the cap~jl~ty of operating on any channel and there 5 no limit to the number of stations that can operate at one time on a single channet. One charmet is provided to give selected stations access to the Ope:ational Paging System @PSI. This channel will be automatically selected when the aage butt< r is depressed. Operatct stations in the altitude chamber area are ~~~a~-proof control rooms are of the ra~k~ou~ted type. units. Stations in the

2-11 Television, An Operational Television (OTW System is provided for spacecraft checkout operations and interconnects with the &em in the Fluid Test Area and the documentation and briefing system in the MS0 Building. Checkout operaticns in the altitude chambers wili have OTV Joverage. Monitors are provided in the Spacecraft Cf.pckout Rooms and the Altitude Chamber Control Room. The cameras may be remotely controlied from the Altitude Chamber Control Room. Control of the system originates necessary equipment for control, in the ACE-S/C TV Control Room which contains the testing, distribution, and processing of the TV signals.

The S/C Control Rooms are the control centers for the S/C checkout. The OTV system provides these rooms with television coverage of the checkout operations. The two S/C Control Rooms each have nine 21-inch monitors and one dual &inch monitor. The Altitude Chamber cc. trof room contains six 21-inch monitors and two camera control units with pan/tilt/zoom conti,ols. Cameras assigned to the Altitude Chambers are hazard proof and capable of remote control. There are two -ameras in each chamber, one for general surveillance and one in the air lock for viewing personnel therein. mechanical building. Building Services Area. -,..,,., sho[J, and other building Air-conditioning, vacuum pump, spacecraft service rooms are located in the south wing of the

2.2.4 TIMING SYSTEM. A sub-central timing station is located in the MS0 Building. There is a propagation time delay between the central timing station, located in the Central Instrumentation Facility (CtF) Building, and the sub-central timing station. This delay is compensated for by the sub-central timing station. Timing signal distribution is Facilitated by cable between major KSC locations. This cable minimizes interferences and improves mechanical integrity. Timing terminal units are supplied to the rack-mounted equipment areas of the using activity from \bdhich the individual instrumentation medi; are energized. modular design is used to facilitate expected expansion. For more detail 2.? SUPPLY, explanation SHIPPINGS of the timing system see Volume ill of this document. BUILDING (M7-505)


2.3.1 FUNCTION. The Supply, Shipping, and Receiving I? wilding (Figure 2-6) provides space for maintenance and modification shops, and space for storages and control of GSE and parts required to assemble and prepare a spacecraft.









2 &I

2.3.2 between

LOCATION. This building D and E Avenues.

is located

in the KSC fndustrial

Area on 2nd Street

DESCRIPTION. This building contains a shipping, receiving, processino, and 2.3.3 controlled storage area. Ready storage space for items requiring controlled environment to prevent deterioration are available. Also, storage area for ground support equipment Shop facilities are provided within and spare parts are located within the building. the building for ground service equipment, cleaniI:g, maintenance, and plastic shops. 2.4 PARACHUTE BUfLDING (M7-657) (Figure 2-7) provides checkout space

2.4.1 FUNCTION. The Parachute Building for the inspection and packaging of parachutes. 2.4.2 LOCATION. The Parachute Building the intersection of 3rd Street and E Avenue.

is located

in the KSC Industrial

Area at

DESCRIPTION. This building has a low bay and a central office area. The 2.4.3 The central office area contains space low bay is for inspecting and packing parachutes. for bonded storage, for a machine room, and four supporting offices. 2.5 RADAR BORESITE RANGE (M7-863, M7-867) and

2.5.1 FUNCTION. structures to conduct 2.5.2 on Fifth LOCATION. Street.

The Radar Boresite Range (Figure 2-8) provides equipment final preflight qualification of spacecraft radar systems. The Radar Boresite Range is located in the KSG Industrial


DESCRIPTION. The range is located in a controlled, RF-quiet area suitable 2.5.3 tt consists of for qualification of onboard radar transmitters, receivers, and antennas. two towers 1,000 feet apart. A two-story control tower iapproximately 20 feet high and 20 feet square), supports the position fixtures, and spacecraft mock-up and radar module. The radar target fixture is supported on a 50-foot high Lower.

2.6.1 FUi~.~~iDN. The ordnance Laboratory checking, testing, and storing small pyrotechnic

(Figure 2-5) devices.

is used for dis-assembling,


L~GA~~DN. installation Eui~$ing for safety reasons.

This laboratory is located adjacent to and west of the Pyrote~bni~ in the KSG ~~d~str~al Area on Tenth Street. This facility is isolated





2.6.3 DESCRIPTION. The Ordnance Laboratory contains two test ceils, a control room, laboratory, washroom, and machine shop. The test cells are approximately 400 square feet each. The building is air-conditioned and has fans to remove conbustiorl gases from the test cells. The control room is constructed with blast-resistant walls. 2.7 ORDNANCE STORAGE FACfLlTY fMi-14721

2.7.1 FUNCTION. The Ordnance Storage Facility provides a machine shop and storage area for pyrotechnic devices and for launch escape towers. 2.7.2 LOCATION. The Ordnance Storage Building (Figure 2-10) is located adjacent to and east of the Pyrotechnic Installation Building in the KSG Industrial Area on Tenth Street. 2.7.3 DESCRIPTION. This buiiding contains approximately 3,780 square feet of machine shop, storage, and utility space. About 3,240 square feet of the total space is for ordnance storage. The building is environmentally controlled for storage of pyrotechnic devices and solid fuel motors used on the spacecraft. A crane is provided for handling ordnance items and the aligned launch escape towers. Crane hook height is about 18 feet. 2.8 PYROTECHNIC INSTAL~TI~N BUILDING &l7-14691

2.8.1 FUNCTION. The Pyrotechnic Installation Building (Figure 2-11) is used for weighing, balancing, and determining the center of gravity of the spacecraft and for optical alignment of certain pyrotechnics. 2.8.2 LOCATION. The Pyrotechnic Industrial Area on Tenth Street. Installation Building is located in the KSC

2.8.3 DESCRIPTION. This building contains approximately 18,000 square feet. An area measuring 80 feet by 150 feet by 110 feet and two service areas of 29 feet by 150 feet will be used for optical alignment of certain critical components such as The building contains a 90-foot high the spacecraft escape towers, and retrorockets. motorized door at the south side of the high bay area which permits entry of a fully mated spacecraft, (LM, Apollo, etc.1 and has an overhead crane with a hook height of 95 feet. The building is air~ond~tioned. i 2.9 2.9.1 FLIGHT CRE-W SUPPDRT EUILDIN~S ~~7-4~9~ [Figure 2-121 are for simu-


The Flight Crew Support Buildings

lated lunar mission training of the astronauts and checkout of the other lunar mission
support facifities.


2- 19


2.9.2 LOCATION. The Flight Crew Support and E Avenue in the KSC Industrial Area.


are located on 2nd Street

2.9.3 DESCRIPTION. This facility is comprised of the Flight Crew Training BuildThe Flight Crew Training Building measures ing and the Equipment Support Building. 200 feet IcJrig by 152 feet 6 inches wide and is constructed of reinforced concrete This building is constructed with a single-story frame with masonry exterior walls. section o! 12,900 square feet, accommodating office and operational support functions. The remainder of this structure is designated as low and high bay areas, 6,600 and These latter areas are the operation areas and are 11,OOrJ square feet, respectively. The false floor is constructed of modular 3-foot by 3-foot equipped with a false floor. removable panels supported by a sub-structure of metal stringers and screw adjustable pedestals. The metal of this floor sub-structure is tied together by a continuous groundThe sub-floor area, approximately ing conductor which is connected to building ground. twc feet deep, is a plenum chamber used to supply cooling air to the electror.rc equipment. The equipment cooling system is equipped with alarm devices to indicate malfuncThis alarm device allows for the manual shutdown tions and cut-of-operating tolerance. and the securing of the electronic equipment until repairs to the cooling system can be accomplished. The walls of these operation areas are covered from floor to ceiling with acoustical tile, The single-story portion of this building consists of the following areas: office tape file room, telephone intercom and data interface room, program preparations shop, locker room, and experimental training aids room. Computers, peripheral ment, and consoles are located in the adjacent low bay area. area, room, equip-

Two lunar mission simulators and two part task trainers are located in the high bay area. The clear height in this area, false floor to ceiling, is 25 feet. The electrical power system for the electronic and instrumentation equipment consists of an uninterrupted power source of 200 kw for operatron of the simulators and trainers with their associated computers and peripheral equipment. A separate and distinct grounding system has been incorporated into the building design for the electronic and instrumentation equipment. This ground system is isolated from the static/building ground system except for earth conductivity to prevent ground-loops which may indtice disturbing voltages into the electronic equipment. The Equipment Support Building, south of the Flight Crew Support i 2.10 ~NYIRONMENTA~ SYSTEMS TEST BUILDING NO. I (M7-9611 2-13) measuring Buildings. 40 feet by 45 feet, is located 50 feet

2-10.1 FUNCTION. The Environmental isused to test the spacecraft environmental

System Test Building No. 1 (Figure contra! system (life support).



2.10.2 LOCATION. The Environmental Systems Test Building, an integral part of the Fluid Test, Area, is located in the KSC Industrial Area at the intersection of Fifth Street and G Avenue. 2.10.3 DESCRIPTION. This facility contains two test ceils, a control room, equipment storage rooms, and storage for liquid oxygen iLOx) and gaseous oxygen. Clean room conditions are provided through most of the building by means of design features such as smooth walls, ceiliny, and floors, and by providing special air filtering. Space is provided for testing cf the ECS of the command and service modules stacked vertically or placed side by side. 2.11 HYPERGOLIC TEST BUILDINGS CM7-1210, M7-12121 (Figure 2-14) provide facilities

2.11.1 FUNCTION. The Hypergolic Test Buildings for checkout of the spacecraft hypergolic systems. 2.11.2 LOCATION. Test Area, are located and G Avenue.

The Hypergolic Test Buildings, an integral part of the Fluid in the KSC Industrial Area on Seventh Street between F Avenue

2.11.3 DESCRIPTION. The two buildings are irregular in shape and each contain 7,100 square feet of floor area. Each has a two-story central structure and two test cells 40 feet square and 60 feet high. The test cells are located on opposite sides of the central structure. Each test cell has an overhead crane with a hook height of 45 feet. The test ceils have large capacity exhaust systems and a flcor system which collects and dilutes hypergolic spills. Chilled water storage tank, c!>illed water basins, washdown systems and contaminated effluent tank to control and cant~,1.. inadvertent spilling of toxic and combustible propellants are provided. The central structures include contrcl rooms, equipment rooms, and a rr:chine room. The buildings are air-conditioned and have special features to provide for safe handling of the hazardous fuels and oxidizers. The control rooms are designed to protect operators from possible explosions or toxic fumes during testing of the spacecraft hypergolic systems. 2.12 ~R~~~GEN~~ TEST BUILDINGS (M-1412. M-1410)

2.12.1 FUNCTION. The Cryogenic Test Buildings [Figure 2-15) provide equipme~~t for bench testing of spac.ecraft cryogenic fuel system components, and for the fuel ceil liquid hydrogen supply system of the Command Module.



2.12.2 LOCATION. The two buildings, an integral part of the Fluid Test Area, are located between Ninth and Tenth Streets in the KSC Industrial Area. Cryogenic Test Building No. 3. (M7-1412) is on G Avenue and Cryogenic Test Building No. 2 is on F Avenue. 2.12.3 DESCRIPTION. Each building consists of one test cell having an overhead crane with a 45foot hook height , a laboratory, and a dressing room. The four walls of the test cells have 40-foot high motorized doors, A deluge fire protection system is provided in the test cell. The buildings are equipped with a gas detection and alarm system, 2.13 FLIJID TEST SUPPORT BUILDING (M7-10611

2.13.1 FUNCTION. The Fluid Test Support Building (Figure 2-16) provides support for all test operations conducted in tlie Spacecraft Operations (SC01 fluid test area. 2.13.2 industrial LOCATKIN. The Fluid Test Area Support Building is located in the KSC Area on Sixth Street.

DESCRIPTION. Laboratory, shop, office space and storage areas are pro2.13.3 vided for processing spacecraft components. Components enter the building via the production control area and are then cleaned, inspected, and stored.



The Propulsion Test Facility (Figure 3-l) is located at Complex 16, IGBM Road, Cape Kennedy, and is used for static firing tests of the Apollo Service Module Service Propulsion System. The following buildings and areas are a part of the Propulsion Test Facility: a. b. ;: e. f, g. h. i. t 3.2 Control Building. Service Building. Transfer Room. iimbiiicai Tower, Oxidizer and Fuel Pads. Oxidizer and Fuel Disposal Pads. Helium Area. GN2 Areas. SCAPE Building. Utilities. Air~~onditioning Shelter.


3.2.1 C~NTRDL ~~ILD~N~, The Control Building (blockhouse) is a two-story circular reinforced concrete dome building. An earth overburden, protected by shotcrete, covers the entire dome. On the second level is the control room .(approximately 4,300 square feeti, which houses and provides protection to operating personnel, emergency controls, monitoring equipment, and instrumentation during static firing tests. ,Periscopes are provided for viewing purposes. On the first level is office and equipment space For air-handling equipment, junction boxes, etc. An annex, attathed to this building, houses facilities, water chiller units I emergency diesel power, etc. electrical power equipment,

A balk-thy cafbeway is provjded TV house the control and inst~men~t~on cabies between the Control Euilding and Test Stand a There is no personnel access provided to the ~u~t~~ Building from the ~~!e~ay. 3.2.2 TEST STAND- The Test Stand consists of an Umbilical B~i~d~ng~ and Approa~b Ramp Facility. Tower, Service


f I Umbilical Tower. The Umbilical Tower supports the cabling and piping which connects to the Service Building and provides access to the dome of the Service Building. Service Building. The Service Building houses the Service Module and GSE interface connections between the Service Module and the facility during checkout, propellant loading, and static firing. The Service Building is a cylindrical.steel tank resting on the ramp. This building has a diameter of 30 feet and is 35 feet high. A removable roof is provided to allow installation and removal of the Service Module, which rests on a thrust stand. The thrust stand is a steel ring, 13 fe-t in diameter and 11 feet high, mounted on legs. There are two equipment accesses, consisting of double doors, plus personnel openings, to provide entrance to the Service Building. An acoustic attenuation baffle of steel plate has been installed at the first work platform level (Figure 3-2) to suppress potentially destructive pressure waves which may he generated during static firing. Microphone pickups have been temporarily installed Noise level information is to be amplified around the inside of the service building. and displayed on a readout panel in the control room for continuous monitoring during static firing. Three work platforms are provided inside the Service Building (Figure 3-21. A peripheral platform is provided on the outside of the building to provide access to the dome. Approach Ramp Facility. This is a steel and concrete structure which supports and provides access to the Service Building and Umbilical Tower. An integral part of the ramp is the water-cooled flame deflector which is used to dissipate gases and flame during a static firing. Also located in this structure are various rooms and areas which protect and house equipment, as follows: a. 1st Level. 1. 2.. 3. 4. 5. b. Actuator Pit (14 14 square feet). Equipment and Shop Room (1086 square feet]. Hydraulic Checkout Room (4440 square fe&I. Transfer Room (998 square feet), Toilet.

2nd Level. I. 2. Equipment, Inspection, and Shop Room Pi4091 square feet). Winch Room (689 square feet). and air~onditioning.

These areas are provided with ventilation



3.2.3 SELF-CONTAINED ATMOSPHERlC PROTECTIVE ENSEMBLE (SCAPEI BUILDING. This building is used as a central location for SCAPE operations. Storage space is provided for the SCAPE suits. The personnel will change from street clothes to the SCAPE suits in this building. Communication between the personnel in the CAPE suits, the test conductor, and the personnel in the SCAPE building will be maintained at a!! times during SCAPE operations. 3.3 SUPPORT FACILITIES UTILITIES

3.3.1 ELECTRICAL POWER AND DiSTRIBUTION. Electric power (Figures 3-3 and 3-4) is supplied to the Propulsion Test Faci!ity by a 13.2-kv industrial feeder and a 13.2-kv cape critical power feeder. The industrial feeder supplies substations in the Contro! Building, Air-Conditioning Equipment Pad, and Approach Ramp Building. The critical feeder supplies a substation in the Approach Ramp Building. Emergency back-up industrial power is prosided by a 350-kw diesel generator to the Control Building, Approach Ramp Buitdlng, Fuel Area, Oxidizer Area, and Vapor Disposal Areas (fuel and oxidirerl.~ Automatic transfer switches provide automatic connection of certain panels to the emergency generator In the event of loss of normal industrial power. Critical power is availahie at the Controi Building and the Approach Ramp Building. Back-up criticai power can be supplied to certain panels by motor generator sets which operate on industrial power. DC power1 at 28 v, is available in the Control Building and the Approach Ramp Building from rectifiers which are supplied industrial power. A remote controlled switching arrangement provides dual supply backup capability to certain DC panels. Figure 3-3 is a perspective drawing showing locations of power equipment and GSE receptacles. Figure 3-4 is a one line diagram of the electric power distribution system at the Propulsion Test Facility. 3.3.2 WATER SYSTEM. The water system (Figures 3-5 and 3-61 consists of two separate supplies; domestic water and process water. The Domestic Water System supplies fire hydrants, safety showers, sanitary water, propellant areas, service building deluge, engine deluge, and deck spray. The Process Water System supplies the flame bucket, pad washdown and deck deluge. The water is supplied from the Pan American Airways (PAA) Pump House at the pressures and flows required to support the operations. The fire control systems are activated from the Control Building water panel by opening system valving located under the service building area of the test stand. Five fire (or heat) sensors are located in the Fuel Area and are connected to the control system in order to activate the Fuel Area firex in case of fire. A heat sensor, located in the upper portion of the Service Building and connected to a tight and buzzer on the water control panel, will indicate a fire in the Service Building. The Service Building deluge and engine deluge are activated from the water system panel located in the Control Building. The flame bucket cooling water is controlled from the Control Building water


panel. The water panel utifizes 28 vdc to indicate valve positions and 120 vat to activate solenoids which control water flow from the process and domestic water lines. The water system is shown on the Corps of Engineers D. 0. Fiies No. 201-26671 for the original instaliation, and modification on Corps of Engineers drawings D. 0. Fiie No. 201-278 and NASA drawings No. 65K-311. 3,3.3 areas. AIR-CONDlTiONING. The Propulsion Test Facility has three air-conditioned They are the Control Suilding , the Service Building, and the Transfer Room.

The Control Buiiding air-conditioning system consists of a cooling tower, two chilled water units located in the annex, and three air-hand!ing units located on the Control Building first floor, Conditioned air is ducted from the air-handling units to the first and second level of the Control Building for heating or cooling. Service Building air-conditioning (Figure 3-7) is supplied by an Elliott Engineering Corporation portable unit (part no. PS609900037D-11 located at the air-conditioner pad. The conditioned air is ducted thru a lo-inch diameter pipe to the top of the Service Building for heating or cooling. The unit is locally controlled with no remote control provision. The Transfer Room air-conditioning system consist of a C. G. Hokanson Corp, Inc. portable chilled water unit and four air-handling units. 3.4 COMI~UN~~AT~ONS

The communications system at the Propulsion Test Facility (Figure 3-8) utilizes three basic pieces of equipment. In nonhazardous areas, a weatherproof MOPS unit is used. In any hazardous area such as the Service Building or propellant areas, an explosionproof MITOC is used. There are a total of 19 available channels whose utilization is determined by the particular test being performed. Five channels will be reserved for communications between the Propulsion Test racility and MS0 Building. 3.5 TELEVISlON

The television system (Figure 3-9) at the Propulsion Test Facility consists of three explosion-proof cameras mounted in the Service Builidng and a Fastex Film Camera mounted on the ramp leading to the Service Building. The receiving system, located in the Control Building, consists of three 8-inch control monitors mounted in a single rack and four 21-inch receivers for viewing by test personnel. Each 21-inch receiver may monitor any of the three cameras.





Test Facility

(Complex 161, Electrical

Power Facilities


i I



Figure 3-8. Propulsion Test Facility (Complex 161, TV and Communications System (Location Drawing)

Figure 3-9.

Prqpulsion Test Facility (Complex 161, Operational Intercommunication, TV Camera, a&TV Timing Systems (Block Diagrams)
















The camera control system consists of the necessary amplifiers to con oan, tilt, and zoom for each of the three cameras. These controls and amplifiers ai. located in the rack with the 8-inch receivers. See Figures 3-8 and 3-9 for equipment location and system block diagram. 3.6 PROPELLANT FACILITIES

The Oxidizer Area of the Propulsion Test Facility is located in the southeast section of the complex and the Fuel Area is located in the northeast section (Figure 3-11. These areas are in a remote portion of the complex to avoid possible damage to adjacent buildings in the event of a catastrophic malfunction within either area. The prime objective of the propellant area is to provide an interface between the facility and Mobile Propellant GSE, and to provide for a storage area and base of operation Beth the fuel and oxidizer areas are connected to during propellant loading exercises. the Service Building via propellant and propellant vapor lines. These vapor and propellant lines allow a vapor/propellant exchange during loading or off-loading to provide closed loop propellant transfer. Mechanical and electrical interfaces [stub-ups) are included to connect mobile equipment to the facility. Adjacent to the propellant areas are the vapor disposal pads. These pad areas are connected to the propellant areas via propellant vapor lines. Propellant vapors are vented from the Mobile Propeiiant Servicing Units through the vapor lines to the Toxic Vapor Disposal Units. The Toxic Vapor Disposal Units mix the propellant vapors with copious amounts of air from a series of blowers, diluting the vapor which is then released to tne atmosphere. Necessary mechanical and electrical interfaces (stub-ups) are provided to connect the Mobile Vapor Disposal Unit to the facilityy. 3.7 PROPELLANT TRANSFER SYSTEM

Propellant support for the Service Module at the Propulsion Test Facility may be divided into two areas: (a) fuel loading system, containing a 50150 blend of Unsymmetrical Dimethyl Hydrazine (UDMH) and hydrazine, and (b) oxidizer loading system, containing nitrogen tetroxide. Each system contains necessary mnbile units, plumbing, controls, etc _jI to provide its respective propellant fluid to the service module. The fuel loading system and the mobile units needed to support Service Propulsion System (SPI requirements are located northeast of the Service Building in the fuel pad area (Figure 3-11. These units include the Fuel Ready Storage Unit, Sl4-058, the Fuel Transfer and Conditioning &it, S14-008, and the Fluid Distribution System Control Unit, C14-489. The necessary facility interfacesfor fuel replenishing and power requirements are a!so provided.


Service Building fuel equipment includes the fuel valve box, tank, S14-124, and associated plumbing and controls which module. The fuel transfer and conditioning unit supplies fuel tribution to the SPS fuel tanks via cross country supply lines operation: Propellant conditioning. Line pre-chill. Propellant loading.

S14-035, the fuel bleed interface with the service to the valve box for disin one of three modes of

t: 6.

Propellant conditioning is an operation performed between the ready storage unit and the transfer and conditioning unit to stabilize the fuel at the desired operating temperaThe two units are set up for this mode ture prior to delivery to the Service Building. and fuel is transferred from the ready storage unit to the transfer and conditioning unit and back to the ready storage unit. This cyclic operation is continued until the desired operating temperature is obtained. When this mode of operation has been completed, the line pre-chill mode of operation is selected. Line pre-chill is an operation performed with the ready storage unit used as a supply vehicle and the transfer and conditioning unit used as the transfer vehicle to the fuel box in the Service Building. Fuel is circulated from the fuel pad to the valve box and back to the fuel pad through interconnecting propellant lines until the desired operating temperature is reached. The fluid distribution system control unit provides the command signals to the valve box for the pre-chili configuration. Propellant loading is an operation requiring all the units for transfer of conditioned propellant to the SPS propellant tanks. The fuel fluid distribution system control unit commands the fuel valve box from a pre-chill to a loading configuration. In addition, the fuel loading system contains a fuel toxic vapor disposal area to which toxic fuel vapors are routed from the fuel transfer system. Located in the disposal area is the fuel toxic vapor disposal unit, S14-060, with interconnecting toxic vapor lines to the fuel pad. During the fuel loading mode of operation, fuel vapors are routed to he fuel toxic vapor disposal unit to be mixed with large amounts of air and blown vertically into the atmosphere for dispersion. The propellant oxidizer loading system is located southeast of the Service Building in an area designated as the oxidizer pad (Figure 3-l). Located at the oxidizer pad are the mobile units needed to support SPS requirements. These units inciude the oxidizer ready storage unit, S14-059, the oxidizer transfer and conditioning unit, S14-002, and the fluid distribution system control unit, G14-488. The necessary faciiity interfaces for oxidizer replenishing and power requirements are also provided.


Service Suilding oxidizer equipment includes the oxidizer valve box, 514-035, the oxidizer bleed tank, S14-122, and associated plumbing and controls which interface with the service module. The oxidizer transfer and conditioning unit supplies oxidizer to the valve box for.distribution to the SPS oxidizer tanks via cross-country supply lines in one of three modes of operation: Propellant conditioning. Line pre-chill. Propellant loading.


These modes of operation are identical to those of the fuel loading system except for the particular parameters desired for the oxidizer system. The oxidizer loading system is also interc,onnected with a toxic vapor disposal area in which is located the oxidizer toxic vapor disposal unit, Sl.4041, and connecting lines, It functions in the same manner as the fuel toxic vapor disposal unit. 3.8 HELIUM TRANSFER SYSTEM

The helium system consists of the necessary mobile units, associated hardware, and controls to accomplish leak and functional tests of the Service Module Service Propulsion System. The helium area is located on the approach ramp to the Service Building, and the following units are included there: helium transfer unit, S14-009; helium booster unit, S14-022; helium ready storage unit, S14-062; and a helium tube bank trailer. Low pressure helium from the tube bank trailer rs supplied to the helium booster unit, which supplies high pressure helium to the ready storage unit and transfer unit. The ready storage unit provides 6000 psi to the propulsion system checkout unit, C14-075, and provides a ready source of high pressure helium to the transfer unit. The transfer unit conditions and transfers 4000 psi helium to the Service Building helium valve box, where it is available for distribution to the propulsion system during checkout. Command signals from the helium fluid distribution system control unit, C14-449, which is located on the second level of the Control Building, control the configuration of the helium valve box solenoid valves as dictated by the requirements of the test in progress. The control unit also monitors response indications from the helium valve box to indicate valve positions and fluid parameters in addition to the SPS measureme& and helium pad measurements. 3.9 HIGH PRESSURE GASEOUS NITROGEN SYSTEM

The nitrogen system consists of facility supplied gaseous nitrogen tGN21 which is regulated, through a nitrogen a nitrogen controller, to various pressures for control and


purge functions. High pressure GN2 from an off-site pumping station [220&5500 psi) is supplied to the nitrogen control unit located in the actuator room of the seTvice structure. The nitrogen control unit regulates the supply nitrogen by hand-loaded regulators mounted on a face panel to provide regulated nitrogen for distribution throughout the complex. These distribution areas include the fuel pad, oxidizer pad, toxic vapor disposal pads, helium pad, and the Service Building. The fuel pad, oxidizer pad, and toxic vapor disposal pads receive 1500 psi GN2 as a control media for valve operation in their associated mobile units, and as a pneumatic source at their facility interface stub-ups. The fuel pad and oxidizer pad are also provided with 150 psi GN2 to regulator assemblies which provide a 50 psi purge to the electrical control units. This purge elgminates potential hazards in the propellent areas. The helium pad is supplied with 750 psi GiJ2 to the helium transfer unit and helium booster unit for control valve operation. The Service Building is supplied with 1600 psi GN2 for control valve operq.tion at the ftuid distribution system valve boxes, and propulsion system fluid checkout unit. Also, a regulator assembly provides a 50-psi GN2 purge to the associated J boxes and Leak testing of senrice module procontrol units as part of the safety requirements. pulsion components will be accomplished with the freon pressurization unit, C14-486, which mixes freon with dry GN2 at the correct temperature, pressure, and flow rates. The l&30-psi GN2 output from the nitrogen controller supplies the pneumatic medium for this unit. A liquid nitrogln (LN2) trailer is provided at the helium pad during helium transFer to chill operations. The trailer supplies LN2 to the helium transFer unit, S14-009, the helium to desired operating temperatures. These temperatures are sampled at selected points of the system and are monitored on the heiium control unit in the Control Building. The service propulsion system GN2 storage tanks will be serviced by a K-bottle supply, These tanks provide storage for GNz which is used for ensine ball valve operatinn during functional testing and static firing operations = 3.10 ACE-S/C ~~N~R~L AND MONITOR TR~N~~~i$~l~N LINKS

The control system at Complex 16 (Figure 3-101 consists OFthe ~~E-~~~ eo~~and link, the C14-402-101 iSPS Checkout and Firing Unit), and manually ~ont~~~ed GSE. The ACE-S/C station performs two control functions: vector control c~mm~ds. SPS valve commands and ~b~st

These commands (Figure 3-11) originate in the ACE-S/C station and are transmitted in digital form via the A2A hardline system, to the Service Equipment Digital Test Command System K14-241-501). In this unit the commands are decoded and routed to the proper GSE to initiate the required action. The C14-602-101 Complex 16: a. b. c. has the capability of initiating the following three commands at

Vibration safety cutoff commands. Emergency shutdown commands. Emergency shutdown for the gimbal clutches.

The vibration safety cutoff command is an automatic function of the C14-602. When the vibration level of the SM-SPS becomes intense enough to be dangerous, the output nf thn xrihrstinn - -,.<.... _. ,reaches a !evel high enough to actuate circuitry in the -. .**.. f.w....*v** +rancdllcer C14-455 (valve driver unit) which sends an enable signal to the emergency shutdown unit in the C 14-602. The shutdown command may be manually initiated to shut down the Slvl engine if quicklook data in the Control Building indicates a malfunction. The emergency shutdown command for the gimbal clutches is a manual command which will permit the engines to continue to fire but disable the gimbal drive circuitry. 3.11 FACILITY INSTRUMENTATION

The instrumentation system at the Propulsion Test Facility (Figure 3-12) records and displays data from the SM, GSE, and the facility. At present four methods of presenting data are in use. A frequency modulation (FM) system utilizing standard lRlG VCOs and summing ampliiiers provides the capability of recording 57 analog data channels on Twelve redline parameters are presented in real magnetic tape for post-test evaiuation. time at the Control Building, and a pulse code modulation (PCF& signal from the C14-232 (Data Interleaving System) is routed to ACE-S/G for de~ommutation and display. The fourth means of processing and presenting data is built into the GSE. A typical exampie of this is the Vibration Safety Cutoff Signal. !f excessive vibration occurs during the static firing, the SPS engine valves are automatically closed by a signal generated and monitored at the C14-602 ~~heckout and Firing Unit). The parameters monitored originate in the SM, (X4-353 (Thrust Vector Control Unit], and the C14-455 (SPS Remote Control Unif). ~e~urernen~ from the SM are routed through the GSE access cable or the CM/SM umbilical to the interface box at the Service Building. From the Service Building these signals are routed to the transfer room where they are signal ~o~djtioned and placed into an FM or PCM format. The



--ti! 3 EfE -1 --f -




: : i



_. .

Figure S-11.


Test Facility


161, Typical Command Response Flow Diagram

c; N P

Figure 3-12.

Propulsion Test Facility

(Compl,ex 161, instrumentation

BIock Diagram

FM signals are sent to the Control Building for recording on magnetic tape. Certain of these signals will also be sent to the Control Building in analog form to be presented on Sanborn strip chart recorders as redline functions. The analog signals which are to be sent to the ACE-S/[: station are routed to C14-484 (Signal Conditioning Unit) and the C-14-24D [Servicing Equipment S/C Adapter) where they are converted to digital form arrd placed h&Q a PCM format. Frotn the C14-240 (Servicing Equipment, ACE-S/C Adapts) they are routed to the C14-232 (interleaver) where they are pla,ced into a new format. The interleaver feeds directly into the A2A system which is the connection to the ACE-S/C Station at the MS0 Building. This flow is shown in Figure 3-11. By adding either additional C14-240s or carry-on PCM systems, the PCM data capabilities can be increased. The FM system can be increased to 96 data channels by the addition of summing amplifiers and VCOs. The C14-602 also has additional data capabilities if required. 3.12 TIMING AND COUNTDOWN

The Propulsion Test Facility utilizes range timing in the standard IRIG format. The three timing signals distributed from the RCA timing rack located on the first floor of the Control Building are one pulse per second (PPSI, 100 PPS coded, and 10 PPS uncoded. The one PPS signal is distributed to all countdown clocks in the Control Building and the transfer room and to the strip chart recorders located in the Control Building. The 100 PPS coded time is distributed to the magnetic tape and strip chart recorders located on the second floor of the Control Building. The 10 PPS signal is distributed to the TV Control Systems and the emergency station on the second floor of the Control Building. The coded timing format will be changed when new IRIG standards go into effect. 3.13 AREA WARNING SYSTEM

The Warning System (Figure 3-U) consists of lights and horns. The.lights (red, green and amber) are located on the Umbilical Tower and on the top of the Control Building, These lights are controlled by switches on the Test Conductor (TCI and Pad Safety Officer (PSO) consoles on the second floor of the Control Building. Switches are also located in the Fuel and Oxidizer Areas and on the ramp for control of the fights. T,he area warning horns are located on the Umbilical Tower, in the Control Building, and in the Service Building. Three warning horns are controlled from the TC or PSO consoles on the second floor of the Control Building or from switches located in #he Fuel and Oxidizer Areas and on the ramp.


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