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# General Aspects Regarding Finite Element Analyses On Tubular Joints

CHAPTER FOUR

## FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSES

ON TUBULAR JOINTS

4.1 Introduction

For many years, a large number of experiments have been conducted on simple

tubular joints, usually in plane and uni-planar. The numbers of experiments are

limited by the cost, manpower and competing resources in carrying out such tests.

Regression analyses have been conducted based on these limited sets of experiments

through which recommendations for the design of tubular joints are made available.

During this period, advances have been made progressively in the area of finite

element method, and it has become acceptable to use finite element method. This

helps to extend the understanding of the behaviour of tubular joints, especially for

out-of-plane and multi-planar joints where resources for and complexities involved in

such tests become prohibitive. In the last 30 years, computational capability has also

advanced tremendously, both in the speed and accuracy. Harnessing these strengths in

## advances in finite element method as well as reduction cost of computations have

been the standard practice in the industry to increase the quantity and reliability of the

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General Aspects Regarding Finite Element Analyses On Tubular Joints

results. This has inevitably help to made possible the extension of current design

codes and recommendations beyond the small sets of results from tests. Thus more

complex geometries in tubular design has been made possible through the use of finite

element analyses.

Vegte et al (1991) and Cofer et al (1992) have reported several non-linear analyses of

the ultimate strength of tubular joints and they provide an important affirmation that

the finite element method can accurately predict the behaviour of tubular joints. An

## thick shell elements.

Earlier research has included weld elements in the numerical analysis by adding one

layer of shell element at the brace chord intersection. The application of weld

simplification here was proven sufficient as calibrated from the experimental data.

Davies (1986) also further improved the weld formulation from recommendations by

Davies et al (1996) through the use of six-noded prism elements in combination with

four-noded shell elements to model the fillet weld. To maintain compatibility of solid

and shell elements, the multiple point constraint method were used. Weld geometry

was also investigated by Healy et al (1994) who presented many numerical studies on

the strength of overlapped K- joints under in-plane bending and brace axial loading.

## discretisation, boundary conditions and material properties in the numerical study of

CHS DK-joints. In all these results, the ultimate strength were determined and used in

the design recommendations, which highlights the great potential in the use of the

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General Aspects Regarding Finite Element Analyses On Tubular Joints

finite element method to extend the scope of work beyond those that experiment

## programmes hope to cover.

In this chapter, a concise description will be given of the numerical models that have

been used and the calibration methods used for the experimental models that have

been conducted, in order to extend the knowledge and to consider effects of loading

combination that could not be easily tested in the laboratory. Since the computational

method relies heavily on the input to the method, many factors are critical to ensure

that the right parameters are fedback into the computer to generate the correct results.

In the finite element method, there are many factors that influence the results. They

are the type of elements used, modelling of weld geometry and material post-yield

property, and these are briefly described in this chapter. As they say “garbage in,

## garbage out”, relying on computational mechanics means that a thorough

understanding of the solution method and inputting the correct functions is needed to

derive the correct behaviour in the response. The next chapter will highlight the

numerical simulations of the experiments conducted and this will pave the way for the

## 4.2 Finite element programs and hardware used

All finite element models have been generated using the pre-processor PATRAN

## representation of the modelling of the specimen. The PATRAN model of the

specimen was subsequently converted into an ABAQUS (2000) input file format by

the software. The numerical analyses were then performed using the general-purpose

## non-linear finite element programme post-processor ABAQUS.

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## 4.3 Main characteristics of finite element work on tubular joints

Brief descriptions of the finite element characteristics of all the tubular joints that are

modelled and analysed numerically in this section are explained in the various

sections. As numerical analysis are determined chiefly by the characteristics that are

defined for the numerical analysis, this section forms the basis or foundation for

which all computational works are done here. Characteristics like the type of elements

used, the material post yield characteristics and weld geometry are all critical in

obtaining the right solutions in the calibration and subsequently the parametric

## 4.3.1 Finite element mesh and boundary conditions

In the modelling of the joints, the size and number of elements used are critical to

ensure that the finite element computation captures the overall behaviour of the joints

under loading. This is especially critical at the vicinity of the intersection of the braces

with the chord. In addition, the combination of shear plate and through pipe also made

it very congested at the intersection and proper mesh gradient is important. The

elements used to model close to the intersection are small elements very close to one

and another which gradually increases in size further away from the intersection. This

would indirectly help to enhance the computational time, as the number of elements

used would be more optimised. Since solid elements are used throughout the analyses,

this is even more important as the number of nodal points increased substantially if

Solid elements are used rather than Shell elements. Shell element consists of 8 nodal

points while a solid element used 20 nodes. Since the thickness of the braces and

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chords used are substantially thicker than conventional tubular sections, use of Solid

## elements in the finite element computational is important.

Further reduction of the elements used (in order to optimised the computation time)

are possible by modelling only a quarter of the joints arising from the effects of

symmetry in loading and geometry. The plane of symmetry hence created greatly

enhances the analysis using Solid elements. In all the tubular joints that are modelled

and analysed, due to the loading and geometric symmetry, a quarter solid model, with

## appropriate boundary conditions, was considered in the analysis. The boundary

conditions are applied to prevent rigid body displacements and rotations of the joint

and ensuring that the degree of freedom is available due to the symmetry. The

specified boundary conditions for the quarter model as shown in Figures 4.1 and 4.2

accounted for the assumed conditions of symmetry for the trunnion. In a plane of

## symmetry, the nodal displacements perpendicular to the plane of symmetry are

restricted while the nodal rotations perpendicular to the plane of symmetry are

allowed. At the same time the two remaining translational degrees of freedom are free

while the remaining rotational degrees of freedom are restricted. In technical terms as

## The symmetry conditions in ABAQUS can be specified conveniently in terms of the

type specification. For example, the XSYMM specification indicates symmetry about

a plane X=constant, with the associated boundary conditions of ux=0, )y=0 and )z=0.

The specifications for the plate trunnion model are given below.

x ZSYMM, uz=)x=)y=0

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General Aspects Regarding Finite Element Analyses On Tubular Joints

x XSYMM, ux=)y=)z=0

## 4.3.2 Finite element types

In the model, smaller elements were used around the region of high stress where the

changes in stress and strain were rapid. The symmetry assumption for the loading and

geometry resulted in a quarter model (as shown in Figures 4.1 and 4.2) with

## associated reduction in computational effort.

XSYMM

ENCASTRE ZSYMM

Figure 4.1 Quarter model of small pipe trunnion with boundary conditions shown

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General Aspects Regarding Finite Element Analyses On Tubular Joints

XSYMM

ZSYMM

Figure 4.2 Quarter model of large pipe trunnion with boundary conditions shown

The solid element, C3D20R in ABAQUS (2000) element library, with reduced

integration was used in the analysis. For geometric non-linear analyses, the option

NLGEOM is specified in the ABAQUS (200) input file. The isotropic hardening in

the PLASTIC option was activated, with the conservation of volume monitored

during the analysis, i.e. the thickness of the elements was updated as the shell

elements deform. The input for the isotropic hardening of PLASTIC option required

the conversion of the engineering stress-strain curve for a material into a true stress-

strain curve. In all numerical analyses, the true stress-strain curve is modelled as a

multi linear relationship. These multi linear relationships have been obtained after

## converting an engineering stress-strain curve for a material into a true stress-strain

curve. In addition, the von Mises yield criterion and isotropic strain hardening are

used.

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The total load under geometrical and non-linear analyses was applied in small

incremental steps. Under user defined convergence criteria, each incremental step

## Newton-Raphson iteration method was implemented to obtain equilibrium within

each increment. The procedure for monitoring the satisfaction of the convergence

criteria was based on checking the relative residual errors. This implied that if the

ratio of maximum residual forces and moments to the maximum reaction forces and

## moments exceeds a certain small tolerance, recycling was continued within an

increment. Different mesh sizes were used to ascertain convergence of the load-

Generally, load and displacement controls were the two methods available for

applying loads during the process of analysis. Load was applied at the nodes in

## several steps by load-controlled method, while under the displacement-controlled

method; displacement was applied at the nodes. Though the displacement controlled

method of applying was preferred, load controlled method was used because of the

nature of the problem in trunnions. The grommet that transferred the load to the side

braces was not rigid. There was no fixed displacement direction over the width of the

side braces in contact with the sling. As an approximation, uniform pressure loading

was applied over the width of the side braces in contact with the grommet to simulate

## the effect of applied load.

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General Aspects Regarding Finite Element Analyses On Tubular Joints

## 4.3.4 Modelling of the post-yield material property

For geometric non-linear analyses, the option NLGEOM is specified in the ABAQUS

input file. When this option is used, isotropic hardening in the PLASTIC option was

activated, resulting in the strains obtained from the computation which include non-

linear displacements. The input for the isotropic hardening of PLASTIC option

required the conversion of the engineering stress-strain curve for a material into a true

## axial tensile specimen gives the logarithmic strains.

In all the numerical analyses, the true stress – true strain curve is modelled as a

H ln(1  e)
V S (1  e)

## where H : true strain

V : true stress

e : engineering strain

S : engineering stress

## engineering stress-strain curve for a material into a true stress-strain curve. In

addition, the von Mises yield criterion and isotropic strain hardening are used.

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General Aspects Regarding Finite Element Analyses On Tubular Joints

## 4.3.5 Iteration procedure and convergence criteria

The total load under geometrical and non-linear analyses was applied in small

incremental steps. Under user defined convergence criteria, each incremental step

## Newton-Raphson iteration method was implemented to obtain equilibrium within

each increment. The procedure for monitoring the satisfaction of the convergence

criteria was based on checking the relative residual errors. This implied that if the

ratio of maximum residual forces and moments to the maximum reaction forces and

## moments exceeds a certain small tolerance, recycling was continued within an

increment.

Different mesh sizes were used to ascertain the convergence of load-displacement and

ultimate load. A typical convergence study was carried out for a plate trunnion in

which four different meshes were used for the analysis. The predicted load deflection

curves corresponding to the different meshes were compared with the experimental

curves in Figure 4.3. It can be observed that the computed and experimental

deflection results converge when the mesh is sufficiently fine and they are found to be

closer to the experimental values. The mesh corresponding to Numerical 1, which was

closest to the experimental result, was selected for use in the analysis of the other

specimens.

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General Aspects Regarding Finite Element Analyses On Tubular Joints

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

CT3 Test
Numerical 1
1000
Numerical 2
Numerical 3
Numerical 4
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Displacement, ' (mm)

## 4.3.6 Numerical modelling of weld geometry

It has been observed that numerical models of the pipe trunnions that does not model

the welds gives rise to a load-deformation curve which is much lower than the one in

which welding has been modelled. Since the loading arm in the trunnion is very short,

the weld profile is important to benchmark with the experimental results and produce

similar behaviour in the numerical analysis. Numerical modelling of all pipe trunnions

was modelled using welds based on the measured weld sizes by Vegte (1995).

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General Aspects Regarding Finite Element Analyses On Tubular Joints

## 4.4 Numerical analysis for the experimental tests

As the cost of finite element computation has gone down, it has become possible to

model the specimen using solid elements. These solid elements would allow for the

full-scale comparison between the calibrated finite element models with the tested

specimen. As the solid model does not give some unique problems associated with

thick shell elements, this type of solid elements have been used throughout the

computational study. Some typical solutions are discussed here which are applied for

## all the specimens modelled.

Figures 4.4 and 4.5 show the solid model of small pipe trunnion compared with

specimens C1 and C5 at failure respectively. It is clear from the figure that the solid

model provides a very good representation of the specimen being tested. The

magnitude of the deformation (using finite element) of the brace as well as the lateral

buckling of the shear plate (inside the chord) also corresponds very closely to the

specimen tested. These figures highlight the close agreement achieved and hence the

validity in using the finite element for the parametric study on the effect these

## parameters have on the trunnions and tubular X-joints.

Figure 4.4 Solid model of trunnion compared with test specimen C1 at failure

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General Aspects Regarding Finite Element Analyses On Tubular Joints

Figure 4.5 Solid model of trunnion compared with test specimen C5 at failure

The trunnion and tubular X-joint were modelled using the PATRAN software and

non-linear analyses were carried out using the ABAQUS (2000) software. The

## (i) The modelling was based on solid models.

(ii) The modelling of weld details was based on the actual measured profile and

weld thickness.

(iii) Test coupon results for the plates and pipes were used to convert the

## engineering stress-strain curves to the true stress-strain curves. The latter

have been used to model the post-yield material properties of the specimens.

(iv) The von Mises yield criterion and isotropic strain hardening were used.

(v) One quarter-model was analysed with appropriate and suitable boundary

## used in the modelling.

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General Aspects Regarding Finite Element Analyses On Tubular Joints

Each of the specimens was modelled accordingly and the numerical load-deformation

plots were compared with the corresponding experimental results. They are plotted on

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Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

CHAPTER FIVE

NUMERICAL SIMULATION
OF THE EXPERIMENTS

## 5.1 Research programme and general finite element aspects

This chapter describes the numerical simulations of the experiments that were

discussed in Chapter 2 and 3. The characteristics of the general aspects of the finite

element method have been described in detail in the previous chapter. All finite

element models analysed here have been generated using the PATRAN software

package. The PATRAN model was converted to an ABAQUS (2000) input file

format by the PATRAN software package. The numerical analyses were then

## (i) The modelling was based on solid models.

(ii) The modelling of weld details was based on the actual measured profile and

weld thickness.

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Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

(iii) Test coupon results for the plates and pipes were used to convert the

## engineering stress-strain curves to the true stress-strain curves. The latter

have been used to model the post-yield material properties of the specimen.

(iv) The von Mises yield criterion and isotropic strain hardening were used.

(v) One quarter-or half model was analysed with appropriate boundary

## (vii) Twenty-nodes solid element including reduced integration (C3D20R) is used

in the modelling.

Each of the specimens was modelled accordingly and the numerical load-deformation

plots were compared with the corresponding experimental results. They are plotted on

## 5.2 Numerical analyses

The general finite element characteristics of the numerical analyses for shear and

bending loading on trunnions and tubular X-joints have been described in chapter 4.

In addition, it is highlighted here that a half joint model has been modelled to take

ensure that the boundary conditions are modelled accordingly. The elements used are

20 node solid elements with higher mesh spacing at the intersection and lower mesh

spacing further away from the joints. The loads applied on the brace to effect the

## shear and bending loads used displacement control mechanism.

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Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

## Table 5.1 Research programme for the numerical analysis

Specimen d0 t0 d1 t1 ds ts E J W
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)

## CT1 508.0 20.5 324.0 17.6 - - 0.64 25 0.86

CT2 508.0 12.5 324.0 12.4 - - 0.64 41 0.99
CT3 508.0 20.5 406.4 12.5 - - 0.80 25 0.61
CT4 508.0 12.5 406.4 12.5 - - 0.80 41 1.00
CT5 508.0 15.2 406.4 17.0 - - 0.80 33 1.12
CT6 508.0 12.4 324.0 12.4 - - 0.64 41 1.00
CT7 508.0 12.5 406.4 12.5 - - 0.80 41 1.00
CT8 508.0 20.5 324.0 17.5 364 16.4 0.64 25 0.85
CT9 508.0 12.5 324.0 12.4 364 16.4 0.64 41 0.99
CT10 508.0 20.7 406.4 12.5 446 16.4 0.80 25 0.60
CT11 508.0 12.5 406.4 12.5 446 12.4 0.80 41 1.00
CT12 508.0 20.7 324.0 17.5 - - 0.64 25 0.85
CT13 508.0 20.7 324.0 17.6 - - 0.64 25 0.85
CT14 508.0 20.7 324.0 17.6 - - 0.64 25 0.85
CT15 508.0 20.7 406.4 12.5 - - 0.80 25 0.60
CT16 508.0 20.7 406.4 12.5 - - 0.80 25 0.60
CT17 508.0 20.7 406.4 12.5 - - 0.80 25 0.60

## C1 219.1 23.0 168.3 11.0 - - 0.77 10 0.48

C2 219.1 23.0 114.3 8.6 - - 0.52 10 0.37
C3 219.1 12.7 168.3 11.0 - - 0.77 17 0.86
C4 219.1 23.0 168.3 11.0 210 25 0.77 10 0.48
C5 219.1 23.0 168.3 11.0 210 16 0.77 10 0.48
C6 219.1 23.0 168.3 11.0 210 25 0.77 10 0.48
C7 219.1 23.0 168.3 11.0 210 16 0.77 10 0.48
C8 219.1 12.7 168.3 11.0 210 25.0 0.77 17 0.86

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Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

## 5.2.1 Pure pipe trunnions

For each of the pipe trunnion joint, the brace are loaded by shear and bending loads

through the surface area as defined by a grommet and the loads remain perpendicular

to the surface of contact even as the brace bend under load. This is similar to the

actual behaviour of the brace specimen, which bends under the load applied through

the grommet. Higher mesh spacing is used to model the intersection between the

brace and chord. Further away, the mesh spacing is reduced. The weld geometry is

modelled to reflect closely the plastification of the chord wall as the bending loads

## which caused the chord to yield.

The numerical and experiment results of the ultimate behaviour of the small pipe

trunnions are shown in Figure 5.1 and 5.2. They are both loaded with the same load

steps. These two diagrams highlight the efficacy of the solid model in simulating the

actual behaviour up to yielding of the trunnions in the two different modes. Figure 5.1

shows shear failure of the brace. Good match in the yielding pattern of the brace

section is noted between the numerical and experiment results. The high level of

yielding on the top section of the brace can be clearly seen in the diagram.

Figure 5.1 Comparison of experimental and numerical results of the ultimate failure
mode of small pipe trunnion C1

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Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

Figure 5.2 on the other hand shows the chord tension pull out of the chord wall. The

chord undergoes plastification and begins to yield as the in-plane bending moment on

the chord increases resulting in the eventual failure of the trunnion through chord

plastification. The bearing area where the load is applied through the grommet is

## subjected to a high load resulting in indentation at that section.

Figure 5.2 Comparison of experimental and numerical results of the ultimate failure
mode of small pipe trunnion C3

## Further observations on the comparison between the numerical and experimental

results is shown through a view of the cut section of the trunnion after tests. After the

trunnion has been tested to its ultimate failure load, a cross-section through the

trunnion is made to observe the failure mode and for comparisons with the numerical

analyses. Figure 5.3 and 5.4 both shows the effect of different failure modes.

Specimen CT3 fails by shear through the brace while specimen CT5 fails by chord

tension pull out. A different mode of failure is clearly observed from the different

yielding pattern formed on the surfaces of the brace and chord. The former registers

higher yielding of the brace while the latter’s chord wall are more highly yield. The

## deformation is clearly in good agreement as well.

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Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

Figure 5.3 Comparison of experimental and numerical results of the ultimate failure
mode of small pipe trunnion CT3

Figure 5.4 Comparison of experimental and numerical results of the ultimate failure
mode of small pipe trunnion CT5

The set of results for the brace trunnions suggests that the numerical analysis

approach is suitable for use as a basis for further investigating the effect of shear and

bending loads applied on the trunnion stubs so that more rational design guidelines

can be recommended. The modelling of weld geometry, use of solid elements as well

as strain hardening effect produces numerical results that are in good agreement with

## the experimental tests.

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Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

## 5.2.2 Shear plate pipe trunnions

For each of the shear plated pipe trunnion joint, the brace is loaded by shear and

bending loads through the surface area as defined by a grommet and the loads remain

perpendicular to the surface of contact even as the brace bends. It is observed here

that the brace only provides the surface where the loads from the grommet are

transmitted to the loaded arms, as the brace are not welded onto the chord. Only the

shear plate is slotted through the chord wall. This is similar to actual brace specimen,

which bends under the load acting applied through the grommet used.

The numerical and experiment results of the ultimate behaviour of the pipe trunnion

with shear plate only, specimen C5, is shown in Figure 5.5. They both follow the

same loading steps. These two diagrams highlight the efficacy of the solid model in

simulating the actual yielding behaviour of the shear plate before fracture. The

yielding pattern of the numerical and experimental results of the shear plate matches

well. The high level of yielding on the top section of the brace can also be clearly seen

in the diagram.

Figure 5.5 Comparison of experimental and numerical results of the ultimate failure
mode of shear plate small pipe trunnion C5

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Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

The set of results for the pipe trunnion with shear plates only suggests that the

numerical analysis approach is suitable for use as a basis for further investigating the

effect of shear and bending loads applied on the trunnion stubs so that a more rational

way can be recommended for use in the design of trunnions. The modelling of well

geometry makes use of solid elements as well as the strain hardening effect which

provides numerical results that are in good agreement with the experimental tests.

## 5.2.3 Through pipe trunnions

This set of pipe trunnion is similar to the pipe trunnions with attached pipes except

that the pipe is slotted through the chord wall. This enhances the shear carrying

capacity of the brace and reduces the tendency for the chord wall to yield first before

the brace achieve its full shear capacity. For each of these trunnion joint, the brace are

loaded by shear and bending loads applied through the surface area as defined by a

grommet and the loads remain perpendicular to the surface of contact even as the

brace bends.

In order to have a better comparison between the numerical and experimental results,

cut section views of the trunnions are made after ultimate tests of the trunnions. After

the trunnion has been tested to its ultimate failure load, a cross-section of the trunnion

is made to observe the failure mode and for comparisons with the numerical analyses.

Both CT2 and CT6 are identical except that the latter has its pipe slotted through the

chord wall. The ultimate load achieved for these two specimens cannot be more

different as CT6 achieved an ultimate load much higher than that of CT2.

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Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

Figure 5.6 Comparison of experimental and numerical results of the ultimate failure
mode of shear plate small pipe trunnion CT6

This failure mode of specimen CT7 is in sharp contrast with the failure mode for CT4,

shown in Figure 5.7 below. Both specimens, CT4 and CT7, are identical except that

the latter has the pipe slotted through the chord wall. The ultimate load achieved for

these two specimens cannot be more different as CT4 achieved an ultimate load of

2,950kN while CT7 managed a sizeable ultimate load of 5,160kN. This is almost

double the load level and shows the good potential in the use of through pipe

trunnions.

Figure 5.7 Comparison of experimental and numerical results of the ultimate failure

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Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

## mode of shear plate small pipe trunnion CT7

From the observations, it is concluded that the set of results for the pipe trunnions

with through pipe only suggests that the numerical analysis approach is suitable for

use as the basis for further investigating the effect of shear and bending loads applied

on the trunnion stubs so that a more rational way can be recommended for use in

design. The modelling of well geometry, use of solid elements as well as strain

hardening effect produces numerical results that are in good agreement with the

experimental tests.

## 5.2.4 Combined shear plate and pipe trunnions

Here the combined effect of the shear plate in combination with the attached pipe

static strength when subjected to shear and bending loads are examined. It is common

to design a trunnion considering only the shear plate strength, ignoring the

contribution of the attached pipe. However, this is too conservative as the amount of

shear strength that the attached pipe contributes is very significant as can be seen from

## the experimental and numerical results.

For this trunnion joint, the brace are loaded by shear and bending loads applied

through the surface area as defined by a grommet and the loads remain perpendicular

to the surface of contact even as the brace bends. It is observed here that the brace

only provides the surface through which the loads from the grommet are transmitted

to the loaded arms, as the braces are not welded onto the chords. Figure 5.8 shows a

comparison of the experimental and numerical results of the ultimate failure mode of

the combined pipe & shear plate pipe trunnions, CT10. As a small displacement is

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Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

imposed at the middle of the shear plate within the chord wall, buckling of the shear

plate results after a certain moment capacity is developed within the system. Hence

the buckled shear plate can be seen to be the governing failure mode for this

configuration of trunnion.

From the observations, it can concluded that the set of results for the combined pipe &

shear plate pipe trunnions suggests that the numerical analysis approach is suitable for

use as a basis for further investigating the effect of shear and bending loads applied on

the trunnion stubs so that a more rational way can be recommended for use in design.

The modelling of well geometry, use of solid elements as well as strain hardening

effect produces numerical results that are in good agreement with the experimental

tests.

Figure 5.8 Comparison of experimental and numerical results of the ultimate failure
mode of shear plate small pipe trunnion CT10

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Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

## 5.2.5 Shear and bending loads on tubular X-joints

This set of pipe trunnion is similar to the pipe trunnions with attached pipes except

that the pipe is further extended beyond the standard stub length used in the trunnions.

## This series of tubular X-joints test provide an opportunity to reflect on the

contributions to the shear and bending moment capacity of trunnions discussed so far.

For a trunnion, the bulk of the failure mechanism is controlled by shear effect,

however, as the length of the brace becomes longer, bending moment effect takes

over. The validity range for the transition between shear and bending moment can be

assessed through this study. For each of these joints, the brace are loaded by shear and

bending loads applied through the surface area as defined by a grommet and the loads

## remain perpendicular to the surface of contact even as the brace bends.

Figure 5.9 Comparison of experimental and numerical results of the ultimate failure
mode of tubular X-joints CT12, CT13 and CT14

Figure 5.9 shows a comparison of the experimental and numerical results of the

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Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

ultimate failure mode of tubular X-joints CT12, CT13 and CT14. As the moment arm

of the trunnion is increased, the chord wall becomes weaker as its capacity becomes

governed by the in plane moment capacity through chord wall plastification as well as

the increase in potential for punching shear failure as discussed earlier. This

behaviour is captured in this study and will be useful in assessing the validity of the in

## plane moment formulation in current use.

In the above five different types of specimen with different configuration studied by

## numerical analysis, it can be concluded that the numerical analysis approach is

suitable for use as a basis for further investigating the effect of shear and bending

loads applied on the trunnion stubs so that a more rational way can be recommended

## 5.3 Comparison between the experimental and numerical results

These numerical results have been compared with the experimental results to

benchmark and calibrate the computational models and gauge the level of accuracy in

determining its use in the parametric studies. The general behaviour of the response of

the brace subjected to shear and bending loads are compared using the load

## displacement curves obtained experimentally and numerically. The plastification and

yielding pattern of the braces and chords have also been compared through the failure

patterns at the ultimate load achieved during the experiments. The results and

observations for the different type of trunnions and X-joints are compared in the

following sections.

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Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

## 5.3.1 Pure pipe trunnions

The ultimate failure mode of the trunnions from the experimental tests is placed side

by side with the results of the solid element models analysed as described in the

earlier sections show close resemblance with respect to the failure behaviour. The

comparison made is for specimens C1 to C3 for the small pipe trunnions and CT1 to

CT5 for the large pipe trunnions. It is observed that the failure mechanism of the

specimens analysed using the finite element method match closely with those of the

test specimens. The bending profile, high stress concentration regions, loaded areas at

the brace as well as the likely region that shows fracture are closely reflected in the

numerical results. The plastification of the numerical models can also be clearly seen

from the diagram. This is important as it shows that the behaviour of the numerical

models under shear and bending loads are in close agreement with the corresponding

test specimens. The overall process of its behaviour under load is also investigated

## through the load-displacement diagrams. The elastic behaviour, point of deviation

from the linear zone, strain hardening portions, ultimate loads reached and the final

## fracture of the trunnion are compared.

The load-displacement diagrams for C1 to C3 and CT1 to CT5 are shown in Figures

5.10 and 5.11 respectively. These two diagrams show very convincingly that the load

deformation results derived from the numerical analyses compared very well with the

## experimental load deformation plots. This good agreement is highlighted throughout

finally failure either through fracture of the shear wall of the brace or chord tension

pull out at the chord wall with well defined chord plastification.

147
Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

## The ultimate results obtained numerically is within 3% deviation of the experimental

results. The elastic yield from the numerical results was used instead of the

experimental results as the latter is subjected to other experimental factors and overall

stiffness is usually lower. The numerical analysis produces a more consistent set of

results across the specimens. It is observed here that for specimen C1 and C2 which

has no noticeable chord plastification, full effective shear is resisted by the brace

alone.

Due to the good agreement between the experimental and numerical results,

parametric studies for this type of pipe trunnion can be carried out to study its

behaviour under shear and bending loads and the results would be used in determining

## the validity of the formulations in designing a pipe trunnion.

148
Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

3000

Specimen C1
2500

2000

Specimen C3

1500

1000 Specimen C2

## 500 C1 Test C1 Numerical

C2 Test C2 Numerical
C3 Test C3 Numerical
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Vertical Displacment of Trunnion Brace, mm

## Figure 5.10 Load-displacement diagram for experimental and numerical results of

specimens C1 to C3

149
Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

6000

CT3

5000
CT1

4000 CT5

3000
CT4

CT2
2000

## CT1 Test CT1 Numerical

1000 CT2 Test CT2 Numerical
CT3 Test CT3 Numerical
CT4 Test CT4 Numerical
CT5 Test CT5 Numerical
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Displacement, ' (mm)

## Figure 5.11 Load-displacement diagram for experimental and numerical results of

specimens CT1 to CT5

A parametric study has been set up and will be reported in Chapter 6. The finite

element characteristics used here in the numerical studies have been similarly used in

the parametric studies. The good agreement in the results lend confidence on the

validity of results for the subsequent use as well as of the numerical models used for

parametric studies.

150
Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

## 5.3.2 Shear plate pipe trunnions

The ultimate failure mode of this trunnion during the experimental tests is shown side

by side with the results of the solid element model. The pipe trunnions with only shear

plates are compared as shown in Figure 5.12 displaying the close semblance of the

failure modes.

3000

C4 (2733 kN)

2500

C5 (2020 kN)
2000

1500

1000

C4 Test
500
C4 Numerical
C5 Test
C5 Numerical
0
0 10 20 30 40
Vertical Displacment of Trunnion Brace, mm

## Figure 5.12 Load-displacement diagram for experimental and numerical results of

specimens C4 to C5

A comparison made is for specimens C4 and C5 in the case of small pipe trunnions. It

is observed from the diagrams that the failure mechanism of the specimen analysed

using finite element method match closely with that of the corresponding test

specimen. The bending profile, high stress concentration regions, loaded areas at the

151
Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

brace as well as the likely region that shows fracture cracks are closely reflected in the

numerical results. The plastification of the numerical models can also be clearly seen

from the diagram. This is important as it shows that the behaviour of the numerical

models under shear and bending loads are in close agreement with that of the test

specimens. It was observed that the analytical and experimentally determined curves

are in good agreement and the determined ultimate loads obtained is a good indication

of the efficacy of the numerical model. The finite element characteristics used in the

numerical studies have been used as a guide to model the combined configuration of

## 5.3.3 Through pipe trunnions

The ultimate failure mode of pipe trunnions with through pipes obtained

experimentally is placed side by side with the results of the solid element model

## analysed showing close resemblance in the failure behaviour. A comparison is made

for specimens CT6 to CT7 in the case of large pipe trunnions. It is observed from the

diagrams that the failure mechanism of the specimen analysed using the finite element

method match closely with that of the corresponding test specimen. The bending

profile, high stress concentration regions, loaded areas at the brace as well as the

likely region that shows fracture are closely reflected in the numerical results. The

plastification of the numerical models can also be clearly seen in the diagram. This is

important as it shows that the behaviour of the numerical models under shear and

bending loads results are in close agreement with the corresponding test specimens.

## specimens CT6 to CT7.

152
Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

## CT6 Test CT6 Numerical

CT7 Test CT7 Numerical
6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
0 10 20 30 40 50
Displacement (mm)

## Figure 5.13 Load-displacement diagram for experimental and numerical results of

specimens CT6 to CT7

The ultimate results obtained numerically show only a small deviation from the

experimental results. Due to the good agreement between the experimental and

numerical results, parametric studies for this type of pipe trunnions can be set up for

such trunnions under shear and bending loads and the results would be used in

## determining the validity of the formulations in designing a pipe trunnion. A

parametric study have been set up and reported in Chapter 6. The finite element

characteristics used in the numerical studies have been similarly used in the

parametric studies.

153
Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

## 5.3.4 Combined shear plate and pipe trunnion

The ultimate failure mode of pipe trunnions with combined pipes and shear plates

from the experimental tests are placed side by side with the results of the solid

element model analysed using the computational model. The comparison is shown in

Figure 5.14 and 5.15 displaying the close semblance of the failure modes of the two

sets of results. A comparison made is for specimens C6 to C8 in the case of small pipe

trunnions and CT8 to CT11 in the case of large pipe trunnions. It is observed from the

diagrams that the failure mechanism of the specimen analysed using finite element

method match closely with that of the corresponding test specimen. The bending

profile, high stress concentration regions, loaded areas at the brace as well as the

likely region that shows fracture cracks are closely reflected in the numerical results.

The plastification of the numerical models can also be clearly seen from the diagram.

This is important as it shows that the behaviour of the numerical models under shear

and bending loads are in close agreement with that of the corresponding test

specimens.

Due to the good agreement between the experimental and numerical results,

parametric studies for this type of pipe trunnion can be carried out under shear and

bending loads and the results would be used in determining the validity of the

formulations in designing a pipe trunnion. A parametric study have been set up and

reported in Chapter 6. The finite element characteristics used in the numerical studies

have been similarly used in the parametric studies. The good agreement in the results

lend confidence for the subsequent use of the results obtained numerically for the

parametric studies.

154
Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

## C6 Test C7 Test C8 Test

C6 Numerical C7 Numerical C8 Numerical
5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

## * C6 stopped due to grommet failure

0
0 5 10 15 20 25
Vertical Displacment of Trunnion Brace, mm

## Figure 5.14 Load-displacement diagram for experimental and numerical results of

specimens C6 to C8

It is noted here that due to the premature failure of the grommet during the test,

specimen C6 was never tested to its ultimate load. At the load where the grommet

breaks, the specimen has already yielded and is not suitable to carry out further tests

using another grommet. Thus the results for this case only was compared up to the

maximum load applied. Generally, for specimen that fails by shear or when the

## peak value indicating the ultimate load.

155
Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

## CT8 Test CT8 Numerical

CT9 Test CT9 Numerical
CT10 Test CT10 Numerical
CT11 Test CT11 Numerical
9000

8000

7000

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Displacement, ' (mm)

## Figure 5.15 Load-displacement diagram for experimental and numerical results of

specimens CT8 to CT11

## 5.3.5 Shear and bending loads on tubular X-joints

The load deformation plots of the tubular X-joints obtained experimentally are placed

side by side for comparison with the results of the solid element model analysed. A

comparison of the tubular X-joints are shown in Figure 5.16 displaying the close

semblance of the two sets of failure modes. A comparison made is for specimens CT3

and CT15 to CT17 in the case of large pipe trunnions. It is observed from the

diagrams that the failure mechanism of the specimen analysed using the finite element

method match closely with that of the corresponding test specimen. The bending

156
Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

profile, high stress concentration regions, loaded areas at the brace as well as the

likely region that shows fracture cracks closely reflected those observed in the

numerical results. The plastification of the numerical models can also be clearly seen

from the diagram. This is important as it shows that the behaviour of the numerical

models under shear and bending loads are in close agreement with that of the

## corresponding test specimens.

6000
CT3 Test
5500 CT3 Numerical
CT15 Test
5000 CT15 Numerical
CT16 Test
4500 CT16 Numerical
CT17 Test

## 4000 CT17 Numerical

3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
0 50 100 150 200 250
Displacement, ' (mm)

## Figure 5.16 Load-displacement diagram for experimental and numerical results of

specimens CT3, CT15 to CT17

Due to the good agreement between the experimental and numerical results,

parametric studies for this type of pipe trunnions can be carried out under shear and

157
Numerical Simulations of the Experiments

bending loads and the results would be used in determining the validity of the

formulations in designing a pipe trunnion. A parametric study have been set up and

reported in Chapter 6. The finite element characteristics used in the numerical studies

have been similarly used in the parametric studies. The good agreement in the results

lend confidence for the subsequent use of the results obtained numerically for the

parametric studies.

158
Numerical Parametric Studies

CHAPTER SIX

## 6.1 Assumptions for the numerical models

The main characteristics of the finite element analyses conducted on tubular joints

have been described and discussed in detail in the previous chapters. Due to the good

agreement between the results of the experiments and the numerical models,

numerical parametric studies have been set up. In the following numerical parametric

studies, the real values of the dimensions of the joints, weld sizes, yield strength and

material post yield properties were used, closely mirroring those obtained through

## calibration with the experimental results.

Finite element method has been used successfully in simulating the ultimate strength

behaviour of tubular joints and many references were available for use as a guide in

utilising the finite element method. Some of the more relevant research papers were

published by Cofer (1992a), which uses the finite element techniques to perform

159
Numerical Parametric Studies

ultimate strength analysis of tubular joints. In addition, Jubran (1995a) also utilised

similar finite element techniques to model tubular joints to study the interactive

## behaviour of tubular X and Y-joints. Vegte (1995) reported an extensive study

through shell finite elements to model various tubular joints and the ultimate

capacities of the joints have been calibrated using experimental results. The thesis

## also presented basic ultimate in-plane bending moment capacities of uni-planar

circular hollow joint sections that was derived using numerical results. The present

study utilizes the nonlinear finite element analysis software, ABAQUS (2000), with

## calibration via experimental tests for the parametric study.

For these numerical studies, the following characteristics and assumptions have been

## applied to all the trunnion specimens modelled. The non-dimensional geometrical

parameters which have been considered are 2J1, 2J0, E, W, and w1. The term, w1, is the

distance from the chord wall to the point of loading on the trunnion brace. The range

of parameters considered are described and listed in the following tables for the

## different configurations of trunnions considered. In each case the joint dimensions

together with the non-dimensional geometrical parameters are presented for reference.

## It is noted that the geometry of the weld is significant in obtaining accurate

predictions of the observed behaviour of the tubular joints tested, as discussed in the

previous chapters. The welds are modelled here in accordance with the weld

## dimensions and geometry as recommended by AWS (2000). With increasing

computational speed and lower costs, the present numerical analyses adopts solid

elements, instead of shell elements, since most of the sections use thick chord and

brace wall thicknesses. Thus, as compared to Vegte (1995), the models here do not

have the same limitations encountered in modelling the weld thickness since the solid

160
Numerical Parametric Studies

elements enables representation of the full geometry of the weld along the intersection

between the chord and brace, as well as the intersection between the shear plate and

## chord. This provides for more realistic models of the joints.

For the purpose of standardisation and easy reference, all the numerical models used a

standard steel grade of fy = 300 N/mm2 and fu = 440 N/mm2. The true stress – true

strain curves have been used in the analysis. In addition, the von Mises yield criterion

## 6.2 Pure pipe trunnions

It is noted here that even though fabricated trunnions has been used widely in the

offshore industry, there is little available papers or reports on the experimental and

numerical results on tests on pipe trunnions. The first set of small-scale plate trunnion

tests were conducted by Quah (1998). This is the only known tests on fabricated

trunnions. However, no experimental works were available for pipe trunnions. The

## small number of tests provided by Quah (1998) gives a framework to better

understand the behaviour of trunnions subjected to shear and the associated bending

moments. The body of a plate trunnion is a main plate which is different from that of

a pipe trunnion, and there is no concern on chord plastification effects that a pipe

trunnion prone to. Comparisons of numerical and experimental results were published

## by Choo et al (2001), and good correlation was observed.

The limited experimental and numerical results have provided the motivation for the

current research to be conducted since the shear load transferred by these lifting

points is very high. A more rigorous approach will provide a good basis for the

161
Numerical Parametric Studies

understanding of the behaviour which will lead to better design. Currently, trunnion

design relies on simple checks, which tend to be over designed due to many

## efficacy of safety factors adopted for trunnion design.

The current research scope attempts to investigate the influence of W, E and 2J, which

are the most important parameters with respect to the static strength of trunnion joints.

The specimens have been selected to provide a wide validity range taking into

account practical limits. For example, the minimum W is 0.5 as smaller W ratio would

be impractical since the brace may suffer from brace yielding before the joint failure.

Also, excessively thick-walled members are avoided since specially rolled or cast

joints are not covered in this study. A fabricated trunnion uses common brace and

## chord sizes to ensure availability and easy fabrication.

In this study, non-linear finite element analyses have been performed on the joints

subjected to shear and in-plane bending loads. The static strength of the pipe

## trunnions are expressed in normalised format and regression analyses is used to

generate the required expression that can be used to estimate the appropriate static

## The dimensions and non-dimensional geometrical parameters of pure pipe trunnions

are illustrated in Figure 6.1. The research programme for such trunnions subjected to

## shear and bending moment is summarised in Table 6.1.

162
Numerical Parametric Studies

The loading arm, is set at about w1 = 100mm from the face of the chord wall. The

## dimensions and the non-dimensional geometric parameters considered in the research

programme covers 0.46 < W < 1.25, 0.28 < E < 0.90, and 10 < 2J <30.

d0

D = 2l0 / d0 t0

E = d1 / d0

2J = d0 / t0

W = t1 / t0

t1

d1 l0

W1

## Figure 6.1 Dimensions and non-dimensional geometric parameters of pipe trunnions

163
Numerical Parametric Studies

Table 6.1 Research programme of pure pipe trunnions (in plane only)

## W = 0.46 2J0 = 10 2J0 = 15 2J0 = 20 2J0 = 25 2J0 = 30

E = 0.28 T11-1A T11X-1A T12-1A T12X-1A T13-1A
E = 0.54 T21-1A T21X-1A T22-1A T22X-1A T23-1A
E = 0.70 T31-1A T31X-1A T32-1A T32X-1A T33-1A
E = 0.90 T41-1A T41X-1A T42-1A T42X-1A T43-1A

## W = 0.75 2J0 = 10 2J0 = 15 2J0 = 20 2J0 = 25 2J0 = 30

E = 0.28 T11-2A T11X-2A T12-2A T12X-2A T13-2A
E = 0.54 T21-2A T21X-2A T22-2A T22X-2A T23-2A
E = 0.70 T31-2A T31X-2A T32-2A T32X-2A T33-2A
E = 0.90 T41-2A T41X-2A T42-2A T42X-2A T43-2A

## W = 1.00 2J0 = 10 2J0 = 15 2J0 = 20 2J0 = 25 2J0 = 30

E = 0.28 T11-3A T11X-3A T12-3A T12X-3A T13-3A
E = 0.54 T21-3A T21X-3A T22-3A T22X-3A T23-3A
E = 0.70 T31-3A T31X-3A T32-3A T32X-3A T33-3A
E = 0.90 T41-3A T41X-3A T42-3A T42X-3A T43-3A

## W = 1.25 2J0 = 10 2J0 = 15 2J0 = 20 2J0 = 25 2J0 = 30

E = 0.28 T11-4A - T12-4A - T13-4A
E = 0.54 T21-4A - T22-4A - T23-4A
E = 0.70 T31-4A - T32-4A - T33-4A
E = 0.90 T41-4A - T42-4A - T43-4A

164
Numerical Parametric Studies

## Table 6.2 Dimensions and non-dimensional geometric parameters for

W = 0.46, 0.28 < E < 0.90, 10 < 2J <30
Specimen Chord Brace Geometrical Parameters
d0 t0 d1 t1 E 2J0 2J1 W

## T11-1A 508.0 50.0 141.3 19.05 0.28 10.16 7.42 0.38

T21-1A 508.0 50.0 273.0 25.40 0.54 10.16 10.75 0.51
T31-1A 508.0 50.0 355.6 25.40 0.70 10.16 14.00 0.51
T41-1A 508.0 50.0 457.2 25.40 0.90 10.16 18.00 0.51

## T11X-1A 508.0 33.3 141.3 15.88 0.28 15.25 8.90 0.48

T21X-1A 508.0 33.3 273.0 15.88 0.54 15.26 17.19 0.48
T31X-1A 508.0 33.3 355.6 15.88 0.70 15.26 22.39 0.48
T41X-1A 508.0 33.3 457.2 15.88 0.90 15.26 28.79 0.48

## T12-1A 508.0 25.4 141.3 12.70 0.28 20.00 11.13 0.50

T22-1A 508.0 25.4 273.0 12.70 0.54 20.00 21.50 0.50
T32-1A 508.0 25.4 355.6 12.70 0.70 20.00 28.00 0.50
T42-1A 508.0 25.4 457.2 12.70 0.90 20.00 36.00 0.50

## T12X-1A 508.0 20.6 141.3 9.52 0.28 24.64 14.84 0.46

T22X-1A 508.0 20.6 273.0 9.52 0.54 24.64 28.68 0.46
T32X-1A 508.0 20.6 355.6 9.52 0.70 24.64 37.35 0.46
T42X-1A 508.0 20.6 457.2 9.52 0.90 24.64 48.03 0.46

## T13-1A 508.0 15.9 141.3 7.92 0.28 31.95 17.84 0.50

T23-1A 508.0 15.9 273.0 7.92 0.54 31.95 34.47 0.50
T33-1A 508.0 15.9 355.6 7.92 0.70 31.95 44.90 0.50
T43-1A 508.0 15.9 457.2 7.92 0.90 31.95 57.73 0.50

## T13X-1A 508.0 14.3 141.3 7.14 0.28 35.60 19.79 0.50

T23X-1A 508.0 14.3 273.0 7.14 0.54 35.60 38.24 0.50
T33X-1A 508.0 14.3 355.6 7.14 0.70 35.60 49.80 0.50
T43X-1A 508.0 14.3 457.2 7.14 0.90 35.60 64.03 0.50

## T14-1A 508.0 12.7 141.3 6.35 0.28 40.00 22.25 0.50

T24-1A 508.0 12.7 273.0 6.35 0.54 40.00 42.99 0.50
T34-1A 508.0 12.7 355.6 6.35 0.70 40.00 56.00 0.50
T44-1A 508.0 12.7 457.2 6.35 0.90 40.00 72.00 0.50

165
Numerical Parametric Studies

## Table 6.3 Dimensions and non-dimensional geometric parameters for

W = 0.75, 0.28 < E < 0.90, 10 < 2J <30
Specimen Chord Brace Geometrical Parameters
d0 t0 d1 t1 E 2J0 2J1 W

## T11-2A 508.0 50.0 141.3 - 0.28 10.16 - -

T21-2A 508.0 50.0 273.0 - 0.54 10.16 - -
T31-2A 508.0 50.0 355.6 35.71 0.70 10.16 9.96 0.71
T41-2A 508.0 50.0 457.2 34.93 0.90 10.16 13.09 0.70

## T11X-2A 508.0 33.3 141.3 - 0.28 15.25 - -

T21X-2A 508.0 33.3 273.0 25.40 0.54 15.26 10.75 0.76
T31X-2A 508.0 33.3 355.6 25.40 0.70 15.26 14.00 0.76
T41X-2A 508.0 33.3 457.2 25.40 0.90 15.26 18.00 0.76

## T12-2A 508.0 25.4 141.3 19.05 0.28 20.00 7.42 0.75

T22-2A 508.0 25.4 273.0 19.05 0.54 20.00 14.33 0.75
T32-2A 508.0 25.4 355.6 19.05 0.70 20.00 18.67 0.75
T42-2A 508.0 25.4 457.2 19.05 0.90 20.00 24.00 0.75

## T12X-2A 508.0 20.6 141.3 15.88 0.28 24.64 8.90 0.77

T22X-2A 508.0 20.6 273.0 15.88 0.54 24.64 17.19 0.77
T32X-2A 508.0 20.6 355.6 15.88 0.70 24.64 22.39 0.77
T42X-2A 508.0 20.6 457.2 15.88 0.90 24.64 28.79 0.77

## T13-2A 508.0 15.9 141.3 12.70 0.28 31.95 11.13 0.80

T23-2A 508.0 15.9 273.0 12.70 0.54 31.95 21.50 0.80
T33-2A 508.0 15.9 355.6 12.70 0.70 31.95 28.00 0.80
T43-2A 508.0 15.9 457.2 12.70 0.90 31.95 36.00 0.80

## T13X-2A 508.0 14.3 141.3 11.10 0.28 35.60 12.73 0.78

T23X-2A 508.0 14.3 273.0 11.10 0.54 35.60 24.59 0.78
T33X-2A 508.0 14.3 355.6 11.10 0.70 35.60 32.04 0.78
T43X-2A 508.0 14.3 457.2 11.10 0.90 35.60 41.19 0.78

## T14-2A 508.0 12.7 141.3 9.52 0.28 40.00 14.84 0.75

T24-2A 508.0 12.7 273.0 9.52 0.54 40.00 28.68 0.75
T34-2A 508.0 12.7 355.6 9.52 0.70 40.00 37.35 0.75
T44-2A 508.0 12.7 457.2 9.52 0.90 40.00 48.03 0.75

166
Numerical Parametric Studies

## Table 6.4 Dimensions and non-dimensional geometric parameters for

W = 1.00, 0.28 < E < 0.90, 10 < 2J <30

## Specimen Chord Brace Geometrical Parameters

d0 t0 d1 t1 E 2J0 2J1 W

## T11-3A 508.0 50.0 141.3 - 0.28 10.16 - -

T21-3A 508.0 50.0 273.0 - 0.54 10.16 - -
T31-3A 508.0 50.0 355.6 - 0.70 10.16 - -
T41-3A 508.0 50.0 457.2 45.24 0.90 10.16 10.11 0.90

## T11X-3A 508.0 33.3 141.3 - 0.28 15.25 - -

T21X-3A 508.0 33.3 273.0 - 0.54 15.26 - -
T31X-3A 508.0 33.3 355.6 33.30 0.70 15.26 10.68 1.00
T41X-3A 508.0 33.3 457.2 33.30 0.90 15.26 13.73 1.00

## T12-3A 508.0 25.4 141.3 - 0.28 20.00 - -

T22-3A 508.0 25.4 273.0 25.40 0.54 20.00 10.75 1.00
T32-3A 508.0 25.4 355.6 25.40 0.70 20.00 14.00 1.00
T42-3A 508.0 25.4 457.2 25.40 0.90 20.00 18.00 1.00

## T12X-3A 508.0 20.6 141.3 20.60 0.28 24.64 6.86 1.00

T22X-3A 508.0 20.6 273.0 20.60 0.54 24.64 13.25 1.00
T32X-3A 508.0 20.6 355.6 20.60 0.70 24.64 17.26 1.00
T42X-3A 508.0 20.6 457.2 20.60 0.90 24.64 22.19 1.00

## T13-3A 508.0 15.9 141.3 15.90 0.28 31.95 8.89 1.00

T23-3A 508.0 15.9 273.0 15.90 0.54 31.95 17.17 1.00
T33-3A 508.0 15.9 355.6 15.90 0.70 31.95 22.36 1.00
T43-3A 508.0 15.9 457.2 15.90 0.90 31.95 28.75 1.00

## T13X-3A 508.0 14.3 141.3 14.30 0.28 35.60 9.88 1.00

T23X-3A 508.0 14.3 273.0 14.30 0.54 35.60 19.09 1.00
T33X-3A 508.0 14.3 355.6 14.30 0.70 35.60 24.87 1.00
T43X-3A 508.0 14.3 457.2 14.30 0.90 35.60 31.97 1.00

## T14-3A 508.0 12.7 141.3 12.70 0.28 40.00 11.13 1.00

T24-3A 508.0 12.7 273.0 12.70 0.54 40.00 21.50 1.00
T34-3A 508.0 12.7 355.6 12.70 0.70 40.00 28.00 1.00
T44-3A 508.0 12.7 457.2 12.70 0.90 40.00 36.00 1.00

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Numerical Parametric Studies

## Table 6.5 Dimensions and non-dimensional geometric parameters for

W = 1.25, 0.28 < E < 0.90, 10 < 2J <30

## Specimen Chord Brace Geometrical Parameters

d0 t0 d1 t1 E 2J0 2J1 W

## T11-4A 508.0 50.0 141.3 - 0.28 10.16 - -

T21-4A 508.0 50.0 273.0 - 0.54 10.16 - -
T31-4A 508.0 50.0 355.6 - 0.70 10.16 - -
T41-4A 508.0 50.0 457.2 - 0.90 10.16 - -

## T12-4A 508.0 25.4 141.3 - 0.28 20.00 - -

T22-4A 508.0 25.4 273.0 - 0.54 20.00 - -
T32-4A 508.0 25.4 355.6 31.75 0.70 20.00 11.20 1.25
T42-4A 508.0 25.4 457.2 31.75 0.90 20.00 14.40 1.25

## T13-4A 508.0 15.9 141.3 19.05 0.28 31.95 7.42 1.20

T23-4A 508.0 15.9 273.0 19.05 0.54 31.95 14.33 1.20
T33-4A 508.0 15.9 355.6 19.05 0.70 31.95 18.67 1.20
T43-4A 508.0 15.9 457.2 19.05 0.90 31.95 24.00 1.20

Table 6.2 summarises the research programme for pipe trunnions having non-

dimensional geometric parameters W = 0.46, 0.28 < E < 0.90, and 10 < 2J <30. The

outside diameter of the chord used is 508mm with thickness varying from 15.9mm to

50mm thick. The brace diameter ranges from 141.3mm to 457.2mm with thickness of

7.92mm to 25.40mm. Due to the available thickness of circular hollow sections in the

## market, the parameter W varied slightly from 0.50.

Table 6.3 summarises the research programme for pipe trunnions having non-

dimensional geometric parameters W = 0.75, 0.28 < E < 0.90, and 10 < 2J <30. The

outside diameter of the chord used is 508mm with thickness varying from 15.9mm to

50mm thick. The brace diameter ranges from 141.3mm to 457.2mm with thickness of

168
Numerical Parametric Studies

## market, the parameter W varied slightly from 0.75.

Table 6.4 summarises the research programme for pipe trunnions having non-

dimensional geometric parameters W = 1.00, 0.28 < E < 0.90, and 10 < 2J <30. The

outer diameter of the chord used is 508mm with thickness varying from 15.9mm to

50mm thick. The brace has diameter of 141.3mm to 457.2mm with thickness of

## market, the parameter W varied slightly from 1.00.

Table 6.5 summarises the research programme for pipe trunnions having non-

dimensional geometric parameters W = 1.25, 0.28 < E < 0.90, and 10 < 2J <30. The

outer diameter of the chord used is 508mm with thickness varying from 15.9mm to

50mm thick. The brace has diameters of 141.3mm to 457.2mm with thickness of

## Even though a trunnion is loaded predominantly by shear, it is useful to include

Yura’s deformation limit. According to Yura (1980), for joints loaded by bending, the

rotation at the end of a simply supported brace with a span of 30d1 is determined for a

uniformly distributed loading which causes first yield in the middle of the brace. Yura

suggested that the practical deformation limit is reached if the rotation of a brace is

four times the brace end rotation, which results from the distributed load. Thus, for

## joints loaded by bending, the deformation limit is given by 80 fy / E. This provides an

important ultimate capacity of the static strength since the load-deformation behaviour

169
Numerical Parametric Studies

of the trunnion joint is such that there is no distinctive peak. Thus the need for a

reference load so that comparisons can be made within the range of numerical results.

This also provides a useful reference where the numerical results are compared with

other studies on tubular joints. For example, Vegte (1995) uses the Yura’s

deformation to obtain the ultimate capacity of the tubular X-joints loaded by in-plane

bending and these results have been used in regression analysis to obtain the basic

## 6.2.2 Effective W ratio for trunnion design

Figure 6.2 shows the numerical load displacement curves for 2J = 30 over the range

0.46 < W < 1.25 and 0.28 < E < 0.90. Yura’s deformation limit is also plotted on the

same chart, and is used as a convenient deformation level to compare the static

strength over the parametric range since some of the load deformation curves do not

show pronounced ultimate values or peaks for comparative purposes. The four

diagrams have been plotted on the same scale so that the general trend of the

development in ultimate load capacity of the pure pipe trunnions can be obtained.

Figure 6.7 shows the ultimate capacity of pure pipe trunnions for 2J0 = 30. The

diagram shows that for each E, the ultimate strength of the trunnion brace increases at

a decreasing rate as W increases. The rate of increase plateau off quickly for W > 0.75.

Thus for each E ratio, the optimum design range for W is 0.70 < W < 1.00.

## It is observed that the increases in strength as W increases becomes less prominent as

the E ratio decreases. Thus as the E ratio reduces from 0.90 downwards, it reaches a

170
Numerical Parametric Studies

level where there is only a very marginal increase in static strength as W increase for

that E ratio. In fact, for specimens with E ratio of E = 0.28, the static strength is shown

## to be on a plateau. This is an indication that the joint is governed by the chord

plastification or yielding of the brace rather than by the shear strength of the brace.

Similarly, Figures 6.3 to 6.6 shows the numerical load displacement curves for 2J =

25, 20, 15 and 10 over the range 0.46 < W < 1.00 and 0.28 < E < 0.90. Figures 6.8 to

6.9 shows the static strength based on Yura’ s deformation limit for 2J = 25, 20, 15

and 10. These figures again show that for each E ratio of a trunnion configuration, the

static strength of the trunnion brace increases at a decreasing rate as the ratio, W,

increases. The rate of increase tapers off quickly for W > 0.75. Thus for each E ratio,

## the optimum design range for W is 0.75 < W < 0.90.

171
Numerical Parametric Studies

## W  W  W  W 

W  W  W  W 
8000 8000

6000 6000

4000 4000

2000 2000

0 0

## Displacement, ' (mm)

0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)
0 10 20 30 40

## W  W  W  W 

W  W 
8000 8000

6000 6000

4000 4000

2000 2000

## Yura E J  Yura E J 

0 0
0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm) Displacement, ' (mm)
0 10 20 30 40

## Figure 6.2 Numerical load-displacement curves for 2J = 30

172
Numerical Parametric Studies

## Wt = 0.46 Wt = 0.75 Wt = 0.46 tW= 0.75

Wt = 1.00 tW = 1.00
8000 8000

6000 6000

4000 4000

2000 2000

0 0

## Displacement, ' (mm) Displacement, ' (mm)

0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 40

## Wt = 0.46 Wt = 0.75 Wt = 0.46 tW = 0.75

Wt = 1.00 Wt = 1.00
8000 8000

6000 6000

4000 4000

2000 2000

0 0

## Displacement, ' (mm) Displacement, ' (mm)

0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 40

## Figure 6.3 Numerical load-displacement curves for 2J = 25

173
Numerical Parametric Studies

W  W 
Wt = 0.46 Wt = 0.75
W 
12000 12000

10000 10000

8000 8000

6000 6000

4000 4000

2000 2000

0 0

## Displacement, ' (mm)

0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, D (mm)

## Wt = 0.46 Wt = 0.75 Wt = 0.46 Wt = 0.75

Wt = 1.00 Wt = 1.25 Wt = 1.00 Wt = 1.25
12000 12000

10000 10000

8000 8000

6000 6000

4000 4000

2000 2000

## Yura E J  Yura E J 

0 0
0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, D (mm) Displacement, D (mm)

## Figure 6.4 Numerical load-displacement curves for 2J0 = 20

174
Numerical Parametric Studies

12000 12000

10000 10000

8000 8000

6000 6000

4000 4000

2000 2000

0 0

## Displacement, ' (mm)

0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)
0 10 20 30 40

## Wt = 0.46 Wt = 0.75 Wt = 0.46 Wt = 0.75

Wt = 1.00 Wt = 1.00
12000 12000

10000 10000

8000 8000

6000 6000

4000 4000

2000 2000

## Yura E J  Yura E J 

0 0
0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)
0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)

## Figure 6.5 Numerical load-displacement curves for 2J0 = 15

175
Numerical Parametric Studies

tW = 0.46 Wt = 0.46
18000 18000

16000 16000

14000 14000

12000 12000

10000 10000

8000 8000

6000 6000

4000 4000

2000 2000
Yura E J  Yura E J 
0 0
0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)
0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)

tW = 0.46 Wt = 0.75
Wt = 0.46 Wt = 0.75
tW= 1.00
18000 18000

16000 16000

14000 14000

12000 12000

10000 10000

8000 8000

6000 6000

4000 4000

2000 2000
Yura E J  Yura E J 
0 0
0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm) Displacement, ' (mm)
0 10 20 30 40

## Figure 6.6 Numerical load-displacement curves for 2J0 = 10

176
Numerical Parametric Studies

E  E 
E  E 
8000

6000
F (kN)

4000

2000

W
0.2 0.6 1 1.4

Figure 6.7 Ultimate load capacity of pure pipe trunnion for 2J0 = 30

E  E 
E  E 
10000

8000

6000
F (kN)

4000

2000

0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2


Figure 6.8 Ultimate load capacity of pure pipe trunnion for 2J0 = 25

177
Numerical Parametric Studies

12000

9000
F (kN)

6000

3000

0
0.30 0.50 0.70 0.90 1.10 1.30
W
Figure 6.9 Summary of ultimate load capacity of pure pipe trunnions for 2J0 = 10 to
30

Since W is a measure of the ratio of thickness between the brace and chord, it controls

the interaction of shear and bending moment at the trunnion joint resulting in a change

in the failure mode as W increases. When 2J0 is high, increasing W results in higher

bending moment acting perpendicular to the chord wall when the shear strength of the

brace increases. Thus, this bending moment would increase until it exceeds the joint’ s

bending moment capacity of the chord. At this point, the failure mode of the trunnion

is then governed by chord indentation. As a result the ultimate load capacity of the

## pure pipe trunnion reduces.

178
Numerical Parametric Studies

## 6.2.3 Effective E ratio for trunnion design

Figures 6.10 to 6.16 shows the numerical load displacement curves and the ultimate

load capacity for 2J = 30, 25, 20, 15 and 10 over the range 0.46 < W < 1.25 and 0.28 <

E < 0.90. These figures are plotted to determine the change in ultimate load capacity

with E ratio. The ratio of the diameter of the chord to brace controlled the amount of

joint’ s bending moment resistance developed at the chord wall against chord

indentation. Specimens with small Etend to have less resistance against bending

moment. Hence a higher E ratio is preferred in the design of trunnions allowing the

chord to harness a greater area to resist chord indentation. Thus the figures for the

ultimate load capacity of the specimens show a general trend of increasing static

## strength for increase in E.

Figures 6.11, 6.13 and 6.15 shows summaries of the trend of ultimate load capacity of

the pure pipe trunnion for W = 0.46, 0.75 and 1.00 respectively. There is a general

increases in ultimate load capacity when E increases. However, specimens with lower

## 2J0 ratio tend to have a lower ultimate capacity.

The observation from the W and E behaviour can be further summarised by providing a

guide to determine the effects of chord plastification and shear failure over the range

## approach to select and design pure pipe trunnions effectively.

179
Numerical Parametric Studies

## E  E  E  E 

E  E  E  E 
16000 16000
W J  W J 

12000 12000

8000 8000

4000 4000

Yura Yura
0 0
0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)
0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)

## E  E  E  E 

E  E  E  E 
16000 16000
W J  W J 

12000

12000

8000 8000

4000 4000

Yura Yura
0 0
0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)
0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)

## Figure 6.10a Numerical load-displacement curves for W = 0.46

180
Numerical Parametric Studies

E  E 
E  E 
16000

12000

8000

4000

## Yura W J 

0
0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)

## J  J  J 

J  J 
16000

12000
Fyura (kN)

8000

4000

0
0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00


Figure 6.11 Ultimate load capacity of pure pipe trunnion for W = 0.46

181
Numerical Parametric Studies

E  E 
E  E 
E 
16000 16000

12000 12000

8000 8000

4000 4000

## Yura W J  Yura W J 

0 0
0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)
0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)

## E  E  E  E 

E  E  E  E 
16000 16000

12000

12000

8000 8000

4000 4000

## Yura W J  Yura W J 

0 0
0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm) Displacement, ' (mm)

## Figure 6.12a Numerical load-displacement curves for W = 0.75

182
Numerical Parametric Studies

E  E 
E  E 
16000

12000

8000

4000

## Yura W J 

0
0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)

## J  J  J 

J  J 
16000

12000
Fyura (kN)

8000

4000

0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1


Figure 6.13 Ultimate load capacity of pure pipe trunnion for W = 0.75 over E ratio

183
Numerical Parametric Studies

16000

16000

12000

12000

8000
8000

4000
4000

## Yura W J  Yura W J 

0 0
0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)
0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)

## E  E  E  E 

E  E  E 
16000 16000

12000

12000

8000 8000

4000 4000

## Yura W J  Yura W J 

0 0
0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)
0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)

## Figure 6.14a Numerical load-displacement curves for W = 1.00

184
Numerical Parametric Studies

E  E 
E  E 
16000

12000

8000

4000

## Yura W J 

0
0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)

## J  J  J 

J  J 
16000

12000
Fyura (kN)

8000

4000

0
0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00


Figure 6.15 Ultimate load capacity of pure pipe trunnion for W = 1.00 over E ratio

185
Numerical Parametric Studies

E  E 
E  E 
E  E 
16000
W J 
16000
Yura Yura W J 

12000

12000

8000 8000

4000 4000

0 0
0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)
0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)

## 6.2.4 Selection and design approach for pure pipe trunnions

In the loading of a trunnion, there are two distinct forces, which can be represented by

a simple model as illustrated in Figure 6.17. The shear loads on the trunnion brace can

be represented by a simple shear at the end of the chord wall and two opposite forces

(a tension and a compression force) which acts perpendicular to the chord axis at a

certain distance apart along the chord axis. While the shear force acting near the chord

wall determines the static strength of the brace, the opposite bending forces acting

perpendicular to the chord wall determines the amount of static strength that can be

developed prior to chord indentation through plastification of the chord wall surface.

Thus the extent of static strength capacity that can be developed in a trunnion joint is

determined by the joint’ s bending moment resistance. The higher the joint’ s bending

186
Numerical Parametric Studies

moment capacity, the higher the static strength of the trunnion braces. It was observed

## from the experimental results that many combinations of non-geometric parameter of

the trunnion results in chord indentation. For example, pipe trunnion specimens C1,

C2 and CT3 failed by shear effects while C3, CT1, CT2, CT4 and CT5 all failed by

chord indentation which reduces the ultimate load capacity of the trunnion.

## Figure 6.17 Schematic representation of shear and in-plane bending moments

It was discussed by Vegte (1995) that the schematisation of the in-plane bending

moments by two opposite forces leads to a strength formula for use for joints loaded

by in-plane bending which is directly related to the strength formula of axially loaded

187
Numerical Parametric Studies

joints. The basic formula, which resulted from the analytical “ring model” approach,

can be used to describe the local strength behaviour at the tension and compression

side of the brace. This simple formulation as proposed by Vegte (1995) is used to

describe the action of the shear and bending moment on the trunnion. This

formulation is given in Equation 6.1 below, where Mu is the ultimate bending moment

capacity due to the tension and compression actions as shown in Figure 6.17.

5.1J 1.04
2
0.43
Mu
 

(6.1)
2  (0.4 E ) 2
(1  0.4 E )  (1  0.4 E ) 2 
f y 0t0 d1
J2

The following tables, Table 6.6 to 6.7 shows the tabulated results of the numerical and

experimental specimens based on the formulations, fy1, Myura, Mu, and the failure

M yura 
d1
mode for each specimen. The function, f y1 2 , defines whether the trunnion
I

undergoes brace failure when it exceeds the yield strength of 300N/mm2. The ratio

M yura
is also tabulated. Myura is the in-plane bending moment at Yura’ s deformation
Mu

limit. Table 6.7 provides a set of data for the experimental specimens, which

compares well with the type of failure mode at ultimate bending capacity generated

## by the tension and compression forces acting perpendicularly to the chord.

188
Numerical Parametric Studies

Table 6.6a Results of the ultimate load capacity for pipe trunnions

M
Specimen d0 t0 d1 t1 fy1 Myura Mu1,ipb Myurayura
/Mu Failure
M u1,ipb

T11-1A 508.0 50.0 141.3 19.1 627 124 225 0.55 yield
T21-1A 508.0 50.0 273.0 25.4 331 371 655 0.57 shear
T31-1A 508.0 50.0 355.6 25.4 237 482 1058 0.46 shear
T41-1A 508.0 50.0 457.2 25.4 174 614 1703 0.36 shear

T11X-1A 508.0 33.3 141.3 15.9 585 103 112 0.92 yield
T21X-1A 508.0 33.3 273.0 15.9 293 228 352 0.65 shear
T31X-1A 508.0 33.3 355.6 15.9 214 294 590 0.50 shear
T41X-1A 508.0 33.3 457.2 15.9 159 372 981 0.38 shear

## T12-1A 508.0 25.4 141.3 12.7 529 80 70 1.14 yield

T22-1A 508.0 25.4 273.0 12.7 272 176 232 0.76 shear
T32-1A 508.0 25.4 355.6 12.7 205 232 397 0.58 shear
T42-1A 508.0 25.4 457.2 12.7 153 293 675 0.43 shear

## T12X-1A 508.0 20.6 141.3 9.5 495 60 49 1.23 yield

T22X-1A 508.0 20.6 273.0 9.5 264 133 168 0.79 shear
T32X-1A 508.0 20.6 355.6 9.5 194 169 293 0.58 shear
T42X-1A 508.0 20.6 457.2 9.5 147 216 504 0.43 shear

## T13-1A 508.0 15.9 141.3 7.9 475 50 31 1.60 yield

T23-1A 508.0 15.9 273.0 7.9 250 106 112 0.95 shear
T33-1A 508.0 15.9 355.6 7.9 188 138 200 0.69 shear
T43-1A 508.0 15.9 457.2 7.9 138 171 350 0.49 shear

T31-2A 508.0 50.0 355.6 35.7 254 664 1058 0.63 shear
T41-2A 508.0 50.0 457.2 34.9 170 772 1703 0.45 shear

T21X-2A 508.0 33.3 273.0 25.4 309 347 352 0.98 shear
T31X-2A 508.0 33.3 355.6 25.4 219 446 590 0.76 shear
T41X-2A 508.0 33.3 457.2 25.4 136 479 981 0.49 shear

## T12-2A 508.0 25.4 141.3 19.1 531 105 70 1.50 yield

T22-2A 508.0 25.4 273.0 19.1 282 254 232 1.10 chord
T32-2A 508.0 25.4 355.6 19.1 209 337 397 0.85 shear
T42-2A 508.0 25.4 457.2 19.1 155 427 675 0.63 shear

## T12X-2A 508.0 20.6 141.3 15.9 454 80 49 1.64 yield

T22X-2A 508.0 20.6 273.0 15.9 260 202 168 1.21 chord
T32X-2A 508.0 20.6 355.6 15.9 194 268 293 0.91 shear
T42X-2A 508.0 20.6 457.2 15.9 146 342 504 0.68 shear

## T13-2A 508.0 15.9 141.3 12.7 365 55 31 1.77 yield

T23-2A 508.0 15.9 273.0 12.7 227 147 112 1.31 chord
T33-2A 508.0 15.9 355.6 12.7 175 198 200 1.00 chord
T43-2A 508.0 15.9 457.2 12.7 131 251 350 0.72 shear

189
Numerical Parametric Studies

Table 6.6b Results of the ultimate load capacity for pipe trunnions

M
Specimen d0 t0 d1 t1 fy1 Myura Mu1,ipb Myurayura
/Mu Failure
M u1,ipb

## T41-3A 508 50 457.2 45.24 157 863.1 1703 0.51 shear

T31X-3A 508.0 33.3 355.6 33.3 204 507 590 0.86 shear
T41X-3A 508.0 33.3 457.2 33.3 121 532 981 0.54 shear

T22-3A 508.0 25.4 273.0 25.4 261 292 232 1.26 chord
T32-3A 508.0 25.4 355.6 25.4 196 398 397 1.00 chord
T42-3A 508.0 25.4 457.2 25.4 141 499 675 0.74 shear

## T12X-3A 508.0 20.6 141.3 20.6 413 86 49 1.75 yield

T22X-3A 508.0 20.6 273.0 20.6 242 233 168 1.39 chord
T32X-3A 508.0 20.6 355.6 20.6 178 305 293 1.04 chord
T42X-3A 508.0 20.6 457.2 20.6 130 384 504 0.76 shear

## T13-3A 508.0 15.9 141.3 15.9 325 58 31 1.85 yield

T23-3A 508.0 15.9 273.0 15.9 203 158 112 1.41 chord
T33-3A 508.0 15.9 355.6 15.9 159 219 200 1.10 chord
T43-3A 508.0 15.9 457.2 15.9 117 276 350 0.79 shear

Table 6.7 Results of the ultimate load capacity for test pipe trunnions
M yura
Specimen d0 t0 d1 t1 fy1 Myura Mu1,ipb Myura/M u Failure
M u1,ipb

CT1 508.0 20.5 324.0 17.6 462 492 330 1.49 chord
CT2 508.0 12.5 324.0 12.4 365 225 132 1.71 chord
CT3 508.0 20.5 406.4 12.5 465 534 539 0.99 shear
CT4 508.0 12.5 406.4 12.5 433 297 217 1.37 chord
CT5 508.0 15.2 406.4 17.0 573 470 393 1.20 chord

## C1 219.1 23.0 168.3 11.0 1072 116 116 1.00 shear

C2 219.1 23.0 114.3 8.6 547 55 58 0.96 shear
C3 219.1 12.7 168.3 11.0 1058 81 50 1.62 chord

190
Numerical Parametric Studies

A summary of the results on the governing failure mode of the specimens analysed is

M yura
given in Table 6.8 below. The formulation, , used in the study corresponds well
Mu

with the numerical analysis results. The function, Myura, is the ultimate bending

moment acting on the face perpendicular to the chord according to the Yura

deformation limit whereas the function, Mu, is the ultimate bending moment capacity

for an X-joint as defined earlier. Thus it suggests that when Myura > Mu there is chord

indentation and the full static ultimate load capacity of the trunnion brace cannot be

effectively mobilised since the governing failure mode is no longer due to shear

effects. On the other hand, when Myura < Mu, the joint design resistance for bending

moment capacity is large enough to withstand the tension and compression moment

acting perpendicularly to the chord wall which results in the full development in static

## This analytical representation of this ultimate bending moment capacity of the

trunnion brace is consistent with the sets of numerical results obtained. In the above

M yura
tables, where the ratio exceeds 1.00, the specimen fails by chord indentation.
Mu

M yura
When the ratio is below 1.00, the specimens fail by shear effects. The good
Mu

agreement in the results shows that the effects of chord indentation can be

characterised by the local strength behaviour at the tension and the compression side

of the brace. This provides a simple means to identify the non-geometric parameters

that are subjected to chord indentation failure, so that premature failure of the

M yura
trunnion brace can be avoided. It is noted here that some specimens show ratio
Mu

191
Numerical Parametric Studies

that is less than unity and yet do not fail by chord plastification. This abnormality is

due to the fact that the brace actually yielded as a member as its fy1 exceeds the yield

strength of 300N/mm2. Table 6.8 below shows a summary of the failure modes of the

## pipe trunnions based on non-dimensional geometric parameters. The term ”yield”

indicates that the specimen suffers member yield effects, “shear” indicates that the

specimen for that particular set of non-geometric parameters has potential to mobilise

the full static strength due to shear and “chord” refers to members where the failure

## W = 0.46 2J0 = 10 2J0 = 15 2J0 = 20 2J0 = 25 2J0 = 30

E = 0.28 yield yield yield yield yield
E = 0.54 shear shear shear shear shear
E = 0.70 shear shear shear shear shear
E = 0.90 shear shear shear shear shear

## W = 0.75 2J0 = 10 2J0 = 15 2J0 = 20 2J0 = 25 2J0 = 30

E = 0.28 shear chord yield yield yield
E = 0.54 shear shear chord chord chord
E = 0.70 shear shear shear shear chord
E = 0.90 shear shear shear shear shear

## W = 1.00 2J0 = 10 2J0 = 15 2J0 = 20 2J0 = 25 2J0 = 30

E = 0.28 chord chord chord yield yield
E = 0.54 chord chord chord chord chord
E = 0.70 shear shear chord chord chord
E = 0.90 shear shear shear shear shear

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Numerical Parametric Studies

Several conclusions can be made from the above findings. First, from Table 6.8, W =

0.46 seems to be most appropriate for the design of trunnions since the specimens fail

predominantly by shear. However, due to the requirement that the chord thickness is

twice that of the brace thickness, these ranges of specimens would generally be of

lower static strength due to the small brace thickness. It is also not economical to

design trunnions with chord thickness twice that of the brace thickness

Second, when W = 0.75, half of the specimens have more dominant shear effect rather

than chord indentation failure. This is concentrated in specimens where either the 2J0

ratio are low or when the E ratio is high or both. At W = 0.75, the chord wall thickness

is about 30% higher than the brace thickness and this range of specimens are most

## effective as far as shear effects on trunnion braces are concerned.

Third, it is good practice, from the analytical results shown, that trunnion brace should

never to be designed to be thicker than the chord wall thickness since, when W = 1.25,

most of the specimens fail by chord indentation. At W = 1.00, only specimens with

high E ratio should be designed for high static strength controlled by shear failure.

The above findings suggest that introducing a novel approach in trunnion design can

further reduce the potential for chord indentation failure. This approach requires the

brace to be inserted through the chord wall, hence reducing the effect of chord

indentation. This study will be discussed further in a later section of this chapter.

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Numerical Parametric Studies

## 6.2.5 Proposed design formulation for pipe trunnions

Generally trunnions has been designed as shear plated trunnions with attached pipes

mainly because of the uncertainty in the design of pure pipe trunnions since there was

## no experimental and numerical research in this area. As a result it is common when

designing to use a on the strength of the shear plate and treating the brace merely as

providing the circumference for the grommet or wire ropes to sling around. Thus any

advantage for higher shear strength due to brace is treated as extra safety margin. The

current research work has tested many specimens and conducted extensive numerical

analyses to understand pipe trunnions better and to propose a guide on the extent of

the shear capacity of a pure trunnion in the design of trunnions. Based on the results

obtained in this research, the design formulation for pipe trunnions can be assessed by

## analysing the results of the experimental and numerical works.

One of the major factors influencing the static strength of pipe trunnions is the amount

## of chord plastification during loading of a trunnion. As observed from the

experimental results, it was shown that once chord plastification is initiated, the static

strength of the pipe trunnion decreases. The ultimate strength is dependent on the

amount of in plane bending moment that the chord could sustain rather than on the

full mobilisation of the shear capacity of the brace. Thus full mobilisation of the shear

capacity of the pipe trunnion is only possible if the chord is designed to withstand the

in plane bending moment. The recommendation for this effect is highlighted in the

next section where the tubular X-joints are discussed in greater detail.

One of the common methods to treat the static strength of pipe trunnions is to

consider that geometrically, only 50% of the circular hollow section is fully effective

194
Numerical Parametric Studies

in resisting the loads based on the API (2000) design guide. Further, a factor of 0.4 is

use to account for the effective yield strength of the pipe subjected to a shear load.

This static strength is used as a basis in determining the level of conservatism when

using this approach through a sampling of the experimental and numerical results

available. Further, the static strength at Yura’ s deformation limit is also plotted in the

chart. Figure 6.18 shows the statistical sampling data on the static strength of pipe

trunnions. The elastic yield strength is plotted against the static strength of Yura’ s

deformation limit as well as the elastic yield strength based on the analytical results.

The diagram confirms the research objective of establishing that pipe trunnions can be

designed for use as suitable lifting points and that the effective shear capacity can be

mobilised. The statistical chart shows that in all numerical cases, the assumption of a

shear factor of 0.4 is conservative over the full range of parameters considered. A

gradient line is drawn through the chart, delineating the statistical data in which all the

yield strength is above this line. That is, all the points above the line lie above the

existing assumption of a yield factor of 0.4. The line has a gradient of 1.25 against the

elastic yield strength, which means that the existing yield factor could be based on a

## Yield factor = 1.25 x 0.4 = 0.5

This yield factor that can be applied for the design of pipe trunnions, which is the

joint shear resistance strength for pipe trunnions subjected to a predominantly shear

V1 1
2
 S  f y  d m  t1 (6.2)

195
Numerical Parametric Studies

Fyura Fy
18
V1 0 .5  S  d m  t  f y
16

14 V1 0 .4  S  d m  t  f y
Static Strength (’000 kN)

12

10

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
Eastic Yield Strength (’000 kN)

Figure 6.18 Statistical sampling data on ultimate strength of pure pipe trunnion

## 6.3 Through pipe trunnions

It has been observed from the previous chapter on the design of pipe trunnions that in

many cases the full effective shear capacity of the brace cannot be utilised due to

chord wall indentation. However, it was observed from the experimental results that

the proposed joint shear resistance could be sustained even for thin chord wall

provided a new pipe trunnion configuration could be implemented. This new pipe

trunnion configuration has the brace extending through the chord wall and butt

welded together.

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Numerical Parametric Studies

This design is practical since most failure due to high 2J ratio fails by chord

plastification of the chord wall, inserting the brace through the chord wall will

enhance the shear capacity or allow the full effective shear to be mobilised before

chord plastification sets in. This is beneficial in situations where pipe materials are not

available or when the site situation demands a higher lifting capacity without

changing the existing pipe structures already fabricated. Further, cost and time for

fabricating a shear plate trunnion is high and the through pipe trunnion solution is

more appropriate. The numerical study will show that the implementation of through

## 6.3.1 Research programme

The configuration of the pipe trunnion with through pipe dimensions and non-

dimensional geometric parameters are as presented in Figure 6.19. Note that the

additional pipe that is extended beyond the chord wall as opposed to normal pipe

trunnions where the pipe is welded outside of the chord wall only. The dimensions

## and non-dimensional geometric parameters of the research programme are listed in

Table 6.9. The loading arm is placed at about w1 = 100mm from the face of the chord

wall. For the finite element analysis, it follows closely the method used for normal

pipe trunnions.

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Numerical Parametric Studies

d0

D = 2l0 / d0 t0

E = d1 / d0

2J = d0 / t0

W = t1 / t0

t1

d1 l0

## Figure 6.19 Dimensions and non-dimensional geometrical parameters of pipe

trunnions with through pipes

The results of the numerical analysis are discussed in the following sections. For each

of the plot, Yura’ s limit is plotted together to determine the load at the deformation

limit for comparison purposes to show the trend of the shear loads. In addition, the

proposed joint shear resistance for pipe trunnions is considered. Table 6.9 shows the

## dimensions and non-dimensional geometric parameters used in this research

programme.

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Numerical Parametric Studies

One of the greatest benefits of using through pipe trunnions is in extending the range

## of non-geometric parameters that can be used in the design of trunnions. As shown in

the earlier section in Table 6.7, there is a wide range of specimens that failed through

chord indentation rather than shear. This limitation is quite pronounced especially

where W is 0.75 and 1.00. The figure below, Figure 6.20, clearly reflects the direct

benefit of using through pipe trunnions. The left diagram shows a pure pipe trunnion

that fails by chord indentation while the same specimen (now with through pipe

arrangement) is able to develop its full static load capacity in shear. This is truly novel

since there is no additional chord material or changes except for the insertion of the

brace through the chord wall. This arrangement is low cost in terms of materials and

ease of fabrication.

Figure 6.20 Ultimate failure of pipe trunnion with and without through pipe

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Numerical Parametric Studies

## Table 6.9 Dimensions and non-dimensional geometric parameters for

through pipe trunnions

## Specimen Chord Brace Geometrical Parameters

d0 t0 d1 t1 E 2J0 2J1 W

## TP31-1A 508.0 50.0 355.6 25.40 0.70 10.16 14.00 0.51

TP32-1A 508.0 25.4 355.6 12.70 0.70 20.00 28.00 0.50
TP33-1A 508.0 15.9 355.6 7.92 0.70 31.95 44.90 0.50
TP34-1A 508.0 12.7 355.6 6.35 0.70 40.00 56.00 0.50
TP31-2A 508.0 50.0 355.6 35.71 0.70 10.16 9.96 0.71
TP31X-2A 508.0 33.3 355.6 25.40 0.70 15.26 14.00 0.76
TP22-2A 508.0 25.4 273.0 19.05 0.54 20.00 14.33 0.75
TP32-2A 508.0 25.4 355.6 19.05 0.70 20.00 18.67 0.75
TP42-2A 508.0 25.4 457.2 19.05 0.90 20.00 24.00 0.75
TP32X-2A 508.0 20.6 355.6 15.88 0.70 24.64 22.39 0.77
TP23-2A 508.0 15.9 273.0 12.70 0.54 31.95 21.50 0.80
TP33-2A 508.0 15.9 355.6 12.70 0.70 31.95 28.00 0.80
TP43-2A 508.0 15.9 457.2 12.70 0.90 31.95 36.00 0.80
TP33X-2A 508.0 14.3 355.6 11.10 0.70 35.60 32.04 0.78
TP24-2A 508.0 12.7 273.0 9.52 0.54 40.00 28.68 0.75
TP34-2A 508.0 12.7 355.6 9.52 0.70 40.00 37.35 0.75
TP44-2A 508.0 12.7 457.2 9.52 0.90 40.00 48.03 0.75
TP31X-3A 508.0 33.3 355.6 33.30 0.70 15.26 10.68 1.00
TP32-3A 508.0 25.4 355.6 25.40 0.70 20.00 14.00 1.00
TP32X-3A 508.0 20.6 355.6 20.60 0.70 24.64 17.26 1.00
TP23-3A 508.0 15.9 273.0 15.90 0.54 31.95 17.17 1.00
TP33-3A 508.0 15.9 355.6 15.90 0.70 31.95 22.36 1.00
TP43-3A 508.0 15.9 457.2 15.90 0.90 31.95 28.75 1.00
TP33X-3A 508.0 14.3 355.6 14.30 0.70 35.60 24.87 1.00
TP24-3A 508.0 12.7 273.0 12.70 0.54 40.00 21.50 1.00
TP34-3A 508.0 12.7 355.6 12.70 0.70 40.00 28.00 1.00
TP44-3A 508.0 12.7 457.2 12.70 0.90 40.00 36.00 1.00

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Numerical Parametric Studies

## 6.3.2 Comparison of ultimate load capacity of through pipe trunnions

Figure 6.21 shows the load-deformation curves of through pipe trunnions over the

range of parameters as presented in Table 6.9. The increasing static strength for

decreasing 2J0 is very pronounced for all W and E ratios plotted. Figure 6.21 shows a

comparison of the load-deformation plots for specimens with and without through

pipe arrangement. Figure 6.22a is plotted for specimens with increasing thicknesses

for W= 050 to 1.00 for a constant E of 0.70, whereas Figure 6.22b is plotted for

specimens with increasing thicknesses for W= 050 to 1.00 for a constant 2J of 30. It is

observed from the ultimate load capacity curves that for all specimens analyzed, there

is a significant increase in the ultimate load capacity of through pipe trunnions over

pure pipe trunnions. A summary of the results are presented in Tables 6.10 and 6.11

which show the percentage difference for specimens with and without through pipes.

Table 6.11 presents a comparison with increasing thicknesses for W= 050 to 1.00 for a

constant Eof 0.70. Table 6.10 presents a comparison with increasing thicknesses for

## W= 050 to 1.00 for a constant 2Jof 30.

The results show that the increase could be as high as 30% in terms of static strength.

The increase could be attributed to the change in the governing failure mode from

## chord indentation to shear. Specimens prone to premature failure through chord

indentation gain the most in terms of static strength increase. It is noted also that in

cases where the governing failure mode is already in shear, there is slight increase in

static strength but with no side effects. In fact stiffness increases across the board

since the interaction of shear and bending moment causes the stiffness of the trunnion

## joint to become smaller.

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Numerical Parametric Studies

## J  J 

J  J  J 
J  J 
16000 16000

14000 14000

12000 12000

10000 10000

8000 8000

6000 6000

4000 4000

2000 2000
Yura W E  Yura W E 
0 0

## Displacement, ' (mm)

0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)

## J  J  J  J 

J  J  J  J 
J  J  J  J 
16000 16000

14000 14000

12000 12000

10000 10000

8000 8000

6000 6000

4000 4000

2000 2000
Yura W E  Yura W E 
0 0

## Displacement, ' (mm)

0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)

## Figure 6.21 Numerical load-displacement curves for through pipe trunnions

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Numerical Parametric Studies

## J  J   J  J  

J  J   J  J  
J  J   J  J  
J  J   J  J  
16000 16000

14000 14000

12000 12000

10000 10000

8000 8000

6000 6000

4000 4000

2000 2000
Yura W E  Yura W E 
0 0

## Displacement, ' (mm) Displacement, ' (mm)

0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 40

## J  J  

J  J  
J  J  
16000

14000

12000

10000

8000

6000

4000

2000
Yura W E 
0
0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)

## Figure 6.22a Comparison of load-deformation plots for through pipe trunnions

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Numerical Parametric Studies

## E  E   E  E  

E  E   E  E  
E  E   E  E  
8000 8000

6000 6000

4000 4000

2000 2000

0 0

## Displacement, ' (mm)

0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm)

## Figure 6.22b Comparison of load-deformation plots for through pipe trunnions

Table 6.10 Comparison of static strength with and without through pipe for 2J = 30

## Without Thru Pipe With Thru Pipe % Difference

Fyura Failure Mode Fyura Failure Mode

W J 
E  2991 chord 4276 shear 43%
E  4048 chord 4601 shear 14%
E  5127 shear 5854 shear 14%

W J 
E  3126 chord 5514 shear 76%
E  4374 chord 5692 shear 30%
E  5512 shear 5485 shear 0%

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Numerical Parametric Studies

Table 6.11 Comparison of static strength with and without through pipe for E = 0.70

## Without Thru Pipe With Thru Pipe % Difference

Fyura Failure Mode Fyura Failure Mode

W E 
J  9784 shear 12490 shear 28%
J  4534 shear 5681 shear 25%
J  2858 shear 3184 shear 11%

W E 
J  13399 shear 13946 shear 4%
J  6732 shear 7118 shear 6%
J  5493 shear 5500 shear 0%
J  4048 chord 4558 shear 13%

W E 
J  10157 shear 12714 shear 25%
J  7874 chord 9511 shear 21%
J  6049 chord 7499 shear 24%
J  4374 chord 5692 shear 30%

## 6.3.3 Design approach of through pipe trunnions

A comparison of the numerical results has shown that through pipe trunnions

enhances the ultimate load capacity of pure pipe trunnions. The behaviour of through

## pipe trunnions can be described by a simple illustration of the schematisation of

through pipe trunnions as shown in Figure 6.22. In pure pipe trunnions, the shear

force acting at a distance from the chord wall produces a tension and compression

forces generated bending moment acting perpendicular to the chord wall resulting in

chord indentation. The joint bending moment resistance against chord indentation is

## governed by the formulation given by Vegte (1995), is a function of E and 2J as

presented in Equation 6.1. When the through pipe is used, there is an increase in the

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Numerical Parametric Studies

joint bending moment capacity. The extra capacity against chord indentation is given

by the pure moment effect from the short length of brace within the chord wall as

shown in Figure 6.23. This pure moment effect is given by Equation 6.3.

fy  I
M d1
(6.3)
2

This combined effect from the joint bending moment resistance of the chord wall and

the pure moment effect of the brace within the chord wall provide sufficient resistance

against chord indentation. Thus instead of having a wide range of parameters that are

## W = 0.46 2J0 = 15 2J0 = 15 2J0 = 20 2J0 = 25 2J0 = 30

E = 0.28 yield yield yield yield yield
E = 0.54 shear shear shear shear shear
E = 0.70 shear shear shear shear shear
E = 0.90 shear shear shear shear shear

## W = 0.75 2J0 = 15 2J0 = 15 2J0 = 20 2J0 = 25 2J0 = 30

E = 0.28 shear shear yield yield yield
E = 0.54 shear shear shear shear shear
E = 0.70 shear shear shear shear shear
E = 0.90 shear shear shear shear shear

## W = 1.00 2J0 = 15 2J0 = 15 2J0 = 20 2J0 = 25 2J0 = 30

E = 0.28 shear shear shear yield yield
E = 0.54 shear shear shear shear shear
E = 0.70 shear shear shear shear shear
E = 0.90 shear shear shear shear shear

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Numerical Parametric Studies

Table 6.12 shows that other than those specimens that fail by member brace yield, the

rest of the specimens that were originally governed by chord plastification can be

transformed to mobilise their full shear capacity. The combined joint bending moment

resistance from the chord wall as well as the inserted pipe neutralises the chord

indentation effects, allowing the range of parameters, shown in Table 6.12 to be used

instead of the previous Table 6.8 which rely on pure pipe trunnions.

## Figure 6.23 Schematisation of the through pipe trunnion

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Numerical Parametric Studies

## 6.4 Tubular X-joints

Based on the previous chapter’ s recommendation that the most effective trunnion

design lies in the range 0.70 < W < 0.80. Thus a study has been conducted on this

transition range on the effect of brace length to the static strength of tubular joints

when the loading arm is extended beyond a short stub used in the trunnion. The

tubular X-joints here are similar to trunnions except that the brace length is much

## longer than that used in trunnions.

The interaction between shear and in-plane bending moment due to the length of the

brace forms an important element in defining the extent of the full shear capacity that

can be mobilised as the loading arm, w1, on the brace is extended. Since trunnions

## depend on their shear strength predominantly, there is a need to provide guidance on

the loading arm, w1, such that the reduction in shear strength caused by a higher w1

can be prevented. The guidance is also useful in the design of trunnion since there is a

## chance that the shear strength of trunnions is under-designed due to a reduction in

shear strength caused by bending moment effects, which are not accounted for. This

section provides a study of the interaction effect of shear and in-plane bending

## 6.4.1 Research programme

The tubular X-joint is no different from pipe trunnions except for its brace length;

hence a comparison is made also with specimens that have a shorter brace length. The

## configuration of the X-joint, dimensions and non-dimensional geometric parameters

in this research programme are presented in Table 6.13, covering a range W = 0.70, E =

## 0.70 and 2J = 10.

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Numerical Parametric Studies

The loading arm, w1, is placed at a distance varying from 0.22d1 to 4.0d1 over two

series of specimens. The distance is measured from the face of the chord wall to the

## d0 t0 d1 t1 d1/d0 d0/t0 t1/t0 w1

(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) E 2J0 W1 (mm)

## T31-2A 508 50.8 355.6 35.7 0.7 10.0 0.7 0.28d1

X31-2C 508 50.8 355.6 35.7 0.7 10.0 0.7 0.56d1
X31-2C 508 50.8 355.6 35.7 0.7 10.0 0.7 1.0d1
X31-2D 508 50.8 355.6 35.7 0.7 10.0 0.7 2.0d1
X31-2E 508 50.8 355.6 35.7 0.7 10.0 0.7 3.0d1
X31-2F 508 50.8 355.6 35.7 0.7 10.0 0.7 4.0d1

## T41-2A 508 50.8 457.2 34.9 0.9 10.0 0.7 0.22d1

X41-2C 508 50.8 457.2 34.9 0.9 10.0 0.7 0.44d1
X41-2C 508 50.8 457.2 34.9 0.9 10.0 0.7 1.0d1
X41-2D 508 50.8 457.2 34.9 0.9 10.0 0.7 2.0d1
X41-2E 508 50.8 457.2 34.9 0.9 10.0 0.7 3.0d1
X41-2F 508 50.8 457.2 34.9 0.9 10.0 0.7 4.0d1

## 6.4.2 Interaction effects of shear and bending moment

Figure 6.24 shows the numerical load displacement curves for the X31 series and X41

series with W = 0.75 and E = 0.70. The plots show distinct interaction behaviour when

the loading arm increases from 0.22d1 to 4.0d1. The governing failure mode of the X-

joints when w = 4.0d1 is controlled by chord plastification, hence their low static

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Numerical Parametric Studies

strength. When the loading arm is decreased, there is a shift from the bending moment

effects towards shear effects. Thus the static strength increases as w1 becomes smaller.

## w = 0.28d w = 0.56d w = 0.22d w = 0.44d

w = 1.00d w = 2.00d w = 1.00d w = 2.00d
w = 3.00d w = 4.00d w = 3.00d w = 4.00d
16000 16000
X31 X41

14000 14000

12000

12000

10000 10000

8000 8000

6000 6000

4000 4000

2000 2000

0 0
0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 40
Displacement, ' (mm) Displacement, ' (mm)

Figure 6.24 Numerical load-displacement curves for X31 and X41 series

Figure 6.25 shows the moment-rotation curves of the two series of X-joints. Both

series show an identical trend. The plot shows that trunnions (represented by T31-2A

and T41-2A) with very short brace of 0.22d1 and 0.28d1 respectively, experienced

very low bending moment. However, as the brace increases, it was observed that the

bending moment increases with the brace length. However, this increase reaches a

plateau. In fact, when the brace length exceeds 2d1, the bending moment carried by

the brace through chord plastification effects begins to stabilise at a certain limit. This

corresponds to a case of pure bending effects where the shear capacity becomes

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Numerical Parametric Studies

negligible. Comparing the results with the ultimate moment capacity, Mu, for in-plane

bending moment as recommended by Vegte (1995), it was observed that Mu for the

X31 and X41 series are 2041kNm and 3374kNm respectively. Thus at a distance of

w1 = 4d1, the ultimate bending moment capacity of the X31 and X41 series are

## w = 0.28d w = 0.56d w = 0.22d w = 0.44d

w = 1.00d w = 2.00d w = 1.00d w = 2.00d
w = 3.00d w = 4.00d w = 3.00d w = 4.00d
4000 5000
X31 X41

## Applied Moment, M (kNm)

4000
Applied Moment, M (kNm)

3000

3000

2000

2000

1000
1000

0 0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3

Figure 6.25 Numerical moment-rotation curves for X31 and X41 series

## 6.4.3 Proposed interaction equation of shear and bending moment

The figures 6.24 and 6.25 show that there is a distinct correlation in the transition

from shear to bending moment, which accounts for the amount of shear that can be

fully mobilised for a trunnion. The static strength increases significantly as the

loading arm decreases and the reverse applies in the case of bending moment. The

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Numerical Parametric Studies

effects of the interaction between shear and in-plane bending moment is plotted in

Figure 6.26. The figures presented are normalised so that a relationship can be

established. Vyura is the static strength obtained at Yura’ s deformation limit and Myura

is the bending moment at the same deformation limit. Vmax is the maximum static

strength when w1 is the shortest and Mmax is the maximum bending moment developed

when w1 is the longest. These results are obtained from Figure 6.25 for the X31 and

X41 series and Figure 5.15 & 5.16 are plotted for the experimental test series.

## CT1, CT12-CT14 CT3, CT15-CT17

1.00

0.80

§ V yura · §M ·
2 2

0.84  ¨¨ ¸  ¨ yura ¸
¸ ¨ ¸ 1
0.60
Vyura/Vmax

0.40

0.20

0.00
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00
M yura/M max

## Figure 6.26 Interaction curves of shear and bending moment

Thus Figure 6.26 above shows the relationship between normalised shear and in-plane

bending moment. The results of the numerical study are plotted together with the

212
Numerical Parametric Studies

experimental results to derive the interaction curve between shear and in-plane

bending moment. For most of the loading by shear, a pronounced peak is observed in

## the Yura deformation limit.

Table 6.14 below summarises the loads at the deformation limit or maximum peak

load for the specimens plotted in Figure 6.26. The normalised results for shear and

## bending moments in the table are plotted in Figure 6.26.

V yura
The value at 1 .0 indicates that shear loading is predominant and the effect from
Vmax

M yura
bending moment is negligible. On the other hand, 1 .0 indicates that the
M max

bending moments are predominant and the effect from shear loads is negligible. The

scatter in the data from the numerical and experimental results show good agreement

within the band defined by the interaction curve plotted. This interaction curve was

obtained by regression analysis, fitting the curve below the data so that a conservative

result for the interaction curve can be obtained. This shear and bending moment

## interactive curve is defined by the following relationship:

§ V yura · §M ·
2 2
0.84  ¨¨ ¸  ¨ yura
¸ ¨M
¸
¸ 1 (6.4)

213
Numerical Parametric Studies

The proposed interaction equation for shear loads and in-plane bending moment in

trunnion braces defines the range where shear and bending moment predominate. It

M yura
shows that beyond 0.4 , there is a reduction factor that may be applied to the
M max

## shear capacity of trunnions, as in-plane bending moment becomes larger. This

reduction factor can be easily obtained by using the interaction Equation 6.4.

214
Numerical Parametric Studies

Table 6.14 Shear and bending moment interaction from the numerical and
experimental results

kN

## (All other dimensions in mm)

215
Numerical Parametric Studies

## 6.4.4 Effective width of trunnion brace

In the design of trunnions, the width of the brace is usually taken to be slightly wider

than the recommendation of Brown and Root (1990) where the trunnion width is

defined as:

w1 1.25d sl  25 (6.5)

However, the recommendation only defines the required width after taking into

account the flattening of the grommet or wire ropes by a factor 1.25. This does not

consider whether the full shear capacity can be mobilised, or address the concern

whether there is a reduction in shear capacity if the trunnion width is wider due to

unforeseen circumstances.

The interaction Equation 6.4 can be used to define the trunnion width, in terms of the

trunnion brace diameter, when shear capacity can be fully mobilised. The equation

## d 0.4 , the in-plane bending moment effect is negligible since

M yura
shows that when
M max

V yura
1 .0 . Thus in order that no reduction factor due to bending moment needs to be
Vmax

applied, the maximum distance from the chord wall to the loading point on the

## trunnion brace is given by:

w1  0.28d1 (6.6)

216
Numerical Parametric Studies

The proposed Equation 6.6 as derived from the interaction Equation 6.4 can be used

to define the maximum allowable trunnion width based on the shear capacity, in

addition to providing sufficient width for sling flattening effect and clearances.

217
Trunnion Design Calculations

CHAPTER SEVEN

## In this chapter, an example of a design of a fabricated trunnion for an offshore

installation is presented. Here a complete design is presented together with the steps

involved in designing a fabricated trunnion suitable for the required lifting loads.

Guidance notes are provided to highlight the important criteria governing the

selection of brace, chord, stiffener plates, keeper plates and shear plate. The trunnion

design calculations will also highlight the method and design approach that were

## proposed and discussed in the earlier chapters.

Three separate approaches in the fabricated trunnion design are presented: pure pipe

trunnions, through pipe trunnions and combined shear plate and pipe trunnion. In

addition to presenting the method of selection and calculations, the benefits and

## comparison is made on sizing the trunnion components by using the recommendations

218
Trunnion Design Calculations

## as described in the previous chapters.

Based on the previous chapters, it was observed that the current design codes do not

## provide specific guidance on the selection of the different components of a fabricated

trunnion. Both Brown & Root (1990) and Shell (1992) provide some simplified

## recommendation on pure pipe trunnions. In addition, the design is also conservative as

it is suggested that the strength contribution of the trunnion brace should not be

## included in the calculation of shear capacity. The trunnion brace is considered to

provide a circumference to transfer the sling load to the shear plate, and not to

participate in carrying part of the load. However, previous research by Quah (1998)

proved in experimental tests that even in fabricated plate trunnions, there is significant

strength contribution resulting from the shear strength of the trunnion brace. In this

study, the focus will be on the new approach proposed to design fabricated pipe

trunnions.

It is noted here that there may be other guidance which has not be published and other

checks may be necessary depending on specific rules and guidance from classification

societies, joint industry project guidance notes or other in-house studies. This study

will concentrate mainly on the results from the present numerical and experimental

## installation, no effort should be spared to ensure all aspects of a trunnion design is

fully covered to prevent any unforeseen effects resulting from oversight or ignorance.

219
Trunnion Design Calculations

## 7.2 Rigging arrangement and design loads

In this example, it is required that a heavy topside module is to be lifted and installed

with the requirement for a single hook – four lift point configuration on a crane hook

maximum vertical lifting force is estimated to be 16,700kN and the trunnions are to

be orientated at an inclined angle of 60o. The design loads and orientation in this

calculation are based on the rigging arrangement calculation and is not included here

## accompanying components to ensure successful installation using the rigging

arrangement as described.

## trunnion is inclined at an angle of 60o, it is necessary to compute the actual force

acting on the trunnion so that a conservative estimate can be made for the sling force

and forces acting on the brace, shear and keeper plates, etc. It is also noted here that

due to the effect of friction and interaction of the sling with the brace as discussed by

## Choo et al (1997), the distribution of the sling force is designed to be sharing in a

55%-to-45% arrangement. This is in line with the specific requirement of not under-

estimating the actual sling forces. The keeper plate is designed to take 5% of the

perpendicular loads arising from the sling force as recommended by Brown & Root

(1990). The following are the forces acting on the trunnion. A designer should check

against any standard manufacturer’s handbook on the selection of wire rope types and

## dimensions to accommodate the design loads.

220
Trunnion Design Calculations

## Vertical lifting force, Fv = 16,700kN

16,700kN
Horizontal component, Fh = 9,642kN
tan 60o

16,700kN
Sling force, Fsl = 19,284kN (acting on both side of trunnion)
sin 60o

## Force perpendicular to keeper plates, Fh2 = ½ x 0.05 x 19,284kN = 482kN

It is noted here that the most unfavourable critical lifting loads should be considered

for all the lifting points considering the angle of inclination and distribution of sling

forces over the lifting hooks or trunnion stubs. A check should be made on the other

three lifting points. In the above example, the load case is the maximum that the

trunnion is carrying and this is to be applied to all the other three lifting points.

There are several options that a designer can pursue as described in the previous

chapters, namely pure pipe trunnions, through pipe trunnions or combined pipe and

shear plate trunnions. All the options are discussed in detail below and the method of

selection and design approach, based on the current study, is used to highlight the

## 7.4 Pure pipe trunnion option

The most direct method of designing a trunnion is to take the option of using pure

pipe trunnions. Here a short length of pipe is profiled and butt-welded on both sides of

the chord wall. Other than stiffeners and keeper plates sizing, there is not much else

that needs to be considered in terms of fabrication. Thus the cost and time for

## fabrication work is sufficiently low to warrant a designer to consider this option.

However, it should be noted that the current design recommendations, Brown & Root

221
Trunnion Design Calculations

(1990) do not consider the pipe alone to provide the shear capacity to carry a lifting

load. This may be due to concerns on potential lamellar tearing of the chord wall,

which may be overcome by the use of pipes with through-thickness properties and

## appropriate welding consumables. The shear load is designed to be carried by a shear

plate slotted through the chord pipe and where the brace is used merely as a

circumference for the grommet or wire ropes to sling around. Therefore, prior to this

study, there is no experimental and numerical data that proves convincingly that a

pure pipe trunnion is a possible option. The experimental and numerical results have

provided sufficient confidence in pipe trunnion design as these provide actual failure

modes and characteristics. The results of this study have been used as a basis for the

## 7.4.1 Selection of pure pipe trunnion

Due to the inherent characteristics that the trunnion brace is likely to suffer premature

chord plastification due to the thin chord wall, the full mobilisation of the shear

capacity of the brace may not be achieved. As observed from the results presented in

the previous chapters, there is a significant reduction in static strength of the trunnion

brace when chord plastification sets in, when the governing failure mode of the

## trunnion is due to chord plastification rather than in pure shear.

Therefore one of the key elements in designing pure pipe trunnions is to select

appropriate geometric ratios, W,E and 2J, such that the governing failure mode of the

trunnion is shear failure rather than chord wall plastification. This study has presented

## a simple table where the selection of an appropriate combination of non-geometric

parameters can be made. Table 7.1 reproduces the table as discussed in the precious

222
Trunnion Design Calculations

chapter for different combinations of W, E and 2J. The table is derived from the

proposed interaction diagram between chord plastification and pure shear capacity of

the trunnion. This provides a simple method where a quick selection can be made for

a pure pipe trunnion design, so that a preliminary design can be made without

## W = 0.46 2J0 = 10 2J0 = 15 2J0 = 20 2J0 = 25 2J0 = 30

E = 0.28 yield yield yield yield yield
E = 0.54 shear shear shear shear shear
E = 0.70 shear shear shear shear shear
E = 0.90 shear shear shear shear shear

## W = 0.75 2J0 = 10 2J0 = 15 2J0 = 20 2J0 = 25 2J0 = 30

E = 0.28 shear chord yield yield yield
E = 0.54 shear shear chord chord chord
E = 0.70 shear shear shear shear chord
E = 0.90 shear shear shear shear shear

## W = 1.00 2J0 = 10 2J0 = 15 2J0 = 20 2J0 = 25 2J0 = 30

E = 0.28 chord chord chord yield yield
E = 0.54 chord chord chord chord chord
E = 0.70 shear shear chord chord chord
E = 0.90 shear shear shear shear shear

Based on the table above, an appropriate selection can be made of a pure pipe

trunnion that satisfies the criteria to achieve full static strength of fabricated trunnion.

The selection is limited since many of the combinations are governed by chord

plastification and associated indentation, which limits the development of full shear

strength of the brace. A designer should make a choice based on the available

223
Trunnion Design Calculations

sections.

W = 0.75

E = 0.70

2J = 25

## 7.4.2 Verifying chord and brace sizes

Taking the most unfavourable position of sling and based on the 55%-45%

distribution of the sling over the two sides of the sling, the design force for the

trunnion is given by F1 and F2 as below. The diagram in Figure 7.1 shows the

## F2 = 0.55 x 19,284 = 10,606kN

Thus each trunnion brace must be designed to take a shear load of 10,606kN,

assuming that the full shear static capacity can be mobilised. The shear capacity of the

## brace, V1, is given by:

1
2  S  d m1  t1  f y1
V1 (7.1)
3

We choose then an available size for brace of 36” x 1.5” and the yield strength is

355N/mm2. The shear strength is V1 = 10,713kN. Thus the brace dimension of 36” x

1.5” of 355N/mm2 can be used for this lifting point. (It should be noted here that for

the purpose of calculation, other factors like dynamic actions and site specific

conditions that call for special considerations where extra safety factors may be

224
Trunnion Design Calculations

## applied are not considered here.)

Hence the chord that corresponds to the non-geometric parameters is 54” x 2.0” with

yield strength of 355N/mm2 or higher. The above selection is within the non-

## dimensional geometric parameters of W = 0.75, E = 0.67, and 2J = 27.

wt

w1

RA RB
F1 F2

Figure 7.1 Reactions acting on the pure pipe trunnion brace by the grommet

It is important to note that in order for the full shear capacity to be fully mobilised

without a reduction due to bending moment, the trunnion width, w1, from the chord

wall to the loading point should be based on the following relation as stated in

Chapter 6 and presented in Equations 7.2 and 7.3. The interaction equation, which

gives the maximum trunnion width, w1, allowed so that there is no reduction in shear

capacity.

225
Trunnion Design Calculations

§ V yura · §M ·
2 2
0.84  ¨¨ ¸  ¨ yura
¸ ¨M
¸
¸ 1 (7.2)

w1  0.28d1 (7.3)

Thus for brace of 36” , w1 is 255mm. Therefore the basic trunnion dimensions that can

## Brace of I36” x 1.5” x 355N/mm2

The above selection and verification of the suitable brace and chord used for the

calculation becomes very convenient and suitable for complex trunnion design where

heavy lifting operations are required. However, as indicated earlier, it was found that

the use of pure pipe trunnions is restrictive since there are many non-dimensional

geometrical ranges that are unsuitable for the design. It poses a problem when

materials are limited and fabrication cost could become an issue. Here a more

## effective method can be used to expand the range of non-geometric parameters to

include sections that are not possible under the pure pip trunnion option. This is an

## important contribution as the concept has been established in this study.

226
Trunnion Design Calculations

## Sometimes, the design of trunnions for lifting purposes is dependent on available

materials and also the need for speed and low cost of fabrication. From the study, it

was concluded that a new configuration of the pipe trunnion could be another option

in place of the pure pipe trunnions. This is because of the inherent advantages in terms

of its simplicity in design and the reduction in the need for thick chord wall.

Generally, through pipe trunnions reduces the effect of chord plastification effectively

since the internal wall of the chord is strengthened against chord indentation. This

enables the brace to fully mobilise its shear capacity before chord indentation even

when the chord wall is thinner. The selection here illustrates the potential use of

## through pipe trunnions.

One important contribution from the use of pure pipe trunnions is the extension of the

## range of non-dimensional geometric parameters that can be used in the selection of

brace and chord dimensions, which can become an issue under real site conditions. As

described in this study, most of the range, which was off-limits to pure pipe trunnions,

## 7.5.1 Selection of chord and brace sizes

The same design scenario was posed for the selection of the materials to produce the

required vertical lifting load of 16,700kN. Thus each trunnion brace must be designed

to take a shear load of 10,606kN, assuming that the full shear static capacity can be

mobilised.

227
Trunnion Design Calculations

Based on Table 7.1, a brace of I36” x 1.5” x 355N/mm2 and a chord of I54” x 2.0” x

355N/mm2 was designed for the required lifting arrangement with W = 0.75, E = 0.67,

and 2J = 27 for a pure pipe trunnion. There is always situation where due to practical

restraints, where the chord available is I54” x 1.75” rather than a I54” x 2.0” or

where a brace of I36” x 1.5” is not available, but there is a I30” x 1.5” . Such situation

## leads to dilemma in fabrication since the perfect combination can be tricky to be

achieved.

From the results of the current study, the increase in joint resistance from an inserted

brace through the chord wall allows a whole new range sections that can be used. For

## example, a chord of I54” x 1.75” x 355N/mm2 in combination with a brace of I36” x

1.5” x 355N/mm2 is still admissible when designed as a through pipe trunnion rather

than as a pure pipe trunnion without significant cost involved in fabrication or design

works. Table 7.2 shows the possible range of non-dimensional geometric range

available when a through pipe trunnion is used. This compares favourably vis-a-vis

Table 7.1.

Since the brace is I36” x 1.5” x 355N/mm2, the re-designed trunnion joint is able to

carry the required vertical lifting load of 16,700kN, even though there is no additional

re-design. In fact, other combinations of brace and chord are possible using the

through pipe trunnion concept. Figure 7.4 shows the re-designed through pipe

trunnion. The only difference is in terms of the slotted through pipe and the width, w1,

of 255mm which still governs in order to fully mobilise the resistance against the

228
Trunnion Design Calculations

## Table 7.2 Failure mode of through pipe trunnions

W = 0.46 2J0 = 15 2J0 = 15 2J0 = 20 2J0 = 25 2J0 = 30
E = 0.28 yield yield yield yield yield
E = 0.54 shear shear shear shear shear
E = 0.70 shear shear shear shear shear
E = 0.90 shear shear shear shear shear

## W = 0.75 2J0 = 15 2J0 = 15 2J0 = 20 2J0 = 25 2J0 = 30

E = 0.28 shear shear yield yield yield
E = 0.54 shear shear shear shear shear
E = 0.70 shear shear shear shear shear
E = 0.90 shear shear shear shear shear

## W = 1.00 2J0 = 15 2J0 = 15 2J0 = 20 2J0 = 25 2J0 = 30

E = 0.28 shear shear shear yield yield
E = 0.54 shear shear shear shear shear
E = 0.70 shear shear shear shear shear
E = 0.90 shear shear shear shear shear

wt

w1
RA RB

F1 F2

Figure 7.2 Reactions acting on the through pipe trunnion brace by the grommet

229
Trunnion Design Calculations

## 7.6 Combined pipe and shear plate trunnion option

It was discussed in the earlier section that Brown & Root (1990) or Shell (1992) do

not recommend the use of pipe trunnions in the calculation of combined pipe and

shear plate trunnions. As a result, the shear plate section is generally very large. Since

the brace has been provided as a circumference for the sling, brace size and thickness

was large even though it is not considered in the calculation. Thus, trunnion design is

## usually very conservative and restrictive.

The numerical and experimental results in this study have shown that the brace

## contributes significantly whether in combination with the shear plate or designed as a

standalone pure pipe or through pipe trunnion. The preceding sections have shown

that both pure pipe and through pipe trunnions can be effectively designed to carry the

## required vertical load of 16,700kN. Through the new understanding as presented in

this report, more options are available and more confidence can be placed in

designing trunnions.

Here, a full design of the combined shear and pipe trunnion is presented, including

standard design checks in terms of stresses developed for the components. Since the

current design practice do not include shear strength from brace, the calculation will

be based on a comparison with the earlier two options by considering only shear plate

strength here.

This section highlights that trunnion design can be designed effectively using three

different options and the shear strength contribution from brace is significant and

## should be included in the design.

230
Trunnion Design Calculations

## 7.6.1 Design load considerations and layout

The above forces are used to check for the integrity of the brace, shear plates and the

stiffener plates used in the design of the lifting point. Figure 7.3 shows a schematic

diagram of the trunnion arrangement, geometry and the direction of forces acting on

the trunnion. The main chord body is designed to be aligned in the same angle as the

sling force, Fsl, so that the shear force of pipe and shear plate can be fully effective in

the direction of loading from the grommet. The main chord body should be

strengthened with additional stiffeners for attachment to the deck level as supports.

The design has been adapted from internal report of Heerema (1987) as a basis of

comparison.

Section X-X is shown in Figure 7.4, which shows the main components of a pipe

trunnion, including main chord body, shear plate slotted through the chord wall, brace

circular hollow section, stiffeners, and the most unfavourable or most conservative

arrangement of the sling acting on the trunnion stub. The sling force is designed for

the load furthest from the chord wall. The stiffeners are provided to ensure that the

brace do not suffer local buckling before the full sling force has been transmitted

through the shear plate. Taking the most unfavourable position of sling and based on

the 45%/55% distribution of the sling over the two sides of the sling, the design force

for the trunnion is given by F1 and F2 below. Figure 7.5 shows distribution of the

## F2 = 0.55 x 19,284 = 10,606kN

231
Trunnion Design Calculations

Sling force, Fs

Keeper plate

X Shear plate

Brace

Stiffeners

Extended main
Deck level chord body

## Figure 7.3 Schematic view of the trunnion configuration in the design

Taking F2, the most conservative estimate of the load distribution, as the design load,

## F2h = 0.05 x 10,606 = 530kN (maximum)

232
Trunnion Design Calculations

Brace width

Stiffener plate

Shear plate
height

## Grommet (near to Grommet (near to

chord wall) keeper plate)

Figure 7.4 Section X-X view of the trunnion configuration in the design

The reactions acting on the trunnion brace due to the grommet sling, as shown in

Figure 7.5, are given by RA and RB (both sides of the chord wall) respectively as

follows:

## RB = 19,284 – 7,728 = 11,556kN

233
Trunnion Design Calculations

wt

w1

F1 RA RB F2

## 7.6.2 Selection of main parameters

It is recommended to use the same parameters as selected from the design of the pure

## pipe trunnion. That is W = 0.75, E = 0.70, and 2J = 25.

Assuming that main deck is provided with a chord extension, which can be used as

the main chord body of the trunnion. The chord is of diameter I54” x 2” thick and the

yield strength used here is 355 N/mm2. The following are some assumptions made in

the following calculations. Selecting the same brace size used earlier, i.e. 36” x 1.5”

and w1 of 255mm. This fulfils the geometric dimensions as recommended. The chord

## is then checked for joint resistance against bending moment as follows:

The shear plate in this design provides the necessary shear strength to the trunnion.

The design strength of shear plate on one side of the chord may be taken as follows. It

234
Trunnion Design Calculations

is noted in the research that the shear plate height should be designed such that the

length extends beyond the brace diameter of 36” . A height of 1,550mm is used. It is

necessary to select a shear plate thickness that can carry the required sling load. The

## shear strength of the shear plate is given by Vs.

2  d s  t s  f ys
Vs (7.4)
3

1550  t s  355
Vs = = 10,606kN
3

Therefore the required thickness for shear plate is minimum 1.5” . Choose a section of

shear plate of size 2.0” for this example. Depending on the design requirement in

terms of safety due to dynamic effects or other site conditions, an increase in the shear

plate from 50.8mm to 4” (101.6mm) would provide a higher design factor of safety in

## 7.6.3 Checks for trunnion brace

Based on the sling force distribution as shown in Figure 7.6, the following are used to

Fsl = 10,606 kN

## q = F/R = (5833 x 103)/(914/2) = 12,764 N/mm

235
Trunnion Design Calculations

F3

F4

## Figure 7.6 Distribution of forces on both sides of the trunnion brace

Consider the effect of sling flattening and using a sling diameter of 282 mm, the area

of the sling is 62,458 mm2. Assuming that the sling flattens to 1.25 of its diameter

under loading, the length L becomes 353mm, as shown in Figure 7.7. This gives the

## flat portion acting on the brace a length, B, of 151mm.

Flattened grommet

## Figure 7.7 Distribution of width after the grommet is flattened

236
Trunnion Design Calculations

Assuming that the stiffeners used is 32 mm thick, the bearing stress acting on the

trunnion pipe and stiffeners is shown in Figure 7.8. The bearing stresses are less than

355 N/mm2.

## 7.6.4 Checks for shear plate

The effective width for stress distribution into shear plate is shown in Figure 7.10.

Assuming a stress distribution angle of 45o from the bottom of the shear plate through

## Bearing stress through shear plate = 1621 x 103 /227 = 71 N/mm2

237
Trunnion Design Calculations

F6
F7

F5

## Figure 7.9 Forces acting through the shear plate

y
1
Shear plate sections:

ts = 50.8 mm

fy = 355 N/mm2 2
x x
A = 50.8 x 1550 = 155,000 mm2

## Sy = 1/6 x 1550 x 50.82 = 0.67 x 106 mm3

238
Trunnion Design Calculations

W1 = 0



## Vc = ¥ V22 + 3W22) = 184N/mm2

Where Sx and Sy are the elastic section modulus of the shear plate and Mx and My are

the moment acting across the x-x and y-y sections of the shear plate. The maximum

stresses due to the moments, Mx and My are respectively Vx and Vy. The combined

stresses for both extreme points are within the yield stress of 355N/mm2.

## 7.6.5 Checks for chord wall

The stress through the shear plate and chord wall is checked

## Force acting directly through the chord wall, RB = 11,556kN

239
Trunnion Design Calculations

## f0 = (11556 x 103)/(2 x 50.8 x 1550) = 73 N/mm2

It is concluded that the above stress checks confirm that the selection of the shear

## plate of 2” is sufficient for the design.

7.7 Conclusions

The above sections presented three different trunnion options. All the three different

types of trunnion are able to satisfy the required lifting load. However, it is observed

from the calculations that the best option is either the pure pipe trunnion or the

through pipe trunnion. The combined shear plate and pipe trunnion requires additional

materials, higher cost of fabrication and longer preparation time to handle, whereas

the other two options are direct and do not require any special treatment.

The above calculations fulfil the objectives of the study to understand the behaviour

of trunnion subjected to shear and bending moment, generate formulations and design

guide in the selection of trunnion components and provide greater confidence in the

## design through a deeper understanding of trunnion behaviour.

240
Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Work

CHAPTER EIGHT

FOR FUTURE WORK

## 8.1 Overview of experimental study

In an attempt to fill the gap due to a lack of experimental data that can be used to

benchmark the static strength of fabricated trunnions subjected to shear and in-plane

bending loads, the author has embarked on an extensive testing program to enhance

the knowledge base of test results for reference and provide a rational basis for

## fabricated trunnions and tubular X-joints of varying brace lengths. These

configurations include pipe trunnions (with attached brace pipes only), pipe trunnions

(with slotted shear plates), pipe trunnions (with through brace pipes), pipe trunnions

(with combined shear plates and brace pipes), and tubular X-joints (with varying

## brace lengths). The ranges of non-dimensional geometric parameters covered in the

241
Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Work

investigation comprise brace-to-chord diameter ratios, 0.64 < E < 0.80; brace-to-chord

wall thickness ratios, 0.66 < W0 < 1.10; and chord diameter-to-wall thickness ratios, 27

< 2J0 < 40. There were a total of twenty-five fabricated trunnion specimens tested in

## the Structural Engineering Laboratory in National University of Singapore.

Seventeen of the specimens were tested in a state-of-the-art test rig which was first

designed specially for these set of specimens in order to achieve the required test

trunnion is large, it is important that a test rig with substantial load magnitude (up to

1,000 tonne capacity) be built to ensure that there is no scale effect that may mask

possible failure mechanisms of the fabricated trunnions. All the specimens were tested

to their ultimate load and the author was able to collect a significant set of results,

which have been used to benchmark the ultimate load carrying capacities of the

different trunnions.

Prior to the large pipe trunnion test, the author attempted to understand the load

## transfer mechanism of grommet sling on fabricated trunnion in the laboratory. The

first set of eight specimens were tested using a self-straining test frame and special

design features to accommodate the grommet for the simulation of shear and in plane

bending loads on the trunnions. This set of test is significant as it provided a good

basis and understanding to design the 1,000 tonne capacity test rig for testing the

## larger trunnion specimens. The range of non-dimensional geometric parameters in this

initial series cover 0.52 < E < 0.77; 0.37 < W0 < 0.86; and 10 < 2J < 17.

The range of non-dimensional geometric parameters in the two series of tests covered

a sufficiently large range for calibration of the numerical methods and subsequent

242
Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Work

parametric studies. As a result of the two sets of fabricated trunnion specimens tested,

the range of geometric parameters included a wide spectrum of ratios, with 0.52 < E <

0.80, 0.37 < W0 < 1.10, and 10 < 2J0 < 40, and these cover a practical range of

## 8.2 Overview of numerical and parametric studies

One of the objectives of the present research is to generate additional results through

validated numerical models after careful calibration with the experimental results.

The numerical study was conducted to establish the basis for additional parametric

study so that a fully verified range of the trunnion parameters can be investigated.

All the twenty-five specimens were analysed using the measured data from the

experimental programmes. The complete finite element model using solid elements

conditions. The numerical results showed close agreement with the experimental

results and this has provided a good basis to extend the study through an extensive

parametric study.

The results of these parametric studies have been compiled and compared with current

## design recommendations are conservative. The author then proposes design

formulations which are established from the parametric study to provide assistance to

## designers in choosing the appropriate parameters in trunnion design. The proposed

design guidance can be useful for quick and reliable checking in the design of

trunnions.

243
Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Work

## 8.3 Overview of trunnion calculations

A set of trunnion calculations for fabricated pipe trunnion is presented in the thesis to

provide guidance to the designer on the choice of key parameters in proportioning the

trunnion. The sample calculations include the steps in establishing the design loads

and the selection of appropriate dimensions of the trunnion components: brace, shear

plate, keeper plate and stiffeners. This will help to eliminate uncertainties in the

design process. The calculations include only parameters that are important and

crucial to the overall design of the trunnion. It is important that the designer accounts

for the site conditions or special considerations which may vary considerably for

different projects.

## 8.4 Main findings and conclusions

The experimental, numerical and parametric studies conducted in this research project

have yielded important findings that are critical to the design of trunnions. The

## level of ductility in the trunnion irregardless of the configuration. For

the materials selected for the trunnions, there is very low probability of

## the trunnion suffering premature failure due to sudden fracture.

244
Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Work

## 2. It is observed that there is significant reserve strength and ductility for

the fabricated pipe trunnions (as reported in Chapter 2 and 3) for the

## forewarning of the potential failure of a lifting point.

3. The experimental results for pipe trunnions with attached brace pipes

only (as reported in Section 2.4.1 and 3.4.1) confirm that the existing

## has a direct impact on the magnitude of shear load that can be

mobilised by the brace (through the shear plate and brace pipe). When

the chord pipe has high resistance against chord plastification, the pipe

of the brace.

## provides a significant under-estimation of the strength of the combined

case. The individual strength contributions of the shear plate and the

## provides a good correlation to the observed static strength (as noted in

245
Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Work

Section 2.4.2). Thus it is observed that pipe trunnions with side braces

## thickness properties and compatible welding consumables.

6. In the large fabricated pipe trunnion tests (as reported in Chapter 3),

## indentation or shear. It is observed that when joint strength under in-

plane bending moment is high, the trunnion brace fails by shear. This

## observation was also confirmed in the numerical study (as noted in

Section 6.2).

7. It was shown in the tests (as reported in Section 3.4.2) that through

## indentation failure. It is possible for pipe trunnions with side braces,

which is low in shear capacity due to the thin chord wall adopted, to be

## brace through the chord pipe.

8. The experimental results for the large pipe trunnions with combined

shear plates and side braces (as reported in Section 3.4.3) show that

## there is a need to ensure that the chord diameter-to-wall thickness ratio

is sufficiently low (to give the correct 2J ratio) to sustain the full shear

## not prevented from lateral buckling. Otherwise, effective shear strength

of the shear plate cannot be fully mobilised and may result in buckling

## of the shear plate internally within the chord pipe.

246
Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Work

## study of fabricated pipe trunnions.

10. From the numerical study, it was observed (in Section 6.2.2) that when

## E and W remain constant, the static strength of the pipe trunnions

decreases when the 2J ratio increases. This is due to the change in the

## chord wall becomes thinner.

11. From the numerical study, it was observed (in Section 6.2.3) that when

## capacity of the brace.

12. It is concluded (in Section 6.2.2) that the increase in trunnion strength

## as W increases becomes less prominent as the E ratio decreases. Thus as

the E ratio reduces from 0.90 and below, it reaches a level where there

## fact, for specimens with E = 0.28, the static strength is observed to

remain constant.

13. Based on the observations and review of the design shear resistance, it

## the transition of failure mode from chord plastification to brace shear.

247
Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Work

## 8.5 Proposals for future research

Due to the lack of previous experimental tests prior to this research, an extensive

## parameters have been conducted. The different configurations of trunnions tested

included pipe trunnions and through pipe trunnions that can be designed to transfer

## installation procedures, large out-of-plane forces and associated moments may be

imposed on the fabricated trunnion. The governing failure load for this case will likely

be significantly different from the in-plane loading mode. The proposed research is

## conditions which has not be investigated in the present study.

There is currently a lack of data on the potential fracture at the interface between the

main chord and brace which may be critical for lifting operations to be carried out in

arctic offshore oil & gas fields. In view of the advancement in fracture mechanics and

## understanding of these potential effects.

248
Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Work

Due to the complexities of the experimental works and limited resources available,

the research study conducted do not take into account the effects that residual stresses,

geometrical imperfections or past local buckling may have on the results presented.

These effects may affect the ultimate load capacity and should be studied.

## In summary, there is incentive to enhance the knowledge base of fabricated trunnion

through various studies to provide robust and safe designs for the heavy lifting

249
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