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www.artofproblemsolving.com

Instructions Try to do as many of these problems as you can. Show your work, and if you cant solve a problem, please show us what you tried on the problem. If you get stuck, remember the general problem solving technique of making up a similar, simpler problem and solving that one rst. There are two groups of problems in this assignment, separated by a horizontal line (youll see it when you get to it). You should be able to solve almost all of the problems in the rst group. The problems below the line are especially challenging and will require more thought. Do your best, but dont expect to solve all of them. When you write up and submit your solutions, please keep the following in mind: 1. You can write your solutions by hand or by computer. If you write them by hand, please write NEATLY in pen on only one side of the paper. 2. You can fax, mail, or email your solutions. If you email them, they must be in PDF format. Do not email us an MS Word document or a list of numerical answers. Make sure you keep a copy of the solutions for yourself! Email: Fax: Mail: classes@artofproblemsolving.com (619) 659-8146 AoPS Incorporated PO Box 2185 Alpine, CA 91903-2185

3. There is a cover sheet after these instructions for you to include with your solutions. You must either ll out this cover sheet and include it as the rst page of your solutions, or else make your own cover sheet (containing the same information) and use that. 4. Put your answers in order. Tips for mathematical writing in general Write in complete sentences. An equation is not a sentence, and should be embedded in one. For example, suppose you want to prove that for all positive a, we have 2a > 0. BAD a>0 2a > a > 0 GOOD For positive a, we have a > 0. This means 2a = a + a > a + 0 > 0.

Show your work. A good rule of thumb is to write down enough work so that if you came back to your solution a year later, you could easily follow it. You want to make sure that someone reading your solution doesnt have to reach for a pencil to see if it makes sense.

www.artofproblemsolving.com

Make it obvious what your nal answers are. A good way to do this is to put boxes around them. More suggestions can be found in Art of Problem Solvings article How to Write a Solution: http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/Resources/AoPS_R_A_HowWrite.php You are allowed to work with your classmates. Get together in the classroom during free class time to work with others (post on the message board if you dont know what this means). However, if you work with others, please credit them appropriately when turning in your solutions. (In other words, say with whom you worked, and on which problems you worked together.)

www.artofproblemsolving.com

Cover Sheet Class Name: Username: Class ID: User ID: (Your Class ID and User ID can be found in the My Classes section of the website) Challenge Set Number: Number of pages (including cover sheet):

www.artofproblemsolving.com

Problems 1. Solve: x 2y x + =0 z = 5.

y 2z = 0

2. I have a bag containing red, green, blue, and white marbles and the ratio r : g : b : w is 2 : 2 : 5 : 7. I have 32 marbles. How many blue marbles do I have? 3. Solve each of the following systems of equations: (a) x + y = 15, x y = 3. x + y = 1, 3x + 3y = 4. (b) 2x + y = 7, x 2y = 4. 3x 4y = 2, 15x + 20y = 10.

(c)

(d)

4. A pen and a pencil together cost $1.10. The pen costs a dollar more than the pencil. How much does the pen cost? 5. My father is currently 13 times as old as my daughter. Next year, my father will be 11 times as old as my daughter. How old are they now? 6. Solve this equation for p in terms of q: q= 7. Solve the system y z = 7, x + 2y z = 3, 4x 2y + z = 5. 8. Express the following as a single fraction: y xy + . x+y y 2p + 1 . p2

9. At the Soup to Nuts cafeteria, Larry orders two pieces of toast and a bagel, which comes out to $1.30. Curly orders a bagel and a mun, which comes out to $2.50. Moe orders a piece of toast, two bagels, and three muns, which comes out to $6.95. How much is one bagel? 10. The length of a rectangle is increased by 20% and the width is decreased by 25%. What is the percentage change in the area of the rectangle? 11. In a store window, there was a at containing boxes of berries having a total weight of 100 kg. An analysis showed that the berries were 99% moisture, by weight. After two days in the sun, a second analysis showed that the moisture content of the berries was only 98%, by weight. What was the total weight of the berries after two days?

www.artofproblemsolving.com

12. Solution 1 consists of 80% benzene and 20% toluene. Solution 2 consists of 30% benzene and 70% toluene. (a) How many mL of Solution 1 and how many mL of Solution 2 must be combined to form a 100 mL solution that is 50% benzene and 50% toluene? (b) Is there a combination of Solution 1 and Solution 2 that is 90% benzene and 10% toluene?

The rest of the problems are very challenging. Dont be discouraged if you cant solve them all! Some of the problems below have hints. The hints are in this document after all the problems. Do not resort to the hints until you have tried solving the problem for a while. Some problems may have more than one hintif you look at the hints, try solving the problem after looking at each hint rather than reading all the hints before returning to the problem. (And keep in mind that the hints generally do not point to the only possible solution for each problem!) If you are looking for more hard problems, try some of the Challenge Problems in the textbook. 13. The cost of orange juice increases x% one week, and then decreases y% the following week. The net change in the cost of orange juice over both weeks was calculated to be z%. Express z in terms of x and y. Hints: 2 14. Solve for a and b in real numbers: ab4 = 12, a5 b5 = 7776. Hints: 3 15. For a certain value of k, the system x + y + 3z = 10, 4x + 2y + 5z = 7, kx + z = 3 has no solutions. What is this value of k? Hints: 1 16. If a + 2b = 8, b + 2c = 4, c + 2d = 2, d + 2e = 1, then what is the value of a/e? Hints: 4 17. Solve the system of equations 3xy = 5, x+y Hints: 5 2xz = 3, x+z yz = 4. y+z

www.artofproblemsolving.com

Hints

Below are hints to the problems. Work on the problems for a while before resorting to the hints. Note that the hint numbers do not correspond to the problem numbers! 1. Solve the system for x, y, and z, treating k like any other coecient. 2. Write down an equation representing the cost of orange juice after the second week. 3. You can solve for a in the rst equation, and then substitute into the second equation. Alternatively, you can raise the rst equation to the fth power. This would give you two equations containing the term a5 . 4. Using the fourth equation, express d in terms of e. Substitute into the third equation, and express c in terms of e, and continue to substitute until you have a in terms of e. 5. The rst equation can be rewritten as 3 x+y = . xy 5 What can you do with the left-hand side? Manipulate the other equations the same way.

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