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AN OVERVIEW OF INDONESIAS NATURAL GAS VEHICLE (NGV) INDUSTRY The Industry and Market Challenges NGV Market Opportunities

es Outlook

MARCH 2009

NATURAL GAS

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NATURAL GAS AN ALTERNATIF SOURCE OF ENERGY

Natural gas, like crude oil and coal, is a type of fossil fuel known as hybdrocarbons. Unlike other fossil fuels, however, natural gas is clean burning and emits lower levels of potentially harmful by GAS SPECIFICATION products into the air. Natural gas is formed primarily of methane, and can also include ethane, propane, butane and pentane. Natural gas is colorless, shapeless, and odorless in its pure form. Worldwide price of natural gas fuel for vehicles has been on average 30% lower than regular Diesel Fuel price
Butana 4% Propana 5% Ethane 5% Pentana 3% lain-lain 3%

Methane 80%

Natural gas has long been considered an alternative fuel for the transportation sector. According to the Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition data, there are currently more than 2.5 million Natural Gas Vehicles worldwide. The usage of natural gas has been continuously increasing worldwide due to: being the cleanest burning alternative transportation fuel available today; the economical advantages particularly from the continuous rise of oil prices (30% cheaper than gasoline vehicles to refuel, and in many cases the maintenance costs for NGVs is lower than traditional gasoline vehicles).

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CNG VS. Other Fuels

ITEM

CNG

LPG

DIESEL FUEL (ADO/HSD) + 9.083 Kcal/liter High Dirty 80% Required Required Yes Stabile with Pump Required High Yes Unlimited Required

DIESEL OIL (IDO/MDF) + 9.270 Kcal/liter High Dirty 80% Required Required Yes Stabile with Pump Required High Yes Unlimited Required

RESIDU (HFO) + 9.766 Kcal/liter High 80% Required Required Yes Stabile with Pump Required High Yes Unlimited Required

KEROSENE

Calorie Value Sulfur Nature Burnet Problem Ignition Efficiency Storage tank Transportation Transport Cost Pressure

+ 9.500 Kcal/m3 Nol Clean 95% Required Required None Stabile without Supporting Pump

+ 11.500 Kcal/kg Low Clean 95% Required Required Yes Stabile with Evaporator Not Required Medium Yes Unlimited Required

+ 8.840 Kcal/liter High Dirty 80% Required Required Yes Stabile with Pump Required High Yes Unlimited Required

Preheating Maintenance Cost Losses Risk Maximum Supply Iron Stock Fuel

Not Required Low None Unlimited Not Required

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NATURAL GAS AN ALTERNATIF SOURCE OF ENERGY

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NATURAL GAS AN ALTERNATIF SOURCE OF ENERGY

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BLUEPRINT PENGELOLAAN ENERGI NASIONAL 2005 2025 Dept. ESDM

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BLUEPRINT PENGELOLAAN ENERGI NASIONAL 2005 2025 Dept. ESDM

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BLUEPRINT PENGELOLAAN ENERGI NASIONAL 2005 2025 Dept. ESDM

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MRS
G a s N eg a ra

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CNG Stationary Fueling System Flow

1. Compressor Package 2. Priority Panel 3. Storage Cylinder 4. Dispenser

a. MR/S b. Gas Dryer 5. SCADA & Card Key System 6. PLC Controller

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INDONESIAS NGV DEVELOPMENT

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INTERNAL SOURCE OF ENERGY AVAILABLE

NATURAL GAS DEVELOPERS

GOVERNMENT

EXTERNAL SOURCE (IMPORTS)

NATURAL GAS MARKET DEMAND

THE GOVERNMENT PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE NGV DEVELOPMENT

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INDUSTRY ANALYSIS Industry Growth Drivers


Governmental Regulation on the Gas Sector; Improved economic condition;

Competition & Barriers to Entry


High capital costs compare to regular gasoline station; Barrier to access & develop new strategic distribution network with DKI;

Customer Base

Suppliers

Industry Trends
Increase awareness of global warming whereby gasoline emission contributes the most pollutant; Price of other energy like oil and LPG has increase; Increase awareness that CNG is safe as being used in TransJakarta busses.

Four major customer base groups: 1. Transjakarta Bus 2. Taxis and Angkot

3. Bajaj Developments & 4. Private Vehicles growth of the Natural 5. Industry. Gas Vehicle Industry; New Stations for the Only gasoline fuel Busway Program is Increase consumer base vehicles can be restricted as awareness on safety added with a CNG development planning awareness of natural converter kit; is coordinated by DKI gas vehicles; as land area shall be Only industry that is Oil Price fluctuation provided. within a transportable toward Indonesia range and not having a gasoline prices; PGN pipe line is Government feasible to be supplied regulation to reduce CNG by the company. subsidy to gasoline price.

Three major types of Supplier of Gas through pipeline distribution to a designated CNG Station: 1. PGN 2. Pertamina 3. Others So far only PGN is the only company with the widest spred of pipeline distribution in Jakarta.

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INDONESIAS NGV DEVELOPMENT (1986 2005)

Since 1986, the Indonesia Government has promote the usage of CNG for the transportation sector for the purpose of diversification of energy and to endorse the blue sky program, however since then, little development had took place, due to some of the following reason: Price of petrol oil was relatively low during the early 90s and is subsidized by the Government; Low incentives and economic value were provided for NGV users ; The spread and number of CNG stations were limited.

ECONOMIC DIFFERENCES Rp. 1.550,- / Liter Rp. 1.650,- / Liter

CNG STATION AVAILABILITY

vs
CNG STATION PETROL STATION CNG STATION

vs
PETROL STATION

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INDONESIAS NGV DEVELOPMENT (2005 - TODAY)

The domestic oil production lifting had decline over the years ; Indonesia has become a net importer country rather than an exporter country for oil; Petrol Oil price had gradually increased and by mid year of 2008 the price of oil had reached its highest point ever ; Continuous increase in the number of vehicles ; The Indonesias Government reduced subsidizing the national petrol oil ; Increase of pollutant level from vehicle emission particularly in DKI Jakarta;
7,000 6,000

BBG SOLAR

Harga BBG
HARGA MINYAK PER BAREL

5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

SEBELUMNYA

SEKARANG

TANPA SUBSIDI

The Indonesia Government reacted to the unfavorable energy crisis by promoting alternative energy including the usage of CNG for the purpose of diversification of energy and to lessen the environmental polution of vehicle emmision.

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REGULATION

Government Regulation promoting CNG usage: 1. Keputusan Gubernur Nomor 141 Tahun 2007 tentang aplikasi BBG untuk kendaraan umum dan dinas DKI 2. Peraturan Presiden No No. 5 Tahun 2006 kebijakan energy Nasional 3. Instruksi Presiden Republik Indonesia No No. 10 Tahun 2005 tentang penghematan energy 4. Peraturan Menteri Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral No No. 0031 Tahun 2005 tentang prosedur pengimplementasian penghematan energy khususnya pada butir 5 klausal 2 tetang percepatan penggunaan BBG untuk sektor transportasi umum 5. Perda 2 Tahun 2005 tentang pengawasan Polusi udara terutama pada artikel 20 tentang penggunaan BBG untuk kendaraan umum dan kendaraan dinas pemerintah 6. Keputusan Gubernur No No. 95 95/2004 tentang penerapan usaha minyak dan gas bumi di wilayah DKI Jakarta 7. Instruksi Gubernur No No.77 Tahun 2005 tentang Program penghematan energi di DKI Jakarta 8. Keputusan Gubernur No No. 33 33/2008 tentang penerapan penghematan energy di DKI Jakarta 9. Keputusan Kepala Dinas Pertambangan Provinsi DKI Jakarta No. 2508 2508/1.824 824.132 132/93 tentang kehendak pemerintah untuk menambah instalasi dispenser BBG pada setiap Stasiun pengisian bahan bakar Umum (SPBU) di wilayah DKI Jakarta

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REGULATION

THE KEY REGULATION ENDORSING CNG USAGE FOR TRANSPORTATION SECTOR: Keputusan Menteri Kelestarian Lingkiungan Hidup No. 141 Tahun 2003 tentang Pemberlakuan Batas Emisi Gas Buang Kendaraan Bermotor sesuai dengan Standard Euro II mulai 1 Januari 2005 untuk Kendaraan Baru dan 1 Juli 2007 untuk Kendaraan yang sedang Diproduksi/sudah beredar di pasaran. In-Pres Presiden Republik Indonesia No. 10 tahun 2005 tentang Penghematan Energi yang Diimplementasikandalam Peraturan Menteri Sumber Daya Mineral No. 0031 Tahun 2005 Tentang Tata Cara Pelaksanaan Penghematan Energi terutama pasal 5 ayat 2 yaitu memacu Pemakaian Bahan Bakar Gas padaKendaraan Umum Peraturan Daerah (PERDA) Propinsi DKI Jakarta Nomor 2 Tahun 2005 tentang Pengendalian Pencemaran Udara dimana dinyatakan pada tahun 2006 kendaraan umum dan kendaraan dinas pemerintah wajib memakai gas. Kep. Gubernur DKI No. 141/2007 tentang Pengunaan Bahan Bakar Gas untuk Angkutan Umum dan Kendaraan Operasional Pemerintah Daerah.

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20 MAY 2006

Peresmian Gerakan Pemasyarakatan & Pemanfaatan BBG Pada Kendaraan Bermotor sekaligus Peresmian SPBBG PETROSS di Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan oleh Bapak Presiden RI Susilo Bambang Yudoyono

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20 MAY 2006

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PROGRAM BBG DI DKI

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DKIS JAKARTA TRANSPORTATION SECTOR CONDITION:


A continuos increase in the number of vehicle by 7-10% yearly. An estimated 6 million vehicles in DKI Jakarta, which 600.000 of the vehicles (1,2 mil people) enters from the outside Jakarta daily. Around 669 of new car registration application are requested daily. New road developments is very low (around 1% annum) compare to new vehicles. The daily mobilization of vehicles in Jakarta reached 4,95 mil (motorcycles 53%, private vehicles 30%, buses 7%, dan trucks 10%). The ration between Public Transportation and Private Vehicles is 98% to 2%. 85% of the usage of the road from vehicles are used by private vehicles. Degradation and deminishing of the number of the public transportation.
(Source: Dinas Perhubungan Pemprov DKI JKT)

Busway As One Option of the Solution

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DKI JAKARTA ENVIRONMENTAL FACTS: Considered as the Third Worlds Most Polutted City in the World after Mexico City and Bangkok. (Badan Lingkungan Hidup Dunia/UNEP) 67% of the polution in Jakarta was due to the emission from vehilces. (UNEP) A yearly estimated economic lost of Rp 12 trillion is lost due to high traffic jam, production time, and fuel evaporation (Yayasan Pelangi, 2003)

Bus TransJakarta using an environmental friendly fuel : Compressed Natural Gas Fuel

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PROGRAM BUSWAY DKI


The early CNG station in Jakarta
SPBBG PETROSS RAWA BUAYA SPBBG PETROSS PERINTIS PEMILIK Pertamina Pertamina LOKASI Jl. Sumenep Jl. Raya Pluit TAHUN OPERASI 1987 1990 1996 1995 1989 1987 1994 1991 1997 1997 1993 1997 1994 1998 STATUS Operational Not Operate Not Operate Not Operate Not Operate Operational Not Operate Not Operate Operational Not Operate Not Operate Operational Not Operate Operational

Pertamina Jl. Blvrd. Timur Pertamina Jl. Raya Benda Pertamina Jl. Raya Bekasi Pertamina Jl. Pemuda Pertamina Jl. Raya Bogor Jl. Warung Pertamina Buncit Pertamina Jl. Pasar Minggu Elnusa Elnusa PPD/DKI Sugiron PGN Jl. Danau Sunter Jl. Daan Mogot Jl. Daan Mogot Jl. A. Yani Jl. Raya Bekasi

From the original 14 CNG Station in Jakarta, only 5 was still operational in 2006. Out of those 5 CNG Stations that were operational, only 2 has the equipment capacity to serve large CNG vehicles

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FEASIBLE STUDY ON VOLUME SUPPLY

DATA PEMAKAIAN Calculation Data of Corridor Total Jarak per Koridor Perkiraan Jumlah Rit per Hari per Bus Jarak Tempuh per Hari Kilometer Tempuh per LSP Komsumsi Gas per bus per Hari Jumlah Armada Busway Estimasi Komsumsi per hari

km x km LSP LSP unit LSP

Cor. X xx xx xx xx xx xx xx

DESIGN WORK : Engineering design Architectural design Gas Engine Compressor Storage Cylinder Dispenser Booster Compressor Dryer POS System Land Development Canopy & Office Building Approvals

EQUIPMENTS :

CNG STATION OWNERS


Conduct an engineering design and equipment capacity calculation to support the CNG volume needed. All are mostly custom made design and tailored toward the TransJakarta busses requirements. Conduct an agreement with DKI, and/or the bus operators.

CIVIL WORK :

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DESIGNING THE STATION

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PROGRAM BUSWAY DKI


OPERATOR * PT. TRANSBATAVIA * PT. TRANSBATAVIA ** PT. JAKARTA TRANS METROPOLITAN *** PT. JAKARTA MEGA TRANSPOLITAN ** PT. JAKARTA TRANS METROPOLITAN *** PT. JAKARTA MEGA TRANSPOLITAN TOTAL BUS PT. LORENA EKA SARI KONSORSIUM KONSORSIUM
* **

KORIDOR II III IV V VI VII

JUMLAH BUS 80 46 27 17 34 51 255

SPBBG PENGISIAN PETROSS PERINTIS KEMERDEKAAN PETROSS RAWA BUAYA PETROSS PERINTIS KEMERDEKAAN PPD DAAN MOGOT PETROSS PERINTIS KEMERDEKAAN PERTAMINA PEMUDA PPD DAAN MOGOT

VIII IX X

N/A N/A N/A

Sesuai Perjanjian Kerja Sama antara Badan Layanan Umum (BLU) Transjakarta dengan PT. Trans Batavia (TB) nomor 002/BPTJ/PPKPAS/I/06 tanggal 13 January 2006 dan 003/BPTJ/PPKPAS/I/06 tanggal 13 January 2006 dimana TB akan menyediakan 126 bus pada awal tahun 2007. Sesuai Surat Perintah Kerja dari BLU kepada PT. Jakarta Trans Metropolitan (JTM) nomor 004/-077.922 dan 006/-077.922

*** Sesuai Surat Perintah Kerja dari BLU kepada PT. Jakarta Mega Trans (JMT) nomor 003/-077.922 dan 005/-077.922

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BUSWAY DKI PAYMENT SCHEME

MASYARAKAT PENGGUNA BUSWAY DANA HASIL TIKET BUSWAY KORIDOR I - VII


JUMLAH TIKET TERJUAL X Rp. 3.500,- /TIKET

APBD
BADAN LAYANAN UMUM (BLU)

SUBSIDI

OPERATOR BUS TRANSJAKARTA DIBAYAR OLEH BLU TRANSJAKARTA BERDASARKAN KONTRAK RUPIAH PER KILOMETER

PT. JET
(KORIDOR I)

PT. TB
(KORIDOR II & III)

PT. JTM
(KORIDOR IV & VI)

PT. JMT
(KORIDOR V & VII)

PERTAMINA CNG STATION PRICE Rp. 2.562,- / lsp

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BLUEPRINT PENGELOLAAN ENERGI NASIONAL 2005 2025 Dept. ESDM

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CNG CONVERSION
By Mr. John Hartley

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CNG Terminology
NG CNG NGV Bi fuel Dual fuel : Natural Gas; A gas found in a vapor state underground : Compressed Natural Gas; Natural gas that is compressed at high presser on site : Natural Gas Vehicles; Vehicle powered by natural gas

: Able to operation on either petrol or CNG by way of a change over switch : The operation of the two diesel and CNG at the same time by way of fuel substitution Mono fuel : A dedicated single fuel system Non Stoichiometric: A manual aspirated gas system with out emission control devices Stoichiometric : A fuel system that is controlled by a close loop system (ECU with O2 sensor) used to keep the emission system operating at lambda Lead Burn : Generally used on turbo charged engine and operate at 1.20 lambda (a very lead fuel mixture) Manual Aspirated : Where gas enters the engines inlet manifold through a gas air mixer Gas Injection : Where gas vapors are injected into the engine as like a petrol injection system

EURO I, II, III, IV : The European reference for vehicle tail pipe emission standards used by most of the world to ensure the reduction of harmful and toxic gases produced by combustion engines

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1. Straight Gas
Straight natural gas system Is where we convert the compression ignition engine to a spark ignition engine Re place the Diesel Fuel Gas Fuel via a Carburetor or Gas injection system There are 4 main sections that the conversion is broken into Engine Modification 2. Ignition System 3. Gas Equipment Disadvantage with straight natural gas: 4. Gas Storage and 1. Engine must be modified 2. Engine can only run onPiping gas natural 3. Maintenance of a spark ignition system 1.

The advantages with straight natural gas: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Engine modified to run on Natural Gas Simply operation Only one fuel supply Less maintenance Cost efficient Lower exhaust emissions (pollution)

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Engine Components Modification


Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor Electronic Controlled High Pressure Gas lock High pressure CNG reducer

Throttle Position Switch CNG Injector

State of the art CNG ECU controls

Spark plug and Coil

Modification Inlet Manifold For Gas Injectors Modified Camshaft

Modification of the cylinder head to take a spark plug

Piston modification To reduce the compression ratio

The addition of a throttle body

Ignition Trigger Device

3 way catalytic converter

Oxygen sensor

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2. Duel Fuel System

A duel fuel, gas conversion is where we introduce natural gas into the air intake system. Control device is attract to the diesel injector pump or injectors to reduce the amount of diesel fuel entering the combustion chamber, the gas fuel is increased until the combustion fuel ratio between the diesel and the gas fuel is within the required power setting of the diesel engine

The advantage with Dual fuel system: 1. 2. 3. No engine modification Will operate on diesel only Requires no spark ignition system

Disadvantage with Dual fuel: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Requires two fuel supplies Maintenance of two fuel systems Complicated operation Expensive operation cost High exhaust emission (pollution)

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Engine Components Modification Simple Dual Fuel System


Throttle Position Switch

Gas Mixer

Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor

State of the art Dual Fuel ECU

Electronic Controlled High Pressure Gas lock High pressure CNG reducer Pneumatic Control

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Komponen dalam Conversion Kit

Petrol Emulator

Switch / dash gauge With Safety Switch

Cylinder Tank

CNG Reducer

Cylinder Valve

Service Line CNG Filler Valve

High Pressure Gas Lock

Transducer / gauge

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3. Fuel Enhancement System


A fuel enhancement gas fuel conversion is where we introduce Between 5 to 10% gas fuel into the air intake system. Increasing the volatility air mixture going into the combustion chamber, as a resolute of this effects the reduction of diesel fuel takes place. Fuel enhancement provides a more responsive and cleaner fuel burning mixture

The advantage with fuel enhancement system: 1. 2. 3. 4. No engine modification required Will operate on diesel only Requires no spark ignition system Very cost efficient

Disadvantage with fuel enhancement: 1. 2. 3. Requires two fuel supplies Maintenance of two fuel systems Expensive operation cost

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Engine Size
Gas have been installed on engines ranging from HP to over2000 HP

Engine Application Conversion Fuel Types


LP Gas Natural Gas Waste Gas Gen-set Engines Industrial Engines Marine Engines

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Benefits of Gas Fuel


Save Money Air Quality & Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Healthy Workers

Gas Fuel

Cost Affective Escapes from liquid fuel transfers

Noise reduction

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BBM VS BBG (Tabloid Otomotif 19 juni 2006)

Tenaga turun 11 % menggunakan BBG

(61.4 HP menjadi 51.2 HP) apabila kendaraan

BBM VS BBG (Tabloid Otomotif 19 juni 2006)

Torsi maksimum turun dari 104,66 Nm pada rpm 2.600 menjadi 88,13 Nm pada rpm 3.000

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BBM VS BBG (Tabloid Otomotif 19 juni 2006)

Dengan menggunakan BBG maka kendaraan menghemat pemakaian BBG hingga 30 % dibanding BBM

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NGV FILLING PROCESS

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Standard Keamanan Conversion Kit


Safety Valve Selenoid pengaman untuk mencegah terjadinya tekanan gas yang berlebihan pada converter kit ( Filling valve, Cylinder Valve, Converter Valve)
1.

Seal pada sambungan pipa gas ke masing-masing komponen untuk mencegah terjadinya kebocoran gas Kantong pelindung katup (valve) pada tangki penyimpanan untuk mencegah terjadinya kebocoran gas di bagasi kendaraan Tangki penyimpanan BBG didesain khusus dan tahan benturan Automatic Electric Security untuk mengatur pendistribusian gas Standarisasi keamanan peralatan converter kit telah berserifikasi lolos uji layak pakai untuk jaminan keamanan kendaraan dari DepNaker.

2.

3. 4. 5.

6 1 3 5

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THANK YOU
Gedung ProMotor 3B Floor. Jl. Teuku Nyak Arif No. 14 Simpruk Jakarta 1222 Telp: +62-21-726-0630 ; Fax : +62-21-726-0448

(subsidiary of PETROSS Group)

PT. PETROSS GAS

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