PMP Exam PREP - CONDENSED NOTES – Prepared by Cindy J, Bell, PMP QUALITY

Yellow Green INITIATE SCOPE Initiation PLANNING Scope Planning Scope Definition Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Duration Estimating Schedule Development Resource Planning Cost Estimating Cost Budgeting Quality Planning Organizational Planning Staff Acquisition Communications Planning Risk Planning RISK Risk Identification Qualitative Risk Analysis Quantitative Risk Analysis Risk Response Planning Procurement Planning Solicitation Planning Project Plan Development 1 14 21 48 Solicitation Source Selection Contract Admin Project Plan Execution 7 48 Risk Monitoring and Control 17 – Core Processes 22 – Facilitating Processes CONTROLLING Scope Verification Scope Change Control Schedule Control Cost Control Quality Assurance Team Development Information Distribution Quality Control CLOSING

EXECUTING

TIME

COST QUALITY HUMAN RESOURCE COMMUNICATIONS

Performance Reporting

Admin Closure

PROCUREMENT

Contract Close-out Integrated Change Control 8 48 2 14

INTEGRATION Total # of Processes Approx # of exam questions

Adapted from PMBOK® GUIDE - page 38 Includes processes to ensure the needs of the project will be met. Activities to determine the quality policy, objectives, and responsibilities. Planning deals with the philosophy, assurance with the management and control with the technical aspects It has to address the management of the project and the product of the project Quality Management complements Project Management. Both disciplines recognize the importance of: • • • • Customer Satisfaction Prevention over Inspection Management Responsibility Processes within Phases Page 1 of 9

Copyright© PM-Star 2002. All rights reserved Nov 2003 Single use only. Do not distribute electronically or print additional copies.

CONDENSED NOTES – Prepared by Cindy J. AIM for acceptance of product.e. It is the paradigm that underpins customer satisfaction. Page 2 of 9 What is Quality: In other words: Copyright© PM-Star 2002. Needs: The aim is to deliver to spec – nothing more nothing less. Conformance to requirements/specifications and fitness of use. when to act and when to do nothing. • • • Need to define acceptance criteria up front. i. PMP QUALITY Processes Description Group Inputs • Product description • Other process outputs • Scope statement • Standards and regulations • Quality policy • Results of quality control measurements • Operational definitions • Quality mgmt plan • Checklists • Operational definitions • Quality mgmt plan • Work results T & T • Benefit/cost analysis • Benchmarking • Design of experiments • Flowcharting • Cost of quality Outputs • Inputs to other processes • Checklists • Operation definitions • Quality mgmt plan Quality Planning Identify standards and how to satisfy Planning Facilitating Ongoing Quality evaluation to Assurance ensure standards are met Executing Facilitating • Quality planning T&T • Quality audits • Quality improvement Quality Control Analyze specific results meet standard If not. Bell. All rights reserved Nov 2003 Single use only.PMP Exam PREP . Also puts project at risk to over time. Delivering more usually is a waste of resources and has no payoff. Meeting project schedule objectives by rushing planned quality inspections may produce negative consequences when errors go undetected Totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its’ ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. over budget and low morale. Add delight but do not overwhelm. . action to prevent Controlling Facilitating • • • • • • Control charts Flowcharting Trend analysis Inspection Pareto diagrams Statistical sampling • • • • • Rework Acceptance decisions Process adjustments Quality improvement Completed checklists Quality is PLANNED/DESIGNED IN not INSPECTED IN! We do not do more than what is required by the customer! Gold plating is not a good idea! The key words to quality are: PMBOK® GUIDE Figure 8 -1 Satisfy: determine customer requirements and meet them. Do not distribute electronically or print additional copies. Quality of a product or service is judged on its ability to meet needs. Meeting customer requirements by overworking the team may produce negative consequences in the form of increased employee turnover.

Cost: Product or service is provided at a fair and affordable price. All rights reserved Nov 2003 Single use only. National bodies. Grade is “a category or rank given to entities having the same functional use but totally different technical characteristics. We are defining the target during the planning process. PMP QUALITY Quality is often defined as the sum of three things: Performance: Product or service does what it is supposed to do. Professional societies. Bell. ISO i. contractor quality requirements from procurement planning Pareto Diagrams – 80/20 rule Cause and Effect Diagrams – myriad of causes to any effect Histograms Graphs Scatter Diagrams – relationship between 2 variables Check Sheets Flow charts Scope statement Product description Standards and Regulations: Other Process Outputs: Seven Tools: Copyright© PM-Star 2002.CONDENSED NOTES – Prepared by Cindy J.PMP Exam PREP . Output from scope definition Key input as it documents the major deliverables. Be careful not to confuse quality with grade. styrofoam – affect on environment Careful design of a product/service is believed to increase reliability and maintainability Quality Planning Identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them. Do not distribute electronically or print additional copies.” Low quality is always a problem. It’s management philosophy. project objectives and important stakeholder requirements Input to Scope initiation Contains details that may affect quality planning – often technical aspects not reflected in scope statement Identifies performance expectations Consider any that my affect the project Standards. Quality Policy: Overall intentions and direction of organization with regard to quality formally expressed by top management. Low grade may not be! Remember the ilities: A MAP FOR US Availability (MTBF and MTTR) Maintainability (Mean Time To Repair (MTTR)) – how long does it take to fix it Affordability Producibility – you can create it over and over again Flexibility Operability Reliability (Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) Usability – How usable is it? Social Acceptability e. Page 3 of 9 . Military standards.e.g. If not available the project team will have to develop one and communicate to the team. Timeliness: Product or service is delivered on or before the agreed upon time.

assurance and improvement – can be formal or informal Also called metrics: describes what it is and how to measure the quality control process. • That’s a principle regularly attributed to Ishikawa System or process flowcharts – reflect how various elements of a system interrelate. start and end date or just start date is key. planning for quality Appraisal – evaluating processes work – audits.PMP Exam PREP . every decision point.CONDENSED NOTES – Prepared by Cindy J. Good for critical processes where following specific procedure is essential. Analytical technique. . All rights reserved Nov 2003 Single use only. identifies gaps or weak areas to improve on. Objective: to graphically represent processes and help identify quality problems and deal with them Cause and effect diagrams referred to Ishikawa or fishbone – illustrates how various causes and sub-causes relate to create potential problems or effects • Useful for brainstorming. examining the process • All the things that are causing a single problem – all causes of a single effect • “There are a myriad of causes to any effect. Can’t just say project on time – must state all deliverables/milestones must start on and finish on time Confirms activities have been completed yes/no Usually item specific Phrased as imperatives – “do this” or interrogatories “have you done this” Quality management planning may identify a need for further activities in other areas such as: • More input to scope definition • Added information SOW Page 4 of 9 Benchmarking: Flowcharting: Design of Experiments: Cost of Quality QMP: Operational Definitions: Checklists: Inputs to other processes: Copyright© PM-Star 2002. Very specific – i. PMP QUALITY Benefit/cost Analysis: Objective – identify the costs and benefits of performing quality management Primary benefit mtg quality: less rework. inspection Failure – both internal and external Procedures to implement quality policy. includes control. less costs higher productivity Primary costs: expense associated with the mgmt costs of quality Identify the risks of poor quality management It goes without saying the benefits must always outweigh the costs naturally. Costs of junior Vs senior – junior is less salary but takes longer to do. Taguchi – testing changes in small variables Total cost of all efforts to achieve product/service quality Includes all work to build conformance and all work resulting from non-conformance 3 Categories of costs: Prevention – training. Bell. Generate ideas for improvement. Which option really is the best solution? Or which combination of tires and suspension will produce the most desirable ride at the best cost. testing. Compare actual or planed projects to other projects to measure performance. Do not distribute electronically or print additional copies. feedback loop – gives opportunity to go back and forth through the process. Objective: to help determine what variables have the most influence on outcome.e. Top Down: Presents only the major or most fundamental steps in a process NO LOOPS – simply takes us from beginning to the end of a process Detailed: provides very specific info about process flow.

CONDENSED NOTES – Prepared by Cindy J. Measuring: • The number of errors we have in the program. All rights reserved Nov 2003 Single use only. Do not distribute electronically or print additional copies. • Schedule performance • Did we meet the specific quality standard? Output from Project plan execution They are the outcomes of work activities completed To what extent quality standards have or have not been met What costs have been incurred or committed to Information about planned as well as completed actual results Output from quality planning Provides the continuity between quality planning and quality control Quality Audits: Quality Improve: Quality Control Work results QMP Copyright© PM-Star 2002.k.a metrics Output from Quality planning Quality planning T&T Benefit/Cost analysis Benchmarking Flowcharting Design of experiment Identify lessons learned to improve performance on all projects Scheduled or random – completed by anyone internally or externally Action taken to increase effectiveness – usually requires a change requests for corrective action to be carried out under the overall change control Monitoring specific project results to determine if they comply with standards and identifying necessary adjustments What is QC: What are we doing: Technical function involves establishing technical baseline for project then collecting specific data by which to measure conformance to the baseline. Page 5 of 9 .PMP Exam PREP . Bell. PMP QUALITY • • • Quality Assurance Evaluating overall project performance regularly to provide confidence the project will satisfy the needs for which is was undertaken QMP Provides the overall structure for quality assurance efforts Identifies responsibilities for QA Additional cost identifiers Updates to the WBS Activities added to the activity lists Results of quality Control Measurements Records of quality control testing and measurement Information formatted for comparisons and analysis Inspection records Statistical process control records Discrepancy corrective action reports Operational definitions: a.

Bell. Originated during WWII to replace 100% inspection Deming does not support this concept – it just guarantees defective products will reach the client. timeliness. food Bar chart in descending order of their importance Histogram ordered by frequency of occurrence to show how many results are generated by type or category or identified by cause. All rights reserved Nov 2003 Single use only. Rework Action taken to bring a defective or non conforming item into compliance with requirements or specifications Is a frequent cause of project overruns in most application areas Become part of the project’s records Involve immediate corrective or preventative action is required May need to be handled in procedures for overall change control Carry out a project through its’ phases with zero deviations from the project spec Page 6 of 9 Completed checklists: Process Adjustments: Quality Mgmt: Copyright© PM-Star 2002. A single problem is driving most of our issues! Pay attention to the vital few not the trivial many Objective to reduce the cost of quality control by selecting a portion to sample 100% inspection is very expensive and time consuming – and may not lead to zero defects anyways. examining and testing to conform to requirements Sometimes called reviews. but can be used for costs.CONDENSED NOTES – Prepared by Cindy J. Purpose to help analyze how problems occur Utilizes systems or process flowchart Cause and effect diagram Mathematical techniques to forecast future outcomes Monitors technical performance (number of errors or defects) Monitors cost and schedule performance # of activities per period completed with significant variances Same as output in quality assurance Action taken to increase effectiveness – usually requires a change requests for corrective action to be carried out under the overall change control Pareto Diagrams: Statistical Sampling: Flowcharting Trend Analysis: Quality improvement Acceptance Conditions: Items accepted or rejected.PMP Exam PREP . PMP QUALITY Operational Definitions Checklists Inspections: Control charts: Outputs from quality planning Output from quality planning Activities related to measuring. Significantly reduces cost of quality but must be knowledgeable in this type of sampling. Rejected my require rework. Do not distribute electronically or print additional copies. audits and walk-throughs Graphic display of results over time to determine if project is in control Most frequently used for repetitive activities. . CP rail for timely rail car deliveries Banks in setting up phone banking time/call Can use a restaurant meal as example – customer can rate attributes in a questionnaire – ambiance. Pareto’s Law – small number of causes will create largest problems 80/20 rule.

Do not distribute electronically or print additional copies. Variable sampling – results rated on continuous scale that measures the degree of conformity . PMP QUALITY As per definition by Crosby “Quality is Free” Responsible for Quality: LEVEL Across the Organization Division Project Task Measurement of Quality: RESPONSIBLE Upper Management Functional Manager Project Manager Person doing the task Equals – NON Conformance to specifications Cost of Proactive quality processes Planning Training and Indoctrination Process control Product design validation Process Validation Test and evaluation Quality audits Maintenance and calibrations Inspection Field Testing Cost of Non-Conformance Scrap Rework and Repair Additional material or inventory Warranty repairs and service Complaint Handling Liability judgements Product Recalls Field service Expediting Corrective action Associated Concepts: Statistical quality control. It may or may not be inside the spec limitations. All rights reserved Nov 2003 Single use only. points outside limits signal requires attention Not the same as specification limits – Control limits reflect the way the process functions. Prevention and inspection Attribute sampling – results conform yes/no – GO or NO GO decision. Special causes: when something goes wrong and you can point directly to it and say that is the problem.cooking time measured in minutes. Special events are points outside the control limits will have either assignable causes or random causes. Page 7 of 9 .CONDENSED NOTES – Prepared by Cindy J.PMP Exam PREP . sampling and probability. Bell. SPC: Statistical Processing Control’s main tool is control charts. Copyright© PM-Star 2002. Random causes: which are part of the process itself – sometimes things go wrong Tolerances Control limits: describe the natural variation of the process such that points within the elements are generally indicative or normal and expected variation.

5% probability work will be completed between 37. the standard deviation will be larger The larger the sample size the smaller the control limit Probability Distribution: Measures occurrences of an event and distributes them over the entire range.16 days.3% of the time Work will be completed within plus or minus 2 SD of the EV 95.66 and 49.PMP Exam PREP .16 50 + 35 + 168 (4 * 42) / 6 68.3% probability work will be completed between 39.5 50 – 35 / 6 EV = 42. Six Sigma Rule: plus or minus 6 sigma’s as a guide for setting control limits – allows for one defect per million parts and often associated with Motorola ZERO defects – a standard we live for! Kaizen: Japanese word for continuous improvement.16 and 47. Probability of Completion: Now that we know the SD and EV calculations we can state the following probabilities with confidence: • • • Work will be completed within plus or minus 1 SD of the EV 68.CONDENSED NOTES – Prepared by Cindy J. Whenever sample size is increased. Bell. All rights reserved Nov 2003 Single use only. tiny.66 days. incremental improvements in quality Key idea here is improving quality is not a discrete one-time event Example: Quality Copyright© PM-Star 2002.5% of the time Work will be completed within plus or minus 3 SD of the EV 99. they should be investigated as if they are an assignable cause.66 days. even though they may be within the control limit. 99.7% probability work will be completed between 34. Rule of Seven: If 7 or more observations in a row occur on the same side of the mean. Page 8 of 9 . Pessimistic + Optimistic + ( 4 * Most likely) divided by 6. 95. Most common has a bell curve and is symmetric about its means (Bell Curve).66 and 44. Standard Deviation: Calculation: Expected Value: Helps to determine our level of confidence on estimating The higher the standard deviation the greater the risk Pessimistic – Optimistic divided by “6”. the standard deviation will be smaller Whenever sample size is decreased.7% of the time Pessimistic = 50. PMP QUALITY Sample sizes on Control Limits: the larger the standard deviation. Do not distribute electronically or print additional copies. Is small. the wider the control limits. Most likely = 42 SD = 2. Optimistic = 35.

Poor Raw Materials 3. Planning 3. Page 9 of 9 . The losses should be measured system-wide. conditions 4. 15% of Quality problems controllable by workers COMMON CAUSES OF VARIATIONS: (i. Do not distribute electronically or print additional copies.CONDENSED NOTES – Prepared by Cindy J. Control TACUGHI Quality should be designed into the product. The performance Poor Design standard is zero Unsuitable working defects. Quality is of equal importance to cost and schedule Increased project costs Decreased productivity Increased risk and uncertainty (less predictability in cost. PMP QUALITY Principals: Impact of Poor Quality: If you are more motivated you will turn out a better product. and technical outcomes) Increased costs of monitoring Quality Gurus DEMING Plan-Do-Check-Act 85% of Quality problems caused by Mgmt. beyond control of workers on the floor) CROSBY Quality is Free 4 absolutes of Quality Management: JURAN Juran trilogy: Fitness for Use Quality: 1. The measurement of Equipment not meeting quality is the price of design tolerances nonconformance. Improve’t 2. All rights reserved Nov 2003 Single use only. Bell. DTRTRTFT Do Things right the first time SPECIAL ASSIGNABLE CAUSES: (Workers can control variability) Lack of knowledge Worker mistakes LIFE CYCLE COSTS: Scrap Rework Inspection Returns Warranty (service calls or product replacement) Copyright© PM-Star 2002.e. The system of quality is prevention. schedule. not inspected Quality is best achieved by minimizing the deviation from the target The cost of quality should be measured as a function of deviation from the standard deviation.PMP Exam PREP . Quality is conformance to requirements. “Prevention” = build quality into product Design of experiments 1. 2.

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