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Cerebrum Frontal- associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving Parietal- associated

with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli Occipital- associated with visual processing Temporal- associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech Cerebellum -associated with regulation and coordination of movement, posture, balance, fine motor Thalamus- sensory and motor functions Hypothalamus- homeostasis, emotion, thirst, hunger, circadian rhythms, and control of the autonomic nervous system. Controls pituitary. Amygdala- memory, emotion, and fear Hippocampus- permanent memory, and for recalling spatial relationships Brain Stem -basic life functions like breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. Midbrain- vision, hearing, eye movement, and body movement Pons- motor control and sensory analysis. Level of consiousness and sleep. Movement and posture Medulla- vital body functions, breathing and heartrate

Cerebrovascular Accident/Stroke Internal Carotid Artery -contralateral hemiplegia, hemianesthesia, and homonymous hemianopsia -Additionally, the dominant hemisphere is associated w/ aphasia, agraphia or dysgraphia, acalculia or dyscalculia, right-left confusion, and finger agnosia. Involvement of the nondominant hemisphere is associated with visual perceptual dysfunction, unilateral neglect, anosognosia, constructional or dressing apraxia, attention defecits, and loss of topographic memory. Middle Cerebral Artery -most common cause of CVA -contralateral hemiplegia of the arm, face, and toungue; sensory deficits; contralateral homonymous hemianopsia; and aphasia if the lesion is in the dominant hemisphere. Perceptual deficits such as anosognia, unilateral neglect, impaired vertical perception, visual spatial deficits, and perseveration are seen if the lesion is in the non dominant hemisphere. Anterior Cerebral Artery -produces contralateral lower extremity weakness that is more severe than that of the arm. -Apraxia, mental changes, primitive reflexes, and bowel and bladder incontinence may be present. -Total occlusion of the ACA results in contralateral hemiplegia with severe weakness of the face, tongue, and proximal arm muscles and marked spastic paralysis of the distal lower extremity. -Sensory loss is present in the LE -confusion, disorientation, abulia, whispering, slowness, distractibility, limited verbal output, perseveration, and amnesia may be seen.

Posterior Cerebral Artery -potentially broad and varied because this artery supplies the upper brainstem region, as well as the temporal and occipital lobes. -Some possible outcomes are sensory and motor deficits, involuntary movement disorders, memory loss, alexia, astereognosis, dysesthesia, akinesthesia, contralateral homonymous hemianopsia or quadrantanopsia, anomia, topographic disorientation, and visual agnosia. Cerebellar Artery System -ipsilateral ataxia, contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensitivity, ipsilateral facial analgesia, dysphagia and dysarthria caused by weakness of the ipsilateral muscles of the palate, nystagmus, and contralateral hemiparesis. Vertebrovascular Artery System -affects brainstem functions -some combination of bilateral or crossed sensory and motor abnormalities, such as cerebellar dysfunction, loss of proprioception, hemiplegia, quadriplegia, and sensory disturbances, with unilateral or bilateral cranial nerve involvement of nerves III to XII.