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9/27/2010

9/27/2010 Psyc100, Chapter 4, Lecture 1  Classical Conditioning  Operant Conditioning  Different Perspectives of

Psyc100, Chapter 4, Lecture 1

9/27/2010 Psyc100, Chapter 4, Lecture 1  Classical Conditioning  Operant Conditioning  Different Perspectives of
9/27/2010 Psyc100, Chapter 4, Lecture 1  Classical Conditioning  Operant Conditioning  Different Perspectives of
9/27/2010 Psyc100, Chapter 4, Lecture 1  Classical Conditioning  Operant Conditioning  Different Perspectives of
  • Classical Conditioning

  • Operant Conditioning

  • Different Perspectives of learning Behavioural Cognitive Ethological perspective

9/27/2010 Psyc100, Chapter 4, Lecture 1  Classical Conditioning  Operant Conditioning  Different Perspectives of
9/27/2010 Psyc100, Chapter 4, Lecture 1  Classical Conditioning  Operant Conditioning  Different Perspectives of
  • Learning - any process through which experience at one time can alter an individual’s behavior at a future time E.g. Habituation A reduction in response to a stimulus after repeated presentations e.g. startle response

9/27/2010 Psyc100, Chapter 4, Lecture 1  Classical Conditioning  Operant Conditioning  Different Perspectives of
9/27/2010 Psyc100, Chapter 4, Lecture 1  Classical Conditioning  Operant Conditioning  Different Perspectives of
  • The attempt to understand observable activity in terms of observable stimuli and observable responses

  • John B. Watson (1913)

“Give me a dozen healthy infants and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll

guarantee to take any one at random and produce

teachers, lawyers …”

  • B.F. Skinner (1938)

9/27/2010 Psyc100, Chapter 4, Lecture 1  Classical Conditioning  Operant Conditioning  Different Perspectives of
9/27/2010 Psyc100, Chapter 4, Lecture 1  Classical Conditioning  Operant Conditioning  Different Perspectives of
  • Training procedure

  • Neutral stimulus elicits reflexive response through being paired with another stimulus that already elicits this reflexive response

9/27/2010 Psyc100, Chapter 4, Lecture 1  Classical Conditioning  Operant Conditioning  Different Perspectives of
  • Reflex = Stimulus-response sequence mediated by CNS

  • Stimulus Response = action that automatically follows an event

9/27/2010 Psyc100, Chapter 4, Lecture 1  Classical Conditioning  Operant Conditioning  Different Perspectives of
9/27/2010 Psyc100, Chapter 4, Lecture 1  Classical Conditioning  Operant Conditioning  Different Perspectives of
will NEUTRAL STIMULUS (Bell) elicit will UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS (Food) elicit a UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS (Food) will elicit
will
NEUTRAL STIMULUS (Bell)
elicit
will
UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS (Food)
elicit a
UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS (Food)
will
elicit a
NEUTRAL STIMULUS (Bell)
will
CONDITIONED STIMULUS (Bell)
CONDITIONED STIMULUS
elicit a
9/27/2010 Psyc100, Chapter 4, Lecture 1  Classical Conditioning  Operant Conditioning  Different Perspectives of

NO REACTION

REFLEX ACTION

 

REFLEX ACTION

 

CONDITIONED

RESPONSE

9/27/2010

Does not normally elicit a response or reflex action by itself Neutral A bell ringing A
Does not normally elicit a
response or reflex action by itself
Neutral
A bell ringing
A color
A furry object
stimulus
Unconditioned
Stimulus
Always elicits a reflex action: an
unconditioned response
Food
Blast of air
Noise
Unconditioned
A response to an unconditioned
stimulus--naturally occurring
Salivation at smell
of food
Response
Eye blinks at blast
of air
Startle reaction in
babies
Conditioned
Stimulus
The stimulus that was originally
neutral becomes conditioned after
it has been paired with the
unconditioned stimulus
Will eventually elicit
the unconditioned
response by itself
9/27/2010 Does not normally elicit a response or reflex action by itself Neutral A bell ringing
9/27/2010 Does not normally elicit a response or reflex action by itself Neutral A bell ringing

UCS

UCS
 

(drug)

 

UCR

   
 

(nausea)

 
 

CS

CS
 

(waiting

room)

UCS

 
room) UCS
 

(drug)

 
 

UCR

 

(nausea)

CS

CS

(waiting

room)

CR

   
 

(nausea)

 
9/27/2010 Does not normally elicit a response or reflex action by itself Neutral A bell ringing
9/27/2010 Does not normally elicit a response or reflex action by itself Neutral A bell ringing
9/27/2010 Does not normally elicit a response or reflex action by itself Neutral A bell ringing
 Extinction Learning Experience  Stimulus A (The word ball) Stimulus B (Sight of a ball)
Extinction
Learning Experience
Stimulus A
(The word ball)
Stimulus B
(Sight of a ball)
Thought of B
(Mental image of a ball)
Without food the bell elicited less and less
saliva
But, does not return animal to previous naïve
After Learning
state…
Stimulus A
(The word ball)
Thought of B
(Mental image of a ball)
Spontaneous recovery
Conditioning Procedure
Passage of time following extinction partially
renew the conditioned reflex
Neutral stimulus
Unconditioned stimulus
Unconditioned response
(Bell)
(Food)
(Salivation)
After Conditioning
Conditioned stimulus
Conditioned response
(Bell)
(Salivation)

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9/27/2010 Acquisition Strong (CS+UCS) Spontaneous Extinction recovery of (CS alone) CR Strength of CR Extinction (CS
Acquisition Strong (CS+UCS) Spontaneous Extinction recovery of (CS alone) CR Strength of CR Extinction (CS alone)
Acquisition
Strong
(CS+UCS)
Spontaneous
Extinction
recovery of
(CS alone)
CR
Strength
of CR
Extinction
(CS alone)
Weak
Pause
Time
9/27/2010 Acquisition Strong (CS+UCS) Spontaneous Extinction recovery of (CS alone) CR Strength of CR Extinction (CS
  • The conditioned stimulus is not truly lost during extinction, but is Inhibited.

  • Eye-blink reflex studies (i.e. Tone + Puff of Air) in rabbits has shown that conditioning and extinction involve different sets of neurons

  • Neurons involved in conditioning excite neurons that control eye-blinks.

  • Neurons involved in extinction inhibit neurons that control eye-blinks

9/27/2010 Acquisition Strong (CS+UCS) Spontaneous Extinction recovery of (CS alone) CR Strength of CR Extinction (CS
9/27/2010 Acquisition Strong (CS+UCS) Spontaneous Extinction recovery of (CS alone) CR Strength of CR Extinction (CS
  • After conditioning, stimuli that resemble the CS will elicit the response even when they have never been paired before.

  • Depends on the degree of similarity between new stimuli & conditioned stimuli.

  • Further a new tone is away from the original tone, the less the dog salivated.

9/27/2010 Acquisition Strong (CS+UCS) Spontaneous Extinction recovery of (CS alone) CR Strength of CR Extinction (CS
9/27/2010 Acquisition Strong (CS+UCS) Spontaneous Extinction recovery of (CS alone) CR Strength of CR Extinction (CS
  • Generalisation can be abolished if the response to one is reinforced while the response to the other is extinguished

  • E.g. Conditioning to black square is generalised to grey square.

  • Grey square extinguished (no pairings)

  • Eventually conditioned the dog to discriminate a black square from a grey that was (almost) imperceptibly different from the black.

  • Allows investigations of sensory capacities

9/27/2010 Acquisition Strong (CS+UCS) Spontaneous Extinction recovery of (CS alone) CR Strength of CR Extinction (CS
9/27/2010 Acquisition Strong (CS+UCS) Spontaneous Extinction recovery of (CS alone) CR Strength of CR Extinction (CS
  • Generalisation occurs in both physically and semantically similar stimuli (Razran, 1939)

  • Paired words with lemon juice squirts

  • Style, urn, freeze, surf = Salivate

  • Generalised to fashion, vase, chill and wave

  • Did not generalise to homophones or orthographically similar words (e.g. Serf, stile, etc)

  • These associations must be encoded deeply (i.e. Semantic rather than surface forms)

9/27/2010 Acquisition Strong (CS+UCS) Spontaneous Extinction recovery of (CS alone) CR Strength of CR Extinction (CS
9/27/2010 Acquisition Strong (CS+UCS) Spontaneous Extinction recovery of (CS alone) CR Strength of CR Extinction (CS
  • John B. Watson and Little Albert

first psychologist to explain human behavior in terms of Pavlovian conditioning

Fear not seen as feeling but observable behavior, catching breath, stiffening body turning away

This emotion can be thought of as a reflex and is therefore amenable to scientific investigation through CC

9/27/2010 Acquisition Strong (CS+UCS) Spontaneous Extinction recovery of (CS alone) CR Strength of CR Extinction (CS

9/27/2010

9/27/2010 UCS (loud noise) UCR (fear) CS (rat) UCS (loud noise) UCR (fear) CS (rat) CR
UCS (loud noise) UCR (fear) CS (rat) UCS (loud noise) UCR (fear) CS (rat) CR (fear)
UCS
(loud noise)
UCR
(fear)
CS
(rat)
UCS
(loud noise)
UCR
(fear)
CS
(rat)
CR
(fear)
Stimulus similar
to rat (such as
rabbit)
Conditioned fear
(generalization)
9/27/2010 UCS (loud noise) UCR (fear) CS (rat) UCS (loud noise) UCR (fear) CS (rat) CR
9/27/2010 UCS (loud noise) UCR (fear) CS (rat) UCS (loud noise) UCR (fear) CS (rat) CR
  • We don’t just react to stimuli, we often behave in ways that produce certain changes

  • Actions that result in a particular goal are known as operant responses

9/27/2010 UCS (loud noise) UCR (fear) CS (rat) UCS (loud noise) UCR (fear) CS (rat) CR
9/27/2010 UCS (loud noise) UCR (fear) CS (rat) UCS (loud noise) UCR (fear) CS (rat) CR
 E.L. Thorndike (1898)  Deprived cats of food  Placed cats in puzzle box
E.L. Thorndike (1898)
Deprived cats of food
Placed cats in puzzle box
  • On first trial cat engaged in many different behaviors until accidentally opening box

  • After 20 30 trails cat could open box almost immediately after entering it.

Learning = Trial and Error

9/27/2010 UCS (loud noise) UCR (fear) CS (rat) UCS (loud noise) UCR (fear) CS (rat) CR
9/27/2010 UCS (loud noise) UCR (fear) CS (rat) UCS (loud noise) UCR (fear) CS (rat) CR
Scratch at bars After Many Trials in Box Push at ceiling Situation: Dig at floor stimuli
Scratch at bars
After Many
Trials in Box
Push at ceiling
Situation:
Dig at floor
stimuli
Howl
inside of
puzzle box
Etc.
Etc.
Press lever
9/27/2010 UCS (loud noise) UCR (fear) CS (rat) UCS (loud noise) UCR (fear) CS (rat) CR
9/27/2010 UCS (loud noise) UCR (fear) CS (rat) UCS (loud noise) UCR (fear) CS (rat) CR

9/27/2010

9/27/2010  Responses that produce satisfying effects in particular situations become more likely to occur again
  • Responses that produce satisfying effects in particular situations become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce discomforting effects become less likely to occur again

  • Pavlovian condition: Animal = passive agent

  • Thorndike: Animal = active agent that emits behaviour from its own accord

9/27/2010  Responses that produce satisfying effects in particular situations become more likely to occur again
9/27/2010  Responses that produce satisfying effects in particular situations become more likely to occur again
  • Did not like the term “satisfying” Used term “reinforcer” for any event that follows a

behavior AND

strengthens the behavior

  • Invented better apparatus: the Skinner box Animals could be kept in the box for the whole duration of the experimental session whilst multiple conditioning trials could take place

9/27/2010  Responses that produce satisfying effects in particular situations become more likely to occur again
9/27/2010  Responses that produce satisfying effects in particular situations become more likely to occur again
9/27/2010  Responses that produce satisfying effects in particular situations become more likely to occur again
9/27/2010  Responses that produce satisfying effects in particular situations become more likely to occur again
  • Consequences positive and negative reinforcement positive and negative punishment

9/27/2010  Responses that produce satisfying effects in particular situations become more likely to occur again
9/27/2010  Responses that produce satisfying effects in particular situations become more likely to occur again
  • Punished behavior is not forgotten, it's suppressed--behavior returns when punishment is no longer present

  • Causes increased aggression- shows that aggression is a way to cope with problems

  • Creates fear that can generalize to undesirable behaviors, e.g., fear of school

  • Does not necessarily guide toward desired behavior--reinforcement tells you what to do, punishment only tells you what not to do

  • Punishment teaches how to avoid punishment

9/27/2010  Responses that produce satisfying effects in particular situations become more likely to occur again

9/27/2010

9/27/2010  Allows complex behaviours to be conditioned  Process reinforces gradually more desired responses until
  • Allows complex behaviours to be conditioned

  • Process reinforces gradually more desired responses until final response is achieved

9/27/2010  Allows complex behaviours to be conditioned  Process reinforces gradually more desired responses until

E.g. The grading system in musical instrument learning

Reinforcement stays consistent (certificate etc.) required behaviour becomes more complex

9/27/2010  Allows complex behaviours to be conditioned  Process reinforces gradually more desired responses until
9/27/2010  Allows complex behaviours to be conditioned  Process reinforces gradually more desired responses until
  • Continuous Reinforcement reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs learning occurs rapidly extinction occurs rapidly

  • Partial Reinforcement reinforcing a response only part of the time learning occurs slowly resistance to extinction

9/27/2010  Allows complex behaviours to be conditioned  Process reinforces gradually more desired responses until
9/27/2010  Allows complex behaviours to be conditioned  Process reinforces gradually more desired responses until
  • Continuous: 1 to 1 ratio, a prize every time

 
  • Ratio:

fixed: 1 to ?, a prize every ? time

variable: ? to ?, maybe a prize, maybe not!

 
  • Interval:

fixed: announced examination variable: pop quiz

9/27/2010  Allows complex behaviours to be conditioned  Process reinforces gradually more desired responses until
9/27/2010  Allows complex behaviours to be conditioned  Process reinforces gradually more desired responses until
  • Ratio Schedules = higher response rates - the more you respond the faster you reach the set threshold and receive the UCS

  • Variable Schedules = greater resistance to extinction as you are never sure when a reward will be presented so you don’t know when is a good time to give up - it could always be “just about to pay out” (fruit machines)

9/27/2010  Allows complex behaviours to be conditioned  Process reinforces gradually more desired responses until
9/27/2010  Allows complex behaviours to be conditioned  Process reinforces gradually more desired responses until
9/27/2010  Allows complex behaviours to be conditioned  Process reinforces gradually more desired responses until
9/27/2010  Allows complex behaviours to be conditioned  Process reinforces gradually more desired responses until
  • Indicate when a reinforcer is potentially available

  • E.g. a lever press will only result in a food pellet when a red light is illuminated Red light = discriminative stimulus

  • E.g. waiting for the “ready” green light to flash on a camera before taking a picture

  • E.g. waiting until people are in a good mood before asking them a favour

9/27/2010  Allows complex behaviours to be conditioned  Process reinforces gradually more desired responses until

9/27/2010

9/27/2010  Primary Reinforcer ◦ An innate reinforcer ◦ Satisfies a biological need  Secondary Reinforcer
  • Primary Reinforcer An innate reinforcer Satisfies a biological need

  • Secondary Reinforcer A conditioned reinforcer An event that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer

9/27/2010  Primary Reinforcer ◦ An innate reinforcer ◦ Satisfies a biological need  Secondary Reinforcer
9/27/2010  Primary Reinforcer ◦ An innate reinforcer ◦ Satisfies a biological need  Secondary Reinforcer
9/27/2010  Primary Reinforcer ◦ An innate reinforcer ◦ Satisfies a biological need  Secondary Reinforcer
  • Tokens are secondary reinforces

Reinforcing value related to previous learning experiences E.g. Work > Money > Buy Food

  • Chimpanzees will work for tokens and save them for use later when grape vending machine is removed from enclosure

  • Clicker training

9/27/2010  Primary Reinforcer ◦ An innate reinforcer ◦ Satisfies a biological need  Secondary Reinforcer
9/27/2010  Primary Reinforcer ◦ An innate reinforcer ◦ Satisfies a biological need  Secondary Reinforcer
  • The most famous example was Azrin's token economy in psychiatric hospital

  • Tokens could be exchanged for cosmetics, candy, cigarettes, clothing, bedside tables, use of the TV, stereo, & sleeping late

  • Tokens were obtained by attending work and therapy as well as for good grooming, appropriate meal time behaviors, and minor housekeeping chores

  • Reduction in bizarre behaviors and increased normal behaviors and social skills

9/27/2010  Primary Reinforcer ◦ An innate reinforcer ◦ Satisfies a biological need  Secondary Reinforcer
9/27/2010  Primary Reinforcer ◦ An innate reinforcer ◦ Satisfies a biological need  Secondary Reinforcer
  • Advantages of Tokens

Potent reinforcers big changes in behavior Bridge the delays between target responses and back up reinforcers

Backed up by a variety of items and hence are less subject to satiating.

Administration does little to disrupt on going behavior

Can be used with many individuals all with different back up reinforcer preferences

Can be accumulated towards valuable goals

9/27/2010  Primary Reinforcer ◦ An innate reinforcer ◦ Satisfies a biological need  Secondary Reinforcer
9/27/2010  Primary Reinforcer ◦ An innate reinforcer ◦ Satisfies a biological need  Secondary Reinforcer
  • Disadvantages of Tokens Not usually seen in classrooms nor are food snacks or other unusual back up reinforcers Tokens, except for money and grades, are unavailable in the normal environment In some environments, people will use unauthorized means such as force/theft to obtain

9/27/2010  Primary Reinforcer ◦ An innate reinforcer ◦ Satisfies a biological need  Secondary Reinforcer
 Stimulus precedes the response and elicits it  Stimulus follows the response and  strengthens
 Stimulus precedes the
response and elicits it
 Stimulus follows the
response and
 strengthens it
Elicited responses
 Learning as a result of
association
 Emitted responses
 Learning as a result of
 Pavlov
consequences
 Skinner
CLASSICAL
OPERANT
 In groups  Think of some real world (human or non- human animal) examples 9/27/2010
  • In groups

  • Think of some real world (human or non- human animal) examples

 In groups  Think of some real world (human or non- human animal) examples 9/27/2010

9/27/2010