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Erika Dennis Unit 1 Professor Michelle Hinton-Riley In 1609 two years after the founding of the once hopeful

prosperous colony of Jamestown, has become what is known as the "starving time." There were no more than sixty men, women, and children had survived during this time of agony and pain. A time in which food was scarce and death was inevitable. Gloomy days had loomed over the colonists of Jamestown, Virginia. Captain John Smith, the original colonizer of Jamestown, is the author of this story of struggle and survival. His purpose in writing this article was to show that his efforts in improving the colony would have produced a positive outcome. In Smith's point of view, he believed that if they would have listened to whathe had to say, they would not be experiencing the difficulties in which they were undergoing.

The beginning of colonization was very difficult for the early settlers in the New World. Disease, starvation, greed, and aggressive Native Americans were factors that lead to the end of many colonization attempts in the Americas.There were artifacts that were left behind after the unknown. The artifacts are the human-carved itemsspecifically of archaeological or historical interest which were created as the tools of survival by using the various available resources.There are many historic artifacts which were kept in front of the world by Jamestown Rediscovery and they are: (Blanton 2010)

1. William Strachey's Ring: This ring was used to be worn by a Colonist whose name was William Strachey when he was at Jamestown. (Blanton 2010)

2. Goffering Iron: Goffering iron was used to crimp or frill the ruffle around the neck which was in fashion between ca. 1580 and 1610. The Englishmen used to starch their ruffles and then this iron was heated by putting a hot iron inside the tube to shape up the ruffle. (Blanton 2010) 3. Red-glazed English Border Ware Chamber Pot: This pot was created in a pottery which was located on the border which lies between Hampshire and Surrey countries in England. It is found with its handle missing and its red glaze is present on the interior side. It is estimated that a Colonist at Jamestown would have brought this border ware chamber pot to Virginia. (Blanton 2010) I think that artifacts are a reliable source that helps to fill in the holes of the missing pieces of history. Artifacts can let you know when something happen as far as what century it happen in. The objects show patterns of warfare, and day to day survival of what happen in the past. There are plenty of theories, from widespread disease to political collapse. But since the people who lived there left absolutely no written record, we have no idea what actually happened. We also dont know who these early people were; although we know all about the French missionaries who settled in the area in 1699 and the monks who made the mounds their home in 1809, its still not known what Native American tribes might be descendants of those early people. References: Blanton, Dennis B., Veronica Deitrick, and Kara Bartels (2001) Brief and True Report of Projectile Points from Jamestown Rediscovery as of December 1998 The Journal of the Jamestown Rediscovery Center 1.Retrieve on April 19, 2011. (http://www.preservationvirginia.org/rediscovery/page.php?page_id=234)

1. How did colonization affect Native Americans, Africans, and Europeans differently? What were some of the negative and positive effects of the colonization process for each? Native Americans had inherited the land now called America and eventually their lives were destroyed due to European Colonization. When the Europeans arrived and settled, they changed the Native American way of life for the worst. These changes were caused by a number of factors including disease, loss of land, attempts to export religion, and laws, which violated Native American culture.On the contrary, some of the benefits to Native Americans included their introduction to new technologies. Some of these technologies included plows, chisels and muskets.Farming and trading was a way of life for many Native Americans. Native Americans traded with Europeans for guns, ammunition, buttons, clothing, cooking materials, etc. They colonize Africa because they wanted to make a profit and to be known as a superior nation. Africa suffered political life, economic life, debt, shortage of resources (gold, rubber, and etc.). It affected there clans, religion, culture, and heritage.Conversely, colonialism saved Africa in a lot of ways. Some benefits were roads, railroads, schools, hospitals, improved sanitation, and better farming methods. When medicine and a better nutrition were introduced to the Africans, the population and the life span of Africans increased. A selected minority received improved education and greater economic opportunities.