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GSM Power Control

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Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents
1. Power Control Overview 2. HWPower Control 3. HWPower Control

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Power Control Overview


Power control
Adjust the transmitting power of BTS and MS when needed. Based on measurement reports of BTS and MS

Purpose
Save the power of BTS and MS Reduce the interference of the network Increase the quality of the network

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Power Control Overview


Power control includes uplink power control and downlink power control, Which are performed independently
Uplink power control: Adjust TX power of MS to let BTS receive stable signal, reduce the uplink co-channel and adjacent channel interference, reduce power consumption of MS Downlink power control: Adjust BTS TX power to let MS receive stable signal, reduce the downlink co-channel and adjacent channel interference, reduce power consumption of BTS

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Power Control Overview


Up link and Down link power control can be enabled independently

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Power Control Overview


Process of power control commands
It takes 3 measurement report periods(480ms/period) from command sending to execution.
BTS sends the command for power control and TA in SACCH header.

SACCCH report period: 26X4=104 frames (480ms)

BTS receives the measurement report

SA0

SA1 SA2 SA3

SA0 SA1
MS adopts the new power level and TA

SA2 SA3 SA0

SA1 SA2 SA3


MS begins to send the measurement report of the last multi-frame.

In the 26 multi-frames, frame 12 sends SACCH.

MS obtains SACCH block

MS begins to set up a new SACCH header to report the new TA and power control message.

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Data Configuration of Power Control Period

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Power Control Overview


Power control judgment
Power control judgment is controlled by BTS measurement report pre-processing item which can be selected in handover control data table MR. Pre-process (measurement report pre-processing): This switch decide where power control be processed. If measurement report pre-processing is yes, power control is processed in BTS, and when setting it no, power control is processed in BSC

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Data Configuration of MR Preprocessing(1)

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Data Configuration of MR Preprocessing(1)

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Contents
1. Power Control Overview 2. HW Power Control 3. HWPower Control

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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HW II Power Control
Power control judgment process
MR. preprocessing

The power control demand according to receiving level

The power control demand according to receiving quality

General power control judgment Send the power control command

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HW II Power Control
Original data of power control -- Measurement Report(MR)

Uplink MR

BTS

Network

Downlink MR

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HW II Power Control
Measurement report

Uplink measuremen t report

Downlink measuremen t report

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HW II Power Control
MR. preprocessing in HW II PC algorithm consists of four steps Interpolation Compensation (optional) Prediction (optional) Filter

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HW II Power Control
MR Interpolation recover the lost measurement report
BTS may fail to receive the MR from MS, and it needs to recover the lost measurement reports. If the lost MR amount is within the allowed range (Allowed MR Number Lost), then recovers the lost MR according to the specific algorithm.
Service cell: linear algorithm Neighboring cell: the lowest value defined in GSM specification (110dBm)

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HW II Power Control
MR Interpolation recover the lost measurement report

ow R Fl sM uou tin Con


MR MR MR

MR MR

No. n+4

No. n Missing by some reasons

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Data Configuration of MR Preprocessing

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HW II Power Control
MR. compensation
Purpose: Ensure the accuracy of selection of the history measurement report before filter. Implementation steps:
1. Put the current receiving measurement report into the measurement report compensation queue. 2. Record the changed information of the transmitting power according to the MS and BTS power levels in the measurement report. 3. After finish the measurement report interpolation, system will compensate the receiving level of the history measurement report according to the power change information. The compensated measurement reports will be the original data in the filter process. 4. Filter the compensated measurement reports.

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HW II Power Control
MR. compensation
70 70 70 70 60 60 60 60 50 50 50 50 Y axis 40 30 30 30 30 20 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 X axis 0

Power control effect diagram of measurement report compensation

Diagram when there is no power control

Power control diagram when there is measurement report compensation

Power control diagram when there is no measurement report compensation

The expected receiving signal level: 30 The expected receiving signal level: 30 The power control will be more effective with measurement report compensation. The power control will be more effective with measurement report compensation.

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Data Configuration of MR. Compensation

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HW II Power Control
MR. prediction
Purpose: Avoid power control later than needed, the delay is dangerous in case of poor level or bad quality Implementation procedure
1. Analyze the tendency of MR by the historical measurement reports after interpolation. 2. Guide by the tendency, to predict the values of measurement report to be received. There are 0~3 measurement reports prediction, which are configured on LMT. 3. Filter the interpolated, compensated and predicted measurement reports, and implement power control judgment.

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HW II Power Control
MR. prediction
50 50 50 50 45 40 Y axis 35 35 35 35 30 30 30 30 25 25 25 25 20 20 20 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 X axis
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Diagram of power control effect comparison between prediction filter and mean filter

No power control

Mean filter power control

Prediction filter power control

15

The expected receiving signal level: 30 The expected receiving signal level: 30 The power control with prediction filter will be more effective than that with The power control with prediction filter will be more effective than that with mean filter mean filter
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Data Configuration of MR. Prediction

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HW II Power Control
MR. filter Smooth the instantaneous fading point
Calculate the average value within the filter window

M ous tinu Con


MR MR

ow R Fl
MR MR

MR

MR

Filter----Average several consecutive MRs

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Data Configuration of MR. filter

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HW II Power Control Judgment


Power control demand based on receiving level.
After measurement report pre-processing, the power control module makes a comparison between the expected signal level and the current receiving signal level. Calculate the transmitting power level step size to be adjusted, making the receiving level value closer to the expected value. Adopt variable step size when decreasing the transmitting power according to the receiving level, so as to achieve the expected level as soon as possible.

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HW II Power Control Judgment


Power control demand based on receiving quality
After measurement report pre-processing, the power control module makes comparison between the expected quality level and the current receiving quality level. Calculate the step size of the transmitting power level to be adjusted: increase the transmitting power in case of poor receiving quality, and decrease the transmitting power in case of good receiving quality. Adopt fixed step size when adjust the transmitting power according to the receiving quality.

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HW II Power Control Feature


Power control within the upper/lower thresholds
Power control will not execute if the signal level and quality is within the threshold bands. Avoid the signal level fluctuation caused by power control. The upper threshold can be increased dynamically in case of bad quality.

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Data Configuration for UL Rx_Lev Upper/Lower Threshold

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Data Configuration for UL Upper/Lower Quality Threshold

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Data Configuration for DL Rx_Lev Upper/Lower Threshold

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Data Configuration for DL Upper/Lower Quality Threshold

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Data Configuration of Power Control (Rx_Lev)

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Data Configuration of Power Control (Rx_Lev)

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Data Configuration of Power Control (Rx_Lev)

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Data Configuration for UL/DL Bad Quality

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HW II Power Control Advantages


Measurement report compensation to makes power control judgment more accurate Measurement report prediction --to avoid power control later than needed, the delay is dangerous in case of poor level or bad quality Power control expected signal level and quality threshold falls within a band, this avoids receiving signal level fluctuate up and down frequently

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Content
1. Power Control Overview 2. HWPower Control 3. HWPower Control

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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HW III Power Control Flow


MR. Preprocessing
Initial MR. process Initial MR. process

Stop PC, waiting the next MR. Yes

Number of lost MR. > N? Number of lost MR. > N? No No Power Control
MR. Interpolation MR. Interpolation Exponent Filter Exponent Filter Slide Window Filter Slide Window Filter

Calculate the power Calculate the power control step for BTS control step for BTS and MS and MS

Yes

Rx_lev&(Qual.+FH gain) Rx_lev&(Qual.+FH gain) are within expected window? are within expected window?

No
Power control Power control implement implement

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Measurement Report Preprocessing


For the measurement report preprocessing, there are three differences between HW II and HW III power control
Initial discarded MR. number Interpolation method Filter calculation

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Measurement Report Preprocessing


Initial discarded MR. number
Avoiding the access period measurement report influence power control accuracy, system discards some initial measurement report.
HW II: discard 4 initial MR. fixedly. HW III: set it via Signal/Traffic Channel Discard MR. Number.

MR. interpolation method


Rx_lev: If Rx_lev(k) is lost, recover it as Rx_lev(k-1). Rx_qual: If Rx_qual is lost, recover it as quality lever 7.

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Data Configuration of Initial Discarded MR. Number

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Measurement Report Preprocessing


MR. filter calculation
Quality filter
Quality class value will be converted to BER and set up the correspondence relationship with CIR as below table. Calculate the average CIR according to the selected filter method.

Quality Class
CIR (dB)

22

18

16

14

12

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Measurement Report Preprocessing


MR. filter calculation filter algorithm: exponent filter and slide window filter Exponent filter ca_filtered1 (1)=ca(1) ca_filtered1 (k)=a*ca(k)+(1-a)*ca_filtered1 (k-1)
~ ca: original receiving level or quality ~ ca_filtered1: receiving level or quality after exponent filter calculation ~ k: serial number of measurement report ~ a: exponent filter coefficient, a=1 / (2^(w/2)), and w is exponent filter length

k=1 k>1

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Measurement Report Preprocessing


Filter algorithm
Slide window filter
ca_filtered (1) = ca_filtered1 (1) ca_filtered (k) = [ca_filtered 1(1)++ca_filtered1 (k)] / k ca_filtered (k) = [ca_filtered1 (k-w+1)+...+ca_filtered1 (k)] / w
ca_filtered1: receiving level or quality after exponent filter ca_filtered: receiving level or quality after window filter k: serial number of measurement report w: slide filter window

k=1
1<k<w k>=w

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Data Configuration of Filter(DL)

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Data Configuration of Filter(UL)

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Power Control Judgment


During HW III power control judgment, system will calculate radio channel gain.
Suppose: In SACCH period k, useful signal is c(k), interference is I(k), radio channel gain is g(k) and transmit power for BTS or MS is p(k). The below formulas are calculated by logarithm:
ca _ filtered ( k ) 10

10

= 10

c(k ) 10

+ 10

I (k ) 10

(1)

Rx_lev

Useful signel

Interference

C/I

qa_filtered(k) = c(k) I(k)

(2) (3)

c(k) = p(k) g(k)

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Page49

Power Control Judgment


Radio channel gain calculation:
According to (1) and (2), we can get c(k)
qa _ filtered ( k ) 10

c(k ) = ca _ filter (k ) + qa _ filter (k ) 10 lg(1 + 10

Input c(k) to (3), get g(k) = p(k) c(k). So calculate the g(k)

for BTS and MS

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Data Configuration of Power Control Judgment

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Data Configuration of Power Control Judgment

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Data Configuration of Power Control Judgment

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Data Configuration of Power Control Judgment

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Data Configuration of Power Control Judgment

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Data Configuration of Power Control Adjust Factor

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HW III Power Control Features


Exponent filter enhance the measurement report process speed. In HW II PC, receive level and quality be considered independently and then general power control judgment will be done. While in HW III PC, the final result will be got from the general formula. Difference quality threshold be set for the difference service, such as AMR, FS and HS. Hopping gain also be considered.

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Summary
In this course, we have learned:
Power control procedure HW II power control algorithm HW III power control algorithm Data Configuration of HWII and HWIII

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Thank you
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