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April 2011 Educational Opportunity Excessive Spending on and Public Undermines Over Smart and Safe IncarcerationSafety Misplaced

Priorities:Campaign Presents: in Communities NAACPIncarcerate, Under Educate

President,Todd Chief Executive Officer Criminal Justice Committee Chair, National Board of Directors Alice Huffman Jealous Roslyn M. Brock Chairman, National Board of Directors President NAACP Benjamin and California State Conference

As the United States approaches Dear NAACP Members and Friends, the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Civil of 1964,Act must seek a more comprehensive understanding of the issues that cont Rights we undermine inue to contemporary civil rights progress in our country. Today, there is no to civil rights greater threat accomplishments than the state of our countrys education system a impact nd its on young African American youth. Failing schools, college tuition hikes, state education and shrinking budgets are narrowing the promise of education for young people the country. all across Meanwhile, we continue to invest billions of dollars into our corre underfunding of Misplaced Priorities is our report sobering account of how we as a nation and sending our youth a clear It is on we countrys overfunding of prisonsare ctions system, education.messageathatthe value incarceration over education. wa resources on over incarceration while depriving our schools of resources that wo sting our financial children uld help in some of our most distressed communitieschildren who, without an adequ education, are at the greatest risk of becoming the next generation of prisoners ate join our Smart . We ask you toand Safe Campaign to make our education system a priority and eli focus the minateon incarceration. With your help we can elevate awareness and drive change NAACP President and CEO Benjamin Todd Jealous .

Executive Summary Table of Contents .............................................................. Section 1. Introduction ........................................................ ........................................... 1 Section 2. Americas Prison System: Costly, Unfair, and Broken ................... ............................................. 7 Section 3. Educate $70 Billion Restricts Education Funding .................... ................ 9 or Incarcerate? Prison Spending of Section ... 12 4. Mapping.............................................................. Community Impact the Problem at the Neighborhood Level: Los Angeles, California 19 .................................................................................... Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ......................... 21 ....................................................... Indianapolis, Indiana ............................................................ ...................... 24 Jackson, Mississippi ............................................................. .......................... 27 Houston, Texas ................................................................... .......................... 30 New York City, New York .......................................................... ............................ 33 Section 5. Putting Education First by Enacting Smart and Safe Reforms .......... .................... 36 Invest 6. 40 Sectionto Educate, Not to Incarcerate .......................................... ...........Call to Action and Recommendations: Notes .......................................................................... .................. 46 .................................................... 48

For 102 years, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored and PublicSpending on Excessive Priorities: Incarceration Undermines Educational Opportunity People (N Executive Summary in Communities Misplaced Priorities 1Over Incarcerate, Under Educate Safety played a AACP) haspivotal role in shaping a national agenda to ensure the political, educ economic equality of ational, social, and African Americans and others who face a history of discrimi United States. nation in the In this new report, Misplaced Priorities: Over Incarcerate, Under researchers assembled data from leading research organizations and profiled six Educate, NAACP how escalating cities to show investments in incarceration over the past 30 years have undermin opportunities. ed educational Misplaced Priorities represents a call to action for public offic policymakers, and local NAACP units and members by providing a framework to impl ials, policy ement aagenda that will financially prioritize investments in education over inc equal protection under the law, eliminate sentencing policies responsible for ov arceration, provide and advance public er incarceration, safety strategies that effectively increase healthy developme Misplaced Priorities nt in communities. echoes existing research on the impact excessive prison spe education budgets. Over the last two decades, as the criminal justice system cam nding has on proportion a state e to assumeof largerdiscretionary dollars nationwide, state spending on prisons the at of state grewratesix times spending on higher education. In 2009, as the nation plummeted recession deepest into the in 30 years, funding for K12 and higher education declined; however, in statessame year, 33 proportion of their discretionary dollars on prisons than that spent a larger 1. Over the year before1. Other Important Findings from vulnerable populations they hadincarceration impacts Misplaced Priorities: and destabilizes communitie s.The majority of the 2.3 million people incarcerated in U.S. prisons and jails ar color, people e people of with mental health issues and drug addiction, people with low leve educational attainment, and people with a history of unemployment or underemploy ls of ment.

issues is Association on large numbers of people to are incarcerated for health The nations reliancethe incarceration to respondwho social 2 Nationalevidenced by for the Advancement of Colored People and behavioraldrug offenses. Among people in federal prisons, people in local jails, and young peop in the le heldnations detention centers and local secure facilities, more than 500,000 p nearly eople a quarter of all those incarceratedare incarcerated as the result of a dru During the g conviction.last two decades, as the criminal justice system came to assume a lar proportion of state discretionary dollars, state spending on prisons grew at six ger 2. In the six cities profiled in the report, the NAACP research team found stark of state spending on higher education. times the rate but account TheseTexas, foreach year: 10 ofmore the states $500 million zippopulation sentenced intaxpayersthan spendonly about 10 percent ofto imprison residents disparities.2008 fromwillone-third ofthan $175neighborhoods (byin prison spending Approximately morearejust to Houstons 75 million the citys code). In neighborhoods home approximately taxpayershome million) in 2008 taxpayers tosentenced in quarter billionNewhome to spending. account to imprisonarejust 11spend morecode). Theseof the to in zip only TheseNewfor more neighborhoodsof statesthan $290amillionare (byprisonresidents sentencedYork,200thanresidentsthe Philadelphias neighborhoods imprisoncode).but . In Pennsylvania,fromhalf ofwill spend nearlyhalf$50024 ofcitys populationabou neighborhoods will justzip a 2008 fromareas dollars ($539 (by over roughly million York Citys percent of the citys population but account for nearly half of the states $1.1 bil t 16 spending. lion in prison

schools (as measured Angeles, high-incarceration grouping five the spatial relationship mathematics proficiency). the local research team examined Incarceration impacts betweenPhiladelphia, and Houstonthe level.different rang 3.For three citiesLosby educational performance atBycommunities and low-performing incarceration from the two lowest to the two highest, the authors have shown whe es of neighborhoods with theofthe 90 to be clustered: In Los and low-performing schools tendincarceration schools (66 percent) are clustered in re high- Angeles, 69 ofhighest low-performingrates; (67 percent) are in Philadelphia, 23 the 35 low-performing schools Among a neighborhoods incarceration. finding better ways to manage their co Call to growing rates with theAction number oflow-performing rates (83 percent) are in In Houston, 5and Recommendations very nearhighestof the 6with the highestschoolsof incarceration; andneighborhoods or states that are significant declines in their prison population as a result of policy changes th systems, rrectionsfour statesKansas, Michigan, New Jersey, and New Yorkhave seen the trend reverse at seek toof overspending on incarceration. However, the relative successes in t states hese have yet to spread across the nation or result in increased investments i NAACP calls It is critical the downsizing of prisons and the shifting of financial resource n education.forthat all states prioritize education over incarceration. The corrections budgets to education budgets. This can be accomplished if states acc s from secure recommendations: ept the folliwng

1. Study the problem: Support federal, state, and local efforts to create a blue 2. Create policy, conduct a thorough evaluation of charged substance offer recommendations treatment, corrections, and reentry. sentencing that andrates of incarceration, commissionsof areas,with identifying system commissionreinvestment commissions: reform in enforcement, crimeincluding: -ribbonandabuse willmental healthforSupportlaw a rangethe criminalprevention, justice legislative and policy avenues to downsize prison populations and shift savings 3. Eliminate closures to disparities in drug from prison education budgets. laws: Support efforts to eliminate disparities 4. Increase earned time: Support reforms that would allow prisoners to earn an e between crack in sentencing and powder cocaine at the state and federal level. release arlier by participating in educational and vocational programming as well as dr 5. Support youth violence mental ug and health treatment. reduction programs: Support programs and policies to d a comprehensive plan for implementing evidence-based prevention and intervention evelop strategies for at-risk youth to prevent gang activity and criminal justice invol 6. Reform vement. sentencing and drug policies: Eliminate mandatory minimum sentencing f 7. drug offenses that help fuel drug individuals: or Use diversion for drug-involvedimprisonment. Reform prosecutorial guidelines 8. Shorten people to prison terms: Send young offenders who would otherwise receive mandat to divert treatment who would otherwise serve a mandatory prison term. their sentencesto sentences. ory prisonstructured programs to help them earn their GED and shave time off

9. Increase parole release rates: Improve parole boards ability to use evidence-b strategies when making decisions to parole prisoners, thus improving parolees cha ased 10. for Reduce and increasing parole approval rates. ncessuccessrevocations of people under community supervision: Develop alternativ to-incarceration programs that will reduce the number of people sent to prison f e11. technical violations. or Support reentry and the sealing of records: Support legislation that will cl records of certain offenders after they have not committed another crime within ose criminal Misplaced About of Priorities numberthe Research examines research and analysis from the leading national ex a certain years. public safety, perts on crime,and education policy, and analyzes new information gathered at th level to provide e neighborhood a unique local perspective on our national incarceration crisis Priorities . Misplacedalso draws upon research from the Pew Center on the States Public Safe Performance Project, the Vera Institute of Justice, The Sentencing Project, the ty Institute, the Justice Policy Institute for Higher Education Policy, Postsecondary Education Op Research contributors provided criminal justice and with unique mapping other scholars portunity, and in the fields ofkey data and analysis education policy. capabil as well as state and local with officials in the also advised sentencing commis experience includes workinggovernments. They have U.S. Department of Justice ities. Their conducted research for the nations foremost criminal justice research institutes, sions, leading advocacy and community organizations that work on these issues around th and assisted NAACP staff e country. members provided their vision in crafting the conceptual framework, gathering, and applied data editorial expertise.

Founded in 1909, About the NAACP the NAACP is the nations oldest and largest civil rights organiz more than ation. Itshalf-million members and supporters throughout the United States and t are the he worldpremier advocates for civil rights in their communities, conducting vote Smart and Safe About the Smart and opportunity and monitoring is a policy framework that ensures private sectors. r mobilization equalSafe Campaignin the public andpublic safety as a civil and h all right for umancommunities and, more specifically, for the many communities in crisis. Inst for tough-on-crime rhetoric and lock em up practices to solve social problems, Smar ead of calling Safe t andwas developed to meet public safety goals by meeting community needs and mo Dr. Rebecca Kasravi,Design Manager Lillian Guerra, Consultant NAACP Bowie, Economic Justice Criminal Steve Staff MoniqueGreene, NAACP EditorialContributors JudithHawkins,NAACP Chief Center JasonOliver, WebCriminalandProgram Officer Eric Cadora, Justice Mapping Justice LLC ResearchMorris,Justice Freedom Director and RobertZidenberg,MWM Consulting crimes. ProjectRooks,addressingStrategiesPrograms Justice Programs aggressivelyContributorsviolentGroup,Director Vice re NiazCoordinator CriminalDevelopment SpecialistPresident Contributors Senior

Laws and policies that Section 1. Introductionhave led to a record 2.3 million prisoners in America2 af limit our ability fect all of us andto address other priorities. The nations spending on incarcerat ourcollective ability to support education, one of our most valuable societal in ion has limited Nearly all vestments. of the states and the District of Columbia are facing some of their w shortfalls orst budgetever,3 causing state and local governments to cut education systems, teachers, lay off close schools, increase class sizes, and raise costs at colleges and u devastating These niversities.cuts to education are happening at a time when the latest data show dollars continue that billions of to be spent on our nations ineffective and overburdened prison s As spending for incarceration has increased, over the last 20 years and especial ystem. 2 the of lyyearslastthe Great Recession, education has been a key casualty in budget batt This les. is particularly visible in cities where taxpayers continue to pay millions to imprison every year people from just a few neighborhoods while schools are forced to clo let go, classrooms se, teachers are are overcrowded, after-school programs are cut, and college a If the United costs rise. nd university States were to take a different route and redirect the dollars it prisons toward mental health and employment services, early-childhood education, spends on corrections, retaining quality teachers in the classroom, maintaining sensible c community and sustaining lassroom sizes,the affordability of higher education, then there would be less n communities meaningful benefits associated with learning, including increased e When we makerealize the investments to educate rather than incarcerate, eed for prisons. reduced arnings,unemployment, increased tax revenues from more vibrant local economies, reliance reduced on public assistance, increased civic engagement, and improved public s communities afety for at risk for violence and victimization.

As our misplaced investments in prisons increase, the bright futures of many of people decreasewhich is why we must begin now to change course and invest in educ our young over ationincarceration.

Over the - Senatorlast four decades, the founded the notion system are society consequences of incarcerated Our failurethataddress arequire number ofonJustice goesfairness. and how we address the theseSystem:to cuts against and Brokenin 4for quadrup Fixing ourAmericasauthor ofproblems reexamine their incarceration. Section 2.Jim Webb,willlong-termusCriminalpeoplewhoCommission ActAmericahow long, to we Prison the Costly, Unfair, fundamental to prison, from led roughly 500,000 to 2.3 million.5 The United States is home to about 5 perce the worlds population but has 25 percent of the worlds prisoners.6 We have won the nt of incarceration rate in the world (754 per 100,000 people).7 It isand the highest dubious distinction of having the worlds largest prison system safe to say tha behind lag t as weother nations in high school graduation rates, we are a world leader in p overreliance on risoners.8 This incarceration is costly: Nearly $70 billion is spent each year t incarcerate people in prisons and jails, to imprison young people in detention c o youth prisons, and to keep 7.3 million people under watch on parole and probation enters and contributes warehousing of destabilization of our communities, which not only The approachto aour nations criminal and drug problems, is includes costly but communities.people with mental health justice system,rendering them less safe. L in our result of the argely as a War on Drugswhich includes police stops, arrests, and mandatory min sentencesmore than half of all prison and jail inmatesincluding 56 percent of stat imum prisoners, 45 percent of federal prisoners, and 64 percent of local jail inmatesa e now re those with mental health or drug problems.9 With most of the money related t these incarcerations going toward the cost of imprisonment, little is left for p o treatment, revention, education, and services to help prisoners deal with the challenges th them to at led crimes and imprisonment in the first place. Therefore the cycle of addic unemployment, and crime continues or worsens upon their release. tion,

Racial disparities in arrests, sentencing, and incarceration continue to challen of our criminal ge the integrityjustice system. While one-third of the nations population is Afri or American canLatino, these ethnic and racial groups account for 58 percent of the nations p well-documented risoners.10 The disparities in enforcement of our drug laws reveal that current impact some communities more than others. While Americans of all races and ethni drug policies illegal drugs at a rate proportionate to their total population representation, cities use are imprisoned for African Americans drug offenses at 13 times the rate of their white counterpart African only are s.11 NotAmericans and Latinos over-represented in the criminal justice system, b According to Unlocking America: violence and Reduce Americas Prison Population, more likely to experience lethalWhy and How tovictimization in that system. ut they are also if African Americans and Latinos were incarcerated at the same rates as whites, prison todaysand jail populations would decline by approximately 50 percent.12 In othe country if the r words,could address the reasons why we incarcerate African Americans and Latin rates than whites for the same crimes, we could, in effect, dramatically bring d os at higher Low-income whites are also increasingly population and own the prison save billions of dollars.impacted by ineffective criminal justice policies. For example, whites are now the fastest-growing group of drug prisoner laws and States, United s in thepossibly as a result of the relatively new focus on methamphetamine use trafficking.13 With 1 in 10 white men without a high school diploma likely to en and Another group negatively impacted by our over-reliance growing reliance on prisons and communities are now on caught up in is women up d in prison, white familiesto solve social problems.beingincarceration Americas the fastest growing population of prisoners in the country.14 As of 2009, the Un , who comprise imprisoned ited Statesover 200,000 women, with more than a million more under some form of justice criminalsupervision.15 From 1997 to 2007, the number of women in prison has grow percent.16 n by 832 This trend has been consistent in every state across the U.S., with w prison population growth far exceeding that of their male counterparts.17 Unfort omens rate of unately, data

also shows that incarcerated women are those who themselves have more than likel experienced abuse in their past. The latest numbers released by the Department o y Bureau of f Justice Justice Statistics reveal that more than 57 percent of women in state percent of 55 prisons andwomen in local jails have been physically or sexually abused in the p numbers differ ast.18 These from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. In New York for example, a stu 82 percent of dy found that women at Bedford Hills Correctional Facility had experienced sever and/or sexual abuse in their childhood; more than 90 percent had suffered such a e physical The in the course of their lifetimes.19 buseoveruse of prisons has serious negative consequences for the individuals imp their families, and for our collective society. Spending time in prison reduces risoned, for quality; makes peoples healthit more difficult to obtain jobs, higher education, housing, and children; and in many cases, prevents them from voting when they do return to th day care for their communities. The intergenerational cycle of criminalization continues when paren eir prison, ts go tobecause their children are more likely to end up in the foster care syst increases their likelihood of becoming involved in crime or being institutionali em, which in turn even more of an economic burden on states. zed, thus placing

young people and of is Billion on As It doesnt make decisions involved.bestapractices systems 70 percent recidivis Our justice system $70onebased Restrictsresult, there in the the interest Section 3. Educate or Incarcerate?few unaccountable Funding inbest country. of the Prison Spending families of the Education or is a Prison James take attorney and youth by limiting what and notspending responsibility justice activist states and local governments c The decision anyaffects everyonefor the outcome. 20 m rate.Bell, makers can administer this misery educationan spend onan issue that has become more critical as states face their biggest b Of the $70 billion spent annually on prisons, $50 billion is spent at the state since the Great udget crisises Depression. government, states, counties, and cities share the cost of paying for education, level.21 While the federal prison and jail spending has come almost entirely from state general funds - a d the growth in Officers shows prisons.22 Analysis assistance, legislators use to relyfor receiving healthcare, of State Budget of money thatpool iscretionaryandthat K12 schools paybyon education,70 percent ofhousing, public the National Association their state fundi general fund, ng from the and nearly half of what colleges and universities receive from sta the general fund.23 At the same time, 9 out of 10 dollars that support prisons c tes comes from fund, reducing the amount that is available for other critical public investment ome from the general Prisons have emerged as a relatively new big budget item that continues to grow, c s.24 of limited pool onsuming more of general fund dollars. With $50 billion in state prison spendi finding that there are ng annually, statesis simply less discretionary funding available to be spent on especially in these lean economic times. According to Postsecondary Education Op education, a research portunity, institute specializing in educational access and equity issues, after saw the second-biggest increase in the share of state and local government spend healthcare, prisons 1980 and 2006, while spending for higher education declined.25 This 16-year peri ing between od coincides

At the start of the a Prisons: Second-Fastest-Growing Public Investment Government Spending recent economic downturn, states began experiencing limited with the addition ofon million more people to the prison system. their priorities. ability to pay forIn the 20082009 fiscal year, prisons share of the general fund g any other category of state spending.26 For 33 of the 50 states, spending on cor rew more than a larger proportion rections consumed of state general fund dollars than it had in the previous ye fund spending for ar, and general K12 and higher education decreased.27 The federal stimulus pack doubt age noplayed a role in states finding money to pay for prisons and other services eroded. revenue budget years, however, as states, counties, and cities try to as tax In future and plan for books balance theirthe end of the federal stimulus, young people will experience more school closings, teacher layoffs, cutting of after-school programs, and rising t of the same: Source: Postsecondary Education prison spending continues to grow. college out of reach for manyasOpportunity, analysis of national income and pro uition that puts accounts from Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce (2009).28 duct

Over the last few years, Funding for Higher Education Prison Spending Restrictsthe budget battle between prisons and universities for discretionary dollars has been won by prisons in virtually every state in the co state In 2008, the Pew Center on the States looked back at state spending patterns bet unty. education grew by a modest 21 percent, while corrections funding grew by 127 per 1987 ween and 2007 and found that after adjusting for inflation, funding for higher Source: One times the in 100: Americans Behind cent, six rate of higher education.29Bars, Pew Center on the States and the Publ Performance ic Safety Project (2008). 30

State executives around the country know that prison spending has a huge impact higher education budgets. Responding to Pews findings in her state, former Michig on their Jennifer Granholm said, Its not good public policy to take all of these taxpayer d an governor tough at very ollarstimeaand invest it in the prison system when we ought to be investing it i are going to transform the economy, like education and diversifying the economy.3 n the things that 1s he decried the out-of-whack budget priorities of California, former governor Ar A Schwarzenegger declared in his January 2010 State of the State address, Thirty ye nold 10 ago arspercent of the general fund went to higher education and 3 percent went to pr almost 11 percent goes to prisons and only 7.5 percent goes to higher education. isons. Today, percent more on prisons than universities is no way to proceed into the future.. Spending 45 say about any ..What does itstate that focuses more on prison uniforms than on caps and gowns? Schwarzenegger called for a constitutional amendment to ensure that state fundin 32 Governor Prison Spending Limits funding on Success education exceeds stateEducational prisons.of Students, Families, and Communitie g of higher sver the last 40 years, as prison budgets were on the rise and states, cities, a O the increased costs nd counties assumed to run prisons and jails, parents and students assumed more run the higher of the costs toeducation system. As research by Postsecondary Education Opportun since prison ity shows, populations began to surge in the 1980s, states and local governmen on lesswhile ts have taken students and parents have taken on moreof the costs of attending coll university.33 ege and

Source: Post Secondary Chart Distribution of RevenueOpportunity, analysis of the national income and product In the face Bureau of of historic budget shortfalls for state governments, the costs of ru accounts, Economic Analysis (2009). 34 education systems are being passed on to students and parents in the form of tui nning higher hikes. tion In October 2009, the College Board reported that the price of a college e had risen ducation in the previous year despite declining costs in other areas of the eco report The nomy.35found that four-year public colleges had raised tuition and fees by an av percent 6.5 erage ofover the course of that year. In comparison, the cost of attending a pri Increased by 4.4 only risencollege costs have vate college had percent. placed a particularly heavy financial burden on wor students from lower-income backgrounds. These students - people who are the leas king students and able to to be t likelyafford a postsecondary educationrepresent the greatest potential for grow colleges th in ourand universities. In 2007, the Institute for Higher Education Policy fo poor adults enroll und that working- in college at lower rates and are less likely to complete col students, even lege than otherwhen accounting for financial aid.36

The increasing burden on students and parents to pay for higher education is not While access to colleges and universities has improved over the last 30 years, e equally distributed. that four-year private and public institutions of higher learning have become le xperts say When increased Public Safety Prison Spending Limits Education Funding and Hurts the and Latinos.37 and thus increasingly spending means decreased spendingEconomy, Health, all ss affordable prison out of reach for African Americanson education, weand los communities e because cannot realize the economic and public-safety benefits that come fro According to educational adolescent development researchers, staying in and completing schoo m increased opportunities. critical protective factors for young people who may encounter crime and delinqu l are neighborhoods.38 Most young people who do engage in delinquent behavior can leav ency in their troubled e this period behind them if they can engage in normal life experiences, such Communities school and suffer when young people cannot attend or complete college because o as being ingetting a job. costs. The f rising Institute for Higher Education Policy found that higher education in associated is a communitywith increased earning, lower unemployment, less use of public assist voter participation.39 When more people attend college, governments can see incr ance, and increased tax revenues from more vibrant local economies. States that have higher levels o eased The have violent we alsoeducation cutscrime rates that are lower costs rise out of control f college attainment experience when prison than the national average.create a self-fulfilling cycle for our communities: A $70 billion prison system forces go negative, cut education vernment to funding and raise tuition for students and their families. This un readiness, stifles economic growth, reduces tax revenue, and leaves communities dermines job to deal with ill-equipped the challenges to public safety not addressed by incarceration. Hen continue to spend billions of dollars every year to imprison 2.3 million people, ce, taxpayers two-thirds of

whom do not have high school diplomas prior to ending up on a trajectory to crim imprisonment. e and the relationship between education and prison spending may not always be c While legislators when they support costly criminal justice policies, the link between lear to support for education and the barriers facing some neighborhoods that seek to bu lackluster educated ild well-and safe communities can be seen all across the country.

At a time Mapping city class size on student performance are have the necessar The benefits the the Problem at to ensure that Level: Community Impact Section 4.whenof smallerhas failedthe Neighborhoodour children beyond dispute. Asresources Newthe dilapidated and unnecessary over the expand U.S. prison population soared jail. 40last two decades, yinthe aclassroom, capital dollars areThompson, Junerepair and researchers bega York City comptroller William C. allocated to 16, 2009 concentrations of people n to notice significant going to prison from a few neighborhoods, particularly neighborhoods of color in major cities. In these high-incarceration communities, poor are being of dollars millions spent to incarcerate neighborhood residents, forming million-dollar blo Not only does recidivism remain a problem in many of these areas, but unfortunat cks. incarceration are often the predominant public-sector investment in these commun ely dollars spent on look to find ways ities. As states to save state dollars for education and other civic-level inve the overreliance stments, reducingon prisons in million-dollar blocks could save states millions The outdated public safety agenda that has driven prison expansion shift those funds from prison budgets back to education budgets. has a dramati of dollars and disproportionate impact on certain communities: In the major cities of every sta cally there te, are a small number of neighborhoods for which taxpayers are asked to spend the community. At theof dollars each year to cycle residents between prisoninstitu hundreds of millions same time that these neighborhoods contact with the and criminal tions of justice becomes commonplace, they are also witnessing educational oppor The following repeated cuts to education experiencing budget shortfalls as the evaporate tunities withcase studies represent areasbudgets. imprison more y continue to and more people, pouring money into their prison system, while the system suffers. The maps in this section analyze six different cities: Los Angel ir education Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Indianapolis, Indiana; Jackson Mississippi; Houston, es, California; Texas; and

New York City, New York. Prepared by the Justice Mapping Center for this report, display annual prison admission rates by neighborhoods in these cities (in Los A they information on ngeles, where prison admissions was not available, rates of people on parole ar Using zip e mapped.)codes and in some instances census tracts as rough representations of neighborhoods, these maps depict the rate at which adults from each zip code or local each city were census tract insent to prison in 2008, or in the case of Los Angeles, were parol zip code or census ed in 2006. Each tract is color coded to represent the number of adults per 1, to that that year 000prisonwere sent or were on parole on any particular day.* Further analysis i to reveal the extreme costs of funding incarceration in these select neighborhoo s then performed But ds. the picture only becomes clear when one looks at an analysis of school perfo determined rmance (as by math proficiency scores) for each city as mapped on top of the inc data. The arcerationultimate outcome is a daunting visual that clearly shows a correlation incarceration neighborhoods and low school performance. In five cities where sch between high performance is depicted, the low-performing schools tend to be located in the ar ool the highest incarceration rates (in New York, where education data was not avail eas with incarceration rates and budgets are mapped.) When viewed through a geographic le able, only this, the ns such asnations $70 billion investment in prisons is evident in not only the cr involvement of iminal justice the most vulnerable communities, but also in their levels of educ ational attainment.

Two-thirds of the low-performing schools are in high-incarceration neighborhoods Los Angeles, California and , two-thirds of high-performing schools are in low-incarceration neighborhoods fewer counselors, fewer classes dropout and to arts, less on the budget cuts .I attribute the increase in thein music ratethe some extentcareertechnical educa secondary system. According lost $18 has of state funding over the education In recent schools to one Californiathe crisis, California elementary years Jack 41 years, Californiabillion in catastrophic of to itsInstruction tion.OConnell, outgoingaccountfacedSuperintendentcutsPubliclast two and alon during Californias seemingly never-ending state budget crisis, it is hard for edu e.42 Indeed, dministrators to keep track of the cumulative impact of state cuts to counties a cational a as the effect of nd cities as wellthose cuts on schools. Last year 15,000 teachers were laid off The Los Angeles is not yet clearschool system is ground will be the off this budget statewide, and ithow many thousands morezero for laidCaliforniayear.43 meltdown. 2011, the Los Angeles Unified School District was expected to lay off 7,000 empl As of March prompting planned student walkouts and other protests.44 These cuts will mean te oyees in every school, the closing of after-school programs, and the growth of class s acher layoffs More izes.than 50 percent of the people who were in prison, and after release were un in parole supervision derLos Angeles, live in zip codes that are home to only 18 percent of the citys a dults.45

There school success affected know in real time. It and be years before we How isis no way to definitivelyby these policy choiceswill spending patterns? ca analyze the impact of these cuts on student achievement in Los Angeles schools. n what But we have uncovered through analyzing school performance in high-incarceratio communities is striking. When we layer school performance over the map of the re n distribution of parolees, we do know that in Los Angeles County, 69 of the 90 lo sidential By contrast, schools (67 59 of the citys 86 high-performing schools (68 percent) are in neigh w-performingpercent) are in neighborhoods with the highest incarceration rates. the lowest incarceration rates.46 borhoods with

The Pittsburgh Tribune-Review reported that $197 million shortfall. while the Philadelphia 11 Imprisoning people fromschool district has ain 2008 Pennsylvania taxpayers spent Philadelphia, Pennsylvania neighborhoods costs taxpayers $290 million a year, $1.66 billion on its state prison system, compared with $1.59 billion for higher with $4,000 per college student per year.48 As per prisoner per year, compared education.47 Pennsylvania spends about $33,000 Pennsylvania joined the group of that spend more on prisons than on higher education, both college and K12 funding states diminished as the country slipped into recession in 2008. The 2011 scheduled exp levels as will increase funding debate a proposal to cut higher education by 50 2010 enditures legislators toward prisons by an additional $82 million overpercent, w would hich be the single largest state-level cut to higher education in U.S. history. 49 2009, the Philadelphia school districts budget shortfall approached $197 milli In to a $160 million cut in funding from the state.50 When the recession started in on due Philadelphia eliminated free transit passes for 7,000 studentsa measure that led 2008, to city to the thewrite councilSchool Reform Commission, With nearly 50 percent of school distri dropping out ct students before graduation, we can hardly afford a policy that discourages a In 2008, as Philadelphia schools hung in the balance, taxpayers spent nearly $28 ttendance. 51 imprison to 1 millionresidents sentenced from just nine Philadelphia neighborhoods (zip code illustrates, while s).52 As the map these neighborhoods are home to just one-quarter of the citys incarceration Three Philadelphia in 2008.53 Further limiting what of can spend each in they account costs percent cost adults sent excessthey$40 Philadelphia. population, for 50zip codesof allthe state in to prison frommillionon schools, residents also Philadelphia foot a bill of $218 million a year to run the local jail.54

$40 $41 MM $43

As hundreds of millions of dollars are allocated to incarcerate people from just clustered to suffer. Of the neighborhoods ofthe highestschool performance continuesthe most challengedcitys 35 low-performing schools, 23 (66 percent) are a few of in or very near neighborhoods with the city, rates of incarcerationwh biggest ere the taxpayer investment is being made toward incarceration. In contrast, of 28 high-performing schools, 21 (75 percent) are in neighborhoods with the lowest Philadelphias This same pattern incarceration.55 is repeated among neighborhoods in city after city across the rates of Indianapolis, Indiana; country. As the maps ofJackson, Mississippi; and Houston, Texas demonstrate, the costly spending on incarceration for neighborhoods where educational divestment pattern of weakest-performing schools is prevalent among a diverse array of different citie hits the s.

Millions are Indiana Indianapolis,spent imprisoning people from eight neighborhoods as schools strugg Before Indianas state budget prisons. State Senator Greg Taylor, IndianapolisWe should be building more the recent eco We le. shouldnt be building morecrisis initiated cuts at the start ofopportunities. 56 Indianapolis schools were already feeling the funding squeeze. Indiana used $992 nomic recession, stimulus in million funds to cover a K12 education shortfall in the 2009 budget.57 As is the Indianas 2011 budget, stimulus funds will not be available to shore up vital serv case in future ices inbudget years. In the mist of these troubled economic times, the Indiana D Corrections epartment ofhas proposed a 1.3 percent increase in fundinga measure currently bei in the Indiana legislature.58 In addition, if Indianas criminal justice policies ng debated the state is set remain unchecked,to see a 21 percent increase in its prison population by 2017, the state budget.59 further crippling More people in Indianas prisons will mean more need for more facilities, and more facilities will mean more prison-related costs in the futur prison As the accompanying education. e and less money formap shows, even without new prison beds taxpayers are spendi $240 million a year to imprison people from Indianas biggest city, Indianapolis.6 ng around 0

$25 MM $27

Indianapolis account the citys adult residents annually sent to prison from th Home to 11 percent offor 41 percent of population, five zip codes in These five high-incarceration zip codes add up to more than 56 percent of prison e city. expenditures ($82 million) for the city. Incarceration costs for two zip codes a Indianapolis each amount to more than $20 million; for one, taxpayers are spendi lone in and for the other $25 million.61 ng $27 million

Michael place Jackson withinSchool District Its an Thomas, voted The onlyare arechallenge is to imprison being can Jackson neighborhoods. find as prison costspeople from off teachers.sizes are deputydollars. to Teachers Mississippi goPublic taxpayers spend $24 millionbills62 cut Jackson,extreme we laiddown and classdistrict togrowingsuperintendent for operatio the A Representative George Flaggs, Vicksburg When topic in education priority Mississippi is what to do about funding the nshot educations not thecircles inin Mississippi, we lose. 63 Education Program (MAEP), the states primary mechanism of providing equalized fun Mississippi Adequate for dingschool districts. Governor Haley Barbour has proposed to cut MAEP by $65 mil shift these dollars to meet the state budget shortfall. 64 The states House of Re lion and however, approved a state funding plan for MAEP without these proposed drastic c presentatives, Meanwhile, at the same statehouse, legislators voted down a bill in February 201 uts. sentences of some nonviolent drug prisoners in half, pared the prison population 0 that could have cut the inmates, and saved the Mississippi Department of Corrections $8 million through by 1,000 As Jacksons education system experiences budget cuts, taxpayers are spending $25 2013.65 year to imprison people from neighborhoods in just two zip codes in Jackson.66 million a

While these neighborhoods are home to 45 percent of the citys population, they ac more for countthan two-thirds (67 percent) of Jackson residents sent to prison in 2008. L Jacksons ocated on west side, the most expensive zip code in the city has Mississippi taxpa spending $10 million to incarcerate its residents. And in the face of these expe yers performance data nditures, school show that the three low-performing high schools in the city are codes with either the highest or next-to-highest rates of incarceration, while t in zip high-performing hree of the fourschools are located in zip codes experiencing the next-to-lowest incarceration in the city.67 rates of

With state school cut...Its $26.8 in the Houston Independent School Lorna should Nothing Texas be lunch half a Correo, mother oncostsnot good for our childrens future Tuitionbillion dollarswithimprisonment in Houston each year. and 68 District Houston,andlawmakers facingchildrenon the rise as taxpayers spendmunicipalities a are billion shortfall, towns cuts at the local are bracing for level that will include the layoff of administrators and teach the elementary to ers.69 The cutssystem will result in fewer cafeteria workers, a hike in school l the costs, and unchelimination of nearly 300 jobs.70 Teachers will lose jobs, students will lose opportunities, and our state will lose ground in its long-term economic competit educational Jackie Lain, an iveness, said Associate Executive Director for the Texas Association of School percent percent funding percent the state, Even though 5 percent reduction for a 10of the schools throughoutof the cuts to Texas thewe make are bracing Along with K12budget, 41cut in 2010 and 2011.allachieveuniversitiesup only 12 Boards.71 System.72 While some of the Kent Hance, Chancellor of the Texas education syste from higher education, saidrevenue shortfalls facing the higher Tech University came up through freezes on hiring and salaries, students at the University of Texas H m will be made As the map illustrates, while students in rise in tuition.73 Center at Houston are facing an 11 percentboth higher education and K12 school sy ealth Science feeling the stems are effect of budget cuts in Houston, taxpayers spent more than $130 mil residents sentenced in 2008 from neighborhoods in just 15 zip codes in Houston. lion to imprison neighborhoods While these are home to only about 10 percent of the citys population, they acc percent 40 ount forof residents sent to prisons from the city in 2008. Two zip codes in Hou the alone cost stonstate $17 million and $18 million respectively.

$17 MM $18

The neighborhoods that see hundreds of millions of dollars spent to imprison the see school that are ir residents also struggling with success. In Houston, of 6 low-performing sch neighborhoods ools, 5 are inwith the highest rates of incarceration. In contrast, of 12 high-p 8 are in schools, erformingneighborhoods with the lowest incarceration rates.74

of a citys dollars HalfYork City, New Yorkare as the incarcerate people from billion dollars from Newthe billionneighborhoodsspent tocity and state cut half a12 percent New PatYork school at President lost school $400 bone andTeachers WevePuleo,huge numbers workers,psychologists,ofcutting off limbs. Werelostthe schools ofofwere wayand readingandelementary librarians, schools. City pointsocialthe Yonkerspastmillionteachers.million in funding in t counselors, where between Federation $500 76 fiscal year.77 he 20092010 Coming after a cumulative six percent budget cut in the previous school spending has two years, reduced meant that thousands of teens have lost access to after-scho thousands of teachers have been laid off.79 In 2009, class sizes in city schools ol programs78and highest rate in more than a decade, with the youngest children experiencing the increased by their in class sizes. biggest growth Its a real sad story. The kids with the highest educational needs back. They benefit from the tend to fall the furthest individual attention, said Leonic Haimson, Executive In March of Class 2010, the state November 2009.80 Director Size Matters, inof New York contemplated a budget that would cut aid to systemsschool local by another $1.4 billion and would lift some of the state restrictions on they could raise student tuition. According to the Center on Budget and Policy P universities so fiscal year 2011 budget New York cut funding for public universities by 10 perce riorities, In its previous academic nt relative to theyear, cut aid to community colleges by 11 percent, and cut gra a financial aid nts awarded by program that serves students from low- and moderate-income famil university system ies. The states previously increased resident undergraduate tuition by 14 perc At the spring that the education withbeginning entthe same time2009 semester.81 system lost hundreds of millions of dollars funding, state taxpayers continued to invest nearly half a billion dollars to in in state and city of those residents carceratecom munities most likely to be hit hardest by cuts in education.

In 2008, more than 50 percent of the people sent to prison from New York City ha 27 of the iled from citys 200 zip codes, where only 18 percent of its adults reside. New Yo will spend $418 million to imprison residents from those 27 zip codes before ret rk taxpayers their them to urningcommunities, accounting for nearly half of the $870 million spent to incar from all 200 New cerate residents York City zip codes. New York will spend nearly $29 million to residents sent to prison from a single zip code in the Bronx, another $25 millio incarcerate code a Brooklyn, n forin single zipand another $23 million for a single zip code in Manhattan.82

$25 $29 MM $23

The high rates of removal and return from home to prison and back home again put strain on families and friends as well as the economic infrastructure of these c a severe Moreover, the ommunities. financial costs of incarceration can be understood as a lost oppor As the situation depicted in these cities illustrates, the brunt reinvest tunity toin community infrastructure such as improving schools. of most correct United States is borne ional activities in theby a few neighborhoods in major cities, particularly poor of color. These statistics reveal an undeniable relationship between low-perform neighborhoods and high-incarceration neighborhoods, signaling an urgent need to rethink the hu ing schools The negative investments return that our broken criminal justice system. ge financialbeing made inincarceration is having on cities as illustrated in our findings from neighborhood todays economic times cyclical removal and with is not only troublesome forstudies that suggest thebut is also consistentreturn study authority and weakening of social networks, which can reach a tipping informal many of soparentsparticularly fathersleads to the widespread breakdown ofpoint that misguided investments in the criminal justice communities of color.75case ballooni results in an increase of crime in low-income infrastructurein this Hence, prison budgets at the expense of educationare failing cities across America and t ng failing hereforethe American people. To lay the groundwork for healthier civic communiti and programmatic es, sentencing reforms must be made in order to downsize prisons and reinvest dollars prison in the education system.

The gloomy depiction of country operating empty status the Brian control costs, a continue by coming yearclose State Fischer, New offenders Corrections Commissioner ofquo. 83 No must5. business Yorkgenerate falling behind of private Putting Education insavings, andin facilities. projected drop Weyettaxpayers simply cannotFirstthe Enacting Smart faceSafeaReforms Sectionanother 1,000wouldStateafford to maintain the andprisons. world with an u rest underperforming nderfunded and education system can change. To make change happen, our leaders choose have tocost-effective criminal justice policies, eliminate racial disparities, f safety public ocus onstrategies that work to curb violence and victimization, and reserve more dollars tax our childrens education and our nations future. While prison spending of our for the rise and is still on schools are still feeling the funding squeeze, researchers suggest dollars can be saved by following the lead of states that have recently scaled d that millions of While there is no own their prisons.single approach that will work everywhere, the changes to laws Kansas, Michigan, New Jersey, and New York demonstrate that if our leaders want and policies in spending to changepriorities between education and incarceration, they can do so. State l found have eadersways to bring their prison populations under control and reduce the number of people in prison: New York achieved a 20 percent reduction in imprisonment in 10 years, with a red Kansas achieved a 5 percent reduction in imprisonment over 6just years; inNew prison population of more than 14,000 in imprisonment inyears;years. uctionJersey achieved a 19 percent reduction people; Michigan achieved a 12 percent reduction in imprisonment in 10 3 and the

In all four states, crime rates have declined. With fewer people in prison and w Michigan states rates, thesecrime are prisons to five return on their investment: ith fallingclosed three startingand see aprison camps, estimated to save $118 mill New ion; Jersey closed a 1,000-bed prison in Camden, with an annual operational cost $42 million; and ofNew York closed three small minimum-security prisons and shuttered annexes at pr that isonsremain in operation, estimated to save $26.3 million in the 20102011 budget. After decades of rural politicians scuttling proposals to close prisons that emp people in their districts, New Yorkers are having serious debates over which mul loy These How states prisons they might close. million-dollarfour states the savings populations and save money? ti- did thesehave realizedreduce prisonthat come with fewer prisoners by using s fit the needs trategies thatof their stateall while they also see a drop in crime rates.84 Whil silver bulletno one way to get in control of rising prison coststhe strategies these e there is no used serve as a lesson to leaders elsewhere who want to reduce prison spending, states safety, and redirect funds to education. improve public

Of the 2.3 sentencing and reforming drug laws 1) Changingmillion people in prison in this country, half a million are in priso were convicted n because they of a non-violent drug offense. Many people convicted of drug offe were nses subject to a mandatory minimum sentencea long, mandatory prison term that, i cases, n most no court can change, regardless of the circumstances of the crime or the crime term Changing become that the prisonhastheto taxpayers. most long someone will votes elected officials costs of thatlawsone ofgovern howpolitically chargedserve behind bars for a are asked to cast. However, faced with the escalating costs of the current policy an research that has proven incarceration to be an ineffective means of drug treatm d the In 2009, policymakers are boldly Governor David these laws. ent, someformer New Yorkvoting to changePatterson, with the State Assembly and S New Yorks Rockefeller Drug Laws, the infamous mandatory minimum sentencing policies enate, revised that helped fuel drug imprisonment in the state. These changes eliminated mandat terms for some low-level nonviolent drug felonies.85 State Assembly Leader Sheld ory minimum described on Silver the change as establishing a more just, more humane, more effective pol In for New state ofthe members of icyMichigan, York. 86 all political parties, prosecutors, and defense attorney join together s were able toto repeal almost all of the states mandatory-minimum drug statutes, them with drug sentencing guidelines that gave discretion back to Michigan judge replacing s.87 Jersey recently revised its drug-free zone laws, which had required mandatory New prison terms for drug sales around schools, disproportionately affecting more de minimum cities over more nsely populated sparsely populated suburbs.88 The change to these laws capped a effort that reduced the number of people in prison for drug offenses and may red multi-year troubling uce the racial disparities associated with laws of this kind.

These measures not only help states begin to rein in excessive spending on ineff up large masses ectively lockingof individuals, but also help ensure that low-level drug offende According 2) Diverting surveys help reduce half from inmates treatment adequate treatment with drug addictionsof allprison rs receiveto peopletoof prisoners,recidivism rates. toin state and federal pris or were abused onswere dependent on drugs before they were imprisoned, and between 15 and 20 pe they said rcentcommitted their crime to obtain money to buy drugs.89 Finding ways to diver drug problems t people with from prison to treatment can help break the cycle of crime and add In New and City, incarceration costs. iction,York cut the development of the Drug Treatment Alternatives-to-Prison ( program DTAP) by Kings County (Brooklyn) District Attorney Charles J. Hynes helped div treatment to ert peoplewho would otherwise have served a mandatory prison term.90 DTAP helped expansionthe New Yorks Alternative to Incarceration programs, which are designed to spur of people from to divert prison to treatment, education, and employment services. New Jersey prosecutorial guidelines that governed plea bargains, allowing judges to divert changed addicted low-leveldefendants caught in drug-free zones to treatment.91 New Jersey also expa 3) Using court options for these prison prison-bound individuals.92 nded drugshortenedformerlyterms as an incentive for prisoners to complete school One and way to cut ing treatment prison costs is to shorten sentences for people who complete scho treatment oling or programs while they are imprisoned. These incentives achieve two goals can demonstrate that they are motivated to put the past behind them, and these p : prisoners help address rograms may the issues of joblessness, lack of schooling, and addiction that ma individuals to y have led the crime and prison in the first place.

New Yorks Shock Incarceration program sends younger prisoners to a structured, si program x-month that helps them earn their GED, and if they successfully complete the pr time off their ogram, shaves prison sentence. The Shock Incarceration program is estimated to minimum prison have reduced sentences for some 35,000 people by an average of 11.3 months eac New h.93Yorks Merit Time program allows people serving prison sentences for nonviolen crimes to earn t, nonsexual a one-sixth reduction of their minimum prison term if they comple GED or vocational certificate, complete an alcohol or drug abuse program, or per te their 4) Increasing taxpayers on the number work an who program hours24,000 prisoners crew.94 get paroled and in prison each, saving of servicean a communityof peopleaverage of 6.4 months 2006, the Merit Time form 400savedestimated $372 million.95 Between 1997and improving their chances o People who f success have served some time in prison, depending on the state they live in, eligible for parole: They can return to the community as long as they complete a may be whichof conditions, set can include obtaining and maintaining a job, remaining drug-free and sober restitution , and payingfor the crime. In the past four decades, many states have restricted paroled and slowed the process of release. But when done right, parole reforms c who can be former help an bothprisoners plan for their eventual return to the community and allow the c system justice riminalto break the cycle of crime by helping people returning home to get a job Responding to find housing,concerns more schooling. , gettreatment, and getthat parolees were reoffending upon release, parole syste more scientifically proven tools that can help parolees better plan for their ev ms now have reduce the chances entual return home,they will fail on the outside, speed up release decisions, an In Michigan, prison down the Prisoner ReEntry Initiative helped improve the parole boards con d bringpopulations. people that fidencebeing released would have a better chance for suc cess, resulting in incr approval rates. New Jersey developed new administrative parole policies grounded eased parole methods and strategies for release decisions. The number of people successfully in effective released to

parole in New Jersey increased from 3,099 in 1999 to 10,897 in 2001, and these h Instead of 5) Reducingsending someone to prison, the courts may place the release rates were sustained throughout prison of probation person on igher parolethe number of people sent tothe restfromthe decade.or parole probati someone on: likeon parole, a probationer can remain in the community as long as he or sh conditions set e follows the by the court or the corrections system. Conditions may include ge In some states, significant numbers and paying restitution for the crime. keeping a tting and job, completing treatment,of people are behind bars because they faile could not pay d a drug test,a fee or fine, or failed to make a restitution payment while they held accountable or parole. While for their actions, such technical violations of parole or probati were on probationpeople must be supervision can be costly if the only option is sending them to prison. Some sta on it have more testo be foundcost effective to expand their options by finding other ways to ho accountable ld people for technical violations while still setting them on the right path In 2006 rehabilitation. toward in Kansas, two-thirds of people admitted to prison were imprisoned becau to meet requirements under parole or probation supervision in the community. Of se they failed had failed for technical violations (breaking a condition of their supervision). these, 90 percent technicalof these A third violations were related to alcohol and drug use, further indicating a addiction for clear needtreatment services for these individuals. Local community corrections developed agencies strategies that dramatically reduced the number of people sent to pris violations, while on for technical still holding them accountable. Michigan and New Jersey took s reduce the number imilar steps to of people sent back to prison for technical violations.

Section 6. Call to Action and Recommendations: Invest to Educate, Not Incarcerat elthough Kansas, Michigan, New Jersey, and New York provide excellent models of A downsize how to prisons, even these states have yet to make the leap of applying the sa downsizing vings from prisons to their education budgets. The NAACP calls on policymakers t state and o reduce federal prison populations and reinvest the resulting savings in educa It is tion. time for states to adopt the principles of our Smart and Safe Campaign by dollars from reinvesting prisons into education. It is time for America to be smart and safe The following are recommended policies that will into education. to the future by reinvesting dollars from prisonsdownsize prisons and make dolla and commit 1. education forStudy the budgets: rs available problem: Support federal, state, and local efforts to create a blue 2. Create policy, conduct a thorough evaluation of charged substance offer recommendations treatment, corrections, and reentry. sentencing that andrates of incarceration, commissionsof areas,with identifying system commissionreinvestment commissions: reform in enforcement, crimeincluding: -ribbonandabuse willmental healthforSupportlaw a rangethe criminalprevention, justice legislative and policy avenues to downsize prison populations and shift savings 3. Eliminate disparities in budgets. prison from closures to educationdrug laws: Support efforts to eliminate disparities 4. Increase earned time: Support reforms that would allow prisoners to earn an e between crack in sentencing and powder cocaine at the state and federal level. release arlier by participating in educational and vocational programming as well as dr mental ug and health treatment.

5. Support youth violence reduction programs: Support programs and policies to d a comprehensive plan for implementing evidence-based prevention and intervention evelop strategies for at-risk youth to prevent gang activity and criminal justice invol 6. Reform vement. sentencing and drug policies: Eliminate mandatory minimum sentencing f 7. drug offenses that help fuel drug individuals: or Use diversion for drug-involvedimprisonment. Reform prosecutorial guidelines 8. Shorten people to prison terms: Send young offenders who would otherwise receive mandat to divert treatment who would otherwise serve a mandatory prison term. 9. their prison sentences. sentencesto parole release rates: help them earn their ability to use evidence-b oryIncrease structured programs toImprove parole boardsGED and shave time off strategies when making decisions to parole prisoners, thus improving parolees cha ased 10. for Reduce and increasing parole approval rates. ncessuccessrevocations of people under community supervision: Develop alternativ to-incarceration programs that will reduce the number of people sent to prison f e11. technical violations. or Support reentry and the sealing of records: Support legislation that will cl records of certain offenders after they have not committed another crime within ose criminal number of a certain years.

1 Unless otherwise noted, all state fiscal expenditure data are from State Expen Notes Report: diture 2008 (Washington, DC: National Association of State Budget Officers, 200 Center 2 One on the States, 2009), 1, http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/uploadedFile 9). in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections (Washington, DC: The Pew Recessions Impact, Phil on Budget and 3 PSPP_1in31_report_FINAL_WEB_3-26-09.pdf. Policy Priorities, January 21, 2011, http: s/Elizabeth McNichol,CenterOliff, and Nicholas Johnson, States Continue to Feel Virginia, 6 Justice Statistics, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/sen-jim-webb/why-we-must(Washington, Sabol, 2009). 5 The National We Heather reform-our-cr_b_214130.html.C.Department, Office Jim Webb: U.S. in Bureau Post, Junehttp://webb.senate.gov/issuesandlegislation/criminaljusticeandlawenfor 4 William J.WhyCriminal JusticeOur and Matthew of System, TheSenator for www.cbpp.org/cms/?fa=view&id=711.Commission JusticeJustice Programs, 2008 //Jim Webb,11, 2009,Must ReformWest,CriminalAct,Cooper, PrisonersHuffington of DC: U.S. Justice 7 ment/Criminal_Justice_Banner.cfm. ceOne in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008 (Washington, DC: The Pew Center on the 10Adam Liptak, 6, andHeather in U.S. cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=789. U.S. West andDepartment, Problems 9Programs, Bureau http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/uploadedFiles/8015PCTS_ 23,Williamhttp://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/23/us/23prison.html.Justice (Washingt 8Inmates2008),Sabol, JusticeJ. JusticeMental HealthOffice of of York Times, April Prison08_FINAL_2-1-1_FORWEB.pdfJames,Dwarfs Other Nations, Newin 2008 and Jail States, E.J. InmateDoris Statistics,Mathrew http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index. Lauren (Washington, DC: 2008, Glaze of Count C 2006), Cooper, Prison Prison DC: on, U.S. Justice Department, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Stati 2009). stics,

11 Punishment and Prejudice: Racial Disparities in the War on Drugs, 2000. (New Y Prison Population (Washington, DC: The JFA Institute, How to Reduce Americas 12 key-facts.htm NY:James Rights Watch, 2000) 2http://www.hrw.org/legacy/campaigns/drugs/war/ ork,HumanAustin and others, Unlocking America: Why and2007), XX, http://www.jfaWhites, Says Sentencing Project, The Washington Post, April 15, 2009, http://www. 13 Darryl Fears, A Racial Shift in Drug-Crime Prisoners: Fewer Blacks and More associates.com/publications/srs/UnlockingAmerica.pdf. 14 Dr. Natasha Frost, Judith Greene and Kevin Pranis. The Punitiveness Report-HAR washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ content/article/2009/04/14/AR2009041401775.html. 17 16 Facts%20Women%20and%20CJ%202009.pdf. Institute on Women and Criminal Justice. 1977-2004, The Prison for Report-HAR 15 The Facts Women and Criminal and Kevin Pranis. the InstituteAssociation, andDr. Natasha Frost, Judith Greene Justice 2009. WomensPunitiveness Women HIT:Criminal Justice. http://www.wpaonline.org/institute/hardhit/part1.htm#np. D Quick Growthin Imprisonment of Women,http://www.wpaonline.org/pdf/Quick%20 18 and The Abuse in Imprisonment of and Probationers, the Institute for Women HIT:Criminal Justice. http://www.wpaonline.org/institute/hardhit/part1.htm#np. D Prior GrowthReported by Inmates Women, 1977-2004,Bureau of Justice Statistic Department of Justice (April 2009), and Doris J. James, Profile of Jail Inmates, s, U.S. http://nyunewsdoc.wordpress.com/drug-abuse/the-abuse-incarceration-connection/. Journalism Institute & Documentary Department of Justice (July 2004). 19 JialingJustice The AbuseYork University.program at Women Out L. Carter Bureau ofofZheng, Statistics,Incarceration Connection,the Arthur of Prison, A project 2002 the News of New U.S. graduate

20 James Bell, Heroes for a Better World, http://www.betterworldheroes.com/pages-b 21 bell-quotes.htm. / 2009 State Expenditure Report (Washington, DC: National Association of State Officers, 2010), 54, http://www.nasbo.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=%2bPqnI4oZw2 Budget 22 %3d&tabid=38. I 2009 State Expenditure Report (Washington, DC: National Association of State Officers, 2010), 54, http://www.nasbo.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=%2bPqnI4oZw2 Budget 23 %3d&tabid=38. I 2009 State Expenditure Report (Washington, DC: National Association of State Officers, 2010), 4, http://www.nasbo.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=%2bPqnI4oZw2I Budget 24 2009 State Expenditure Report (Washington, DC: National Association of State %3d&tabid=38. Officers, 2010), 54, http://www.nasbo.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=%2bPqnI4oZw2 Budget 25 %3d&tabid=38. I Health Care Costs as a Competitor for Higher Education Investment 1952 to 2007 26 Postsecondary Expenditure Report (Washington, 2009, 15. , 2009 State Education Opportunity, SeptemberDC: National Association of State Officers, 2010), 30, http://www.nasbo.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=%2bPqnI4oZw2 Budget 27 %3d&tabid=38. I 2009 State Expenditure Report (Washington, DC: National Association of State Officers, 2010), 56, http://www.nasbo.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=%2bPqnI4oZw2 Budget 28 %3d&tabid=38. I Health Care Costs as a Competitor for Higher Education Investment 1952 to 2007 30 29 the States, 2008), Opportunity, 2008 (Washington, Postsecondary Behind Bars in AmericaSeptember 2009, 15.DC: The , One in 100:Education6,http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/ Pew Center uploadedFiles/8015PCTS_Prison08_FINAL_2-1-1_FORWEB.pdf. on

33 Low Income of the State Address, January to 2010 (chart). Postsecondary Educ 32 2010States,Behind Bars in America 200819706, 2010, www.gov.ca.gov/speech/14118. 31 One inStateStudents6, http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/ Pew Center uploadedFiles/8015PCTS_Prison08_FINAL_2-1-1_FORWEB.pdf. on the 100: 2008), Shares of Totals: (Washington, DC: The 34 Distribution of Revenue Opportunity, February 2011.Sources for Financing Higher Education: 19522007 (char ation Overcoming Costs and Costs Keep 36 October Lewen, CollegeRyan in Higher Education for the Working Institute 35 Courtney McSwainto SucceedDavis, College Access Says, The DC: Poor: Health 20,Burdens as a Competitor.Rising, Report(Washington,New York Times, t).TamarCare2009,http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/21/education/21costs.html. for Higher Education Policy, 2007), 6, http://www.cpec.ca.gov/CompleteReports/Exter 37 nalBetween 1990 and 2003, African American and Hispanic students were a shrinkin Documents/College_Access_for_the_Working_Poor_2007_Report.pdf. gshare of total undergraduate enrollment at four-year colleges and universities September 8, at Annual Conference forthe Council forstudents who in Education, presentationFinancial Aid IssuesadultStudents from Low-Income Families, bigges (Tom Mortensen, 2006). And of those of working-poor Opportunity face the challenges getting into, paying for, and completing higher education, more than t third identified their race as non-white. A report from the National Association a traditional college-aged population, but they in October 32 about of in 2007, black and Hispanic persons constituted approximatelyonly noted 25 percent College Admission Counseling (NACAC) publishedrepresented 2009percentthatthe for 38 students enrolled in Phillip Kaufman, Risk and of Xianglei Chen and postsecondary education. Protective Factors: The Effects on com/products/pdf/Risk_and_Protective_Factors.pdf. Students Dropping Out of High School, MPR Associates Inc., 5, http://www.mprinc.

39 McSwain and Davis, 9, http://www.cpec.ca.gov/CompleteReports/ExternalDocument 40 College_Access_for_the_Working_Poor_2007_Report.pdf. s/ Education and Community Advocates, Elected Officials and the United Federation 43 HoaMarch 19, 2010, Capital Funds Space JuneEducation 42 Larry Mehta,Citys2010,http://www.sdnn.com/sandiego/2010-03-16/politics-cityeducation-20101214,0,2707726.story.Matters,ononConstruction Be Redirected Towards 41 SeemaDecemberEducationBudget Bigfor PrisonBrowns2009.Promises, DiegoAngeles county-government/california-budget-politics-city-county-government/californiaNetwork, New 16, 2010, Puts Crisis: Pink php?storyId=124905425. NPR, Times,Quach, California http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-brownBuilding UrgeSchools, Class Size TeachersAbramson, EconomyFills the Squeeze SlippinChalkboard,San Los News of March 14, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story. 11, Teachers, The 45 Justice Walkouts Planned to Angeles County Prison Admissions per 1000 Adults _n_837594.html 44 StudentMapping Systems. Los Protest LAUSD Layoffs, Huffington Post, March 18, budget-crisis-diaries-pink-slippin-teachers. 2011, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/03/18/student-walkouts-planned46 JusticeZip Code of Home Residence with High School Math Proficiency. Adults (2008) By Mapping Systems. Los Angeles County Prison Admissions per 1000 47 Debra Erdley, Number ofResidencein Pa.High School Math Proficiency. (2008) By Zip Code of Home Inmates with Prisons Increases by 40 Percent in Nine 48 DebraPittsburgh Tribune-Review, August 23, 2009,Increases by 40 Percent http://www.pittsburghlive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/news/regional/s_639625.html.in Nine Years, Erdley, Number of Inmates in Pa. Prisons http://www.pittsburghlive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/news/regional/s_639625.html. Years, Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, August 23, 2009,

49 The Continuing Fiscal Crisis in Corrections, Vera Institute of Justice, http:// 50 Jeffrey Selingo, In Pennsylvania Campus Leaders Prepare to Trim Budgets As The www. vera.org/content/continuing-fiscal-crisis-in-corrections-interactive. 51 Justice Mapping Systems. Philadelphia Prison Admissions per 1000 http://chronicle.com/article/Campus-Leaders-in-Pennsylvania/126670/ March (2008 yFight Governors Proposed Cuts. The Chronicle of Higher Education,Adults 9, 2011. 52 ZipJustice Home Residence Philadelphia Prison Proficiency. ) ByCode ofMapping Systems.with High School MathAdmissions per 1000 Adults (2008 53 ZipJustice Home Residence Philadelphia Prison Proficiency. ) ByCode ofMapping Systems.with High School MathAdmissions per 1000 Adults (2008 54 ZipJustice Home Residence Philadelphia Prison Proficiency. ) ByCode ofMapping Systems.with High School MathAdmissions per 1000 Adults (2008 55 ZipJustice Home Residence Philadelphia Prison Proficiency. ) ByCode ofMapping Systems.with High School MathAdmissions per 1000 Adults (2008 56 ZipMary of Schneider, Senate Passes Budget Balanced by Stimulus, Indy.com, April ) ByCodeBethHome Residence with High School Math Proficiency. 57 The Outlook for the Indiana State Budget, Indiana Local Government Informatio 14, 2009, http://www.indy.com/posts/senate-passes-budget-balanced-by-stimulus. Website, updated February 2011. http://www.agecon.purdue.edu/crd/localgov/topics na 58 essays/state_budget_outlook.htm. / Indiana State Budget, Sunshine Review: Bringing State and Local Government to 59 Justice Reinvestment: A Project of the Council of State Governments Justice C Light, http://sunshinereview.org/index.php/Indiana_state_budget. 60 Justice Indiana. Mapping Systems. Indianapolis Prison Admissions per 1000 Adults (2008 enter, http://justicereinvestment.org/states/indiana. Zip ) ByCode of Home Residence with High School Math Proficiency.

61 Justice Mapping Systems. Indianapolis Prison Admissions per 1000 Adults (2008 February 26, 2010, http://www.jacksonfreepress.com/index.php/site/comments/jps_t 62 ZipWard of Home JPS To with High School Math Proficiency. ) ByCodeSchaefer,ResidenceCut Jobs, Fill Classrooms, Jackson (Miss.) Free Press, 63 cut_jobs_fill_classrooms_022610/. o_ Molly Parker, Education, Prisons Top Budget Battles: Debate Becoming Even More 65 Molly&as php?id=2658.Resources Dwindle, The Hard to Protect School Funding, The 2010, 64 Mississippi CommunitiesFebruary Real Cost ofBattles: Weblog,Becoming Even http://realcostofprisons.org/blog/archives/2010/03/msstate_triples.html. RuralMore School Community Trust, Prisons Top http://www.ruraledu.org/articles. Intense Parker, Education,Pushing 2011.Budget Prisons Debate March 9, 66 Justice Mapping Systems. Jackson Real Cost of Prisons Weblog, March(2008) By http://realcostofprisons.org/blog/archives/2010/03/msstate_triples.html. 2010, Intense as Resources Dwindle, The Prison Admissions per 1000 Adults 9, 67 Code of Home Residence with Jackson Prison Admissions per ZipJustice Mapping Systems. High School Math Proficiency. 1000 Adults (2008) By 71 education&id=7318626. 70 Garry March HISD Could Cut but shortfall/.Cisneros, with Looms,Wages,Math Proficiency. 2011. http://www.timesrecordnews.com/news/2011/jan/10/texas-faces-268-billion69 CynthiaFaces 8, Deficit High SchoolCandidates Cafeteria Wichita,March 2010, http://abclocal.go.com/ktrk/story?section=news/local&id=7358422. Schools, 68 TexasScharrer, 2010, http://abclocal.go.com/ktrk/story?section=news/ Code of Uchida,$26.8HISD To Shortfall,EliminateRemain Silent: TexasTX, 30, So ZipAdelaHome ResidenceMillionBe Facing More Job Cuts, KTRK Houston,KTRK January Houston, Times Record News, Jobs, Services Likely To Face Cuts, The Houston Chronicle, October 29, 2010, cial http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/metropolitan/7270530.html.

77 October 26,Clear, Imprisoning (New Wrong UT MassCuts, 1000 76 CodeR. MappingBracing Houston York: BudgetNew per ConnectAmarillo.com, Disadvantaged Communities with HighPrison Note, University Adults Teachers, 75 Sylvia Saunders, http://www.connectamarillo.com/news/story.aspx?id=541171. ZipTodd3, 2010, ResidenceWorseBudgetSchoolOxfordProficiency.Press, 2007). 74 Justice15, 2010, Administrators ConsiderHow HikesIncarcerationUnitedChronicle, 73 JeannieHigherhttp://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/metropolitan/6895818.html. 72 TexasofKever,EdSystems.forCommunities: AdmissionsTuition, Houston(2008) By March November Home http://www.nysut.org/nysutunited_15803.htm. 2010, Budget Cuts Hit Cuts, Math York State Makes 78 Code of Home Residence with High Shuttering After-School ZipMeredith Kolodner, New BudgetSchool Math Proficiency. Programs for over 10,000 news.com/2009-11-30/local/17938753_1_class-sizes-class-size-matters-kindergarten Suffer 80 Glenn Blain, Daily News,Daily Chancellor http://www.nydailynews.com/ny_ s.html.the York New York SchoolsNews, November 30,Sizes To 15,000 local/education/2009/01/28/2009-01-28_new_york_schools_chancellor_joel_klein_ Lost, New New York Daily News, MayCause2009,Joel Klein SaysGrow, Kindergartners budget_shuttering_afterschool_programs_for_over_10000_students.html.Jobs May Be 79 Meredith Kolodner, York January Students, Most, New Budget Cuts 29, Classroom 2009, http://articles.nydaily http://www.nydailynews.com/ny_local/education/2009/05/29/2009-05-29_new_ 81 classes. - Nicholas Johnson, Phil Oliff, and Erica Williams, An Update on State Budget Cu 82 cbpp.org/cms/index.cfm?fa=view&id=1214. Economy, States Budget New York Priorities, November per 1000 Adults At JusticeCenter onSystems.and Cuts City Prison Admissions5, 2010, http://www. ts:Least 46Mapping Have ImposedPolicyThat Hurt Vulnerable Residents and the (200 By 8) Zip Code of Home Residence with High School Math Proficiency.

(Washington, March Sentencing 84 Judith of Correctional Services, Says Status Quo Lessons from Expensive, Syracuse.com,DC: Commentary: Downscaling Commissioner of the New York State DepartmentGreene The Marc Mauer,Project, 2010), http://www.sentencingproject.org 83 Brian Fischer,and23, 2010, Brian Fischer,Prisons:on Prisons TooFour States http://blog.syracuse.com/opinion/2010/03/commentary_brian_fischer_commi.html. 88 Phillip20,Legislature RepealsLaws: Explaining the Rolls 87 MichiganEasehttp://www.drugpolicy.org/docUploads/Explaining_the_RDL_ 86 N.Y. 2009,Rockefeller reforms_of_2009_FINAL.pdf. DrugNew Drug LegislatureReforms Alliance,ToSmith.Its Landmark ToughJerseyLaws, MSNBC.com, March 27, 2009, Minimum 85 New Yorks2002, http://stopthedrugwar.org/chronicle-old/268/michigan.shtml. doc/publications/publications/inc_DownscalingPrisons2010.pdf.ofStop the DrugPolicy /www.msnbc.msn.com/id/29918489/ns/us_news-crime_and_courts/.Back2009, Drughttp:// December Sentencing: Mandatory Minimum Drug Laws, Mandatory War, s, Governor Will Sign Bill into Law, Stop the Drug War, January 7, 2010, http://sto 89 Allen Beck and others, Survey of State Prison Inmates, 1991 (Washington, DC: drugwar.org/chronicle/2010/jan/08/sentencing_new_jersey_legislatur. pthe Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. 91 http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/SOSPI91.PDF. http://www.brooklynda.org/dtap/dtap_copy(2).htm. 90 Phillip Smith. Alternative-to-Prison, Kings County District Mandatory Office, 22,Drug TreatmentSentencing: New Jersey Legislature Rolls Back AttorneysMinimum 1993), Governor Will Sign Bill into Law, Stop the Drug War, January 7, 2010, http://stop s, 92 drugwar.org/chronicle/2010/jan/08/sentencing_new_jersey_legislatur. thePhillip Smith. Sentencing: New Jersey Legislature Rolls Back Mandatory Minimum Governor Will Sign Bill into Law, Stop the Drug War, January 7, 2010, http://stop s, 93 drugwar.org/chronicle/2010/jan/08/sentencing_new_jersey_legislatur. theCherie L. Clark, David W. Aziz, and Doris L. MacKenzie, Shock Incarceration i Justice York: Programs, National Institute DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of n New Focus on Treatment (Washington,of Justice, 1994), www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/s pdf. hockny.

94 Alan Rosenthal, Sentencing Tips for New York Lawyers: SignificantRelease for New York Correction Law Accelerate Release Dates & Revise Method of Changes in Some, Center for Community Alternatives, 2009, http://www.communityalternatives. (Washington, DC: The Sentencing Downscaling Prisons: Lessons from Four States 95 Judith Greene and Marc Mauer,Project, 2010), http://www.sentencingproject.org org/publications/changesNYCorreectionLaw.html. doc/publications/publications/inc_DownscalingPrisons2010.pdf. /