THE SCIENCE OF EXPOSITION PREFACE The impulse to the study of exposition came from the late Bishop Benade

, who pointed out to me the value and use of sermons in a series, and the importance of nothing what is first said in a chapter of the Word, and of what is last said in the preceding chapter. When it became necessary for me to succeed to his work in the Theological School of the Academy of the New Church, I was led to consider whether there were not other principles of exposition, and the result is the work which follows. W. F. P. Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania. June 1915

CHAPTER I PRINCIPLES OF EXPOSITION The Word in its bosom treats of the Lord and of the things which are from Him in heaven and the church. These are the spirit and life of the Word, or its spiritual sense. The New Church sermon should set forth in the form of doctrine or teaching this inner spirit and life of the Word; for the internal upbuilding of the church depends upon instruction in the spiritual truth of the Word, the truth of the internal sense, and at the same time upon its reception in a state of spiritual, affection. Hence the teaching that there is conjunction with the Lord by the interior understanding of the Word, and that this is signified by, the white horse in the Apocalypse (A. R. 820, 826). In the former dispensation, or in the first Christian Church, the purpose in exposition was to teach the literal sense of the Word, and the writings of the Apostles were directed to this end. This use is to continue with us in the teaching of children and young people. But in the New Church the sermon, as addressed to the adult, is to fulfill the purpose of the inscription over the gate of the temple in the spiritual world, Nunc Licet, Now it is lawful for the understanding to enter into the mysteries of the Word (T. C. R. 508). The minister will thus make his end one with that of the new Revelation itself when he preaches to men the internal sense of the Word. He will then fulfill the teaching concerning the scribe instructed unto the kingdom of heaven, who bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old (Matt. xiii: 52). It is important therefore to know something of the principles by which the understanding may enter into the interiors of the Word, and set them forth in the form of teaching. The entire Word or Sacred Scripture has indeed been opened by the Lord Himself in His Second Coming in the Writings of the New Church, but by virtue of this universal opening and on the basis of it, there is to be in the New Church a continual opening of the

Word, a continual revelation of its internal sense, and thus a continual coming of the Lord, with each and all of the individual members of the Church who receive the Writings and instruction therefrom with spiritual affection.* In order that there may be in the New Church such a continual opening of the Word, not only has the doctrine of genuine truth been given, and innumerable particulars of the internal sense distinctly revealed, but the Writings also present to us a set of principles by which in the light of doctrine there may be a perpetual opening of the Word in the New Church. * Although only Genesis, Exodus, and Revelation have been opened seriatim, we hope to show that the entire Word has been laid open. There are indeed but three essentials for the opening of the Word, as we are taught in De Verbo, number 21, and in Sacred Scripture, numbers 25, 26. These three are, the doctrine of genuine truth, a knowledge of correspondences, and illustration from the Lord. The doctrine of genuine truth, and correspondences are to be found in the Writings by all who seek for them there, and illustration is given by the Lord to those who read the Writings in a state of worship, or in a state of spiritual affection. The principles of exposition do not add another essential, but they serve to make the three essentials more effective in their operation and application, as we shall endeavor to show in the following pages. The rules or principles of exposition as given in the Writings are themselves an evidence of the universal opening of the Word, which the Lord in His Second Coming has effected; and this affords a reason for bringing them together, as is herein proposed, in order that the mind of the expositor may be more fully prepared to put into effect the three essentials above referred to, and thus promote a continual opening of the Word in the church. Entrance into the interiors of the Word by means of the three essentials, aided by the principles of exposition, is still the work of the Lord in His Second Coming, as He has revealed Himself in the Writings, and not the work of man, even though apparently effected through human agency. For doctrine is from the Lord and is the Lord, correspondences are also from Him, and illustration is His gift to all who seek Him in the spirit of that truth which leadeth unto all truth. In the present consideration of the subject we shall assume a knowledge of correspondences and illustration from the Lord. We have then but to proceed in our endeavor to set forth the general principles of interpretation that have been given us, and by means of which the leading doctrine of a chapter or series may be obtained, and the internal sense be entered into, through that which is general to that which is particular. For if a knowledge of correspondences and a state of illustration be assumed, and the general doctrine of the series also be known' then according to the teaching referred to above, the Word is laid open, and the minister is ready to enter and expound its internal sense. It is for the purpose of aid in finding the leading or general doctrine of any given chapter or portion of the Word, that the principles or rules of exposition have been brought together in the following pages. Let us notice at this point the fundamental truth, that the Word of God is written in a series, and thus there is in it a wonderful sequence and coherence of ideas and affections from beginning to end. For the Word is the Divine Mind revealed to men. It is thus alive

(A. C. 3, 1408, 1776, 3424, 9383. John vi: 63), and is that in which we live and move and have our being-all men, all spirits, and all nature. All-Divine revelation is given in a series, and this is even true of all human composition that is constructed according to the principles of order. In fact all things created, -all nature is in a series. All motion, all activity is in a series. All human work, everything a man thinks and does, is in a series. There is not anything that exists that has not its place in some series. This is true 'because of the series of the Divine Word, by which all things were created, and created in its own image. That the Writings are written in a series, we learn from The True Christian Religion, number 351. It follows therefore that a knowledge of the series, and of the doctrine which leads in the series, is necessary to the understanding of the Word, or of any portion thereof. It is indeed generally acknowledged that the sense of any given statement of an author, especially in the case of doubt or ambiguity, should be determined by the context in which it occurs; nor is it regarded as fair to interpret it otherwise. The recognition of this principle is especially important in the study of Divine Revelation, where each thing is connected with what precedes and with what follows, in a wonderful order. From the Writings we learn: That in the internal sense all things bear a signification according to what is being treated of in the series (A. C. 1041). That the correspondence of the whole heaven is a correspondence with the Word in a series (De Verbo 10). That the internal sense in many' passages' cannot so well appear from the signification of the words alone, but from the series of the things treated of, and their connection with what goes before and what follows (A. C. 2161, 4981). That the internal sense cannot so well appear from the proximate signification of the words, but still it appears from. the series of things (A. C. 2166). That the internal sense is such that the words are almost as nothing, but the sense thereof flowing from the series presents an idea, and indeed before the angels a spiritual idea (A. C. 2953). That what the words in Matthew xxiv:42- 51, involve may appear from the series of things treated of; for the whole chapter treats of the last time of the church and the advent of the Lord (A. C. 4422). That the beauty of the series of things cannot appear when the signification of each word is given separately (A. C. 1756). That the series itself cannot shine out in its true quality in the explanation of the single words, for hereby the contents seem unconnected, and the continuity of the sense is destroyed (A. C. 2343). In the light of this teaching we are able to see how necessary it is in the study of the Word to find the leading idea of doctrine in any given series, or in a chapter or portion of the Word, before an attempt is made to expound a verse or the words of a verse. When this leading idea of doctrine has been obtained, the mind is prepared to enter more fully into the stream of the internal sense. We speak of a chapter, but since the division of Scripture into chapters and verses is a modern arrangement for the sake of convenience, it should not be too strictly followed in the study and exposition of the Word, and may be varied from according to judgment of the context. Usually the chapters and verses are natural divisions or groupings of the Scripture text; but in some cases two or more chapters are as it were one chapter, as in the case of the seven churches and of the seven seals in the Apocalypse; and sometimes a portion of a chapter belongs more properly to the preceding or to the following chapter. It is similar with the divisions into verses.. Since the divisions of the text as indicated by the paragraph

C. And we would here note especially the last statement in the teaching cited. That generals must first precede. they cause tedium (A. 2089. That the general or primary is the governing truth. related. or paragraph. that the letter of the Word abounds in such most general things. C. These primary or general truths in the letter of the Word are what are meant by the doctrine of genuine truth. 42). 5208). C. It is the paragraph therefore that should be especially treated as a distinct grouping. both in the literal and in the spiritual senses. That nothing whatever is given in the universe that is not under some general. 6115). C. That there are certain primary or general truths (A. C. 5454). 245). but the affection of that truth (A. and are the more natural groupings of the Word. 4392). in the general or primary truths by which the Word is opened and entrance is made into its spiritual sense. He will then be prepared to enter into it. That there are those who from the general see the particular. The arrangement into chapters is to a large extent in agreement with the paragraph groupings or divisions. 5082). C. D. 8585). The general keeps them together in a form. That generals must first be in the understanding. wherefore the sense of the letter abounds with such most general things (A. 3819). and those who from the particular do not see the general (S. 5044). and all things in the chapter are particulars under that general. and in all things of the natural world. and which we propose to discuss in a chapter devoted to that subject. are here presented as aids to finding this leading idea or doctrine of genuine truth. or with the paragraphs which precede and follow. 4707). yea. being dissipated otherwise. or group of verses in the Word. as given in the Writings. That truths must be referred to a general. 8773. The expositor therefore should see the chapter or paragraph as a whole. That in all things of the spiritual world. the general precedes. 2129). That primary or general truths are represented by the twelve tribes and the twelve apostles (A. it is necessary to note them in any close study of the Word. and each is under some distinct idea of doctrine. Every chapter therefore. however. That what is primary is also general (A. Hence when the term chapter is used in the following pages it must be understood in the broad sense here indicated. comes under one of the leading doctrines of genuine truth. also by the elders of Israel (A. . 10632). C. C. 8681). and then particulars follow (A. and the principles of exposition. or tinder one idea. That the order of teaching and learning the Word is from things most general. For we learn from the Heavenly Doctrine: That man without a general idea of a thing comprehends nothing particular (A. and causes each to have its quality (A. This teaching has been brought forward in order to illustrate the point that some primary or general truth is always the subject of the chapter as a whole. in.marks in the common English version are the ancient divisions of the text. That faith is given by primary truths. C. the general series. through generals into the particulars of the internal sense. C. and placed and contained under it. and into it things less general and finally particulars are successively inserted (A. C. that it may exist and subsist (A. C. but these divisions or groupings should not be followed too rigidly. C. particulars can by no means be admitted. to which we have referred. which he will be able to do when he has found its general doctrine or leading principle. for if generals are not first received. for from them is effected illustration (A. that is. The paragraphs are groups of verses usually separated from the rest of the context. but it is not the truth which governs. or as the unit of the general Scripture text.

and will at the same time afford valuable confirmations thereof. essentially one. various ways leading to the one reigning idea of the series. duality in the literal sense is the sign that the internal sense is celestial and spiritual. and essential among these laws is the one of which we are speaking. since it is by the Word that all things were created. as the student may obtain what he is in search of before he goes over the whole list. otherwise there is no order or systematic arrangement of truths. but more than one should be applied. we find that the word beginning indicates that the special subject of the internal sense is the regeneration of the first men. or in the most of them. states. however. has . we shall soon see that it is interiorly contained in that which is most general in the letter (see Chapter 11). The principles expressed in these rules. qualities. The rules may also be used for an analysis of the literal sense alone. but by applying in addition the rule in respect to time in the Word. For instance. One of the chief uses of the rules of exposition then is to call attention to the leading signs of the internal sense appearing in the letter. may be applied to the analysis of any form. The use of more than one rule therefore will bring before the mind certain applications. revealing the laws and conditions which reign and are universal in its spiritual sense. This general truth must be obtained or no real progress is made in unfolding the particulars of the internal sense. If the Word be not entered according to order. for. which is essential to effective work in imparting the letter of the Word to the mind of childhood and youth. The rules of exposition are intended to be used in analyzing and digesting a chapter before a particular study of it is begun. It should not be forgotten that entrance into the Word must be according to the laws of order. or it may be clothed in appearances of truth. as we have seen. but those who teach the literal sense to children will find the rules of value in the preparation of their lessons. and a most essential preparation for it. no entrance made except into its external. These signs abound. providing them with a rational digest and analysis. If the latter. for one rule will confirm another. The various rules of interpretation are. and are but various modes of finding the general or universal truth of doctrine in the chapter. relative to the general doctrine of the chapter.In a chapter that is chosen for study and exposition. particulars must be classed. that it is through generals that entrance into particulars is effected. namely. the subject or leading idea of doctrine in the internal sense is therefore the spiritual creation or regeneration of man. there is. A thorough understanding of the literal sense of any portion of the Word is not only the first step in finding the internal sense. or good and truth. that is. and are so many gateways or means of entrance to the interiors of the Word. or the state of those from whom the Most Ancient Church was formed. Every form as deriving its origin from the Word. We are thus as it were provided with more than one witness to the truth which we are seeking. or bring into view some state or quality of it not at first seen. of other forms than those of the Word.appear in the literal sense as a genuine truth. or no entrance into interior truths according to order. the leading general doctrine reigning in the series may . and will sometimes give an important bearing or application of the general doctrine of the chapter. or various avenues of approach to the internal of the Word. the first chapter of Genesis in its literal sense treats of the creation of the universe. As for instance. under a general. It may not be necessary to use all the rules in such an analysis.

The general sense of the letter in any chapter of the Word is its general subject. topic. and is thus in the image of the Word. let us repeat. however. prophecy. have application also to its parts. CHAPTER II THE GENERAL SENSE OF THE LETTER THE GENERAL SENSE OF ANY CHAPTER OF THE WORD CONTAINS IN ITSELF THE GENERAL DOCTRINE OF THE INTERNAL SENSE. or fact in the natural world. and thus it may be seen as one idea. the mind is able to view the spiritual sense as a whole. verse by verse. or theme. the general idea of a chapter in its literal sense is the most general sense. in order to obtain this general truth or fact of the series. and elsewhere. Each chapter has a general sense. to the paragraphs and verses. The first thing therefore in the study of a chapter is to bring clearly before the mind this subject or leading idea of the literal sense. and the sentences and words contain the particulars of that general.therefore its rise or beginning. are intermediate between the historical part of the Old Testament and the Gospels. topic. and each verse is a particular of that general. On the importance of seeing all things of any series under one idea. as is the case for the most part in the Old Testament. just as any general always introduces to its own particulars. and it may be brought together in a single statement or sentence. and is ready to proceed in the study of particulars. and in this most general sense is contained the general doctrine . or it may stand merely as an appearance of truth. or theme of the literal sense is a genuine truth of doctrine. for in them is found much of genuine doctrine in the form of prophecy concerning the advent of the Lord and redemption by Him. or this general sense of the letter. is shown in the next chapter. The subject. This general or natural truth of any portion of the letter of the Word is the means of introduction to its spiritual sense. whether in the form of history. it is then clear that this idea or truth is introductory to the internal sense. When this leading spiritual truth or general doctrine is obtained. or as. or parable. When the general or leading subject. The literal sense should be carefully examined. and its progression through means to an end. It is proper to remark before proceeding further. law. in which is contained by correspondence the leading spiritual truth or doctrine of the internal sense.* * That there is an idea in every series which is prior or more universal than the general of which we are here speaking.of the internal sense. especially in the Gospels. especially when regarded from the Gospel point of view. is its general scientific or natural truth. and a verse is in its turn a general. the idea which runs through it as a thread from beginning to end. 2343. The Prophets. or theme of a chapter. Such a genuine truth in the . topic. numbers 1756. an historical fact. For. It may exist in the literal sense as a genuine truth of doctrine. that this and other rules of exposition which apply to a chapter as a whole. see Arcana Coelestia. To find this one idea or general of the letter should be the first object in the study of the Word or any portion thereof.

it follows. 6997. 3819). namely. the chapter treats of the natural or physical creation. 6109). we have before us. but that it is for the most part found in the leading word used in the literal narration. 3857). being in reality a part of it. 238). and as a series is not a series without a general truth which runs through it from first to last. C. which is as it were the thread of the series of the spiritual sense. the orderly mode of entrance into particulars is through generals. Let us illustrate this point by some examples. the literal sense relatively to the spiritual is general. 931. C. C. As has been said above. That in the literal sense of the Word are general truths. but by correspondence the subject of the spiritual sense of the chapter. and corresponds to the leading idea of the spiritual sense. C. but in the internal sense particular truths (A. because they afford entrance to internal truths (A. In confirmation we have the teaching that things historical are in their series. which are serviceable to the simple for initiation into the internal sense (A. There is thus a spiritual series in every natural series of the Word. therefore. Concerning this we are taught: That exterior truths. We have in this law an instrumentality of exceeding great value in any effort to gain entrance to the spiritual truth of the Word. R. Thus it is still the means of entrance. 2395). That the generals of truth are such things as are in the sense of the letter of the Word (A. but the general or leading idea of the natural series corresponds to the general truth. C. If therefore we find from the Writings the signification of the word create. and these generals are in the literal sense of the Word. But if the general of the letter is only an apparent truth. or a purely natural idea. R. are signified by a gate. That general truths from the literal sense of the Word come first in order of time (A. That scientifics in the natural are all to be reduced to order under a general (A. and this general subject of the literal sense contains in itself. It is plain at once that this subject of the chapter appears ill the leading word used. therefore not only does a natural series correspond to the spiritual series within it. which is the spiritual creation or regeneration of mail. which is the word create. and the generals of the literal sense are introductory to the spiritual sense. . C. C. Let us now take note of another fact in this connection. The subject of the first chapter of Genesis is the creation of the universe. 4783). E. and things spiritual in theirs. And that explications of the Word as to its internal sense are nothing but particulars which elucidate a general idea [of the literal sense] (A. In its literal sense. That in the sense of the letter are generals. as we have seen. then the general doctrine of the spiritual sense is contained in it by correspondence. 4861). 3304). 704). that what is general in the letter is a door of introduction to that which is general in the spiritual sense. Since. C.-the word which is the leading expression of the subject of the series. that the general doctrine of the internal sense is not only contained in the general subject of the literal sense.letter is in this case in full agreement with the internal sense. such as are in the sense of the letter are the first truths a man learns (A. A. C. not merely the subject of the literal sense. and that there is a correspondence between them (A. and at the same time leads to the general subject of the spiritual sense. That the natural sense of the Word is its general sense (T. That the external truths which are of the sense of the letter of the Word. and is nothing else than the spiritual sense appearing in the letter in a general form.

tempt in the fourth chapter of the same (verses 1-11). though the word itself does not occur. birth in the first chapter of Matthew. the leading word is garden. the means by which initiation is effected. woman in the twelfth chapter of the same. Camel. as appears in the end of the chapter. It is in fact clear that the entire narrative of the chapter is but an unfolding ." in the third and fourth verses. city in the twenty-first chapter. and practically brings this chapter under the general rule. we are ready to study it in all its parts. that which is signified by a garden will be the leading subject of the spiritual sense of this group of verses. it is the betrothal and marriage of Isaac and Rebekah. number 3048. however. The word wife indeed carries in itself the whole idea of betrothal and marriage. according to number 3048. -the generals of the literal sense of the Word. But the phrase "wife unto my son. the general subject or leading natural idea of the twenty-fourth chapter of Genesis is betrothal. horse in the sixth chapter of Zechariah. exposing it to the light of truth. and seven of Revelation. as it happens. blind in the ninth chapter of the same. With this in mind as the general subject of the chapter. six. In all of these instances. as we know from the Writings. and since a garden is the subject of the literal sense. the general doctrine or subject of the internal sense is found by correspondence in the leading word of the literal sense. voice in the twenty-ninth Psalm. everything in the chapter bearing sonic relation to the subject signified by the leading word. and in many others in the Word. which is the subject of the literal sense of this group of verses. Examples and illustrations of this rule abound in the Word. throne in the fourth chapter of Revelation.In the second chapter of Genesis. Occasionally. The word serpent. and the rod of Moses in the book of Exodus. however. and every verse and every word in the group will bear some relation to that subject and be subordinated to it. as modified by other leading words or generals of the chapter. man in the first Psalm. the Word in the first chapter of John (verses 1-14). the very thing of which we are speaking. knowing that each verse will present some particular of the falsity. as pointing toward a general truth of the internal sense. Now we find from the Writings that by garden is signified spiritual intelligence or the spiritual understanding of truth. This subject. is not the chief subject of the chapter. is the confirmed persuasion that a man lives from himself and not from God. law in the one hundred and nineteenth Psalm. In the third chapter of Genesis the leading word is serpent. which means are. is a guide or sign-post pointing to the leading truth of the internal sense. which is that a man does riot live from himself but from God. -the term serpent signifying the opposite of this. serpent. and so the subject of the spiritual sense is initiation to spiritual marriage. beginning with the fourth chapter. indicates clearly that the subject of the chapter is betrothal and marriage. for the general of the chapter as a whole is the betrothal of Isaac and Rebekah. When we find the signification of serpent we have before us the subject of the spiritual sense of this chapter. it is necessary to determine the general sense of the letter without the aid of a leading word. namely the garden of Eden. seals in chapters five. and. Camels therefore signify. and the serpent is the subject or general of the chapter. being born again in the third chapter of John (verses 1-13). verses 8 to 17. as for instance. as for example. The frequent mention of camels in the twenty-fourth chapter of Genesis is spoken of in Arcana Coelestia.

The spiritual sense of this single word will give us a view of the spiritual sense of the chapter. In the above examples we see confirmation and illustration of the Position taken that some primary or general truth. Now if we did not know by direct teaching what is the general doctrine of the internal sense of the book of Revelation. to know the leading or general doctrine of that sense. it would be necessary to begin with the leading idea of its literal sense. as we do in the study of a chapter. and it becomes thus a most important instrumentality for discovering the spiritual sense or the general doctrine of any chapter in the Word. together with the other rules of exposition. since the latter is contained in the former. If. and there can be no complete exposition of any portion of it without this leading idea in the mind. whether it be of a verse or a group of verses. or appearance of truth. In looking to the Writings for the signification of the Son of Man we learn that by the Son of Man is meant the Lord appearing in His Word to perform judgment. The Lord is seen by John as the Son of Man in the first chapter. for without it we may wander off into some subject that is foreign to the book.* * It may be remarked that the Word should not be translated with a view only to the sense of the individual words. of a chapter or a group of chapters. runs through the entire work. and finally in the figure of the holy city New Jerusalem in the two concluding chapters. is intended to reveal. therefore this subject also runs through the book. and this idea of Him. This idea reigns in every chapter.of the particulars contained in the words "Take a wife unto my son. or exaggerate some particular at the expense of the general truth which the book. is always the subject of the literal sense of any chapter or given series in the Word. and in every sentence. as we have shown. we should have in mind that this book treats throughout of the appearing of the Lord in His Word to execute judgment and establish a New Church. and it does in fact treat of the judgment from the first chapter to the close of the twentieth. for instance. with such modification and application as the context will afford. For. A close examination will therefore clearly show that in nearly every portion of the Word. and through them have the general of the internal sense before him. But as the end in all judgment is the formation and establishment of a new heaven and a new church. but also with a view to the general sense. and where it does not so coincide the variation is more apparent than real. first in what is said of the seven churches. It is plain from this 'that the last judgment is the subject of the book of Revelation. On examining the letter we find that the Lord appears to John as the Son of Man. in every verse." -distinctly indicating that the subject of the internal sense is the spiritual betrothal which precedes the spiritual marriage. it is of prime importance in the study of the Word for the exposition of its internal sense. a chapter in the book of Revelation be chosen for a series of sermons. the general sense of a chapter coincides with the leading word. which appears at the beginning. It is also of use to know what the leading or general doctrine is of an entire book of the Word. In this manner we may find the general doctrine of the internal . In fact the translator should analyze a chapter from these principles. or to the sense of the context. The general subject of the literal sense therefore furnishes us as it were with a clue to its internal sense. and that all things of the chapter in the internal sense are contained in that general truth.

and particulars. or of any portion of the Word. is the whoredom of the land. chapter. 7933). and especially from entering into particulars without generals. but there are also subordinate generals. as we are taught. We are told that this book treats of the liberation of those who had been detained in the lower earth (A. as we have seen. . namely. and the general doctrine or subject of the spiritual sense may be obtained in a similar manner as above. there is not only a leading general. is signified the falsification of the Word. The rule therefore which applies to a single chapter. by taking the leading idea together with the related generals. 7932. for.* It is necessary to observe these subordinate generals in the analysis of a chapter. Let us take the book of Hosea as another example. we are at once given a clue to the internal sense of the book as a whole. it would then be necessary to examine what is the historical subject of the book of Exodus. even when that sense is not directly revealed. generals. and examining the Writings for their internal sense. by which. and the land of Canaan is the heaven into which they were to be introduced after deliverance was effected. We are taught that this book in its spiritual sense treats of the falsification of the Word (S. S. Let us suppose that we did not know this by direct teaching. Egypt is the hell from which they were to be delivered. 79). and on finding that it is the deliverance of the sons of Israel from slavery in Egypt. * For a full treatment of the subject of universals. that come next in importance to that which is leading. C. There is not only that which is more general. When it is seen therefore that this is the general doctrine or subject of the spiritual sense of the book of Hosea. In the absence of this teaching or any other direct teaching as to the spiritual sense of the book of Hosea. applies also to a group of chapters or to an entire book of the Sacred Scripture. The book of Exodus may also be taken as an example. as well as that which is particular (A. it would be necessary for us to find the subject or thread of its literal sense. Thus is opened to our view the spiritual sense contained in the story of the deliverance of Israel from Egypt. The study of particulars without generals to guide in such study. but that which is less general. see the chapter on the Peritoneum in The Animal Kingdom. which runs through it from be ginning to end. 5208). we shall have before the mind a guide to the exposition of any portion of it. This liberation or redemption was effected by the Lord when He came into the world. this general doctrine or subject of the spiritual sense rests in the leading idea of the literal sense. or group of chapters. from introducing matter that is irrelevant. especially in their relation to the leading general of the series.sense of any book of the Word. is a common error and leads to much confusion of thought-an error that should be avoided in the study of the Word in the light of the Doctrines of the New Church. under the rule that what is general of the spiritual sense is contained in what is general of the letter. It should be borne in mind also that in every book. C. A close examination shows that the subject or thread. The sons of Israel represent the good in the other world who were to be delivered from spiritual bondage when the Lord came into the world. This will save the minister and teacher of religious instruction from going too much into particulars.

the things which thence succeed perish (A. 360.Let us now bring forward some examples in illustration of this point. 9656). as expressed in such words as heaven. light.second chapter of Genesis treats of faith. especially in the historical parts of the Word. C. That inasmuch as the forty. C. 3862. C. In the first chapter of Genesis the prime general. CHAPTER III THE FIRST THING SAID THE FIRST THING SAID REIGNS UNIVERSALLY IN WHAT FOLLOWS. Jacob saw. or its leading general. 3939). 431). The relation also of the generals to each other.* * It is often the case that the first thing is related as being done. by which there is entrance into the interiors of the Word. R. That the things inscribed on the tables of the Decalogue were the first of the revelation of Divine Truth and the things which are first signify all the rest in order (A. and Michael. should be carefully noted. or the modifications of the leading general by those which are subordinate in the series. as has been shown. In all created forms the first of a series enters into all that follows and reigns supreme therein. 6337. all things which follow are false (A. The student should therefore determine which is the primary or leading general of any series. 5122). and by his seeing is signified the things which are of faith (A. as we have seen. 9416). A. C. and as a universal entering into all the things which follow (A. which is the general or leading subject of the chapter. 363. That the first looks to what follows in a continual series (A. 326). 350. but the principal is the same. In the study of the Word therefore with a view to its internal sense. A. C. 4717. Hence it is important to observe how the leading word or idea is modified by the context in which it occurs. The Heavenly Doctrine in treating of this law teaches: That the essence and quality of the beginning is derived and passes over into the things which follow (A. 5400). 9568). That the tribe named in the first place is the all in the rest. C. and expanse. C. earth. dragon. or the truths of the church. and each subordinate general in the letter will represent a general that is subordinate to the leading general of the spiritual sense. This should always be done in the analysis of a chapter. 1017). C. That all things said by the Lord are of this . but there is man-child. For. the first words are. This law is in all creation because it is a law of the Divine Word itself. insomuch that if the first be removed. is involved in the idea of creation as resting in the leading word create. and which are the subordinate generals. That when the beginning of any series is false. for all things were created by the Word (John i: 1-4). and also the subordinate generals. That the first involves all the things which follow (T. C. E. That the first is the all in the products and derivatives. it is as their head. that which is primary and most general in the literal sense is a sign of that which is primary and most general in the internal sense. It is similar in every chapter of the Word. it is necessary as the first step to find the general sense of the letter. That the beginning reigns in the things which follow (A. R. or subordinate generals. containing that which is leading in the spiritual sense. But there are other prominent or leading ideas. Again in the twelfth chapter of Revelation there is not only the word woman.

For example. L. 195-198. All the parts of the chapter are thus as completely derived from its opening and beginning as the stem. In the spiritual sense the first thing said also contains the universal of the chapter.character. though sometimes included in the opening statement. just as the three kingdoms of the earth are subordinate and secondary to the kingdom of the atmospheres. that is. it is the earth that appears as if it were the leading idea of the chapter. and stands at the head or beginning of the series." This tells the whole story of the chapter. but the general of the chapter. W. A. though it is subordinate and secondary to the idea of heaven. which speak also of the creation of heaven. That the derivations thence draw their form as from their root. the spiritual creation or formation of the internal and external man by regeneration. is thus concerning the earth or what is signified by it. The Writings are therefore constructed throughout according to this law. Eng. and according to the law as above given. But the general subject of the chapter itself is the creation of the earth. as something which has no apparent aim or purpose. This root or seed is in the first thing said. K. The first thing said or related as spoken or done contains the universal. C. or any group of verses in the Word. tr. the beginning. Even in all human work. Thus this law becomes a principle of interpretation in the study and understanding of the Word. 3116. and each part containing a general for its own group with particulars under it. and in general that all and single things depend on their origin (A. the head. accommodated. we find the same law observed and followed. and bringing it under one universal idea. is in fact like a tree. and applied to the human understanding. In all development in a series from an orderly beginning. for doctrine is the Word formulated. the first chapter of Genesis opens with the creation. "I am the Lord thy God. the idea to which these words give expression must reign throughout the commandments which follow. namely." This is the first thing said. and involve them. and thus involve successively things which are in the series. The general of the chapter. and is often expressed in the leading word. proceeds through the middle to the last and is terminated and concluded therein. it is a complete form drawing its origin from its own root or seed. must enter . Ill the works of God this law is without exception. each group describing a part in the creation of the earth. "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. 467. the law is therefore universal that the first. its topic or theme. 8865). and what is true of the Word is true also of doctrine from the Word. but the details relate to the regeneration of the external man signified by the earth.). As a tree can have no other form or quality than that which is in the seed. So that while the idea of heaven and earth together reign throughout. The same is true of the Word which created all things. The Ten Commandments are introduced by the words. more frequently appears in the body of the group as its leading or general subject. and in all human composition. 8864. Let us note at this point that there is a distinction between the first thing said and the general sense or subject of a chapter. presenting it in a summary form. branches. C. and where it is not followed confusion and obscurity reign in the form. See also D. We note too that the chapter is divided into six groups. A chapter.-a general under the universal stated in the opening words. and fruit of a tree are derived from its root. leaves. so the first thing said in any part of the Word is the all in what follows. that what is first said must reign in the things which follow. and which is derived from the seed. in like manner as each plant or tree derives its form from its root or seed (A.

that they as it were constitute a column increasing from the highest to the lowest. The Lord's Prayer opens with the words. since truths which are truths all proceed from Him. and in fact preface all approach to Him. "The reason that this is the first thing said by the Lord from Mount Sinai. for they are from Him and are Himself. The things which follow in this chapter are precepts of the decalogue. is because this ought to be what universally reigns in all and each of the things which follow. This is important. . hence this acknowledgment is placed at the beginning of the Lord's Prayer. and the acknowledgment of him as such must be everywhere present in worship. in that prayer all things follow in such a series. . and the things which proceed from Him are Himself. and next statutes which are external truths. to all theology. the church. We see therefore the reason why the Lord's Prayer and the Ten Commandments open as they do. as contained in the first thing said. 8864." (A. for what is first said must be kept in the memory in what follows. C. but because it is true of every series in the Word. But while the idea of God is the universal and the first great essential of the commandments. and which must reign in all prayer to God. to all worship. the first or universal is the Lord." which give them at once a spiritual and Divine quality. this is the inmost. what is first in the literal sense represents that which is spiritually the inmost and universal of the series. For it is the Lord Jesus Christ who is our Father in heaven.) If therefore the idea of God in His Human does not reign in the Ten Commandments throughout. thus the body of the commandments is occupied largely with the secondary and subordinate idea or general-the duty of man towards God. . There is no exception. the God of heaven and earth. in its apparent detail. What is inmost reigns universally in those things which are round about. C. 8864. that is. they become merely moral precepts such as exist in any nation. and thus in the series. is obedience on the part of man to the commands of God.) We would note especially the statement that what is first in the Lord's Prayer is the inmost. and have no saving quality. this adds itself to the inmost successively. not only because it is true of the Lord's Prayer. and what succeeds in order. a quality necessary to be known that they may be acknowledged as Divine laws given for the salvation of human souls. in the interiors of which are the things which precede in the series." This is the first thing said. in the latter and in the former the Lord must reign as to the Divine Human. especially from His prayer. as was said above. and thus reigns universally therein. in all and single things. "Our Father who art in the heavens. This law is true of every series in the Word. In the Lord's Prayer. To avoid this they are introduced with the words. essential to all doctrine. and thereby increases. and the second or general is His kingdom or the neighbor." (A. which is called the Lord's Prayer. namely. and what follows adds itself to the inmost successively. that the first thereof is the inmost in what follows. and it gives expression to a universal that reigns throughout the prayer. Concerning this we read. and must be regarded as the universal which is therein. Thus we read concerning these very words. to all thought and acknowledgment of Him.into each commandment and become the prime idea and factor therein. for without the idea of God as the first and universal. "I am the Lord thy God. which are internal truths. for hence it is essential to the existence of all. what is first therein. that is. "That those things which precede must reign in the things which follow. still we find that the general of the series throughout. that is. is manifest from all the things which the Lord spoke. The Writings teach in many passages concerning the essential importance of a true idea of God. and .

or for the planting of the garden.thus the inmost in them. "And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden. is the general or the general topic." The universe has been created. its subject or topic. Planting and what is signified by planting. for and is a connective or a conjunction. and by the garden the resulting intelligence in the church. the earth has been formed. which church is to be called the New Jerusalem. and indicates the universal idea of the book. 3102). the man is commanded to eat of every tree of the garden except of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. which is contained and . and all things are ready for the sowing of the seed. The universal and never ending reign of God Man is therefore the prime idea of the book of Revelation. it is said that "the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden. a river goes forth from the garden parting itself into four heads. they contain merely moral teachings. and is described in detail in the verses which follow." This is the first thing said. these words. The actual planting by Jehovah God now takes place. The man himself has been placed in it to dress it and to keep it. This truth is. and in which God Man is to reign as the all in all. is the prime and universal essential. and as a matter of fact these conditions have been described in the first chapter and in the second up to this point. According to the rule we are endeavoring to set forth. it may be well to take note of the fact that when a series is introduced by the particle and. and every chapter and every verge unfolds some particular of this supreme and universal truth. the reception of which brings into existence a state of spiritual intelligence." These are the opening words of the series from verses 8 to 17 inclusive. contain and involve the entire doctrine of the internal sense in what follows. The book of Revelation opens with the words. but prior to this and more universal is the planting of the garden by the Lord God. the prime essential truth reigning in it. But before proceeding with the consideration of the group of verses that treat of the garden. since what the Lord does is always more universal than anything that is said of the church or of man. the ground has been watered. and its frequent use in the Word. "The Revelation of Jesus Christ. In Genesis ii: 8. for if he eats of this tree he shall surely die. and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. which God gave unto Him. the tree of life is in it. man has been placed upon the earth. By planting is signified influx from the Lord and instruction by Him. and to establish a church which is to be the crown of all the churches that have hitherto been in the world. C. in every chapter and in every verse. Although spiritual intelligence is therefore the subject in what is said of the garden. it signifies that all which precedes is included and involved in the opening words. as being the first of the series. or are nothing but a lip confession. to show unto His servants things which must shortly come to pass. and not only the planting but the garden itself in all its beauty is described. as representing the Lord's work. is because of its conjunctive character in connecting what precedes with what follows (A. These conditions being provided it can now be said. that the Lord in His glorified Human now appears and announces His coming to execute the last judgment. It will be seen therefore that the garden is the general of this group of verses. In the present example it is clear that before a garden can be planted all the creative conditions necessary to it must have come previously into existence. and garden and what is signified by garden. especially in the Old Testament. devoid of spirit and life. prior to it and more universal is the instruction of the church by the Lord.

The subject of the chapter is the judgment upon the consummated church. The fifteenth chapter of Luke opens with the words." When we know that by these words are meant the revelation of the interiors of the Word by the Lord in His Second Coming. and sixth chapters of Revelation treat of the opening of the seals. as coming forth from the mouth of the Lord God the Savior. and of the prodigal son. the prior idea is of the Lord as the judge. we are prepared to understand more fully all that follows in the story of the opening of the seals. . R. This spiritual idea or affection is the first of the Blessings and runs through to the last. the truth of which must be seen in order to understand the chapter as a whole and in all its parts. thus we are ready to see that the universal idea in the opening of the seals is the opening of the Word by the Lord. In the seventh chapter of Matthew the first words are. and the mind will be prepared to enter into and understand these parables. we can then know what are the two universal essentials of the chapter. In the Blessings the first thing said by the Lord is." When we know that by the temple here is meant the consummated church.* * Two universals are essential to every form. for it is treated of from beginning to end. and the first words are. "After this I saw and behold a door was opened in heaven. and the judgment which follows. Without seeing these two things the Blessings are not fully understood. that ye be not judged. and at the same time the illustration of those who receive that revelation. but. instructing His disciples or the church. These two universals of the book of Revelation appear in the first verse and run through to the last. and that those in this state hear Him or receive instruction from Him. fifth. It may be said. that the establishment of the New Church signified by His servants. as seen by John. and are regenerated by Him. "Blessed are the poor in spirit. and yet the prime essential idea throughout is the appearing of the Lord in His glorified Human to establish the church. namely. and that the general subject under it is the illustration of the church. and establishes the new outside of the old. In the twenty-fourth chapter of Matthew the opening words are. by the woman clothed with the sun. but prior to this and more universal is the idea of the Divine Doctrine. but that all truth is from the Lord alone. 70). however.expressed in the first verse and the first chapter of the book (A." By the poor in spirit are meant those who acknowledge that they know nothing of themselves. The latter is what was spoken of above as the general of the series. in the parables of the lost sheep. we can then know what it is that reigns in the spiritual sense of this chapter. by the New Jerusalem. "And Jesus went out and departed from the temple. "Judge not. by the seven churches. of the piece of silver which was lost. the one prior and the other posterior. The fourth. and this is true." When we know that repentance is meant by drawing near to the Lord. and that judgment from man reacts upon him who exercises it. and represented by John himself that this establishment by means of the last judgment is the subject of the book. that when the judgment comes the Lord departs from the former vastated church. This twofold idea is universal in the chapter. "Then drew near unto Him all the publicans and sinners for to hear Him." by which is meant that judgment is not of man but of the Lord.

the spiritual sense or spiritual idea in the opening words of any book or chapter be known. they are the all of the Word. the appearing of the Lord in His glorified Human. the inmost thereof. which both historically and spiritually are the first of revelation (A. love to God and love to the neighbor. to all things said by the Lord. C. The general law therefore which is taught in the Writings and which we are here endeavoring to set forth. taking on the form and appearance of a book for the instruction and salvation of men. the Divine Man. and the chapter may then be studied from a state of intelligence. and the reception of Him by those who are to form His New Church. This appears in the opening words of the book of Revelation which we have just been considering. This first as twofold becomes a guiding principle in the study and understanding of the Word. and the second table of the neighbor and love to the neighbor. and since these two are the first of the Word. we can see reason for the teaching that the Word interiorly viewed is not a book but a Man. in all things that follow in the series. Before leaving this subject let us take. thus the inmost therein. namely. and the two proceed together to the end. called the Two Great Commandments on which hang all the law and the prophets. -the twofold idea of the marriage of the Lord and the church.The same principle of interpretation can be applied to all things of the Word. The same principle is illustrated in the Ten Commandments. It is the Divine Man or the Lord. This subject is further treated of in . and the mind may be safely led to the unfolding of the generals and particulars contained therein. It is for this reason that the Lord in the Gospels reduces the Ten Commandments to two. If. or that which receives the Lord in His coming. is that the first is the all. therefore. There is thus an active and a reactive everywhere. God in His Human. or the leading idea in it from beginning to end. in every word and syllable of Scripture. and being the first they represent the whole Word of God in a Divine summary. we thereby know in general all that follows in the chapter. and we may expect to find it illustrated and operative wherever the mind may come in contact with Divine Revelation. shortly come to pass. and that this appears even in the opening words. In this first of the Word then we find two united as one. 9416). In many passages of the Writings our attention is called to the fact that the first table of the Decalogue teaches of the Lord and love to Him. and there is not a chapter or verse in the book where this twofold idea does not appear. The reactive is also there in the words "His servants. that the first of any series is the all in all in what follows in the series. and are present united as one in every passage. These two proceed together to the end of the last chapter of the book. on which depends the whole Word of God. Since these two loves united are present in the whole of the Word and in all its parts. "His servants" represent the reactive and receptive in the church. or the One who is alone the Active in all things of the Word and of the church. namely. in every verse. as the Divine Active. and it is the Grand Man or heaven. for the general or second universal is either expressed or involved in the first thing said in every series. further note that every chapter in the Word is twofold. In those opening words we have presented to our view Jesus Christ. to whom He is to show the things which must.

167. and we speak of the end in view. P. That what is first in time contains in itself what is first in end (T. L. or as the final conclusion or object in view in anything that is said or done. C. or in the last thing said (A. T. 1318. cause. the first in time with a man is that he is born in the ultimates of nature. R. is to be further set forth in the next chapter in our consideration of the last thing said in any series. H. CHAPTER IV THE LAST THING SAID THE END WHICH IS FIRST APPEARS IN THE CLOSE OF THE SERIES OR IN THE LAST THING SAID. 3562). E. As for instance. 6044). intention. 4667). W. R. C. That there is end. D. 1018. which is present in what is first in time with him. 406. R. C. is that he may become an angel of heaven (D. 316). 6044). 209. and without an end to which it looks not anything can subsist (A. C. That the end is the inmost of every cause and of every effect (A. That the end which reigns in any series appears at its close or . as we have seen. L. D. 1645. but the first in end. A. L. Concerning ends we are taught: That there is nothing in which there is not an end. 28. We wish therefore to make clear that the end which in reality is the first or beginning of every series in the Word appears in the last. 1058. 326). which is its first from which all other things follow in a series to the conclusion or last." and on "The Covenant. L. as that to which any given work tends." The importance of this general law. 5122). W. or the end regarded. 241). and may be known from the thing last said or done in any given book. is the end which universally reigns in what follows. 241). 2114. C. and doctrine as the means of discovering the end or use (A. 171. L. 167. has as its synonyms in common speech such words as aim. so it is in the Word from which all created things derive their cause and origin. 241). C. purpose. in which. 62). wisdom the cause. that the first thing said reigns universally in what follows. W. 5440. L. love is thus the universal that reigns in the series from the first to the conclusion (D. W. and that it is usual to mention first that which is to happen last (A. or to the effect or use. C. Concerning the end as the first of a series we are further taught: That the first involves all the things that follow (T. C. R. chapter. as expressive in English of the Latin finis. and we read that this end is the love (A.* * When this rule is under consideration the numbers herein cited may be studied with profit in the analysis of any chapter of the Word. The term end used in the Writings. 5606). 37. C. S. 220).the chapters on "Duality in the Word. That in what is first said in the Word is the end for the sake of which are all things which follow in the series. What is first in time in the Word is what is first said or done in any given series. That the angels regard only ends and uses in the Word. 98. That there is an effort in every effect to return to the end from which it is (D. design. 17). These teachings reveal to us that since in every created thing there is an end. and use the effect (D. W. C. That love is the end. 3839. . D. and effect in every created thing (D.conclusion. That what is first looks to what follows in a continual series (A. C. 804. 899. 261. That the end itself is the Lord who is thus the first of every series (A. 336. or passage of Scripture.

which may be seen in any use that is performed. or in what is last said. The Lord Himself is this inmost. which are the truths of wisdom. The first of a series is therefore as a seed. We find in Apocalypse Revealed. E. . 1209). for all the intermediate verses. the inmost from which all other things proceed and live. (A. and is there as doctrine and truths of doctrine. the supreme. E. 316). 239). and the end is what is loved. since in any part of the Word. when it is completed. which is the effect or use. the end. conclusion is determination to use from love by wisdom (D. 1209). 9827. In spiritual and even in natural forms all things are.394. there is an end or purpose. The inmost is the all. the first. 933). for love always has use for an end. and exists in the ultimate or last. 6159. R. 308). W. and the last as the fruit (D. Reference has been made to the provision of the means by which the end may come forth into the effect. then wisdom. therefore in the Word the cause is to be found in the intermediates of the series. 310. number 360. which is the end or universal which reigns throughout. and this active endeavor is the love. It is indeed a universal truth. as in the building of a house for a dwelling place. 8853-8858). and all things proceed. and is as it were the head of the human form of the Word. C. which are means leading to the effect or use. for then it will manifest itself. 230. the end in what is said or done becomes manifest and declares itself. It may therefore be seen that the end or love is the first or beginning of every series in the Word. The end in the last or use is what is commonly called the goal. as stated in the doctrine. and we read that He as Divine Love is in the inmost of the truth of doctrine and the good of life thence in the New Church (A. 1097. and the good of life which is the use is the last end or the conclusion. 10188). L. L. Thus all the truths of the series are from the good of love which is the head. 6338). and so the first looks to the last as an end (A. from the inmost as a center. Indeed the conclusion of every series is use. 66). We hold therefore that in the last thing said or done. between the first and last of a chapter. Thus the end in the first is love. 5130. the Lord and His Divine Love is the end. and the first looks to the last as an end (A. and the inmost in the derivatives is the only thing that essentially lives (A. and that in order to find this end its conclusion should be examined. A. which is the effect or use. in all things which thence succeed (A. the teaching that the means or intermediate is wisdom. that in order that any effect or use may be produced the Lord first provides the means or causes. E. C. and in the last is use. L. A. The first in every series is love or what represents it (A. 297. The active endeavor therefore of every series is to close in use. W. C. We have before us then the value of knowing the end in view in any chapter of the Word. the inmost of the Word. as in everything a man says or does. C. W. and then by wisdom use. first the love. or use for which it was constructed becomes manifest to every one who looks upon it. D. and this is revealed in the conclusion. as it is in all creation. so it is in the Word which created all things. purpose. which is the use. 314. as it is in the life of heaven. C. This important principle of order should be kept in mind in the study of any chapter of the Word. As it is in the church. Now where there is an end there is also a cause leading to an effect. treat of the means by which the end comes forth into its effect or use. as the conclusion of the series. 10011. and that this end or love appears in the close. The end is the love. or. the head. The end which is the love is also the head.

it is treated of first in the Word. and also last. and that this end reigns throughout in any book. chapter. or series." (A. Being first in time it contains in itself that which is first in end. Moreover it is usual in the Word to mention in the beginning the things that are to take place at the end. When the evils are thus removed by the Lord with the co-operation of man. there is as yet no regeneration or deliverance except in the outward appearance.) In illustration of the same law we might go further back than the beginning of the Apocalypse. nor his house. and the third is use. wisdom the second. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife. since that is both first and last. so long as evil spirits are intrenched in his will. It is clear therefore that the end in view in the spiritual sense is involved and included in what is first said. but that it is especially treated of at its close. this is the Trinity' represented in the Word by Father. The deliverance is effected by the Lord when man ceases to do the evils mentioned. and that the application of this law will reveal the leading idea or affection in any series. The subject of the commandments in their spiritual sense is the deliverance of man from the dominion of evil spirits. This idea or subject of the commandments appears in the first thing said. This is the human form. Let us take the Ten Commandments as an example illustrating this law. and all things between this first and last of the Word treat of the means by which the end comes into effect. as it is of all creation. -first in Genesis. But the end in view is not merely the reformation of a man's conduct. nor his manservant. his ox: nor his ass. which is effected by the Lord when the evils mentioned therein are shunned as sins against Him. even to the first chapter of Genesis. the prediction respecting them is presented here at the beginning. nor his maidservant. which is the spiritual creation or formation of a heaven from the human race by means of a church on earth. for these are treated of at the end of the Apocalypse. for in the spiritual sense the first is the end for the sake of which. nor his field. and from which he must be delivered or he cannot be saved. and is thus the first chapter of the Word. and are thus the conclusion of all things therein. (See the chapter on "The Trinity in the Word. Son. who brought thee out of the land of Egypt. because intermediates are thus included.Love is thus the first of every form. but because they are sins against God and His Divine order. which in its literal sense treats of the natural creation. which they had effected by means of his hereditary and acquired evils. and because that which is last is also first. the shunning of evil deeds-though this is a necessary preliminary or means. chapter. and to it all other things look. This is first in time. for not until then is a man regenerated and saved by deliverance from evil spirits.") In confirmation of this law we have the additional teaching: "The seven candlesticks signify the new heaven and the new church. or that which is the end in any book. This being the end of all revelation. not merely because thy are injurious to society in the world and to his own reputation. the Lord at the same time removes the evil spirits who had subjected him to their dominion. the real end in view is the removal of evil from the will itself. nor . and last in the two closing chapters of Revelation. E. or group of verses in the Word." Egypt and the house of bondage are the infernal societies to which man is subject before regeneration. out of the house of bondage. and this Trinity is in all things of the Word. and Holy Spirit. 62. For. "I am the Lord thy God. This end or purpose in the commandments appears in the close of the commandments in the use of the word covet.

anything that is thy neighbor's. The word translated covet. we are told in the literal sense of those who separate themselves from the company of evil men in the world. So in the opening of the commandments we have a threefold idea. and the person or thing spoken of." wherever there is a two there is also a three. the person spoken to. appears and is manifestly declared in their close. "I the Lord command thee not to covet thy neighbor's wife. in which lusts evil spirits dwell. as will be shown in the chapter on "The Trinity in the Word. or something relating to Him. for when it is said in the Word that. and from all their wicked ways. the end that reigns throughout. This in fact is the end in view from the beginning of the commandments. that is. the means to the end are treated of in the body of the Psalm. showing that this word contains and involves the leading idea of the conclusion. This end which is in the opening words appears in the last verse. The law that what is interiorly in a series from its beginning appears in its close or conclusion. Hence in the closing words. The opposite sense also runs through to the end. We see. opening with the words. the Lord knows any one. "I am the Lord thy God." Let us consider a further illustration of the principle before us as exhibited in the first Psalm. and in what is last said. therefore the Lord reveals Himself as the first of the commandments. "For great is your reward in heaven. and in the conclusion declares that evils and evil spirits are not removed until the lusts of the will are put away. for so persecuted . therefore. cannot be conjoined with God.* * We see involved here a trinity of the person speaking. be separated from evil spirits. The word covet is used in effect eight times at the close of the commandments." It is useful to begin the analysis of a chapter in this way. and the end itself is expressed in the closing words. In the first verse of this Psalm. The end and purpose in such separation is that they may be conjoined with God and thus introduced into heaven. but the spiritual sense teaches that those who shun evils as sins against God will. See the chapter on "The Person Speaking. where the conclusion appears in respect to them. or something relating to man. Thou shalt not desire nor lust after the things which belong to thy neighbor. in the interiors of man. This end can be accomplished by the Lord alone when man shuns evils as sins against Him. "Thou shalt not covet. In the former the closing words are. which is that those who do not separate themselves from evil deeds and evil associations in both worlds. can also be rendered desire or lust after." From what was said in the preceding chapter it is clear that the decalogue has-as has every other passage in the Word-man for its subject. and in the closing words. namely. The Lord and man appear in the opening words. "The Lord knoweth the way of the just". we are told that the way of the wicked shall perish. But. in the words. but that there is also a prior idea which is the Lord. which may be thus expressed. the removal of the lusts of the will. Thus the end in this Psalm. is contained in the opening words. which is conjunction with God and introduction into heaven. that the essential end Divinely proposed in the commandments. as to their spirits." and then in what follows points out the evils that can be removed by Divine power alone.. and appears manifestly in the close. the removal of the lusts of the will in order that regeneration may be made complete. receives notable illustration in the Blessings and in the Parable of the Sower. or in the ends of his life. the meaning is that He has conjoined him with Himself. namely. "I the Lord have brought thee out of the land of Egypt".

"He that received seed into good ground is he that heareth the Word. All parts of Scripture when examined will illustrate or bring into light the operation of the law we have been endeavoring to set forth in this chapter." Let us note the operation of this law also in the Parable of the Sower. the Son of Man as the Sower is prior in the sowing and in the reception of the seed. "Great is your reward in heaven." We shall see later that the opposite is either expressed or understood in every part of the Word. * That doctrine and the reception of it is the subject of the Blessings. "He opened His mouth and taught them. as has been indicated. as may be seen from verses 17. In the Blessings the two opposing ends are seen in the concluding words which we have quoted. 24. "For so persecuted they the prophets which were before you. and bringeth forth. becomes manifest in the last or conclusion thereof. 23. as indicated in these opening words. the reception of truth by instruction from the Word. and who are therefore not poor in spirit. We read in the opening of the parable that a sower went forth to sow. an opposite series is involved. The end which reigns from the beginning through to the close is the reception of truth from the Word. "Who hath an ear to hear. some sixty. a word which is repeated a number of times throughout-blessed. The subject of the parable. some an hundred fold. and thus which reigns in the entire series. 18. as given to those who will receive its truths in heart and life. and is expressed in the closing words. let him hear. A close scrutiny will reveal the presence and operation of this law in all Divine Revelation. it is clear that it is also universal and prior even in what is last said. is instruction by the Lord from His Word. 19.they the prophets which were before you. Now sowing involves ground in which the seeds are sown or received. and as each step is attended with temptations or assaults of evil spirits who are in the pride of their own intelligence. 31. CHAPTER V THE PRECEDING SERIES . namely that the end which is contained and involved in the first or beginning of a chapter or portion of the Word." This is the conclusion of the series and expresses what is contained interiorly in the first word of the series. for instance.) It may be remarked that this end reigns also in the parables which follow in the chapter. and from the fact that in the introduction it is said. Now since the first or the end which reigns from the beginning of any series is universal or interiorly present in all that follows even to the last. as may be seen from any of the examples given above. the end being. as. and which reigns in the series. we know from the word prophet used in the conclusion. some thirty." (Verse 23. By blessed is meant the happiness in heaven of those who receive true doctrine from the Word and live according to it." and also in the words. and especially from the closing words in verse 52. is expressed in the closing words. and understandeth it. 43. and it will thus appear in the close of any series." The progressive steps in regeneration are described in the intermediate verses. which also beareth fruit. This end is expressed in the concluding words.* This end which is in the first and leading word. 37.

it is indicated by and it Was. as we have seen. That all order proceeds from first to last. we should observe not only the subject of the preceding chapter. and the last becomes the first of the following order (C. but the last of a preceding order becomes the first of a following order. C. That the internal sense is in a series in which one thing follows from another (A. which is used as a connective everywhere in the Old Testament. We wish now to show that it does more than this. C. the last of a preceding series becomes the first of the following. We have seen that the leading idea of a series passes on to its close. C. 4987. 2654). and David and Abraham in the first verse of Matthew connect the Gospels with the story of the Old Testament. and even books. when a beginning is made of a new subject. 5339).. for instance. 3952). are signs of something new. It is plain therefore that not only are the things of the internal sense connected together in a continuous series from one chapter to another. It becomes therefore essential to the complete understanding of any portion of the Word. and sentences.) And. and appears in what is last said. Jesus Christ in the first verse of the Apocalypse connects that entire book with the Gospels. the beautiful coherence and connection of all the parts is seen (A. But the most frequent connective is and.THE SUBJECT OF A CHAPTER. chapters. And he said. We read: That the internal sense is in a continuous series with what goes before and with what follows after (A. to note the existence and operation of this law. PASSES OVER TO THE NEXT. 2343. Hence in studying a given chapter. and so it will now be in order to bring forward some teachings of the Writings bearing on this point. and at the same time mark its effect upon the opening or beginning of the chapter under consideration. 2333). but they indicate at the same time the continuity of the series in the internal sense. See also 3558. OR VERSE. 4814. 1659. and that one series follows another in a regular continuity of ideas. clauses. 311). and it was.essential to know its first and also its last." (A. We read that "it is usual in the Word. C. C. That when the series is comprehended tinder one idea. It may be well to say a word here on the general subject of connectives. 7191. AND APPEARS IN THE FIRST WORD THEREOF OR IN THE FIRST THING SAID. qualifying and modifying it from its beginning to its close. wherefore those expressions so frequently occur. and sentences. prepositions. C. but also paragraphs. to say. and even nouns and proper names may act in this capacity. first. That the things contained in the internal sense are connected together in a continuous series (A. as has been shown already. L. but frequently adverbs." (A. which joins together not only words. A connective is defined as "a word used to connect words. 2802). in order to know any series it is . They are among the signs that the Word is written in a series. concerning the particle and. that it passes over into the following series. C. 2102).-since. For.. These connectives and their significance should never be lost sight of in the study of the Word. marking the introduction of another paragraph or chapter. "When one state terminates and another succeeds which is deserving of note. and a change of state less deserving of note by and." They are usually conjunctions. and that this one idea is the general of the series (A. but especially its close or conclusion. clauses. 5578. a fact even more apparent in the Hebrew than in the English translation. and he said. as. PARAGRAPH. since the first reigns in all things that follow in its own .

-should be corroborated by other evidence before it becomes established in our minds." (A. for when anyone prepares himself with the utmost diligence for some end or effect. If then we are studying a chapter. are treated of in the internal sense is that in the previous chapter the subject treated of was the Lord. however. C. and then by it the external. 5869. appears there. since the end in view in it. we may conclude that the chapter under consideration may treat of that which follows it in the orderly course of regeneration." (A. but in this chapter conjunction itself. and how He glorified or made Divine the exteriors of His natural." (A. that any conclusion we may form-in the absence of direct teaching. This is signified by the above words. and passes over into the following modifying and qualifying it. In illustration of the general principle before us. 5086. C. and at last because of those . C. .) "The subject treated of in the preceding chapter (Exod.series. and wish to find the leading idea of its internal sense. as to the leading idea of the internal sense of a chapter. xl) the external sensual things . . This latter presents the reason-why it is important to pay attention to the close of a preceding chapter. xxxix) the subject treated of is the state of temptations of the celestial of the spiritual in the natural as to those things which are of the interior natural. Let us remember. and the end which is first appears and makes itself manifest in the last. then when all things are made ready he ran no longer restrain himself. The Lord glorified His Human as He regenerates man. and the remarks we have just made will apply also to them. here therefore the subject treated of is the Lord. and how He glorified or made Divine the interiors of His natural. As it is with these two chapters in Genesis. by getting together and arranging the means thereto. vi) was that those who are in the Lord's spiritual kingdom were infested by falsities. and here as to those things which are of the exterior natural. When therefore the one subject is treated of it may be expected that the other will be treated of in the series that follows. is because the glorification of the interiors of the natural was treated of in the previous chapter. or of any part of the Word.) We observe in the passage just quoted that the reason why the glorification of the exteriors of the natural is treated of in the fortieth chapter of Genesis. and to find that which is prominent and leading in one chapter is a step toward discovering the same in what goes before or in what follows after. we present three more extracts from the Writings. may be seen from the following extract: "The reason why here and in the following verses of this chapter (Gen. xliv) initiation to conjunction was treated of. That the internal sense of any given passage may become evident from what is said in the preceding chapter.) "And Joseph could not restrain himself before all that were standing by him. . so it is in all parts of the Word. One chapter follows another in a logical and orderly sequence of ideas. That this signifies that all things were now made ready for conjunction . 5078. Hence the use of applying more than one rule in any analysis that we may have in hand. . They are as follows: "In the foregoing chapter (Gen. and we are taught that in regeneration the internal man is regenerated first. and supposing that we have learned that the preceding chapter treats of the regeneration of the interiors of the natural. for in the preceding chapter (Gen.

but still in some good and truth. The past is in their present. to take note of the subject of the preceding chapter as a guide to the internal sense of the given chapter. and what is present. . This law is indeed operative at any point in the Word. or in the works of Providence as they manifest themselves in the stream of human life. this is the subject treated of in the internal sense of the present chapter. may appear from what was said by the three men or Jehovah in the preceding chapter. nature cannot be understood. and in the present they are able to see in some finite measure what is. what is to come is present. number 2318. "And there came two angels to Sodom in the evening. In image of this we are told that the angels live only in the present.) "Although the angels have no care about what is past. 730. In the Lord all things are present. and intuition of what is to come. history cannot be interpreted. are. One state. and at the same time concerning the destruction of those. but there is always a chain of connection between what precedes and what follows. wherefore it now follows concerning the salvation of those who are in some good and truth." (A. That in the first of a chapter what precedes and what follows are present. . they have still the most perfect remembrance of what is past. and no anxiety about what is to come. In the foregoing chapter it was treated concerning the perverse state of the human race. which precedes judgment. that is. and without the observance of this fact. It is indeed the law Of all progression. and who was. for there is not anything in it that does not connect with what precedes and with what follows. and who are represented in this chapter by Lot. because in . At a given point of an operative development. in explaining the words. which follows as a legitimate result of the wicked and perverted state of the church. 7183. but its application becomes especially notable at the initial point of any series. whenever a chapter was before him. 5396. 7186." These are the opening words of the chapter. heaven. 6225. therefore.) Thus we find from these and similar teachings that in the revelation of the internal sense of the Word. who are altogether in evil and falsity. "that they signify visitation." It will be seen. to come. especially where there is a decided change from one thing to another. and thereby the same in the angelic. and also from what follows in this chapter. the past is in the present and looks to the future. Concerning this we have the following teachings: "What is to come. or the study and application of it as a law. whether expressed in the Word or in the operations of creation as exhibited in nature. that what is treated of in this chapter is a logical consequence of the subject of the preceding chapter. . and that the first of a chapter looks both backward and forward. and with the promise that they are certainly to be liberated.temptations were near despair. We shall see later that this was also true in respect to the following chapter. and concerning the Lord's grief and intercession for those who are in evil. is clearly taught in Arcana Coelestia. 7405. who are here signified by Sodom and Gomorrah. See also A. if the good are to be separated from the evil and saved. Now they are encouraged with hope. as treated in a former chapter. and who is to come. Concerning them we read. it was ever in the mind of Swedenborg. or what is to be done is done. nor any progression in a series be comprehended. 6254. the same. C. and it will be noted that they begin with and. thing with the Lord. C. begins where another ends. the judgment must take place. C." (A. hence He is spoken of as He who is.

) "With. and even to that of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. and this to eternity. for instance. . in order to accommodate and adapt itself to human understanding." (A. but the past and future are in their present. -though taking on form and expression in human language. as it is in the internal sense. is also the law of revelation or the Word. whether in heaven or on earth. but we are wise if we observe it. Nor is a single chapter of the Word fully understood without a knowledge of the chapter or chapters which precede it. thus is eternal. this.) "That a kind of idea of the infinite. and as to the eternal. But for a complete understanding of a chapter it is sometimes necessary and useful to go further back than the chapter immediately preceding it. 2271. 10048. there is no past or future. and has the clearest intuition of the future from what he sees in the present." (A. the law of Providence. and a future. 3973. but when the idea of time is removed. interior and exterior things are arranged in order by the Lord for all following states. which became the center of the garden when the serpent entered it. and not rudely and suddenly divorce oneself from it. 178. is expressed under the appearance of time and its progression. 2493. for then one will not have made himself ready in an orderly manner for that which is to come. and an idea of the Divine eternal is insinuated into the angels by the Lord. 2188-90. that they have no idea of things past and future. S. do the same. appears from. The New Testament is not understood without the Old. For the Word is life.every present of theirs there is both the past and the future. In the literal sense there is a past. C. C. D. and things future when they become present. the law of all development in a series. He is wisest who sees most clearly the bearing of the past on the present. and the latter is not completely understood without a knowledge of those causes. 3973. The signification of these reveals the causes which led to the flood. And as it is in history. for those who are in the extreme of the universe are present in a moment. wherein any given event is interpreted by the events which precede it. and co-operate with this law of Providence. for the Lord foresees all things and provides all things. There is indeed a connection with the past whether we see and observe it or. and the future will be but a development of what is. the law of life itself and the flowing stream of life. in order to understand the story of the flood we must know the causes which led to it. The operation in a series of this stream of life. nor abruptly break off from that which has been." (S. acknowledge. It is important that the human understanding should see. and act accordingly. thus they have a more perfect memory than can ever be thought and expressed. Now the law of creation. those who are regenerating. involved in the present. so it is in the story of the Word. which is the Word. a present. The second coming of the Lord is not understood without a knowledge of His first coming. or a continuity of the past into the present. and His foresight and providence is to eternity. that they know not what space is. but all things are present. not.) There is therefore always a continuity of the present with the past. it is the very stream of life itself proceeding from the Lord and returning to Him. D. Hence in any new departure it is always wise to connect with that which precedes. Compare D. P. insomuch that things present involve things future. and these we find by going back to the story of the serpent.

in order to prepare the way for the coming and manifestation of the Lord. I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord. which was to preserve the communication of heaven with the human race until the time of the Lord's coming. and the heart of the children to their fathers. therefore. This being the subject of the first verse. Without such 'a manifestation We are told that the earth or mankind would have been literally smitten with a curse (T. "Behold.What is true of the literal sense is also true of the internal sense. and in particular of the preparation for the advent by the work of John the Baptist. Let us now illustrate this point with some Scripture examples. through which the church will be established with them. John was the Elijah who was to come to turn the heart of the fathers to the children. shine. iv: 5. in order to understand the mission of John the Baptist. and the use of the Jewish Church. in doing which we shall find illustrated on a grand scale the great value of the law. that the subject of the preceding series passes over and illuminates that which follows it. as related in the New Testament. Now the entire story of the Old Testament centers around the function and use of the Jewish Church and its worship. we find that . Now when we examine the closing words of the preceding chapter. E. which are. as given in the Writings. The communication is to be restored. but from the latter the idea of time is removed. A. C." By these words is meant that there will be spiritual light with men in the world. and he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children. Thus in the last words of Malachi the whole story of the Old Testament. or was about to cease. -the use and value to the student of observing the subject of the preceding chapter. 688-691.) These words are a prophecy of the advent of the Lord. outside of Jerusalem at the river Jordan. for which reason there is no passage in the Word. was to restore this communication. and the heart of the children to their fathers. It is essential for interpretation. for thy light is come. no paragraph or verse. It is essential. the use of that church in preserving the communication of heaven with mankind. it becomes therefore the leading idea of the chapter." (Mal. and the same is true of its close. The preaching and baptism of John. 6. R. and the use of the final severing of that communication by the profanation of all things of their worship. is given in a sum and conclusion. The sixtieth chapter of Isaiah opens as follows: "Arise. without which we may be left in the dark as to the full meaning of the subsequent events. and the Divine uses effected by the advent itself. to study the signification of this final prophecy of the Old Testament. 724). But this final prophecy looks not only backward but forward. wherein all things of the Word from beginning to end are not contained and involved. in order that the Lord may come and establish the Christian Church. Let us first take note of the operation of this law in the closing words of the Old Testament. and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee. At the beginning of a chapter all things of it are present. But this communication had ceased. that the beginning and the close of a chapter should be closely examined and studied. especially that of its close. But this law is more valuable to the student when seen or looked for at the beginning or close of any chapter or series. by the profanation of the Jewish worship in Jerusalem. lest I come and smite the earth with a curse. But the point we are considering now is. or turn the heart of the fathers to the children and the heart of the children to their fathers. therefore.

because of His union with the Father. and there was no more sea." These words point strongly to the subject of the preceding chapter. treated of in the fourteenth chapter. revealing that He Himself is the Sabbath. The fifteenth chapter of John treats of the conjunction of the Lord with the human race after the glorification of His Human or union with the Father. The inauguration and sending out of such a priesthood occupies the whole of the following chapter. and should be kept prominently in the thought in a study of the twenty-first and twenty-second chapters of the book of Revelation. as well as by the subject itself of these first words. as indicated by the particle-and. naturally and logically follows that of judgment or redemption by the Lord. for instance. the operation of this law appears. the preceding series if examined will probably be found to treat of the combats of temptation (A. 1785). "I am the true vine. treating as they do of the last judgment as of a thing now accomplished. Note also the bearing of the closing words of Matthew xi upon chapter xii. apply also to the parts thereof. I stand at the door and knock." If we are in doubt as to what it is by which man opens the door for the entrance of the Lord.the subject there is the revelation of Divine Truth by the Lord after redemption is accomplished. where it is shown that the light of illustration cannot be given until the last judgment is accomplished. Hence in the sixtieth chapter of Isaiah the subject of redemption as preceding the establishment of the church should be kept in mind. appearing especially in the closing verses. and we find that this is the subject of the preceding chapter from beginning to end. and appears in its opening words. where the Lord is teaching concerning the need of a true priesthood. but the leading idea there is that of glorification. "And I saw a new heaven and a new earth. be thrown on what follows by examining what precedes. The reason for this will be seen fully stated in The Continuation of the Last Judgment. 2690-2704). wherever we turn. In fact. C. that there is spiritual light in the church after redemption has been effected. passes over into the fifteenth. There is indeed no conjunction with mankind until the Human of the Lord has been glorified. The frequent teaching in the Writings also might be noted that where a passage treats of revelation. which is as follows: "Behold. This truth. wherein the Lord abolishes the Jewish sabbath. The establishment of the New Church. or union with the Divine has been effected. C. Hence we may always expect light to. numbers 11 and 12. and he with me. and it should therefore be kept actively in mind in the consideration of the latter chapter. and there is no rest but in Him. when the church is vastated. and before a new church can begin. The twenty-first chapter of Revelation opens with the words. Note. and my Father is the husbandman". This introduces into the consideration of the sixtieth chapter the modifying idea. The rules which apply to the elucidation of a chapter. we shall find by . Also where any passage treats of consolation and illustration we may expect to find that the previous series treats of temptation even to despair (A. This subject also appears in the previous chapter. I will come in to him and sup with him. the close of Matthew ix. and not before. for the former heaven and the former earth had passed away. if any man hear my voice and open the door. Let us take as an example the twentieth verse of the third chapter of Revelation. therefore.

in Arcana Coelestia. Still as this latter principle has a distinct place and value in the interpretation of the Word. passes over into the next. this law holds good and will find illustration and confirmation in all parts of the Word. especially of its close. requiring merely a viewing of it in the inverse order or a looking forward instead of a looking backward. for tree and what is signified by tree is the leading idea of this verse. and the principles and illustrations used for the one will apply to the other." If the spiritual man were the subject treated of in the context. in the verse that is being expounded. An interesting sermon on this text might be written setting forth the subject of cognitions as signified by trees. "It is otherwise when the spiritual man is treated of. we are told that trees in Genesis ii: 9. Since the internal sense of the Word is in a continuous stream. The law therefore that the subject of the preceding chapter or portion of the Word. It will be noted also that the twentieth verse closes with the idea of conjunction with the Lord as the result of repentance. and appears there in the representative image of the union of the Lord with the Father. The Writings in very many places make clear the importance of knowing the subject of the series. but it would not be an exposition of the text. For instance. CHAPTER VI THE FOLLOWING SERIES A KNOWLEDGE OF THE FOLLOWING CHAPTER WILL AID IN UNDERSTANDING ANY GIVEN CHAPTER OR PORTION OF THE WORD. it would seem well to give it a separate and distinct treatment in a work of this kind. especially as to what is signified by tree. For such as the subject is such is the predicate. but the spiritual man has in the place of perception the cognition of truth. a knowledge that the celestial man is the subject of the chapter. for the celestial man has perception. signify perceptions because the celestial man is the subject of the series in the internal sense. or since the subject of a given series is a logical sequence of the one which precedes it. modifying the whole of the next series. If Genesis ii: 9 were chosen as a text. or the subjects that precede and follow any given verse or group of verses. would not signify perceptions but cognitions. and the subject of one chapter passes over to the next and modifies it. and appears in the first thing said therein.reference to the preceding verse that it is repentance. and not the spiritual man. This rule is indeed but the converse of the preceding one. number 103. and the application of it will without doubt be found to be of frequent assistance to the student in entering and understanding the spiritual sense of any chapter that is under consideration. the conclusion is plain that a knowledge of the following chapter will aid in understanding any given chapter of the Word. The idea of repentance therefore passes over to the twentieth' verse. This passes over to the twenty-first verse. for . and becomes the leading idea therein in respect to man's co-operation with the Lord. trees. in order to understand the particular one that is being studied. would therefore be fundamental to a clear understanding of verse 9.

C. 4981. 1041. signify "the affections of doctrinals.the subject of the series determines that the leading idea of the text is that of perception and not of cognition. Hence we read that "all things in the internal sense are predicated with reference to the subject treated of. See also 386.) Maidservants therefore in verse 17 signify the affection of things doctrinal and not of things rational and scientific. 2583. 524. E. appear from what follows.) "That 'let a little water I pray you be taken.) . for from this chapter [the fifth] to the eleventh. Again we read." (A. 470.' signifies that they should approach and let themselves down from things Divine nearer to his intellectuals. .) "It will. until He endured temptations. 428. cannot so well appear from the words alone. 721. as given in Arcana Coelestia. or chapter. water. 2161. S. 982. here of doctrinals because they are predicated of the doctrine of faith. whereof they are predicated.' but from the series of things which are in this verse. 1477. because the subject of the context is concerning Abimelech and what is signified by him. 620. may appear from the signification of maidservants as being the affections of rationals and scientifics.) "That the book of nativities is an account of those who were in the Most Ancient Church.) "That by Noah and his sons is signified the Ancient Church." (A." (A. by whom is signified the doctrine of faith. 1603. that things celestial and Divine were not adjoined to the Lord. C. (A. for they [the maidservants] were of Abimelech. D. . -that maidservants in Genesis xx: 17. or to Eber. C. and thereby expelled the evil which was hereditary from the mother. will have observed the application of this law both to the preceding and to the following verse. C. names never signify persons but things. C. 'That they should take a little." (A. 722. 4502. A. C." (A." (A." (A. C. The numbers now to be quoted are examples of the advantage to be obtained by noting what follows any given passage of Scripture. and from their connection with those which go before and which follow. 568. . is very evident from what follows.) Anyone who follows closely the explanations of the internal sense of Genesis and Exodus. nothing is mentioned in particular.) "Concerning what this church was. was said and shown above. and appears from what follows.) "What therefore the blessing of Jehovah signifies in particular." (A. for all things have a signification according to the subjects treated. C. may appear from the series of things going before and of the things following. 2712. C. 10265. but that its perceptive was become general and obscure appears from the description of the church Noah" treated of in the following verses and chapters. "From the things in this verse and those said in the following it is manifest that by Lamech is signified vastation.

to note what is first said and what is last said in any series. and by introducing the application of two other laws. 1564. although there is an appearance of three Persons. C. which is a universal in nature as it is in revelation. 4814. number 351. in order that they might know that the Trinity is in Him. No just view of any composition. but the verse preceding and the one following present the genuine truth. and the paragraph or chapter in the light of the one which precedes and the one which follows. 1542.) "'And it came to pass in this time' signifies the things which follow ." (A. and Holy Spirit. To observe what precedes and what follows is nothing else than to observe the law of development in a series. as is said also of common writing."That to go forth is to be of it. See also A. but since the Lord teaches in the preceding verse that He alone has Omnipotence or Divine power. namely. not .) Many other examples might be introduced. but we shall content ourselves with one more. A striking example of how the Writings may be misunderstood without the application of this law is afforded us in The True Christian Religion. 6162. and in the following verse that He Himself as the Holy Spirit will be present in the church to its end. the things also which follow in a series. 5074. until the consummation of the age': thus He speaks of Himself alone. or to be its own. 2661. 'Lo." There is an appearance in verse 19 of a Trinity of Persons. . as we learn from The True Christian Religion. But by examining closely what precedes and what follows. Son. One thing is always connected with another. I am with you all the days. This was therefore said by Him. and in the following verse. as in Matthew xxviii: 19. from The Doctrine of the Lord. is evident from what precedes and from what follows. is manifest from those things which precede and which follow. 2324.-we find that the statement in question is. number 677." (A.-namely. flow from those which go before. Nor can the Writings be fully understood except according to this law. and anything unconnected does not exist. and also from the spiritual sense of that word. 4644. in the light of which the apparent truth is to be explained. and the Word itself is in the form of the things which it has created. it is evident that verse 19 is speaking of a Trinity in one Divine Person. but that the Trinity is in the Lord Jesus Christ. . Verse 19 therefore presents the appearance. and if separated from the context it conveys the idea of such a Trinity. 5337. In the preceding verse the Lord says. the text is to be examined and interpreted in the light of the context. from the Writings in illustration of this principle. and the one which follows it. Thus nothing in the Word nor in creation is understood without observing this law of the connection of one thing with another. for they too are written in a series. "That it is the Lord alone who is there meant by Father. In this number there is a statement which appears to teach that there is a baptism of infants in heaven. To understand any given link in the chain we must know the one which precedes it. Everywhere in the Word. The Word which created all things created them in a series. C. 10505. human or Divine. 'All power is given unto Me in heaven and on earth'. can be obtained without the application of this law. which we have already considered. for what is done is related in what follows. and all growth after creation is in a series. C. 4981. number 46. The purpose of the number is to show that the Holy Spirit is not a God by himself.

" is universal. and it is so now with the prophecies of the Second Coming. He was led to apply the same principles later in life to the study of the Word. by which he was able to unfold a human physiology such as the world had never seen. as the Lord said to Peter. "What I do thou knowest not now. An example of interpreting any event by a knowledge of what occurred afterward. which to a large extent does not reveal itself until after the event. The New Testament throws a bright light on the Old. Now it is a fact well known to students of Scripture that no prophecy is understood until its fulfilment. Nor is the First Coming understood without a knowledge of the Second. He sold his birthright. The former law is a looking forward from causes to effects. A mind well instructed in this spiritual law. and thou shalt see my back parts. It was so with the prophecies of the First Coming. Nor can history be understood unless this law be applied to the study of it. applying to every chapter and every verse of Sacred Scripture. the . and will cover thee with my hand while I pass by. will be prepared not only to follow the stream of the outgo. is illustrated in the story of Esau. and also as the Lord said to Moses. becoming thus the rational agent of the Lord in the Revelation of His Second Coming. he afterwards applied in his study of the human body. even as a man's actions. the one now under consideration is of general application. Similar to the law in respect to the preceding series. and I will take away my hand. applying to all things that are and exist. but there is a reaction in the effect and a return to the cause from which the effect was produced. and what is universal is also particular. Every revelation explains the one which precedes it. 23. "I will put thee in a cleft of the rock. especially in the spiritual world. And since the things that follow in the Word reveal the effects of causes which precede." (Exod. This principle has a striking illustration in what we are told of the operation of Providence. will reveal the motives or causes of his conduct. The events which follow. but thou shalt know hereafter. xxxiii: 22. and the Writings cast a far brighter light upon both. The principles which he thus developed by observing effects. and returning from effects to their causes. For there is not only a going forth from the cause to the effect. The law that. From the visible things of nature he concluded concerning its invisible things with an unerring precision. But that this was only a temporary yielding of priority is clearly shown by the fact that he afterward accepted the acknowledgment of his primogeniture as offered by Jacob (Gen. a work without parallel in the literature of science and philosophy. also xxxii: 33). but my face shall not be seen. and as a result we have given us that marvelous work called The Principia of Natural Things. but of. xxvii: 41-46.) Swedenborg in his early studies was led to apply this law. but the latter is a looking back from effects to causes. but thou shalt know hereafter." (John xiii: 7). and in the doctrine of revelation.speaking of the baptism of infants in the other world. as related in Genesis xxv: 29-34. the former will often aid in the interpretation of the latter. but also the stream of the return toward the source from which it came. what takes place in their spirits when they are baptized on earth. "What I do thou knowest not now.

that the truth which appears in the fifteenth chapter as the leading idea. or the next chapter. An examination of the explanation of this group of verses in the Writings reveals this to be the case. and that the latter aids in the elucidation of the former. should be closely examined if we wish to view the one under consideration in a complete light and with full knowledge. but if the salt have lost his savor. wherewith shall it be seasoned? It is neither fit for the land nor yet for the dunghill." According to the rule already considered. . In the six closing verses of the fifth chapter of Matthew we find an illustration of the same law. we conclude that the last five verses of the third chapter cannot be fully understood without a consideration of the doctrine of temptation combats. according to the rule we are considering. nor combat against the falsity of evil. "He went away again beyond Jordan into the place where John at first baptized. but men cast it out. and said. Let us now illustrate this law with some examples from the Word. -because there is in it no repentance of life. which is that there is no affection of truth in the church. coming out openly in it. which we learn from the fact that the next chapter treats of the state of the church with the Gentiles. hence it is said that the salt has lost his savor. The closing verses of the third chapter of Matthew treat of the Lord's baptism by John. but the application is to the Gentiles. We conclude therefore that this truth will be a leading factor in the preceding group. The story of His temptations. brings at once to mind the teaching that it was by temptation combats that the Human of the Lord was glorified. the next paragraph. these words give expression to the truth which reigns in the series of which it is the close. and there He abode. appearing in the next chapter. And many resorted unto Him. is vastated. although it is not openly expressed in the words that are used. The closing words of the fourteenth chapter of Luke are as follows: "Salt is good. And many believed on Him there. especially those of the Lord. but since it openly appears in the fourth. These verses treat manifestly of charity or love to the neighbor.things which are said in the next verse. why there is in it no spiritual affection of truth. At the close of the tenth chapter of John it is said that." By the country beyond Jordan is represented the external church. where the subject is non-resistance to evil. and the first eleven verses of the next chapter treat of His temptations in the wilderness. who are represented by Lazarus. We therefore conclude. is interiorly contained in the fourteenth. The question arises. What assistance do we obtain from a knowledge of the latter in understanding the former? In examining the third chapter we find from the last two verses that the subject is the glorification of the Lord as contained and represented in His baptism. This is also confirmed by the fact that the country beyond Jordan is spoken of in Matthew (iv: 15) as Galilee of the Gentiles. and also the teaching that baptism always carries with it the idea of temptation. This is not expressed in the third chapter. John did no miracle. Now the leading idea of the following chapter. is that of repentance. We find therefore that what is interiorly contained in one series appears openly in the next. and presents the real reason why the church is vastated. but all things that John spake of this man are true. and therefore it.

and of places. and spiritual meaning. and finally the name of the place where occur the events. especially the names of the Lord. Divine quality or attribute. but its appearance and representation under the three sets of proper names that everywhere occur. it is essential to give attention to the proper names that are mentioned therein. where the Lord is more present than in the heavens beneath. and to examine and analyze them. or Divine Truth. and is fundamental to a full understanding of it. . In general the Divine above the heavens is represented by the name of the Lord. the great universal or Divine principle that reigns in it and in every part thereof. In the study of a chapter or a group of chapters. inmost. is understood the Lord Himself. is still there. It is only the angels of the highest heaven who are able to perceive in any proper sense the significance of the names in the Word. which are from the . then the name of the person who acts the leading part. hence we read that "the reason why in heaven instead of the Sons of Israel they understand the church. is the subject that is now especially before us for consideration. and since by those names is understood the Lord there. . we may perhaps remain without a full knowledge or understanding of any given chapter or group of verses in the Word. a verse or a group of verses in the Word. To them even the names of persons and places represent something of the Lord. For there is the Divine above the heavens. The name of the Lord is first in importance. The name of the Lord represents the idea of God in the chapter. however. the Divine in heaven. is because in the inmost heaven. and the Divine in the church. present to us certain qualities or functions from the Lord in heaven and in the church. THE NAME OF THE PERSON. and under various forms. . in a good sense. that a knowledge of the following chapter or group will bring a substantial contribution to the understanding of any chapter that has been chosen for study and exposition. which are related in the historical or prophetical narration. The names of persons. It is the supreme. in their literal. interiorly contained and afterward expressed. Without a knowledge of this truth. AND THE NAME OF THE PLACE. hence the Divine things which are of heaven and the church. ARE OF LEADING SIGNIFICANCE IN ANY CHAPTER OF THE WORD. by names in the Word. it is the Lord Himself appearing in the series as the One and Only God therein. This threefold Divine appears and is represented in all parts of the Word in various ways. historical. CHAPTER VII THE NAMES OF THE LORD THE NAME OF THE LORD. the Divine in heaven by the name of the person. and the Divine in the church by the name of the place. but accommodating Himself to angelic and human comprehension according to the subject that is treated of in the revelation of Himself that He is giving.We find therefore that the leading and clearly expressed idea of the following series. is fundamental to the understanding of the Word. Hence the conclusion is manifest. while latent or concealed in the series which precedes. and it is clear that this idea is the first of every series. A knowledge of the signification of these names.

are treated of. the name of the Lord is included in the first thing said. let us therefore consider some of the things that are taught on this subject. The Lord is designated by various names in the Word of the Old Testament. and life from Him.Lord. See also the chapter on the "Trinity in the Word. we may expect to find it in all things that follow in the Word." (A. the Lord. in the heavens. the Christ.") Hence the angels of the inmost heaven by the three classes of proper names perceive a threefold Divine in the Word. are that which is created. So likewise. God. and the Redeemer. His Divine power. and regeneration are treated of. and since this threefold Divine appears in the first verse of Genesis. Lord. 10216. everywhere according to the subject treated of. and what in Him the Son of Man. reformation. it is clear that we may learn from the name used what the subject of the series is. Sometimes. Jah. and earth is the Divine in the church. or the Lord as present above the heavens. the Son of Man. the Lord. Where His passion. But in respect to the importance of knowing the signification of the names of the Lord. always according to the subject treated of. Thus there is always room for variation and apparent exception. even though not a trinity of proper names. Son. He then calls Himself the Son of Man. The Divine above the heavens is. the Lord Jehovih. concerning which we have spoken in previous chapters. as appearing in any portion of the Word. the Mighty One of Jacob. however." (L. and the Son of God. for other principles may enter and modify the sense in any given passage. is able to see many arcana of the Word. Although it is perhaps not necessary to make use of all the rules in the analysis of any chapter or verse. the Prophet. are perceived by the same names. We read that "He who knows what in the Lord the Son of God signifies. Jehovah Zebaoth. yet always according to the subject treated of. C. heaven. are together but still distinct. the Son of God. God is the allcreative Divine Truth. that appears tinder many forms. and it thus contains that which is even more universal than the first thing said. heaven and earth. and in the church. and also other names. Father. much is said or clearly indicated in the Writings. His oneness with the Father. 22. especially under the three names of God in the New Testament. the Lamb. sometimes the Son of God. faith in Him. heaven is the Divine in the angelic heaven. several of what might be regarded as the more important ones should be brought to bear in the study of it. the Rock. and sometimes the Son of Man. The trinity is indicated in the terms God. and in general redemption. though subordinate to that which is signified by God. or may know what the leading . It may be well to call attention here to the fact that there is a trinity in the first verse of Genesis. salvation. and elsewhere. and the two universals.* * It is necessary. God is the Divine above the heavens. but which are in their turn universal in all that follows. however.) Since the Lord is always named in the Word according to the subject treated of in the spiritual sense. the judgment. the one grand universal of the Word of God. the Reformer. Shaddai. that the first thing said reigns supreme in all things that follow. greater and less. in the Word of the New Testament. represented in the names of the. according to the series of things treated of. as in John v:17-26. as we have said. the God of Israel. God. namely. and Holy Spirit. the Holy One of Israel. however. This is evident from the rule we have already discussed. He is there named Jehovah. where He is named Jesus. and earth. He then calls Himself the Son. for the Lord sometimes calls Himself the Son. the reason is because He is then meant as to the Word. also the Creator. to avoid a too rigid application of any rule. as in the first verse of the first chapter of Genesis. When His Divinity. the Savior. His coming.

which can be known only from the internal sense. judgment. and all the particulars of the chapter will take their place tinder this leading idea. or omnipotence. We read further. 5628. E. then it is said Jehovah Zebaoth. sometimes God. T. 22. redemption. as we have said. we know at once that the leading idea or subject of the spiritual sense is truth to be united to good by means of temptation. we can know at once that the subject of the series in the internal sense is the Word or the Divine Truth and its operation. a designation of the Lord that is of frequent occurrence in the New Testament. attention is called to the fact that the Lord is called by different names in different parts of. 102. for instance. sometimes the Lord Jehovah. because by God Shaddai. "That it is here said God." (A. not only is the Lord as the Word signified. and salvation (L. and also Lord.) Hence when Shaddai is used as a name of God. is evident from the Word of the Old Testament. such as the advent. In The Doctrine of the Lord. The name of the Lord occurring in a given series is. C. . and this from a hidden cause. is represented the Lord. A. is called the Son of God. and this always from a cause hidden in the internal sense. number 19. whom Abram worshipped. or concerning truth. can do so by reading the following numbers: A. so that Jehovah Zebaoth and Lord are of the same sense and signification. 2921)." (A. 6003. C. and A. is contained in the chapter that is under consideration. that we have given us in them an invaluable principle of interpretation for the opening and exposition of the internal sense of the Word. sometimes God. C. 6674. But "all the names are names of the one God who is the Lord. and "always according to the subject treated of" in the internal sense. we are told that "the Lord as to the Divine Human. sometimes the Lord Jehovih. "That it is said Lord when good is referred to. power of good." (A. regeneration. or Jehovah of Hosts. then it is said Jehovah God. In the Word the Lord is sometimes named Jehovah. C. and we learn also that when this name of God is mentioned. then it is said Jehovah. 3921. the Son of Man. but when concerning both together. 3488. and when concerning the divine. sometimes Jehovah God." Thus whenever the expression Son of Man occurs. Let us now consider some illustrations of this law in respect to the use of proper names in the Word. and similar teachings in the Writings. C. 815. Let us take. and as to the Word. 852. 2001. but other qualities of the Divine Truth in its operation are involved.).R. then it is said God. sometimes Jehovah Zebaoth. 959. Those who may wish to pursue the subject further. where Jehovah is sometimes called Jehovah. when it is treated concerning the celestial things of love. the Son of Man. 3667. and sometimes Lord. A. 2724. the Word. or concerning good. or what universal truth. 2921. also because the subject treated of is truth which is to be united to good. and yet where they are mentioned in the Word they signify some universal Divine attribute or quality distinct from other Divine attributes or qualities. but when it is treated concerning the spiritual things of faith. is manifest from what has been said above. 4162. in general.298.idea of doctrine.) Again. R. of the first importance in any attempt to discover the spiritual sense of any portion of the Word. In numbers quoted above (as L. namely. 114. 23 et al. E.) It is evident from these passages. 81. sometimes Jehovah God.

We should not. and which is there as representative of Him. or thing. that to obtain the signification of the names of the Lord. or Divine Truth. is fundamental to a knowledge and understanding of the spiritual sense of the Word. or the appearing of the Lord as the Word. The first thing to do. who obeys Him or acts in opposition to Him. according . Next in importance to the name of the Lord is the name of the person who acts the leading part in the narration. Thus the Lord appears at once at the opening of the book. The Lord is seen by John as the Son of Man. and is described as the Son of Man.Let us take as an example the first chapter of Revelation. from all that has been said. Prominent examples of this are Abraham. and who speaks and acts from the Lord. is to find its signification in the Writings. confine ourselves strictly to the name of the Lord mentioned in a chapter. in Exodus He appears as the Deliverer or Redeemer. It is evident. however. in the second chapter it is Jehovah God. When any one of these names occurs as the name of the leading person in a chapter or group of chapters. Aaron. Moses. when a name of the Lord appears in any chapter or group that has been selected for examination and study. but take note of the idea or attribute of Him as exhibited in the context. function. which distinguishes the series. and in addition to this the signification of the names of persons. Joshua. Isaac. The reason for this is because the book of Revelation treats throughout of the Second Coming of the Lord. to execute judgment and to establish a New Church. therefore. quality. CHAPTER VIII THE NAMES OF PERSONS THE NAME OF THE LEADING PERSON IN ANY BOOK OR CHAPTER REPRESENTS A UNIVERSAL OF THAT SERIES. and who thus represents the Lord or that which is opposite to the Lord. since they contain the great generals or universals of the Word. The idea or attribute of the Lord in any series is often indicated or expressed in the context of the literal sense itself. and the names of places and things. Jacob. 'for we are thereby introduced to a knowledge of that particular attribute. BUT IS SUBORDINATE TO THAT WHICH IS REPRESENTED BY THE NAME OF THE LORD. and with this idea in mind the student is ready for an intelligent study of the Apocalypse. and all the particulars of the chapter will take their place under the leading idea or truth of the chapter as indicated in the name. therefore. as the one who plants the garden. or of any portion thereof. as in the first chapter of Genesis it is God the Creator. it is fundamental to the understanding of the series in the internal sense to find from the Writings what it is this person represents. from the Lord in heaven or in the church. Saul. in the New Testament as the Savior. Pharaoh. and in the Apocalypse as the judge. and others in the Old and New Testaments. Joseph. since what is meant by the Son of Man is the leading idea of the series from the first chapter to the last. John. and as reactant with Him or against Him. David. to whom the Lord speaks or gives command.

) Thus in the inmost sense all proper names. or some truth from the Lord in heaven and the church." (A. C. "By the names of persons and places [in the Word] is signified something of the Lord. and in heaven a person is regarded from that which belongs to his office and function. and the like by prophecy. some doctrine or heresy. "By Mamre. and others. who is the supreme amongst his associates. or represented in the actions of the person who takes the leading part in the history or prophecy of any portion of the Word. is because the Word was written by prophets. but representatively. for the one is indivisible and inseparable from the other." (A. and thence something of heaven and the church from Him. and which is set forth. but nevertheless they represent angelic functions. and angel there is named. essence. of worship. So here in respect to Mamre. These angels were of a quality like that of the goods and truths then with the Lord.) As we have already indicated this something is a Divine truth reigning in a function in heaven and in the church. R. Eshcol. but are so named from their office. or thing. but their names are predicated of goods and truths. Eshcol. or something opposite thereto.) These three names were the names of persons who were associated with Abraham. Raphael. as Michael and other angels in the Word are never such angels. but by those names in the Word is not signified one angel but the angelic function itself. "The reason that the doctrine of the church from the Word is signified by a prophet. some quality of the church on earth. some form. and this being the case. are represented and signified the angels who were with the Lord when He was engaged in combat in His earliest childhood. and Aner. 8192. and therefore when a prophet is mentioned. thus also the Divine of the Lord as to what is of the function. C. -the Word as to doctrine. was called a prophet. insomuch that whether we say function or . 2.) "Functions therefore are what the heavenly societies principally correspond to. spirit. some spiritual quality. organic forms also are what they correspond to. It is the universal of the series. we have the following teaching: "In the Word angels are mentioned by name.to the nature of the thing or subject treated of. from which they were named." (L. though subordinate to that grand universal which is represented by the name of the Lord. which is prominent in the series. and since it is true of these names it is also true of other names mentioned in the Word. when used in a good sense. as Michael. Now this name of a person may be used to signify some angelic function. From it also every man. and Aner. -since to write and teach the Word was his function. are names of the Lord. some state of the church. brought to view. Hence it is that the Lord. they who do not know the internal sense of the Word believe that Michael or Raphael is one angel. 8. No angel in heaven has any name. thus also in a chapter of the Word where the name is prominent and leading. or doctrine from the Word is meant." (A. That the prominent names of the Word represent angelic functions. as He is the Word itself. 1705.

as by Seth. Each variety was a church. and was represented by a name in the literal narrative of the fifth chapter of Genesis." (A. for the church exists and has its name from doctrine. members. 22. 4223. as it is of the societies of the celestial heaven.) Perception was the distinguishing characteristic of the Most Ancient Church. 483. Methusaleh. "By those angels which are mentioned in the Word. This is the case also in all and each of the things that man does. but the origin of all other organic forms. and in general certain and determinate parts of the administration and function of all the angels. introduces us to the function of a heavenly society. The heavenly societies are thus not only the very organic forms themselves. H. and are represented in correspondential forms even in civil society or on the plane of natural uses. it is the same thing. as was observed. the church is also a church from doctrine." (A. and the doctrine which makes a church is thus represented by the names mentioned above. thus by Noah is signified the Ancient Church. as follows: "By the names which follow. and viscera. Noah. so here by Michael is meant that part of the angelic function that has been referred to above. as the most prominent name in the context after the name of the Lord. H. The important point here is that names represent them. See also A. Of these churches the principle character or distinction was perception. because with the functions. R. L. C.) A function can be nothing else than an organic form. administrations and functions are meant. Lamech.) A knowledge of the signification of the name of the person most prominent in the context of a chapter or chapters. C. Enoch. are signified churches. in order that he may receive salvation from the Lord. 530. E.organic form. as we see in the human body. v]. 52. namely. 10216." (A." (A. and that man must live a life of love to the Lord and charity towards the neighbor. 6003. Jared. Enos. Hence we read that names signify churches. 114. by which and from which the function exists. 735. love and a truth dominant from that love. in which society there will be present and active from the Lord a reigning. C. . Hence it is that there is a correspondence with the organs. C.) As we shall see. and who profess charity with the lips but not in the life. Mahalaleel. 3667. Now any name that would represent a function in heaven would also represent a corresponding function in the world or in the church on earth. consequently that part of the function is meant that fights against those who separate the Divine from the Human of the Lord. Cainan. 300. and hence the varieties in that church were varieties of perception. wherefore the differences of the churches of that time were especially the differences of perceptions. wherefore when the function is produced the organ also is excited. C. "By the names in this chapter [Gen. For angelic functions do indeed appear in the church. or the doctrine which remained from the Most Ancient Church. doctrines. This dominant truth will also be a leading universal of the chapter in which the name occurs. and who separate faith from a life of love and charity. the first and principle of which was that which was called Man. T. or what is the same thing. as indicated in the names mentioned in the foregoing number. the defense of that part of doctrine from the Word that the Lord's Human is Divine. as Michael and Raphael. are signified so many churches.

1114." (A. by Japheth corresponding external worship. C. Japheth. or churches. 935.) "That they should cast out demons in the name of the Lord derived its effect from this. that the name of the Lord." (A. a church. Ham.) "Although these names were the names of the nations which constituted the Ancient Church.10282. 714. or a heresy. the quality of which will be according to the doctrine which constitutes it.) Or a name may represent the opposite. C. it has been permitted me to converse with those who belonged to the Most Ancient Church. Hence we read that. C. Shem. 530. 1025. and Canaan." (A. by Ham internal worship corrupted. nothing else was nor is understood than abstractly the Ancient Church as to its worship. also with some who belonged to the succeeding churches. Hence we read that "by Noah and his sons. that is. and since all worship is from doctrine. 1140. namely. See also A. C. 706. and that demons mean falsities. a false doctrine or heresy. and according to it.) A name in any series will signify a function. R. 1143. by a name is also signified forms of worship. and Canaan. 404. but those kinds of worship were so named because all other different kinds or all specific differences might be reduced to those as fundamentals. and Canaan. "For the church exists and has its name from doctrine. the church is a church from doctrine. by Shem is meant internal worship. "All these names signify heresies which were derived from the first. Japheth. doctrines. because by Shem. still in the universal sense. and Japheth. a doctrine." (A. C. thus from the heresy called Enoch. "By the Divine Mercy of the Lord. 903.) As was said above." (A. and whereas nothing is extant respecting them but the names. 9283. as what Irad signifies.) "They who have been named hitherto were nations with whom the Ancient Church was. A. C." (A. C." (A.) "From what has been said and shown in the foregoing chapter it appears that by the names are signified heresies and doctrines. which is. and also that I might know what was the character of the men who formed the churches at that time. by doctrine out of the Word from the Lord. that is. all which were called the sons of Shem. Ham. Such persons never existed. since doctrine is what makes the church.. which was called Cain. viz. things are understood. E. which were preserved. taken away. E. there is no need to say anything about them. also represents the doctrine which makes that church. understood spiritually. and so in other cases. 468. yet something may be related from the derivations of the names. See also A. however changed they might be. from the Most Ancient Church. C. are signified different kinds of worship prevailing in the . hence it may appear also that by the names in this chapter are not signified persons but things. and in the present case. that it descends from a city. to the intent that I might know that by the names in the first chapters of Genesis are only meant churches. by Canaan external worship separate from internal. A name therefore in the Word which represents a church. and these are thus cast out. means everything of doctrine out of the Word from the Lord. Ham. of every kind. different kinds of worship.Concerning this subject we read further that. A. until Noah.

' it signifies the quality. or of the worship. C. he can see many arcana in the Word. -though subordinate as we have said to the Divine universals represented in the names of the Lord. there is presented the idea of the person's quality. but to the thing represented by him. and for this reason also the several kinds of worship themselves are signified in the Word by the names of these nations. 479. but we are to find what that spiritual thing is. 2724. . 1754. of the doctrine. See also A. 798. nor anything of the person himself. or when the term name is mentioned. 6752. 470. . 1179.church. 3767. 230. 4592. but such names are not lacking even in the Prophets. 3861. named. or to know the quality. In heaven one is distinguished from another solely from his quality. 142. 10329. 801. 6040. are with him. places. hence a name in the Word signifies quality. 1308. Hence "when it is said in the Word respecting any one. 1419. C. C. Joshua. 4197. David. Moses. but only in one person. 1238." (A. 300. see A. R. it comprehends in one complex whatever is in him. Hence we read that when "one is aware that names in the Word signify things . Isaac. 5095. . but when any one is named. 2311. which is represented in the name and in the speech and actions of the person named. E. see A. C. that spiritual state. as the quality of the function. and are in him. of the church. That names signify states. as may also appear to any one from this. see A. Jacob. . 3422. Joseph. 50951 6674. 3443. and were therefore called the sons of one of the sons of Noah. 145. 1876. C. E. In the historical portions of the Word especially do these leading universals appear in the form of names. and the mind enters into the light in which the angels are. but of the thing.) A name also is the ultimate expression of the quality of the thing that is represented by it. or that such shall be his quality. Note well that when a number of persons are named they do indeed signify various things. 4591. and things are therefore essential signs in the literal sense of that which is leading and universal in the spiritual sense. D. C. A. . for in heaven no attention is paid to the name of any one. for instance. The Word thus from natural becomes spiritual. 4298. he is presented in the idea of another according to his quality. See also A. Israel. 2009. 5948. C. We have before us then the reason why it . Hence it is that name. 'This shall be thy name. -which is a spiritual quality or state. C. for in them the principal historical names are repeated continually. 339. C. E. 144. signified by the name. 6888. 1736." (A. 1953. -that is represented by the person named. and still more amongst the angels." (A. that spiritual quality. R. that spiritual truth. 9. A. C. The nations here named also originally had such worship. and that names signify truths. such names as Abraham. 1888. . 148. but names perish. T.) Moreover the Doctrine everywhere teaches that a name in the Word has essentially no respect to the person. 6804. C. see A. 8624. That name signifies also the essence of a thing. 122. 6887. Solomon. or of all things which are his. That by name is also signified reputation.) The names of persons. We are not to regard the person named in the historical or prophetical relation. 1946. see A. A. P. and as the name signifies the quality of any person. 6674. 676. 5225. A. 6887. Hence the angels do not in the least think of the name of any person mentioned in the Word. which in the literal sense is expressed by the name. in the internal sense. in the other life ideas remain. . 165. is the quality. . 3465. See also A. So it is to be in the exposition of the Word in the New Church. C. whereby he is known and distinguished from others. Aaron. that when any person is named on earth. As to what is meant by thing.

The book is a history of the sons of Israel in Egypt. is of very frequent occurrence. signifying God is my judge. In fact we are told in Arcana Coelestia. C. or the phrase sons of Israel. therefore. the advent of the Lord. number 7932 1/2 that this is the subject of the book of Exodus. as represented by Moses. we are furnished with the means of entering into the spiritual sense of any book or portion thereof in the Word. and the establishment by Him of a new heaven and a new church. which indicates the Divine function of judgment. The leading proper name in the book is Daniel. the signification of which. the consummation of the church. what the name of any one is. What is true of Daniel is true of every leading proper name in the Word. Jehovah God coming into the world to perform His Divine work of Redemption. and hence when we know from the Writings what the representation of Israel is. By this striking example. -El or Elohim. namely. it signifies that the name involves something that should be attended to. and then in chapters iii and iv as Jehovah the God of their fathers. . and of the books which follow. is the subject of the spiritual sense. and of the names of the leading persons. that this is the teaching of the Writings concerning the book of Daniel. noting which we obtain the great universal of the book of Exodus. The other universals must also be obtained. therefore. It is needless to add. we have before our minds the universal of the book as it is in respect to man and the church. the most important of these is the fact alluded to above that the last syllable in the name Daniel is the name of the Lord used throughout the book. and contains the general subject of the spiritual sense. There are many other signs in the book of Daniel that the last judgment is the subject treated of in this prophetical book. together with the representation of the leading places mentioned. as here that her name was Hagar. who is now come to deliver them from the hand of the Egyptians. In this book the word Israel. we are shown that when we know the signification of the names of the Lord. We are afforded an illustration of the use of this general law in respect to the names of persons in the book of Daniel.) It is plain. and what follows after it." a knowledge of the spiritual sense of that portion of the Word we are studying will be halting and obscure. and the spiritual deliverance of the church which is represented by Israel. and which becomes from the Divine a function in heaven and the church. But let us illustrate by some further examples. Aaron. -and but seldom Jehovah. Joshua. and at the same time will present the leading idea or doctrine that reigns in the function. especially in the book of Exodus. and of their deliverance from Egyptian bond age. This is because judgment is performed by the Divine Truth which is represented by Elohim. but noting first of all that in the early chapters the Lord is spoken of as God or Elohim. We have an illustration of this law in the use of the proper name Israel in the Word. together with the names of the places mentioned. will present to us the function of that book or chapter. in a book or in a chapter. We may expect to find therefore that the last judgment is the subject of the book of Daniel.is said that "when it is said in the Word. what every New Church student knows. This is the general subject of the literal or historical sense. a Divine and an angelic function. when it is found. The deliverance of the nation called Israel is the subject of the literal sense. 1896. and others. involving what precedes the judgment and renders it necessary. that unless the signification or representation of the leading person be "attended to. That this function is by the Divine truth is evident from the last syllable of the name." (A. and not by the Divine Good which is represented by Jehovah. what takes place in the judgment.

or names of persons. for Peter represents that upon which the church is founded. Now as the other persons mentioned bear a relation in the literal or historical sense to the leading person. as man. woman. and as the Son of Man He is present -throughout the book of Revelation. faith from charity. When we know what Peter represents in Matthew xvi: 13-20. brother. or words involving persons. some one speaking or acting. CHAPTER IX THE PERSON SPEAKING THE PERSON SPEAKING OR ACTING REPRESENTS THE LEADING AND AT THE SAME TIME THE ACTIVE PRINCIPLE OF THE SERIES. or the person prominent and leading speaks about a third person or thing. namely. "Upon this rock I will build my church". the establishment of the New Church. that there are other persons mentioned as associated with him or subordinate to him. When we know that by Lazarus is represented the Gentiles. son. for the New Church is what John represents. priest. The first or Divine universal is the appearing of the Lord in His Divine Human as the God of heaven and earth. father. The leading person represents the universal of the series. and the other persons the generals and particulars contained in that universal. especially when He said. numbers 4345. tribe. we know that the general subject of the internal sense of the eleventh chapter of John is the establishment of a new church with the Gentiles or with nations outside the church. or some one who speaks to another or acts upon another. In every chapter or portion of the Word there is always some one person prominent and leading. For . We shall take up in the two chapters following a further application of the use of proper names. also persons considered collectively. But it is not necessary to multiply illustrations. the Lord afterward appears as the Son of Man. We would here call attention to the fact that under the general rule we are considering it will be necessary to include all titles of functions. 4352. but we would not ignore the fact apparent everywhere. we have before us the subject of the Apocalypse as a whole. so that it is seldom that one person is mentioned without relation to others.When we know the representation of John. 4346. so do the things which they represent in the spiritual sense bear a corresponding relation to each other. or its second leading universal. we have before us the leading spiritual idea of that group of verses. Illustrations of this point may be found throughout the Word." But as the Divine Truth proceeding from the Divine Human is what establishes the church. We have been speaking of the name of the leading person in a chapter or group. as nation. See this point fully illustrated in Arcana Coelestia. such as king. namely. and individually. sister. for the same law is applicable in every case. "The Revelation of Jesus Christ. and can comprehend the significance of the Lord's words to him. which is signified in the opening words of the book. governor. people.

Or it may be that the person who is leading and prominent is acting. is that in him is embodied the activity of a ruling love. whether in the spiritual world or in the natural. to what he says or does. a thought. The value of giving special attention to the person speaking or acting. to the multitude. Joshua. -if we wish to come into a full understanding of its literal statement. to Solomon. or he may be going from one place to another. Every love from the Lord in heaven organizes a function or society. or it is Abraham. but perception and its derivative thought. by which the love exhibits its quality and is seen and known. It is the same with the Word of God. in everything that he speaks or acts from the will by the understanding. For a function. and which is given form in the name of the leading actor or speaker in the historical or prophetic narration. it is frequently said that it signifies the influx of this or that thing which is represented by the person who speaks or acts. or a doctrine. -we must follow closely the words or deeds of the chief speaker or actor. and what we wish to make clear is. to His twelve disciples. Or again the Lord speaks to Moses about the sons of Israel. But where there is a love and a use there is also a principle. or to the Pharisees. to David. doing some deed. Elijah speaks to the prophets of Baal or to Ahab. and in the letter of the Word taking form in a name. in some place. The person speaking or acting represents that which is leading or active in the spiritual sense. It is plain that in every word and deed of a man. or these are spoken to or addressed. The speaker represents that influx or that perception. involves power to act. it is the Lord who speaks or acts. For it is clear that in a written narration or treatise of any kind. taking form in the use of that society. a truth. The chief object of the student is therefore to acquire a view of the leading or general truth which inflows from heaven or through heaven. or John speaks to the seven churches. David. from the Lord when the Word is read. and the derivative thought is expressed in the words that be utters or the thing that he does. to Peter or John. It is some universal truth taking form in function and organization. or John. -this is one of the modes of its appearance. We also read that by speaking is not only signified influx. looking to use. since they correspond in the whole and in every part. therefore the person speaking or acting also represents a doctrine. which is a Man. a perception. The Lord speaks to Moses. The principle we are now considering is one that should be carefully attended to when a chapter of the Word is analyzed for the sake of finding its internal sense. when the signification of what any one says or does is given. organizing power. or Isaiah speaks to Hezekiah about Sennacherib. This ruling love or its activity is represented in the name of the person speaking or acting. These points may be seen illustrated with much variety in the Word everywhere. acting. and in the Writings. by which and in which is the Lord's presence in that function.instance. his ruling love is secretly or openly operative and dominant. or that which inflows. a love reigning in some angelic function. Some love from the Lord in heaven rules and operates in every chapter of the Word. for the spirit and purpose of him who writes will appear in such speech or action. and the principles governing in the literal sense are a guide to the spiritual sense. that this thing of . The rule under consideration is important as leading to this end. Moses speaks to Pharaoh or to the sons of Israel. Moses speaks to Pharaoh about the same. Moses. revealing the perception which governs in the series. The same thing is true of the Word in its literal sense. the leading doctrine of the series. A principle or truth going forth from a ruling love is indeed a living.

In such a study. But in the letter of the Word a still further mediation appears. for the law of opposites will sometimes make its appearance. See Heaven and Hell. or if it was before His coming it was an angel of heaven speaking from Him. or again as the Lord. Son. and the church. this universal truth. and the church is the reactive or the receptive. The person speaking or acting represents something intermediate between the Lord and the church. and the name or names of the persons or things about whom speech is made. This branch of the present rule. heaven is the intermediate. 6000. for in them the Lord speaks immediately to men in the world. a king. or a prophet. by which and from which the Lord speaks to the church. This trinity is represented in the Gospels as the Father. which is essentially the same thing. something from the Lord in and by heaven. exists interiorly in every part of the Word. however. but also the name of the person spoken to. and the Divine Proceeding. is the active in the series. thus something in heaven or in an angelic function. a continuation of the subject of the preceding chapter. though with some variety in form and application. and which therefore should be especially noted in the study of any portion of the Word. 3061. especially the name of the person speaking or acting. and in representation everywhere it appears as the Divine. or Isaiah speaks from the angel of the Lord or from the Human Divine in the heavens. The subject of this chapter is. In each case it is something intermediate between the Lord and the church. Moses is the Divine in heaven. a doctrine. there is not any such mediation. If it is the Lord Himself speaking. We shall also speak more fully in another chapter of the trinity which should be seen and noted when the Word is studied for the sake of discovering its spiritual sense. this function. therefore. Joshua. but as continued and set forth here. For example. 6371. it is the Divine in heaven. also concerning the Human Divine. and Holy Spirit. since it exists in heaven. that speaks. number 1. heaven. appearing in the revelation of the spiritual sense as a truth. 3195. whether it be the Lord or some one representing Him. and what is said is clothed in representatives and correspondences. this active organizing power. Moses. this organized form. and in the literal sense as a proper name. will exhibit a trinity in every part of the Word. it is the Lord speaking to Moses about the sons of Israel. In this series the Lord is the Divine above the heavens. Heaven and Hell. David.which we speak. or the person representing Him. in which we considered the signification and use of proper names in the Word. and afterwards it is Moses representing the Lord speaking to Pharaoh about the same. for an angel speaking was the Human Divine before the Advent. In the Writings. about which we shall speak elsewhere. we wish to enforce the importance of the principle that the leading proper name is a sign in the literal sense of that which is active and dominant in the series of the spiritual sense. we should observe not only the name of the person who speaks. when the Lord speaks to Moses about the sons of Israel. however. a leader. whether it is the Lord or some person who represents Him. or the Divine Human in heaven. or to John about the seven churches. as. and thus represents that Human or Angelic Divine. when applied. and what is said of Abram the Hebrew in Arcana Coelestia. that speaks to the church on earth. for the mediate influx of the Lord is through heaven into the church. 5663. number 101. the Divine Human. The Lord. Arcana Coelestia. in Exodus. numbers 1701-1708. and Israel is the church on . numbers 2803. 6280.

we shall have a clue to the chapter as a whole. "The Opposite Sense. Pharaoh is the imaginary heaven. For instance. and the scribes and Pharisees as reacting against Him. or in what they signify. -we shall then know that these classes of persons are all in view throughout the chapter as the reactive therein. we shall be able to obtain a view of the spiritual sense of the chapter as a whole and in all its parts. we find the following words as introductory: "Then drew near unto Him all the publicans and sinners for to hear Him. In fact the entire story of Exodus is contained in these three names. if we observe that the Lord in the chapter is addressing the publicans and sinners. With these rules applied as indicated. before the Lord begins to speak. and when we note also that they came to hear Him. -who also appear on the scene as expressed in the second verse. as in the instance noted above in the chapters of Exodus. "The Trinity in the Word. or Moses speaking is the Divine. See further on this subject of the three generals of proper names in the chapter. and we find it fully . saying. we shall have the general idea of each parable or each group of the chapter. and the Pharisees and scribes. and the prodigal son. And the Pharisees and scribes murmured saying. and of the prodigal son.* The scribes and Pharisees. Then He spake this parable unto them. and that the latter will present particulars involved in the general of the introduction. Several of the rules will apply to this chapter in Luke. but in an evil sense the opposite." The importance of noting the person or persons addressed may be illustrated in any portion of the Word. "Then drew near unto Him all the publicans and sinners for to hear Him. the rule as to the first thing said." The examination of this chapter of Luke brings into mind a fact of frequent occurrence in the Word. This is a principle in all writing. This will be more especially the case when we also consider the persons or things about which the Lord is speaking. the lost piece of silver. and the prodigal son. will each be but a variation of the leading idea of the first verse. and the elder son. * See the chapter. But let us suppose that we are unable to find any explanation of them in the Writings. in which occur the parables of the lost sheep. In order to obtain a view of this trine it is sometimes necessary to examine several chapters together. This trine appears in some manner everywhere and is indicated in the names that are used. the lost piece of silver. Moses. but with some variety. the friends and neighbors. a kind of preliminary statement or introduction previous to the words of the speaker. and we are able then to safely conclude that the signification of the lost sheep. for instance. The chapter opens with the words. or the Jews.earth. namely. If we obtain from the Writings the signification of the lost sheep. They should be examined as a whole in order to bring before the mind a view of the trinity as represented in the names Jehovah. The signification of the scribes and Pharisees will bear directly upon what is meant by the ninety and nine." The three parables of the chapter then follow. It is plain that the use of an introduction is to give a general idea of what follows. and of the lost piece of silver. the publicans and sinners as reacting with the Lord. and Israel is the church as before. and Israel. represent in a good sense the celestial church. This man receiveth sinners and eateth with them. we might then have recourse to certain of the general principles of exposition." The signification of publicans and sinners is given in the Writings. and find the signification of hear. which we are endeavoring to set forth in this work. In addition to this. Let us take for example the fifteenth chapter of Luke. But the law of opposites must also be noted.

This subject is set forth in Arcana Coelestia. for it is said that when the disciples were gathered around the Lord on the mountain. Both must be noted. in explanation of the words. And God came to Abimelech. This thought or doctrine is developed in the internal sense of the words which follow. In the introductory words of any series. the publicans and sinners in this sense are the simple good everywhere in all time. He went up into a mountain. and concerning the attitude of the Pharisees towards them and towards the Lord Himself. Teaching is doctrine. but the former are the first words of the chapter. and continually desire to know the truth. but another step is necessary which is to find the signification of the first thing said by the Lord. therefore. On examination we find that by a mountain. and seventh chapters: "And seeing the multitude. In the opening words of the fifth chapter of Matthew. and the Lord on a mountain. and said to him. sixth. or the doctrine. and that they know only when they are taught of the Lord.2517. that the internal church is established by means of doctrine from the Word. namely. This general in the literal sense is concerning the publicans and sinners. His disciples came unto Him. it is said that He came by night. as being the first group in the Sermon on the Mount. but since it was an obscure perception. "Blessed are the poor in spirit. By the poor in spirit are meant those who see and acknowledge that they know nothing of themselves. we have indicated to us in these introductory words. "Time in the Word. "And God came to Abimilech in a dream by night. (See the chapter. introductory to the Blessings. is signified the perception of the Lord in His Human concerning the doctrine of faith. and when He was set. but the Pharisees are those who falsify and pervert the truths of religion for selfish and worldly ends." By spirit is meant the understanding." The latter words are the first that were said by the Lord to His disciples on this occasion. in order to obtain a view of the principle which reigns in the series of the Sermon on the Mount. The introduction also indicates another thing. who. and the internal sense of both beginnings be found. as being introductory to the chapter. Without this acknowledgment no internal church can be established with men. opening with the words. "Blessed are the poor in spirit. The three parables in this chapter of Luke give therefore the particulars involved in the general of the first and second verses. and who are in hatred of the good and of the Lord. and since the internal church is what the Lord came into the world to establish.") By the words And said unto him. are affirmative to the teachings of Divine Revelation. who in this case is God. we have therefore presented to us a perception of the internal church and the . We are taught that by the words. and then follow the words of him who speaks. We have now obtained the universal of the series.exemplified in the Sacred Scripture. Let us take the fifth chapter of Matthew as another example. is signified the internal of the church in which the Lord is present. and in what follows is the thought from that perception. or to the Sermon on the Mount which occupies the fifth." We find here introductory words. He opened His mouth and taught them. even though as yet in evils of life. and He opened His mouth and taught them. and these first words indicate the state of understanding with those who are to receive the teaching of the Lord in His coming. we have exhibited to us the perception of a universal. and their willingness to hear the Lord's teaching. saying. Hence this is the leading idea of the Blessings. numbers 2513. But since what is general in the letter is universal in the spiritual sense." Then follow the Blessings. which was hostile. The following words occur. is signified thought from that perception. that the internal church and its establishment is the subject of the group of three chapters.

and then to find the representation of the person or persons to whom he speaks. NATURAL OR IN THE CHURCH WITH MEN. valley. It is now in order to bring into view the third or final class. because the Lord is there. therefore. therefore. the student may feel confident that he has been led safely to the discovery of the reigning principle of the series of the internal sense. indicating the mode by which the universal truth perceived is carried into effect. In the chapters immediately preceding we have spoken of the fact that there are in general three classes of proper names in the Word. CHAPTER X PLACE AND THE NAMES OF PLACES THE PLACE WHERE AN EVENT OCCURS REPRESENTS THE DIVINE OF THE LORD IN THE. disciples. the names of the Lord. or a perception of that universal. east. such as heaven. the Divine is also in . wilderness. the development of the doctrine by which the establishment takes place. Let us note at once that if a place is not mentioned by name. land. and in the first words of the speaker we find the leading thought. If what is discovered in this way be confirmed by the application of certain of the other rules of exposition. earth. it will be found profitable to take note of the trinity in the Word which we have herein indicated: that is. namely. We would also repeat here what has been said be fore in respect to proper names in general. without which he has no sure guide in unfolding the particulars of the chapter before him. by doctrine from the Word. A student of the Sacred Scripture. as well as to those words which introduce his first words. and finally to find the representation or signification of the persons or things about whom or about which there is speech. forest. river. which is introductory to what he is about to say.mode of its establishment. and we have considered the first and second of these classes of names. It will readily be seen that this embraces in general all things of the chapter. mountain. in what the Lord says to His. Concerning the threefold Divine thus represented we are taught that "with the Divine in the Word the case is this: the Divine itself is in the supreme sense of the Word. and which contains the universal of the series. will pay especial heed to the first words of a speaker. to find what is represented by the person who speaks and takes the leading part in the chapter. sea. the names of the places where the events occur as related in the Scripture story. then follows. and the names of places. that the name of the Lord represents the Divine above the heavens. desiring to find its internal sense. In all study of the Word. There is nearly everywhere something said before the person speaks. and west. or in the prophetical narration. the name of the chief person the Divine in the heavens. and the name of the leading place the Divine in the church or in the natural where the church is. Examples of this mode of procedure occur throughout the Word. the names of persons. there is usually some term that involves place. plain. and knowing that it is not surely found without the discovery of the leading principle or doctrine of the series.

"That it is said. These significations of places are usually given in the Writings. however. or in the land of Canaan. John is on the Isle of Patmos. See further on this subject in the chapter. or city. but not in every case. He is with them on the sea in the midst of a storm. Moses is in Midian." (A. and this for a spiritual reason. John the Baptist is preaching in the wilderness of Judaea. The teaching is clear and direct about the importance of the signification of the names of places in the Word. because there is the Lord's kingdom on the earth. for everything universal in the Word ultimates itself in some form or manner in the letter thereof. for the gross appearances there are more remote from the Divine. in a desert. since what are called exceptions are likely to occur. hence that sense is called celestial and spiritual. by a river." (S. because there is the Lord's kingdom in the heavens. is but an appearance. or what is called an exception. hence that sense is called external and also natural. he does not proclaim his mission on a mountain or by the sea. He is in the wilderness. what they say and do is said and done in a certain place. or is baptising in the Jordan. or as a child He is taken down into Egypt. the Israelites are in Egypt. in Moab. It must be evident at once that a given place mentioned has a significant bearing on the spiritual sense of the series. and his posterity from Jacob were introduced into it. as represented in the three classes of proper names. the Divine is also in the literal sense of the Word. Daniel is in Babylon. or He is on a ship teaching the multitude on the shore. can be obtained indirectly by means of the principles of exposition. in the wilderness. the general law or principle remaining the same. fountain. 3439.) This is the Divine Trinity of the Word. region. or on the sea. places which are mentioned in the Ancient Word. "Abram was commanded to go to that land. he is perhaps on a mountain. that the Church will be resuscitated where a . He is in Jerusalem or beyond the Jordan. or where a thing is done. A variation from a given rule. Samaria. He is sitting on a mountain teaching His disciples. or on a ship. he does not preach nor baptize in Jerusalem. be prepared for variations from this and other rules. We can. Me exception or variation arises from the operation of some other law. The speaker is present. C. which we have collated from the Writings in this work. "The Trinity in the Word. and hence that the spiritual sense is not completely before us until we shall have found the signification of the place where the thing is said or done. in a certain land. and produces thus the appearance of variation. nor could it be said or done in any other place. one of these forms is now before us. since no one form or force can approach or act upon another without modifying it. as may be seen from the following passages: We are told that on account of the representation of places in the land of Canaan where the Ancient Church was. for there are some words and some names whose significations are not directly revealed.the internal sense. be confident that what is not given directly in the way of explanation. however. The Lord is in Galilee. or Judaea.) We read further. and a close examination will show that the law still holds. S. 102. he is in a tent or a house. or an event is described as taking place. as we shall now see." We must. well. The same thing is true of all those who are mentioned in the Word. and that Trinity appears even in its literal formation and arrangement. Now in respect to place we find mention in the Word everywhere of the place where the speaker is.

when a child.] Hence also it was that Abraham was ordered to go thither. in the land of Canaan. 50 in full. therefore David was commanded to go there to be anointed king." (A. because "Hebron represented the Lord's spiritual church. for He might have been born in a king's palace. For the same reason Abraham and Joseph and Jacob went down into Egypt. in which all and single things were to be representative and significative of things spiritual and celestial. and by their sojourning. C. and also that the posterity of Jacob were introduced thither. 4298. were representative of such things as are of the Lord's kingdom. therefore for the sake of that signification Abraham was commanded to sojourn in Philistia. if He had so chosen. and for this reason that He was born in a stable and not in an inn. therefore. as well provinces as cities. but because from the most ancient times all the places there. and this not because that land was more holy than other lands. and not to Assyria. and also to any person. signified the nations about to receive the truths of doctrine revealed by the Lord for the use of the Christian Church. because of the states to be represented. or Greece. In fact all persons mentioned in the Word. for every name which is given from heaven to any place. It was for this reason that He was born in Bethlehem. E." (A. and all by whom the Word was written. led to places that were significant of the things they were about to speak or do.) It was necessary also that John should go to the Isle of Patmos in order that the things that were to take place in the end of the church might be there represented. or Arabia. C. the instruction of the Lord in the truths and goods of faith and love. involves what is celestial and spiritual. because an island. and hence prophets were there raised up by whom the Word was written. which could not in any wise have been the case unless the names of places and of persons were also significative.) We also read that "inasmuch as by Philistia was signified the science of the interior truths of faith. and the names themselves. . 9340. C. and thus the Word might be understood in heaven as well as on earth.) For the same reason it was necessary that David should dwell for a time in Hebron. and also mountains and rivers. which were given them. 6516. why the church was again to be established there was because the Word was to be given. 4310. Hence it is evident why it is said that a church was to be resuscitated where a former church had been. but for the sake of the representation it was necessary that a stable should be the place of His birth. Hence it is that the posterity of Jacob were introduced thither. and by Abraham and Isaac was represented the Lord. especially an island between Asia and Greece. and which were to be represented in Him. and when it is given from heaven it is then perceived there. and also Isaac. in order that they might represent anew the same things that the places represented. C. and he afterward reigned in Hebron seven years and six months.former church had been. and not in some other place." (A. and the most ancient church which was celestial and had communication with heaven.. The reason. was the church which gave the names. involved such things. 2909. also A. and not to some other place (See A. taken into Egypt. were. is because the Lord's church from the most ancient times had been there [that is. and on this account also the representative of a church was instituted among the posterity of Jacob. into which He was to enter. He was also. and had represented from the time of the Ancient Church. This was true even of the Lord Himself when He was in the world. 10559). which are of Divine wisdom.

14. those things in the letter that are representative of general truths should receive special attention in any attempt to analyze a chapter in the Word if we would enter into the internal sense according to order. or while from natural it is becoming spiritual. or a wilderness could not represent this most perfect state. such as are seen in heaven. after their departure from Egypt had a similar representation. not a cultivated field. but that of the people of the Most Ancient Church. and times. and. namely. and half a time. is chosen to represent the most perfect state of intelligence that has yet existed with the human race. nor a garden or paradise. and which is represented by the leading person. xii: 6.) The subject of the chapter in which these two verses occur is the state of the New Church in its beginning. as well as to the person who plays the leading part. A. was represented the state in which every spiritual church is. It is not the intelligence of the people of the Ancient Church. when it is as yet natural and confined to a few. All these points should be noted. a field. where she hath a place prepared of God. but all are subordinate to that which is leading. E. and thus the principles which these subordinate proper names represent. from the face of the serpent. This early state of the church could not be represented by any other place' The wanderings of the children of Israel in the wilderness. but it was eastward in Eden. or in Babylon. . are also subordinate to the leading principle of doctrine which is active in the chapter in its internal sense. nor can the spiritual history. Each thing there is significant. and thus is being prepared for its future increase among many. nor of the Christian Church. where the event occurs. however trifling they may appear at first glance. we read that "the woman fled into the wilderness. 7313. and that it could not be elsewhere than in the east and in Eden we see when we find what the east and what Eden signify.In further illustration of the importance of noting the signification of places in general. for in this place where they were for so long a time. It is not said of this garden that it was in Egypt. signified by the long journey of the Israelites previous to their entrance into the land of Canaan. the Most Ancient Church is called the garden of God. the celestial intelligence of the people of the Most Ancient Church. It may be well to repeat here that in any given chapter there are for the most part a number of proper names." (Rev. that they should feed her there a thousand two hundred and threescore days". that she might fly into the wilderness into her place. and the reason is found in the signification of the east. be understood unless the signification of a wilderness be kept in mind. nor of those of the New Church in its beginning. or in Assyria. A grove. nor a forest of noble trees. and also the garden of Eden. a forest. but a wild desert place. in its beginning (A. Sometimes there are also subordinate proper names that have relation to the place mentioned. In contrast with this wilderness state. the very opposite of a wilderness. and its protection by the Lord at that time. and that "to the woman were given the wings of a great eagle. One of these generals of representation is the name of the place where the events take place as related in the Scripture narrative. this early or first state of the church is represented by a wilderness. as we have already shown. Hence a beautiful garden or paradise. and of the name Eden. where she is nourished for a time. nor of those of the Jewish Church. or to the name of the person who acts the leading part. 731). For there is nothing in the literal sense of the Word that is trivial. that was represented. C. hence the place to which the woman fled is a wilderness.

It is the same throughout the Old Testament and also in the New. and thus more removed from space.The question may arise why it is that place represents the natural. but was in Rome? Why is the New Church called Jerusalem and the New Jerusalem? and so in numberless instances throughout the Word. Moses first appears as an infant concealed in an ark or little boat in the river Nile. and it is different from the signification of every other place. With the children of Israel be passes from place to place in the desert until they reach the land of Moab on the banks of the Jordan. which it is necessary to know in order to understand the internal sense of each stage in the journey. He returns again from Midian to the land of Egypt. One reason has been indicated. or the Divine above the heavens. In fact. and the representation of Abraham is changed or adapted to the signification of the place in which he is. and what is most completely removed from the idea of place or space. that a place is the third term in the trinity of names in the Word-the first being the name of the Lord. The place where the leading person is. when it was never in Babylon. Take for an example the story of Abraham. In the historical sense places are mentioned where events occur. "Time in the Word. each place in turn being given a name. Or let us take the story of Moses and the children of Israel. He is afterwards in Midian. more universal. Why is the woman represented as being in a wilderness and not in a cultivated field? Why is the Roman Catholic Church pictured as Babylon. and thus in the sensual natural. He is at first in Ur of the Chaldees. for a further example. and each name having a special signification. the second being the name of the person. why are the seven churches spoken of in the first chapter as being in Asia. the south. The place is always mentioned. 21). or the Divine in the natural or in the church. The Lord or the names of the Lord represent life itself. and is with the children of Israel as their leader in all their wanderings in the wilderness.. or the Divine in the heavens. and from there be returns to Bethel and Ai. for all objects seen are in space. Ai. 40. Then he is in Pharaoh's palace as the son of Pharaoh's daughter. then in the oak grove of Moreh. See the chapter. E. limited. all of which shows how necessary it is to know the signification of each place in which he sojourns. as we have already learned. and in the prophetical Word . and space is in the natural degree. In that land he proceeds from place to place. sojourning in each for a time-first in Shechem. We now present another reason. have a separate and distinct signification in the internal sense. without a knowledge of which we shall as it were grope in the dark and our knowledge of the meaning will be one-sided. R. A person represents what is more interior. A. more living. and so on to the end of his career. thus what is most universal. and finally he is out of the land of Canaan in Egypt. the land of Canaan at the south. What is true of space is also true of time. After a sojourn in Egypt he is again in. then he is in Haran. In the Apocalypse. as well as all the other persons mentioned in the Word. 11. and successively he is in Bethel. which is. is led to each place because of its signification. he. He is always in some place and the place is mentioned by name. and narrow. and the third being the name of the place. and the place where the events occur as connected with him. and in Arcana Coelestia the signification of each place is given. and that any particular place represents something in the natural. that places pertain to space. and from Haran he goes to the land of Canaan. namely. when the church signified by them was not established in Asia but in Europe? (See A." Let us now introduce some further illustrations exhibiting the use of knowing the signification of the places where the events occur as recorded in the sacred text.

Hence as spaces are. pointing and leading to the generals of the internal sense. and as states are everywhere treated of in the internal sense. where it is said. His . period. C. He went up into a mountain. and space or place to good (A. as an aid in acquiring a broad and comprehensive view of that sense. as. in all parts of it. and winter. E. since the Word in its literal sense is in time. the day and the time of day. -the week. summer. it will at least be found as involved or understood in what is said. the ages of certain persons are given and perhaps the time of their birth and death (A. AFFORDS AN IMPORTANT INDICATION OF THE SPIRITUAL SENSE OF ANY PASSAGE IN THE WORD. 1219). there must be something of time. It is necessary to know what these states are in order to obtain a broad and comprehensive view of that sense. and these significations must be obtained. 4901). We therefore conclude that the name of the Lord in any passage. evening. or duration of an event. in order that we may see its bearing upon the understanding of any portion of the Word in searching for the spiritual sense thereof. and this not only in a physical but also in a spiritual idea. that we have in this principle of interpretation a guide to the student of the internal sense of the Word. Let us now therefore enter into the consideration of time. and midnight. These or other allusions to time are in all parts of the Word. Let us take for example the first verse of the fifth chapter of Matthew. CHAPTER XI TIME IN THE WORD THE TIME WHEN AN EVENT OCCURS. The subject of time is one that follows naturally after that of place. for progressions through spaces are also progressions through times. the month. and time also has relation to truth. In fact. Thus there is hardly a verse that may not in some way be brought under an idea of time. and when He was set. night. and none in the passage that goes before or in the one that follows after. autumn. C. there is seldom a chapter where there is not some such reference to time. for time and place or space are two things that are associated together. OR ANY MENTION OF TIME.places are mentioned where the recorded events do not occur. -the dawn. the name of the leading person therein. are among the most valuable signs placed in the literal sense of the Word." (A. We find frequent mention in the Scripture of the time. and they are there as sign-posts pointing to certain general states in the spiritual sense. spring. "And seeing the multitudes. even where no direct mention of time is made. the year and the time of year. 8325). morning. It would seem then. as. so are times. or some suggestion of time. which are related to the subject treated of in the series. Hence if there is no direct reference to time in any given passage. noon. if we would enter with knowledge and understanding into the stream of the internal sense in any given portion of the Word. and the name of the chief place mentioned. It is all on account of the spiritual significance of the several places.

We may assume also that his journey was in the light of day. marching. and has a value looking to the spiritual sense in the idea of progression from state to state. seasons. dancing. or from state to state. and the thing spiritually signified by time is present in the spiritual sense. which is the reason that there is in the thought of the angels no idea of time. It may be remarked that the motion of the earth in its annual journey around the sun. -progression from place to place. or periods." (Matt. at which time He will teach or give light to His disciples. -"and when He was set. and elsewhere. iv: 17. used in respect to the Lord. is the natural origin of what we call time. His disciples came unto Him." This also refers in general to the advent of the Lord. in fact in all rhythmical. leaping. The third is found in the word when. Since progression carries the idea of time." The spiritual origin of time is in the spiritual states of which we have spoken. as we have said. For the spiritual sense of the Word is above the sphere of nature where time is. as are all things of the spiritual world. Hence all motion has relation to time and is in time. Thus the event mentioned in Matthew v: 1. and the mention of time in the letter of the Word points to this its spiritual origin. or progressive motion. and to them which sat in the region and shadow of death light is sprung up. running. occupied in the building is present as understood. to the spiritual state in which the angels are. and not in the darkness of the night. which will be given when the Lord comes into the world." These words refer to the light of day. although there is no direct mention of any particular time. Let us take for an example the phrase. in what is said in the previous chapter." The time or number of days of his journey may not be expressed. and to all who are signified by them.* as well as in all poetry and music. and its daily revolution on its own axis. from thing to thing." In connection with this verse there are three references to time. For the time when. But there is still a connection and a relation. -we can see that it is never absent in the Word. If a chapter in the Word should describe the building of a house. It is also involved in all progression from one thing to another. successive. and there remains instead thereof the idea of the state which is signified by the time mentioned.disciples came unto Him. since sight is in the light of day. ** Time in its relation to space has already been referred to in this chapter. the time or progression of time. still it is there. or state of enlightenment. or oscillation in nature. Time. in all expansion and contraction. as when one is on a journey. in all motion through space.) This follows the verse where it is said. is involved in all progress from place to place. and we have also made some remarks on it in the chapter on "Place and the Names of Places. who have passed beyond the region of time with the death of the body. but of that which is the origin of all times. first. "The people which sat in darkness saw great light.* . It is thus that in the spiritual sense the idea of time disappears. in the chapter on the Lungs. "Jacob went down into Egypt. Time is thus involved in walking.** * Those interested in this phase of the subject would do well to read Swedenborg's remarks on oscillation in The Animal Kingdom. "From that time began Jesus to preach. took place at the time when "Jesus began to preach. the connection and relation by correspondence of the natural effect with its own spiritual cause." The second reference to time is found in the use of the word seeing. as when a man builds a house. can refer to nothing else than His advent. It becomes therefore a universal of interpretation.

which is the essential coming of the Lord. successive. S. present. are mere appearances. and the literal sense of the Word. C. that is. but in the group of verses which follow. signifies in a wide natural sense an interval or a period of time of indefinite length. D. time. present. It is plain that a most important qualification occurs in the use of the phrase. "in that night". C. being in the same sphere. and future. or periods. is because all states have also their periods. or a year. we see reasons for making use of this rule in respect to time in any effort to analyze the literal sense of the Word. as has been shown (A. but in the most general divisions of past.sense of the above words. When we are told that "the Lord appeared unto Isaac in that night and said. there was obscure perception (A. or as one of the general guides in the letter of the Word leading to the internal sense. a week." (A. 5253)." (Gen. week. progress and end. however. not only in the . as for instance in the following: "A whole period is designated in the Word by a day. hence it is eminently proper that we should regard an expression of time as one of the keys to the truth of any series of the internal sense. in its state of consummation. . Time appears there not only in the particular divisions of the day. Now since the words "The Lord appeared . their beginning. is pervaded with the idea of both time and space. especially when we realize that the internal sense is entered by means of the generals of the letter. and that the mention in the Word of a day. 3438). and that we are justified in regarding it as a principle of interpretation. "The reason why a week. and said" signify perception. but also concerning periods. C. 3973). "In that day" also signifies the period or state that existed at the time of the coming of the Lord. 618. Time and space have their origin in nature. since the phrase "in that day" always has this signification (L. . 2044. 4). The general division of time into past. but also generals of state. not only concerning states. and the year. a modification. the past and the future and all expressions of time. and person (A. the month. like the days in Genesis 1. 3845. but these are not perceived as times in the other life. as are all times in particular." (A. even if it were one of a hundred or a thousand years. none in heaven. when entrance is made into the internal sense. is a state and also a period. such as day. but as states and their revolutions.) A period is defined as "a stated and recurring interval of time. space. more generally an interval of time specified or left indefinite. These terms. a week. thus none in the spiritual sense of the Word. month.) Again. 1382. we can see what an important modification occurs when the phrase "in that . and hence do not pass into the internal sense.* There are three things in general that perish from the letter of the Word. When we read in the Writings. by which are signified the periods of the regeneration of the man of the Most Ancient Church. There is thus . 893. C. and future. a month. C. signify not only generals of time. or a year. but it represents an entire period. is merely referred to here in order to show that the idea of time as well as of space is everywhere in the letter of the Word. xxvi: 24) we learn that by these words is signified that in the church for a long period of time." It is clear therefore that a period is a general of time. But as there is no time with the Lord. a month. for night is not only a single night and a condition of obscure vision.night" is added. year. Let us illustrate by some examples.

"For the time is at hand. because. that there should be time no longer. Let us quote some passages from it.) Here the word time indicates a general period in which a . and the revelation of doctrine which He then effects. -a state opposed to charity. who receive the doctrine then revealed. and keep. the time is at hand. and the signification of the subordinate generals read. and it speaks of those who read. and faith. because the state is such that no one could be saved. . hear. we then turn to the word time. and the words exhibit this as a leading idea of the series. Similar or related is the signification of the word time in the following passages: "The angel . We might know from the signification of the word prophecy that the coming of the Lord is meant. and a state of external sanctity in which there is the heat of self-love. Any one who has studied the Apocalypse will have noticed the mention of time as one of the remarkable features of that work. and they that hear the words of this prophecy. but as there is no reference to the state of the church in the first long sentence of the verse. But they will be blessed. and to the state which renders His coming necessary. unless new doctrine were revealed. and keep "this prophecy. the spiritual sense of which. as we shall discover. or year in reference to the period of the coming of the Lord. for the time is at hand. The time which is at hand is here the period of the Lord's second coming. "But pray ye that your flight be not in the winter. as to a dearth of charity and love. . x: 6. On finding that these words involve the revelation of doctrine and the reception of it. as well as the prevailing state in the consummation of the church. For. it would be necessary to find the signification of prophecy. This verse is fully explained in the Writings." This is the closing verse of the introduction to the Apocalypse. relates to the coming of the Lord. hear. at which time the church is in such a state as to render His coming necessary to save men. "Blessed is he that readeth. because time is significative in each case of a leading general of the spiritual sense." It is a common thing in Scripture to use the word time. and to the state of the church which makes His coming." (Matt. . in order that we may see more fully illustrated the importance and value that is attached to the idea of time in the Sacred Scripture. neither on the sabbath day." It is because of this state that the coming is effected. are informed that they cannot leave the old and enter the new except by the removal of those things that are signified by winter and the Sabbath day." (Rev. In Revelation i: 3.exhibited a general of the series which it is important to know. The few in whom there are still some remains of innocence and charity. in the end of." that is. It is then added that "the time is at hand. that is. the general of the verse. day. sware by Him that liveth for ever and ever . and obey it in their life. The same thing is illustrated in the words of the Lord to His disciples. . We call attention first to certain passages where the word time itself is used. in the hint which is given us in the mention of the time of the appearing of the Lord to Isaac. xxiv: 20. a necessity. and keep those things which are written therein. illustration. the church.) The reference here is not so much to a defect of perception. we have these words. So it is in the verse we are considering. but supposing it were not directly explained. the words are added. that is saved. of those who receive and live according to the doctrine of the New Church when it is revealed to them.

" (Rev." (Rev. and the third part of the moon. clothed in sackcloth. 759-761. But for a full explanation of these two verses. and who shall be able to stand. xxiv: 17. namely. 547. for instance. in Revelation xx: 2-7. or Moses. and they stood upon their feet. and the third part of the stars.certain state prevailed. Jacob. that she might fly into the wilderness into her place. viii: 12. 561. a state in which there was some understanding of the Word. In the prophets throughout. It will thus be seen that some general idea of time is always understood. which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world. and elsewhere." These words refer to that early period of the New Church. xlix. and the third part of the sun was smitten. rendering the coming necessary. even where there is no particular mention of any portion of time. xviii: 15. xvi: 14. Numbers. The use of the word time here also shows that the combat during this period is a combat for or against the truth of the church. Also what is signified by a thousand years.) "And I will give power unto my two witnesses. . in fact time is frequently referred to in such phrases as in that day' in those days. xi: 11. and the day shone not for a third part of it. iii: 15. but that now or at the end of the church this is no more. numbers 729-732. as revealing the state of the church in the period indicated. where she is nourished for a time. 562. for the harvest of the earth is ripe. and great fear fell upon them which saw them. -as in Genesis. This general idea of time is involved even in the historical portions of the Word. 15. working miracles. since everything in those portions looks to the coming of the Lord." (Rev.) "And after three days and a half the spirit of life from God entered into them. especially when the idea of persecution by the dragon is added. but which now ceases to exist. xiii: 5. or Lot.) "And the fourth angel sounded. as. from the face of the serpent. so as the third part of them was darkened.) "For they are the spirits of devils. to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty. and half a time. This last state is called the "time of the dead" in Revelation xi:18." (Rev. Day has a similar signification in the following verses: "For the great day of his wrath is come. repeated six times. "And the woman fled into the wilderness. See also in the same what is signified by month in Revelation ix: 5. at that time. and The Apocalypse Explained. and times. xiv: 15. and the wilderness as the place of the woman's abode indicates that the period is one of temptation. that they should feed her there a thousand two hundred and sixty days." (Rev. or whenever prophecy occurs. numbers 546. verse 6.) Again we have these words in Revelation xii: 14: "And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle. while it is slowly increasing from a few to many. and signifies the state which then existed. xi: 2. The same also is signified where it is said that "the time is conic for thee to reap." Day has a signification like that of time. Deuteronomy. and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and threescore days. and the night likewise. a period of temptation." (Rev. Joseph. vi: 17. see The Apocalypse Revealed. -the time of the coming of the Lord is understood even if it is not mentioned. Isaac. 10. when Abraham is mentioned. The same in general is signified by these words. xi: 3. where she hath a place prepared of God. and this when examined will be found to have an important bearing on the spiritual sense.) See the explanation of these verses in the two works referred to above.

by numbers of days and years. of which the following passage is a further example: "That by days and years are signified times and states." (A. 6175. and many other cases where the numbers signify something peculiar. and the spiritual sense of the Word partakes more of this quality of the Infinite than do the things which are of nature. and that are in time and space. according to the signification of the numbers. . See also A. .) The things of time and space. In fact we read that "he who does not know the signification of numbers in the Word . Since numbers are of frequent use in the literal sense of the Word. . which takes its form from nature. as that there are six days of labor. needs no further explication. C. These two. 2252. or verse. affords an essential indication pointing to the spiritual sense of any chapter under consideration. for God Himself or the Infinite is one. Number therefore appears with natural creation or when time and space come into existence. Now since the spiritual sense is not divided into mechanical or material parts. 5265. that the jubilee should be proclaimed every forty-ninth year. it clearly follows that when a number occurs in a chapter. or any portion of time. what appears as number in nature appears as quality and state in the realm of spirit. and the apostles of the Lord the same. we have much teaching in the Writings. and also by numbers of measures. and as many disciples of the Lord. as nature is. cannot know many of the arcana which are contained therein. .) Concerning the importance in general of the numbers mentioned in Scripture. abstracted from the things to which they are applied. it is placed there as a sign of something in the spiritual sense necessary to be known before We are ready to enter fully into the interior things of Divine wisdom. and that the seventh day is holy. 493. that the tribes of Israel were twelve. but whenever they are applied in the Word.We are therefore safe in concluding that the mention of time." (A. Hence the spiritual sense cannot be parted. there is signified something abstracted from times and measures. 900. -to which numbers are applicable. in the Word. and the things related thereto. and in such abstracted sense. and since much is said in the Writings of their importance and signification. . and thus the teaching is that time and space or place. It is from this ground that numbers in the Word signify states. and celebrated on the fiftieth. modifying and qualifying the leading truth thereof. correspond to states in the spiritual world. and numbered as the things of time and space. that there were seventy elders. paragraph. 10. and thus is not divided into parts that can be numbered. are the things that are numbered. being the two universals of nature. R. -because they are in the ultimates of nature. it is only to be mentioned that in the world there must needs be times and measures. C. divided. are also universal in the literal sense of the Word. states are what are signified by numbers. CHAPTER XII NUMBERS IN THE WORD A NUMBER USED IN ANY PASSAGE IN THE WORD PRESENTS AN ESSENTIAL MODIFICATION OF THE LEADING IDEA OF THE SPIRITUAL SENSE. . time and space.

R. The great use and value of numbers in the Word being therefore taken for granted. H. This leads us to the second proposition.) It is clear therefore that we should give attention to a number used in any passage. it is through generals.. There are various signs indicating the presence of these subordinate generals. especially the leading number in a series. It will. for it is said that He was led into the wilderness to be tempted of the devil. that these three are essentially one." (A." (A. which is the subject of the chapter or paragraph 'where the number is found.) "Number signifies the . numerical writing involves more arcana than literal. in order to understand the spiritual sense of any passage where the number appears. R." (H. 429. . -it is important to discover what it signifies. adding some quality to the thing treated of. a door that is open when we know the signification of the number. . -as the number seven in the Apocalypse. and is also of frequent occurrence in a book of the Word. which is that during this period He was in a state of humiliation or temptation.) "Number signifies the quality of the thing treated of." (A. The first proposition is. E. however.) "By a number is signified the quality of a thing or of a state. (See also A. second. and since one general involves innumerable particulars. and only through them. or doctrine. but there are also subordinate generals which it is necessary to know. 263. The number forty is used here as elsewhere to indicate the general truth that the subject or state treated of is one that is attended with temptations. and that when a number occupies a prominent position in a chapter or paragraph. That a number signifies the quality of a thing we have the following teaching: "Numbers in the Word signify the quality of the things with which they are coupled. This is in fact actually stated. E.But the teachings on the importance of number are so numerous and so well known. and the words used are the particular truths contained in the general. as we are taught. that a number occurring in the Word. The words used give expression to the innumerable particulars involved in the description.) The generals Which numbers involve are general truths in any given passage. and. In the teaching of the Writings concerning numbers and their signification we find in general three things that bear upon an understanding of the subject: first. third. principle. that there is a proper entrance into the particulars of the Word. indicates some general truth which it is necessary to know. one of which is the leading number used. since its signification will bring to view a leading general truth of the spiritual sense. we feel justified in concluding that a knowledge of the spiritual law of number has an essential place among the principles of exposition. that they are like an adjunct or adjective. . The quality itself is determined by the number expressed. This is taught as follows: "Numbers involve generals and words particulars. that they signify a quality or state connected with the leading subject. the number forty in Matthew iv: 1-11 involves and expresses a general truth concerning the glorification of the Lord's Human. 453. that they indicate in each case a general truth of the series. become clear as we proceed. since it evidently stands there as one of the doors of entrance to the spiritual sense. 1063. 738. There is always a leading general truth in every chapter. 448. that numbers signify a quality or state connected with the leading thing. that it does not appear necessary to quote further. For instance.

Therefore by 'a great multitude which no one could number.) "Numbers signify things or rather they are like certain adjectives to substantives bringing or adding some quality to the things.) It will appear therefore that the number occurring in any passage does not usually signify the main thing. It may be seen from the things here said. This is signified in general by the twelve tribes of Israel. and by the twelve thousand out of each tribe. In the Word are described the states of the Human of the Lord in the process of His glorification. but the quality of a thing.) "It must always be known that numbers in the Word signify the qualities of the things which are described. since the Word is the Lord who is a Man." (A.quality of the thing treated of." (A. But what is here signified by each tribe will be told in what follows. but in particular some truth from good by every tribe and by every apostle. R. numbers for the most part are used. and is also in unity with the first. that which is prime and leading in the internal sense. that the multitude was vast. In order to understand the relation of quality and state to each other. is not meant that just so many were sealed and elected out of the tribes of Israel. the state of the life of man is his quality as to understanding and will. R. 10. . 348. 364." (A. they therefore signify also all things of the church." (A. according to the words. E. thence it is manifest. 841. which are called understanding and will. but all who are in truths of doctrine from the good of love from the Lord. This proposition simply gives a wider or fuller view of the second. let us examine the following teaching: "The state of the life of man. and as to the things which are of the will. The third proposition is. and the twelve apostles the same. and is thus nearly equivalent to form. and at the same time the states of man in the process of his regeneration. that by the hundred and forty-four thousand sealed. and because two faculties which make the life are in every man." (A. on which account the twelve tribes of Israel represented the church. that by changes of the state of life are meant changes of quality as to the things which are of the understanding. L. which as we read are "changes of the quality as to the things which are of the understanding and as to the things which are of the will. Since the twelve tribes signify all truths of doctrine from the good of love from the Lord. . and the two be seen together. R. or that which exhibits what a thing is.) "The reason why to number in the spiritual sense signifies to know the quality.' is meant in the natural sense. 738.) What is said in this passage of a man is also true of the Word. It is that form which distinguishes a thing from other things." (C. adding some quality to the thing treated of. is his quality. and that quality is determined by the number affixed. and also by the Lord's twelve apostles. These states are continually changing. E. but in the spiritual sense that no one but the Lord alone knows their quality. but something . But a quality that is spiritual is not fully known unless there be allied to it the idea of state. The teaching concerning this feature of the subject is as follows: "That all numbers signify the adjuncts of things. It was said above that a number signifies a quality or state connected with the leading subject. 184.) "Numbers are like adjectives connected with substantives or predicates adjoined to subjects. .) It may be remarked that the term quality from the Latin qualis signifies the what of a thing. is because a number in the Word does not signify a number. there would in many places be no sense in them. determining their quality or quantity. may be manifestly evident from the numbers in the Apocalypse. R. 1063. that a number in the Word is in its signification like an adjunct or adjective." Whenever it is intended in the Word to call attention to these states or qualities. for unless they were significative." (A.

These are essential adjuncts to regeneration and are signified by the number six. and so it is with other numbers. distress. C. That Aaron being eighty-three years of age signifies the state and quality of the doctrine of the church. 3469). C. The ruling love and its truth is permanent. and its quality (A. the number employed determining the quantity and quality. but it represents that which is for the most part passing and temporary. For instance. a state that may change. for that which is represented by Esau is the leading idea of the series (A. . and celebrated on the fiftieth. 5265). 493." (A. and are applied and adjoined to the leading subject of the spiritual sense." Hence when a number occurs treating of a certain quantity in the natural sense. C. we are taught that quantity corresponds to quality. and that the seventh day is holy. where the subject is the regeneration of the man of the church. qualifying it. as when it is said. and the apostles of the Lord the same. An adjunct is defined as "something joined or added to another thing. number 336. 487). that the tribes of Israel were twelve. quantity in the natural sense and quality in the spiritual sense. may appear from the signification of number.) These states are states of the church (A. These states are represented by numbers in the Word. C. It is similar wherever forty occurs." As it is with adjuncts and adjectives. that it is quantity and quality. even as an adjective is used to qualify a noun. That when seven is used it signifies that the idea of holiness is to be added to the main subject as a. That Moses being eighty years of age signifies the state and quality of the law from the Divine. such states as joy. contains the entire state of the thing represented by Jacob. They are signs of the active presence in the internal sense of those things which qualify what is prime and essential. Now numbers in the ultimates of nature have respect to time and measure or space. that the jubilee should be proclaimed every forty-ninth year. and an adjective is "a word used with a noun or substantive to express a quality of the thing named. In The Apocalypse Explained. quality of it (A. signifies the innumerable who are in truths and the innumerable who are in goods. grief. that there were seventy elders. C. as in the first chapter of Genesis. which is represented by Moses. but in the Word they signify things abstracted from time and space. . when it is said that the Israelites wandered forty . temptation. 7285). For example. that this state is a state of temptation. which is represented by Aaron (A. but not essentially a part of it". That Esau being forty years old signifies that those represented by Esau are now in a state of temptation. C. "And the number of them was myriads of myriads and thousands of thousands. 7284). in order to obtain the spiritual sense it is necessary to transfer the idea of quantity to that of quality.which is adjoined or added to it. C. not only does not represent the leading truth of the internal sense of any given passage. the number of the years of the age of Jacob. so it is with numbers in the Word. and as many disciples of the Lord. but the states accompanying it are changed from time to time. Hence we read: That one hundred and forty-seven. the latter being signified by forty and its double eighty (A. the number six is used to indicate that regeneration in its development and progress is attended with temptations. Numbers therefore represent the state and quality of the thing that is treated of in the series. "that there are six days of labor. It is also well to remember that the number used. . 6175). from which it is clear that a number is used in order to qualify the leading idea of the spiritual sense.

C. This makes manifest the importance of the numbers mentioned in the Word.years in the wilderness. from this source likewise is to be sought the signification of this number. and of forty also. or which take place at the beginning of any church. C. it is well to observe this principle of the spiritual sense. its signification is to be obtained by finding what the simple numbers which compose it signify in the spiritual sense. That eighty denotes states of temptation may be seen." (A. but we learn also that when any large number occurs. or at the beginning of the regeneration of any individual man of the church. namely. -we are not to think of the quantity or number of the years of the journey. . This reveals the importance and use of noting the concrete of the spiritual sense as well as the abstract. as 300. something is said about the number five that applies not only to five but to all numbers and indeed to the spiritual sense of the Word everywhere. and 30 in Genesis vi :15 the number that dominates should be found. or in a broader view. but in order to determine the full signification of eighty. The passage quoted above (A. which may appear from this. and others. as was said above. In the preparation of sermons for a congregation where there are many who are uninstructed. determines the general spiritual sense of the verse. six hundred years signify the first state of temptation.) That is. which state is temptation.* * In The Apocalypse Explained. For remains are the first of regeneration and six is always spoken of in relation to the combat of temptation." (A. the number five. because ten and six are the simple and component numbers in it. 649. and the number five shows that remains from which regeneration begins were few or scanty with them. such as children. 737). we are led to see that the subject is the temptations which took place at the beginning of the Ancient Church. and it will be found. 50. By thus reducing six hundred to its component parts. which latter number signifies temptations wherever used in the Word. but whereas it is also composed of ten and eight multiplied into each other.) Thus we see that eighty signifies temptations because it is the double of forty. C. for the reasons given. young people. 649) reveals the need of finding the common factor when several numbers occur together. the subject of the series is the regeneration of the man of the Ancient Church. 7284. -since the subject then treated of in the spiritual sense is regeneration. but in this case eighty involves the same as forty. ten signifying remains and six labor and combat (A. concerning which we are taught that in Genesis vii: 6. or the number that is their common factor. which is that there was but little of remains with the men with whom the Ancient Church began. number 548. Again we read that "what eighty specifically signifies cannot be told. and indeed that these remains were few. but of the quality or state signified by the number used. that a state of temptation is always the state that is attendant on the leading subject when the number forty is used. which in the Word signifies somewhat or a little. number 1963. that in those numbers [see above] the number five dominates. because it involves every state and every quality of the law from the Divine then appertaining to it. that by five is signified all who are such. Another point to be noted is that when several numbers occur together. C. it is necessary to find the signification of the simple numbers which compose it. In explanation of the above passage we read that "the numbers or measures of the ark signify the remains which were with the man of this church when he was being reformed.

C. of that doctrine. power. and these numbers have the same signification as three.We are again taught concerning the necessity of reducing any large number to its simple parts. For instance. 144. the numbers two. When the signification of these simple numbers is known we are ready to find the signification of any number in the Word. 487. five signifies much and something. as follows: "And Aaron was a son of three and eighty years: that this signifies the state and quality of doctrine appears from the representation of Aaron as being the doctrine of the church. because they arise from that simple number multiplied into itself and multiplied by ten. From the number three the numbers 6. yet we find one. and from application afterwards to those to whom doctrine appertains. 70. 144000. H." . may also be regarded as simple numbers (A. Hence we read that "in the numerical writing in heaven. because they arise from this simple number by multiplication.) We would here call attention to the fact that simple numbers are always present as understood in any passage of the Word. Five and seven. 16. even when not expressed. 12. Each sentence has a twofold idea.) Hence we are informed that "until the signification of the simple numbers up to twelve be known. 72." (H. 70000 arise. 24.) The use of observing this law has already been shown in the chapter. and three. it will be impossible to comprehend the signification of the compound numbers. and seven. but the state and quality cannot be specifically known. and these numbers have the same signification as seven. except from the reduction of this number into its simple numbers. 10000. 1600. and from that number those which follow derive their specific determination to the subject. 50. 7000. Another point of interest and value should be noted by the student. for that number is as it were the index of. as being state and quality. the subject treated of. 4000. two. arise. 430. in the Lord's Prayer no number is used. -kingdom. All other numbers are compounds of these simple numbers. however large it may be. See further in the chapters on Duality and Trinity in the Word. and seven signifies holiness. "The First Thing Said. except the last which is trinal. From the number five the numbers 10. C. 800. namely. and these numbers have the same signification as two. because they arise from it. 7285. 532. 1000. as heaven and earth. although compounds of two and three. 16000. three." (A. From the number seven the numbers 14.) The prime essential numbers are one. five. arise. 8. This law applies to numbers when several occur together. and is predicated of truth. From the number two the numbers 4. three signifies fullness. 1440. 430). 400." (A. and from the signification of the number three and eighty. because they arise from it by multiplication. 700." (A. that number is always placed first. E. and glory. 100000 arise. E. 100. on which the following numbers depend as on their subject. 8000. and from them the greater numbers derive their significations. 263. namely. Concerning this we read that "the simple numbers are more significative than others. It connects with the rule that the first thing said reigns universally in what follows. and three involved in it from first to last. Our Father is the one and only God. two. and these numbers have the same signification as five. two signifies union and is predicated of good.

The natural is from both and is their complex in the ultimate." (S. Since the Word is in itself Love and Wisdom proceeding from the Lord. of whom the third or supreme heaven consists. treating of the appearances of that unity in the literal sense. proceeding as two but united as one. both in the Word and in all creation. and also a spiritual sense. It is from this same all-creative cause that all things in the spiritual world. The two great commandments.From what we have said therefore in this chapter. for two that are counterparts are always conjoined into one. and that when a chapter is studied. The term celestial is expressive of love. celestial and spiritual. we have the following teaching: "What proceeds from the Divine Love is called celestial. all things in man. There is in the Word a celestial sense. and herein lies the essential duality of the Word. The Word is dual because in its origin or in itself it is Love and Wisdom proceeding from the Lord. and others. are also dual (A. for they are in the good of love from the Lord. if we follow the thought as set forth in the two great commandments. for they are in the truths of wisdom from the Lord. That there are in the Word these two senses from the above cause and origin. The angels of the Lord's celestial kingdom. are in the Divine which proceeds from the Lord that is called spiritual. as being involved where duality is. bear testimony to the universal duality of the Word. FROM ITS INMOST EVEN TO ITS ULTIMATE. but on consideration we have concluded instead to bring into this chapter the essential features of the subject of unity. such as the Kingdom of the Human Form. of whom the second or middle heaven consists. 5194). a consideration of it will not be complete until the numbers occurring in it are examined as to their signification and bearing upon the leading subject of the series. and it is the Divine Good. The angels of the Lord's spiritual kingdom. it treats of nothing but love and wisdom. and thus it is everywhere celestial and spiritual. it is evident that this subject occupies an essential place among the principles of exposition. The two terms. and at the same time to its unity. and the term spiritual of wisdom. are used in these and in a number of other applications in the Writings. to each of which a chapter might be devoted.* * There are other subjects that might be formulated into rules of exposition. and all things in nature. and the term spiritual of love to the neighbor. the term celestial is expressive of love to God. are in the Divine which proceeds from the Lord that is called celestial. A useful chapter might be written on the essential unity of the Word. C. A chapter might also be written on the Correlation of the Rules. or every unit. and evidences of the same appear everywhere in the letter of Scripture. is twofold. CHAPTER XIII DUALITY IN THE WORD THE WORD IS TWOFOLD. and it is the Divine Truth.) . S. Separation. Let us proceed therefore to the consideration of the subject of duality in the Word. making one form. CELESTIAL AND SPIRITUAL. Thus it is that all unity. 6. as delivered in the Gospel. and from all that is said in the Writings concerning number and the signification of numbers in the Word. what proceeds from the Divine Wisdom is called spiritual. or.

S.) It may be remarked here that it is brought forth clearly elsewhere in the Writings that the celestial sense. and the angels of the celestial kingdom in its celestial sense. and the celestial angels according to the celestial sense. 63. or spiritual and celestial. but even there the duality is preserved. however. when the Lord is presented to view in doctrine concerning Him. which is called celestial. because within that sense are the spiritual sense and the celestial sense. that is. Both of these are in the Word. descend even lower. communication was effected with the heavens. now with this society. and what I understood according to the natural sense. Divine Good from His Divine Love. 19. for where affection is. or to the plane of the appearances of truth. The spiritual sense is for those who think from the understanding. the angels of the spiritual kingdom in the spiritual sense of the Word. the spiritual angels understood according to the spiritual sense. The duality of the Word. The duality of the internal sense shows itself in the letter in many ways." still it does come into perception. S." (S. when a true man is in that sense. concerning the things which are of man and his regeneration. The evolution is instantaneous. since the effect is always in the image of its cause. as into the affection of the will. With the celestial. which is called celestial.) The duality of the Word even in the literal sense is indicated in this number. that the one cannot have the same ultimate as the other. and this in an instant. there are two angels or two spirits with every man. 64. although it "does not fall so much into the thought of the understanding as into the affection of the will. The celestial and the spiritual of the internal sense. now with that. That there is in the Word a still more interior sense. but the celestial sense is for those who perceive from the will or from love those things which are of the Lord and His glorification. is again illustrated as follows: "There is consociation with the angels through the sense of the letter. as we shall see. as being celestial and spiritual. is because from the Lord proceed Divine Good and Divine Truth. This is further shown in the following teaching: "The Word and worship are altogether such as is heaven and the . which is the sense of the letter. That there is this dual consociation by means of the Word. and that the spiritual sense descends and appears in the natural sense as the doctrine of life. there also is illustration and perception. and consequently the consociation. the most important of which is that the celestial sense descends and appears in the natural sense as the doctrine of the Lord. S. and the angels are in those senses." (S.) There is thus a dual consociation of man with those who are in the spiritual world. From the very nature of things it is clear that there must be a distinct ultimation and differentiation in the letter of the two interior senses of the Word. On this subject we are further taught that "there is a sense still more interior [than the spiritual sense] in the Word."The natural is from both and is their complex in the ultimate. These senses are evolved from the natural sense of the Word. was confirmed to Swedenborg by much experience in the spiritual world. but this sense can scarcely be unfolded. or with those who are in the celestial sense. affection is stirred and perception is given. which is recorded as follows: "While I was reading the Word in the sense of its letter. and Divine Truth from His Divine Wisdom." (S. or from knowledges in the memory. for it does not fall so much into the thought of the understanding. In this is found the genuine duality of the letter of the Word." The natural or literal sense is thus also dual.

the duality extending even to the literal sense itself. which is called the spiritual sense. it follows that what signifies heaven signifies also the Word and worship. which is called the celestial natural and spiritual natural sense. the Lord is called Christ. 630. is for the inmost or third heaven. the complete marriage. the celestial kingdom is the dominant factor. Ishmael. when the celestial is the leading or dominant principle of the internal sense. and since this is dual. is for the ultimate or first heaven. It is similar in the New Testament. Jehovah of Hosts. as was said. is for the middle or second heaven. The signs of the activity of the law we are considering do indeed appear in the literal sense in the proper names that are used. the Beginning and the End.) The internal sense is the Word itself." (A. Abraham. that the laws and conditions reigning in the spiritual sense will make their appearance in the literal sense. and in some the two are conjoined together as one. and there are names that are single or not composed of two names together. Jehovah the Holy One of Israel. There are compound proper names. The purely literal sense which is for the world would necessarily partake of the same dual characteristic. the Lord is called Jesus Christ. when the spiritual principle is dominant. and since the three heavens have the Word. which is called the celestial sense. especially in the names of the Lord. and each -heaven is in its own sense of the Word. In these twofold names of the Lord the union of the Divine and the Human is expressed. Hence we find that the natural sense of the Word. and all things of the literal sense itself. that is. the First and the Last. as there are three heavens. Jehovah the Savior. These three senses. and when both are united as one in the internal sense. Israel. Since this is true of the Word as it is of heaven. are present everywhere in the Word. or the full and complete unity of the Word. Examples of the compound proper names are. but as good and truth are not always conjoined in a like degree. and from this is their heaven and their worship. Jesus Christ. all things of doctrine. when the spiritual kingdom or spiritual truth is dominant. in some portions the spiritual kingdom. the Lord is called Jehovah God. It is clear therefore that the two senses. The marriage of good and truth is indeed in all things of the Word. and that they cause the Word to be dual in every part of it. Reuben. Alpha and Omega. The same law is represented in the other proper names of Scripture. all things of worship. as Jehovah God. E. the Lord is called Jesus. all things from it are dual. celestial and spiritual. But the dominance of the celestial or the spiritual in the Word is expressed. and when the two are conjoined as one. which is for the natural heaven. Jehovah the Redeemer. for in the Word there are three distinct senses. is expressed by two names of God occurring together. the middle sense. the Lord is called God or Elohim. or in the relative sense. besides the natural which is for the world. the Lord is called Jehovah. . are in the Word and in the single things of it. and will be signs there of the presence and active operation of those laws and conditions. by the single names of the Lord. In the Old Testament when the celestial kingdom or celestial truth is the dominant presence and quality of the internal sense. is spoken of as celestial and spiritual natural. the inmost sense. But in some portions of the Word.church. and the ultimate sense. we may expect that signs of it will appear in the literal sense. the even conjunction of good and truth in heaven and the church.

It may be remarked here that there is love to the Lord and hence the doctrine of the Lord on all planes of the Word. and the mind enlightened by a knowledge of it. and that there is love to the neighbor and hence the doctrine of life on all planes of the Word. and from 'this cause the literal sense is also dual. John. nor that there is the marriage of good and truth in all things of it. nor can it be otherwise. but for those in the inmost heaven there is a supreme sense of the Word. then uncompounded names occur. which sense is the Lord Himself in His glorified Human. just as the celestial kingdom is in all the heavens and in the church on earth. because of the two senses. just as the spiritual kingdom is in all the heavens and in the church on earth. In Sacred Scripture. some of which are predicated of good. number 80. There is indeed the marriage of good and truth in all the heavens. But when more of the celestial than the spiritual is present in any given series. we could never know that the Word is dual. and there is more of truth than of good in the Word as applied to those in the spiritual kingdom. See further on this general subject in the chapter on "Proper Names in the Word. and in one name are expressive of the marriage of good and truth or of the celestial and the spiritual in the Word." It may be well to call attention here to the teaching in Heaven and Hell. and in the inmost heaven becomes as one with it. What is true of the heavens is true also of the Word in its application and accommodation to them. and hence there is in them a more even conjunction of good and truth. concealed within the sense of the letter. and even in the natural world. Jehovah God. but that there are angels who partake of both good and truth in a like degree. in whom the Divine and the Human are conjoined as one. "But this is not apparent to any but one who. Samuel. or more of the spiritual than the celestial. which is twofold. and those who are in the spiritual kingdom partake more of truth than of good. unless the spiritual sense were revealed. and also Jesus Christ. from the spiritual and celestial senses of the Word. there is more of good than of truth. The angels who are thus nearest the Lord partake more of that which is in Him and from Him. since both the celestial and the spiritual senses create and form the letter in the image of themselves. is represented by some of the compound proper names in the Word. Joseph. wherever men live according to the truths of the literal sense of the Word. Jacob. such as exists in the inmost heaven. that those who are in the celestial kingdom partake more of good than of truth. and that these are angels of the inmost heaven. The celestial sense in its descent takes form . some of truth. -in all things of the internal sense. Moses. These names consist of two proper names joined together into one. This image of the intimate union of good and truth." That is.Joshua. and some include both. as Isaac. and in all things of the literal sense. The oneness of love to the Lord and of love to the neighbor in the inmost heaven is represented by the twofold name. which may be seen on examining the etymology and correspondence of each of the two parts in any one of the compound names. in the Word as applied to those in the celestial kingdom. spiritual and celestial. knows the significations of the words and names. it is directly stated that there is the marriage of good and truth in the literal sense of the Word. Peter. The internal sense therefore is dual. But love to the neighbor in its ascent is more and more intimately conjoined with love to the Lord. that is. The essential image and form of the. thus the image of the inmost heaven is wherever good is conjoined with truth. internal sense in the letter is doctrine. number 133.

in the doctrine of the Lord. See also A. They are everywhere in the literal sense. not being joined with others. and the spiritual sense in its descent takes form in the doctrine of life. things in the Word are mentioned in pairs. It is for this reason that these portions of the Word are well suited for alternate or responsive reading and singing. and therefore the following teaching: "It may be seen by readers who give attention to it. 484. which is the reason why two terms are used instead of one.) That "in the prophets. and others to the things of the will. one of which signifies good and the other truth. foe and enemy. C. There are also words which are used alone. are frequently covered and concealed by the appearances which constitute the sensual degree or plane of the Word. These two doctrines are the two essentials of the New Church. as we have said. Concerning this dual arrangement we read that every word belongs either to the celestial or to the spiritual class. causing the essential duality of that sense." It is then added that these words appear as if they were synonymous. 3880. etc." (A. the other what is celestial. especially in that part of the Word which is in the form of prophecy and song. and thence the marriage of good and truth. A. and one word relates to the celestial or good. See also S. the other to the spiritual or truth. Other examples are then given of pairs in the Word. and are the two universals of salvation (A. and the other things spiritual." (A. similar to that of the Prophets.) The Psalms are also arranged in a twofold manner. one to denote what is spiritual. as brother and companion. The Old Testament especially is of this character. There is in Scripture a twofold arrangement of words and sentences.) That "because truths and goods are joined together. and the second of truth. 876)." (A. 1142. 5502. 2173. the spiritual of the Lord's mercy is wisdom. exhibiting itself as dual in many ways. the celestial is love. . vacuity and emptiness. and the number closes as follows: "In like manner it is said. some peculiar to the things of the understanding. because they partake of both good and truth. 5138. nation and people. especially in the prophetic Word. wasteness and solitude. 4691. and others peculiar to celestial things. 84. mourning and weeping. also that God will create in man a new heart and a new spirit. as in a marriage. to express one thing by two words . 537. S. especially in Isaiah. or what is the same. C. 80-83). 7945. Some of these we shall now consider. because of the heavenly marriage in all things of the Word. one of which signifies things celestial. On this subject we have the general teaching that "there is in each thing of the Word the marriage of the Lord and the church.) . in the prophets everything is expressed in a twofold manner. 100.) That "in Isaiah two words constantly occur concerning the same thing. 4105." (S. 529. . R. 4691." (A. except that some words are expressive of both. C. 491.) That "because there is in all things the marriage of good and truth. C. and the soul. C. 9789. Hence we read: That "it is common in the Word.) That "there are some words peculiar to spiritual things. 801. however. 793." (S. 81. especially in Isaiah. 683. for the heart is predicated of the good of love. and they exist in some form in every religion (D. there are almost always two words applied for everything. A." (A. 1432. C. 3901. poor and needy. which appear as if they were repetitions of the same thing. justice and judgment. anger and wrath. C. S. 509. 590. E. These two doctrines. But the Word is dual even on the plane of the appearances of truth. that men are to love God with all the heart and all the soul. sin and iniquity. P. joy and gladness. 505." (A. 326). E. of truth from that good. 793. S. that there are in the Word pairs of expressions. when yet they are not. for the first term of each pair of words is predicated of good.

It is stated in the Writings that salt is a universal conjunctive in nature. good and truth. and the law that required the evidence of two witnesses. son and daughter. the Lord. We read of the two great commandments. as given in the Writings. In Matthew v: 13. What is said of the man in the passage quoted above is doubtless true wherever the term man. 80). as the cerebellum. male and female created He them. and there are some that are distinctly two or separate. male and female. especially such as are compound. S. occurs in Scripture. two sisters. The . two daughters. We are told that when the term mind is used in the Writings. the Divine Human in which is the Divine itself. By this one term serpent is represented the conjunction of the evil and the false. by it is meant both the will and the understanding. we have the word born or birth. and that "there are words which are used alone. the love of self and the love of the world. and the feet. the word salt occurs. as the cerebrum. the two witnesses. (adam. two brothers.) We have already spoken of certain proper names that represent both good and truth. the two candlesticks.It is because of the reasons that have been mentioned that there are so many pairs of persons and things spoken of in the Word. We read in Genesis i: 27. however. -two things. the two included in the one term. two men. the nose. two of every living thing going into the ark. the mouth. so that there is no portion of Scripture where there is not an appearance of some kind of duality. represented ill a single word. not being joined with others. two sons. and are yet twofold. The same is called in the Apocalypse the dragon. but still acting in unison. the ears. or the Devil and Satan. brother and sister. the celestial man. Besides these there are many other instances of pairs mentioned in the Word. 84. It is husband and wife together that are called man. let us now consider certain words. other than proper names." (S. the tongue. the two cherubs over the ark. male and female. S. in the image of God created He him. that "God created man in His own image. which we are told signifies the desire of truth to good. the two great lights. and the reason is. homo). there are single words that represent both good and truth. In John iii: 1-8. Hence we read that "some words are predicated of good. Many examples of both kinds occur in the kingdoms of nature. which descend into the literal sense. the two in union as one. thus including ill the one word the idea of the conjunction of good and truth. father and mother. In the third chapter of Genesis the opposite of the man. the names of whom in many instances are given. which signifies regeneration or the marriage of good and truth. the heart. the two tables of the Decalogue. It is also well known that there are certain organs and members in the body that are united as one. and is called the serpent. is presented. We frequently read of two angels. that are of this character. There are other words of similar twofold nature in the Writings and in common speech." (S. In the highest sense the man is the Lord. because of the celestial and spiritual senses of the Word. and the Devil and Satan. and we are told that a husband and a wife in heaven are one angel. the two olive trees. Since this is true in nature it is also true in the Word. and in this it represents the marriage of good and truth. the eyes." It is clear at once that the term man in this verse is one that represents both good and truth. husband and wife. It is man and woman that is meant. because they partake of both good and truth. causing the appearance of duality there. the numerous pairs in the construction of the tabernacle and the temple. In certain cases. the hands. some of truth and some include both.

He represents in these acts redemption from His Divine Love. the term mountain in Matthew v: 1. brother without companion. remembering. and mountain is the leading word after the mention of He instead of Jesus. or if it is doing. whether the series . or he is doing it. but the associate word is not mentioned. or the understanding and the will. The internal of the church is good and truth together. as if it had no associate word. as Abraham. namely. which is love to the human race. it is good or the celestial that is dominant. As we have shown. or command and obedience. heaven without earth. Those who represent the Lord. He speaks also from His Divine Good. nation without people. eating without drinking. or from the Divine Understanding. the duality of the Word exhibits itself in many forms. speaking to them. as in the instances spoken of above.. In each case the single term without its associate represents in itself the marriage of good and truth. but when the Lord acts. He teaches His disciples. or from the Divine Will. The same two are represented in the Word. where hill is not mentioned. cures the centurion's servant sick of the palsy. speech and action. In this case. the one term. which the one term mountain here represents. Sometimes one of these is dominant in a series and sometimes the other. Moses. or Joshua. it is the Divine Good speaking as the Divine Doctrine concerning the internal church which is now to be established. But in the eighth chapter He comes down out of the mountain. There are many other terms of this character in the Word. One of the general forms is that of speech and action. For instance. as when justice is mentioned without judgment. He is either talking about use. In use the two are united. is representative of good and truth together. sixth. that when the Lord speaks. it is from His own Divine Good. and rebukes the wind and the sea causing a great calm. especially when it is the first or leading word of a series. Hence the duality of the series is represented in the single term mountain. The student of the Word should note whether speech or action dominates in the chapter he has under consideration. The same is true of the Lord Himself. By the mountain. The same principle applies when any one of a pair of words occurs without the other. however. create without make. is signified heaven or the internal of the church which the Lord came to establish. if it is speaking. as for instance. and when He acts. which speech and action represent. the immediate operation of the Divine Good in ultimates is what is represented. on which the Lord was set to teach His disciples. and thus involves all that the two terms together represent. and in the one word represents the marriage of good and truth.term fruit is of frequent occurrence in Scripture. and which is the subject of the entire series of the Sermon on the Mount. Taking note. Sometimes in Scripture a word occurs which is one of a pair of words. therefore. cleanses the leper. heals Peter's wife's mother who was in bed sick of a fever. speak or act. and seventh chapters of Matthew. in the fifth. both general and particular. When He speaks it is from His own Divine Truth. hunger without thirst. that it is the Divine Good speaking through the Divine Truth. or represents use in which good and truth are together as one. which have been given the name of the Sermon on the Mount. earth or land without sea. or He performs miracles. Speaking and doing represent the two activities of every man's life. which is a Man speaking and doing the things which are essential to the salvation of men and the formation of heaven from men who are His images. in the letter of Scripture. or saying and doing. it is the truth or the spiritual that is dominant.

and in general whether the exposition is to treat of some truth coming under the general doctrine of life. From this union of Love and Wisdom proceeds a third. causing that sense to be dual. but of qualities or attributes in the one Divine Person of our Lord Jesus Christ. In all creation there is never a two without a three. and we may conclude that a knowledge of this duality. C. 147). and that which is created is in the image of its Creator (D. xviii: 20. for in Him Love and Wisdom are two united as one. and since there is a duality and a trinity in God and in His Word. as a universal of Revelation. there am I in the midst of them. R. T. there also is trinality. which is God. and Divine Use. Divine Love. for all things were created by the Word. even as we read that "in the beginning was the Word. there is a duality and a trinity in heaven and in the church. Divine Wisdom. 209.) These words are descriptive . even as offspring come into existence as the product of the marriage of a man and a woman. W. and the Word was with God. AND A TRINITY IN ALL CREATED THINGS. CHAPTER XIV THE TRINITY IN THE WORD THERE IS A TRINITY IN GOD." (John i: 1. In the preceding chapter it was shown that there is a duality in the Word. and these two appear everywhere in the literal sense. in the whole and in every part of it. for heaven is distinguished into two kingdoms and three heavens. "Where two or three are gathered together in my name. These three. and the church is in the image of heaven. and it now follows that since there is a Trinity in God. is one of momentous importance in the study and understanding of the Word. because of the duality and trinity in God and in His Word. A TRINITY IN THE WORD. L. and to decide whether the celestial or the spiritual is the dominant quality of the internal sense.) It also follows that since there is a duality and a trinity in the Word. are the Divine Trinity represented in the Word by Father. there is also a duality and a trinity in all created things. or of some truth coming under the general doctrine of the Lord. The one does not exist without the other. and the Word was God. 190." (Matt. It was shown that since there is a duality in God there also is a duality in the Word. and Holy Spirit. This duality has its origin in God. for the Word is from God. The Divine Trinity is thus not a Trinity of Persons. and is God Himself. It is plain therefore that where duality is. There is then a celestial sense and a spiritual sense in the Word. Hence the significance of the Lord's words to His disciples. a third is produced as the result or effect of the conjunction of two. This is a law operative in all creation. which is Use. The law of duality thus teaches us to note the prominent and leading words in any given chapter. there is also a Trinity in the Word.treats of the Lord as teaching or the Lord as doing affects the character of the exposition of the series. This law will also help materially to a decision as to what is to be the leading subject of a sermon or a series of sermons. after having noted the names of the Lord therein. for when two are joined together into one. Son.

namely. If with the men of the church there is a marriage of good and truth." (A. L. -Father. Not of the human body alone. . The most important. the Divine Human. and these three are to each other according to the degrees of altitude. It is similar with the human mind. in all of which. 875. of a unity in heaven and the church. L. Son. -and their product which is use. spiritual. are a most perfect trinity. -as there is with the angels of heaven." (D.) We read further that "there is what is dual and trinal in every created thing. and if this is true. middle. and that the three degrees of the Word. this Trinity and One Divine Itself is in the Lord.) Hence "in order that anything may be complete and perfect there must be in it a trine in just order. celestial.) We see duality. we have the following teaching: "In the Divine there is a Trinity. one within another. two or three are joined together in the name of the Lord. These words teach us indeed of a unity in the Glorified Human. and in heaven with the angels. which is distinguished into three regions. Concerning the Trinity of God in His Word. a natural for the world. This trinity is .of the image of God in the church with men. of a unity in the Word. and the third in the spinal cord which proceeds from the union of the two former. Now in respect to the Word we have seen that the signs of duality appear in the literal sense. These Two or these Three are and appear in some form everywhere in Scripture. Hence "in every thing there is a trine. See also D. . that the doctrine of a trinity in all things is one with the doctrine of discrete degrees. so is His Word triune. 17. and Holy Spirit. 9866. L. of a unity in all creation. and the glorious Trinity of Father. evidenced in the cerebellum and the cerebrum. making thus a trinity in the human body. it follows that "there is a trinity in all and every thing of the Word. the trinal name of the Lord. and in all things which are from Him. C. and communication between them. one under another. and these are One. 209. but of all things which exist in the world a trinal dimension is predicated (D. and end. 147. Coro. 222-230. S. 190. W. or its three senses. In His Duality God appears as the Father and the Son. For every created thing is complete in its third." (A. W. in all that proceeds from the Divine itself. 17. and this trine is as effect." (S.) Since all things were created by the Word." (A. the most essential sign of the Trinity in God appearing in the letter of Scripture. and effect. cause. W. so is man. the Lord Himself is present as the inmost life of such an image of Him. and a celestial for His celestial kingdom. in all things that are in the image of God. Thus every Divine work is complete and perfect in the last. In such a trine is man and in such a trine are all things of the world. and last. namely. Son." Hence it is that "there are three senses in the Word. 1083. 190). and Holy Spirit. and effect. and so is heaven. 27-29. Son. and the Divine Proceeding. E. cause. is but a type of the trinality of the Word.) It is because of this Trinity in the Lord that there is "in every complete thing a trine which is called first. Thus two or three are gathered together in all that proceeds from God. and Holy Spirit. a spiritual for the heavens of the Lord's spiritual kingdom. R. R. is the three-fold name of the one God. but in His Trinity. so is nature. in the image of which they are. one within another. For as God is triune. Coro.) It will be seen therefore from these passages and other teaching of the Writings. C. or end. the Divine Itself." (T. and natural. as Father. cause. and He Himself is the Unity in the midst of the universal duality and the universal trinity. which is evident in the human body. then the signs of trinality will also appear there. . which is called end.

) "Lo. and the King of glory shall come in.into the trinity of heaven." (Isa. lii:7. moon. and all nations shall flow into it. i: 2." (Ps. who standeth not in the way of sinners. ii: 2. for His mercy is forever. xxiv: 7. or the doctrine of life. one or two more of which we shall now examine. But this trinity of the Word appears under many forms. and be ye lifted up. for He is good.". ye everlasting doors. if he would come . which. 0 ye gates. and who sitteth not in the seat of the scornful. This law of trinality appears in the very first verse of the Psalms. or into the sensual plane of the Word ' and clothe themselves there in appearances of truth. 0 earth. in the doctrine of life. or one with the three discrete degrees of the Word. Let us now examine some of these signs or appearances of a trinity. in the doctrine of the Lord. the all in all of it." (Jer. 1: 16. and strengthened himself in his wickedness. and shall be exalted above the hills. celestial. This trine of the Word. lvi: 4. for the Lord hath spoken. has already been forecast in the chapter on "Duality in the Word. and that this is true even in the historical parts.) "0 give thanks unto the Lord. in God have I put my trust. that the mountains might flow down at thy presence. and follow up the subject a little further. since a knowledge and observation of them will be a valuable aid in the analysis of any chapter of the Word for the sake of discovering its spiritual sense.) "Oh that thou wouldest rend the heavens. trinality is also there. I will not fear what flesh can do unto me. and hath stretched out the heavens by His intelligence. which are distinct ultimations of the three heavens.) "Hear. or the celestial and spiritual senses. and give ear. has each its distinct appearance and ultimation in the literal sense. that thou wouldest come down. The first and second degrees. and many of the passages are trinal in form. but trusted in the abundance of his riches. In The Apocalypse Explained. and that the spiritual sense so descending takes form as the doctrine of charity. unite to form the natural. and further that these two senses descend even lower. cxxxvi: 1. x: 12. spiritual." (Isa. and in the appearances or representatives of truth. which is therefore also dual or celestial natural and spiritual natural. number 1083. it was made clear that the trinity of the Word is one with its three senses. The following are also examples of trinity of form and expression in the Psalms and in the Prophets: "Lift up your heads. It was shown in the preceding chapter that duality reigns in the Prophets and in the Psalms." (Ps. and the trinity follows the duality as expressed in the first two terms of each verse. is . and we may therefore expect to see abundant signs of it in the literal sense.indeed universal in the Word. i:1. See also Rev. He hath established the world by His wisdom.) Also in the first chapter of Genesis we have the trinity of the sun. quoted above. It was said that the celestial sense descending into the letter takes form there as the doctrine of the Lord.) "In God I will praise His Word. (Ps.) Here is described the trinity of hell. or the three interior senses of the Word. which is to-be shunned by the regenerating man. this is the man that made not God his strength." but let us repeat what was there said. its three degrees answering to the three heavens. "who walketh not in the council of the wicked. however. In these passages both the duality and the trinity of the Word appear. The leading and dominant characteristic of the celestial heaven and thus of the celestial sense. lxiv: 1. Since duality is there.) "He hath made the earth by His power. xii: 1)." (Isa." (Ps. and stars (Gen." (Ps. and natural. We thus have the expression of the trine in the literal sense itself. where the man is said to be blessed.) "The mountain of the Lord's house shall be established in the top of the mountains. 0 ye heavens.

The Apocalypse is . that is. The important point before us here is that the dominant characteristic of each heaven descends and takes form. by means of which simple truths and simple affections of good are insinuated into their minds. having minds relatively like those of children. covered. by means of which. Much of the literal sense of the Word is not genuine truth. those who are like Gentile idol-worshippers. but truth clothed in representative and correspondential forms. By means of these representative forms the truths of the interior heavens are insinuated into the minds of the angels of the ultimate heaven. and thus of the interior natural sense of the Word. These objects are appearances of the -thought and affection of the angels of the higher heavens clothed in representatives and correspondences. and who need these objects to assist their thought and excite their affection. and thus who are chiefly affected by the doctrine of the Lord. are taught by means of objects which are correspondences. What we know as the literal sense of the Word is formed very largely from this source. for the angels of that heaven. those who are in love to the Lord. in every chapter. and in every verse. and the historical portions of Scripture. according to the capacity. genuine because not clothed. This trinal form is in fact everywhere in the literal sense. such as the parables of the Gospels. and not immediately by naked truths as in the higher heavens. From this it would follow that there are three classes of men in the world who are able to receive by means of the literal sense' the three distinct ultimations of Divine truth as it is in the heavens: first. or concealed by appearances. the doctrine of the Lord. the leading and dominant characteristic of the spiritual heaven and thus of the spiritual sense. and appearances of truth are found everywhere. the doctrine of life.love to the Lord and hence the truth which teaches the Lord. from the internal sense within. is love to the neighbor and from this the truth which teaches the doctrine of charity or the doctrine of life. Without this genuine truth in the literal sense no man could be saved. thus truth concealed and veiled by appearances or objects taken from nature and from human life in the world. and other stories written and expressed in representative and correspondential forms. is in a trinal form and arrangement adapted to these three general classes of men in the world. and the leading and dominant characteristic of the natural heaven. For this reason the Word in its literal sense. or has distinct ultimation in the literal sense of the Word. It is in every book. is the descent into it of the two prior senses and the clothing of themselves there in representative and correspondential forms before the eyes of the angels of that natural heaven. and are chiefly affected by the doctrine of life. appearing in the literal sense of the Word are what is called in the Writings the doctrine of genuine truth. truths and the affection of truth and good are insinuated into the minds of the simple good who are there. but existing there as naked truth. Similar objects appear in the ultimate or natural heaven. those who are in love to the neighbor. the measure. and third. the way is made possible for communication and consociation with the three heavens while men are still on earth. who are chiefly affected by the stories of the Word. by means of which trinal descent and adaptation. second. and written down by them. or like the simple and children. -simple truths concerning the Lord and the life of love to the neighbor. or celestial and spiritual truth. as seen in vision by the prophets. and the need of each. Let us remember then that the doctrine of the Lord and the doctrine of life. producing in that sense a trinal form and arrangement.

men are to hear and obey. for it was founded upon a rock. which form the sensual plane or degree of the Word. speaks to His disciples in the form of a parable. the doctrine of life is the second. is not able to stand against the rain. and the multitudes. and third.a notable instance of the literal sense of the Word as derived from appearances in the natural heaven. -we shall have at once an entire view of the chapter as a whole. But while some of these appearances. These objects are appearances in nature. this mode of teaching is common in the natural heaven. the one building his house upon a rock. we have a trinity that is all-inclusive. but the house of the foolish man. and stories or parables from them.) In these four verses. shall be likened unto a foolish man. and it fell. vii: 24-27. others contain fallacies which become falsities when confirmed by reasonings from the natural plane of man's mind. and the winds blew. and the other upon the sand. that the name of the Lord." (Matt. and the rush of wind and water." Let us note this example of this trinal form in the Word. and the place. for the purpose of insinuating the fundamental truth that men are to hear and obey His precepts. and the . As we have said. making use of objects that are visible to the eye in nature. who built his house upon a rock. But on this subject see further in the chapter on "The Opposite Sense of the Word. in consequence of being built upon a rock. or otherwise they cannot be saved. and ail analysis of the details will be no longer difficult. three elements appear. and appearances of truth are the third: The Lord. as follows: "Whosoever heareth these sayings of mine. His teaching is usually clothed in the form of parable. the disciples. To His disciples He taught genuine truths. wherein the doctrine of the Lord is the first term. and the signification of the place where the event occurs. from which source originates the purely literal sense or sensual degree of the Word as adapted to children or to the simple good. and can be found by close observation. This is true because in these three leading names of any group. and great was the fall of it. In fact if we can reduce a chapter to a trinity. and doeth them I will liken him unto a wise man. and doeth them not. And every one that heareth these sayings of mine. or live according to His teaching. the Lord. and the rain descended. and beat upon that house. and the rain descended. the person. constituting a trinal order and arrangement: first. but to the multitudes He spake in parables. the Lord speaks as the Divine Teacher of men in the form of precept or command. and the floods came. which is always present either expressed or understood. the house of the former. And the winds blew. namely. second. and that to obtain the signification of the name of the Lord occurring in a chapter. built upon the sand. or find the trinity involved in it-and there will always be such a trinity appearing in some form. is always apparent in the historical portions of the Word. and the name of the place involve all things of the spiritual sense in the chapter. together with the signification of the leading person mentioned. especially if the chapters preceding be examined. and the floods came. This trinity of the Lord. The trinal order in these four verses occurs throughout the Gospels in this general form. at the close of the Sermon on the Mount. the wind. It is a picture in representative language of a wise man and a foolish man. who built his house upon the sand. is fundamental to a knowledge of the spiritual sense of any series in the Word. We have already seen in the chapters on proper names in the Word. the insinuation of truth by representative objects. and it fell not. and even in the prophetic. and beat upon that house. is able to resist the rain. that are familiar to children and the simple in mind. are real correspondences. the name of the person. and the flood. This arises from the invasion of the opposite.

pronouns which occur be noted. This may not be so manifest in the Psalms of David, but the same trinity is there nevertheless; for the name Jehovah is everywhere, or sometimes Elohim, and the name David is also understood throughout, Jehovah and David representing the Divine and the Divine Human. Having these names before us in any given psalm, Jehovah or Elohim and David, all that is necessary will be to find the name of the place, or that which stands for the name of a place. In many or most of the psalms, the land of Canaan is the place that is meant or understood, especially when the words land or earth occur, for by this is always meant the land of Canaan, unless some other land is expressly mentioned. In fact David is understood as being in the land of Canaan. But sometimes another term is used to indicate the place involved; as for example in the first Psalm a river is mentioned, involving a river flowing through a wilderness country. In the fifteenth Psalm it is a tent upon a mountain. In the twenty-ninth Psalm several places are mentioned or understood, but it is the worship of the Lord in the temple that is especially in view. In the fifty-first Psalm the same is in view, namely, worship in the temple or at the altar. So that even if a place be not mentioned, there will be something that involves or suggests place, as land, nation, people, wilderness, river, sea. It will therefore be found on close examination that the third term of this trinity, -the trinity of the Lord, the person, and the place, -is either expressed or understood in every psalm, and in fact in every chapter of the Word. This trinity, as we have said, will indicate the generals that include all things of the group or series. See further in the chapters on proper names in the Word. In the chapter on "The Person Speaking" another form of the trinity was considered, and it was shown that there is always in the Word a trinity of the person speaking, the person spoken to, and the person or thing spoken of, If this be not seen in any given chapter, it will be found in the series of chapters in which the given chapter occurs. For instance, in the first and second chapters of Genesis there are ten paragraphs, and in the first four of them it does not appear to whom God is speaking, but on examination of the entire group of paragraphs we find that God-and then Jehovah God-is speaking to man concerning the heaven and the earth which He has created, and this reveals to us the trinity that reigns in the entire series. in his view of the whole we obtain the generals that introduce to the particulars of these two chapters when we obtain the signification of God and Jehovah God, of man, and of heaven and earth. The following are further examples of this form of trinity in the Word: In Genesis vi, vii, viii, God speaks to Noah of the corruption of the earth, of the ark which he is to make, of the flood of waters that will overspread the earth, of the living creatures that are to be taken into the ark. In Genesis xii, Jehovah speaks to Abram and commands him to go to the land of Canaan. In Genesis xv, Jehovah speaks to Abram concerning an heir, and promises the land of Canaan for an inheritance. In Genesis xvii, the Lord speaks to Abram concerning the covenant, and renews the promise of the land of Canaan, In the Prophets the Lord speaks to the prophets concerning the state of the church and the need of His coming to re- establish the church. In the Gospels the Lord speaks to His disciples concerning the church, which He is about to establish, and which is represented in various ways. In Revelation the Lord, as the Son of Man, speaks to John concerning the seven churches or concerning the New Jerusalem, which He will establish when the last judgment is accomplished. In all of these instances when the Lord speaks to a person concerning a church which is to come, in each case a trinity is represented in the internal sense.

The trinity is expressed in the Writings in various forms of statement, as the Divine, the Divine Human, and the Divine Proceeding; the Lord, heaven, and the church; the celestial, the spiritual, and the natural; love, wisdom, and use; end) cause, and effect; the first, the middle, and the last. Any one or all of these trinal forms of statement is involved in the trinities of the literal sense, and any One Of them may be used in exposition. An example of the trinity of end, cause, and effect may be found in any chapter, paragraph, or complete statement in the letter of the Word. The end is seen in the first thing said, the cause or means by which the end comes into effect is found in the intermediate verses, and the effect appears in the close or conclusion of the series. This is also a trinity Of love, wisdom, and use, or of will, understanding, and action. A close analysis therefore of any book, chapter, portion, group, or verse of Scripture will discover a trinal order and arrangement, and the three terms of the trine will contain in their spiritual sense the generals or universals of the series, and when obtained will open the way to the multitude of particulars which are stored in the bosom of the Word. The Word is of necessity trinal in form because the Word is a Man. It is God Man. It is the Lord whose form is trinal, and. from Him His Word and all creation is trinal. The trinal form is thus the human form itself. CHAPTER XV THE COVENANT IN THE WORD THE COVENANT APPEARS IN ALL THINGS OF THE WORD. The subject of the covenant, when viewed broadly, is one with that of duality, and if it is one with the subject of duality, it is also one with that of the trinity; for we have already seen that where duality is, a trinity is also present, either involved or expressed. The two latter have been set forth in the preceding chapters, but we propose to devote a chapter to the subject of the covenant also, treating it by itself, since it has a value peculiarly its own, as is clearly indicated in Scripture history. A covenant was a formal agreement between two or more persons, involving free will and consent, also obligation with a solemn promise to fulfil the conditions agreed upon; each party binding himself to the same by the most solemn oath, frequently accompanied by sacrifices and other religious rites. The term covenant is now confined to its religious usage, and in law and business the word contract has been adopted to express a binding agreement between parties who join themselves together for the fulfillment of a common purpose. Other words are sometimes used to express the same general idea, such as league, treaty, or compact. In the Old Testament the Lord is represented as entering into a covenant with men, thus exemplifying and illustrating the law that He always appears and accommodates Himself to the conditions and customs in which men are, and which they practice in their relations with each other. Besides, it was necessary in the period of Old Testament history, on account of the state in which men were, to bind them in the form of a

solemn covenant to obey the laws required of them. In no other way could the Divine purpose at that time have been fulfilled in regard to men on account of their waywardness and perversity. The covenant first distinctly appears in the story of Noah. The earth had become corrupt and filled with violence. The destruction of all flesh was imminent. The human race, on account of the universal prevalence of confirmed evil, was about to disappear from the earth. But there was one man who had found favor in the eyes of Jehovah, because he bad kept the covenant of obedience to the Divine commands. To him Jehovah said, "With thee will I establish my covenant, and thou shalt come into the ark, thou and thy wife, and thy sons, and thy sons' wives with thee, and two of every living thing of all flesh." (Gen. vi: 18-19.) All the others were to be destroyed by the waters of the flood, because of their wilful disobedience to the commands of God. Nothing was left in them by means of which the covenant could be restored. But the covenant could be renewed and established with Noah, and the token of the covenant with him was to be the bow in the cloud, "between me and you, and every living creature of all flesh that is upon the earth." (Gen. ix: 8-17.) Men after the time of Noah continued to break the covenant by disobedience to the commands of God, and the human race was again threatened with extinction. But God in His mercy caused a renewal of His covenant with men. This was done in Egypt and in the wilderness, beginning with Abraham, and continuing with Isaac, Jacob, Moses and the sons of Israel; and afterward successively in the land of Canaan even until the fullness of time when the covenant could no longer be restored after the former manner, because of the great wickedness of men. Hence God Himself came into the world to renew the covenant in His own Person, the story of which we read in the New Testament. In the Gospel and in Revelation we read also of a Second Coming for a further and final renewal of the covenant, which has been accomplished in this our day. It has been well said therefore that the entire history recorded in the Sacred Scripture is from the beginning to the end a history of the covenant, of its inauguration and development with the Jewish nation, and of its fulfillment in the Gospel. In fact, it may be seen as a thread running through from the beginning of Genesis to the last of Revelation; and even where it is not expressed in terms, the thing itself is there, existing as the one end and purpose in view in all the Revelation of God to man. All the rites of the Jewish Church, especially the rite of circumcision, were signs of the covenant; hence the entire worship of that church was a covenant, which, when observed, conjoined with heaven, at least externally. The same is true of all worship. It is a covenant which when kept both externally and internally, conjoins men with heaven and the Lord. Hence the most holy act of worship, the Holy Supper, is called a covenant (T. C. R. 730). It is a covenant which a man renews every time he partakes of it. Baptism is also a covenant, as was circumcision with the Jews, -a promise and a pledge of obedience to the Divine commandments. The principle involved in the covenant indeed appears as soon as man is placed upon the earth. God has created him, God loves him, and would join Himself to him, and by such a conjunction make him happy forever. In order to bring this about, God reveals His will and requires obedience on the part. of His creatures. The man and the woman are placed in the Garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it, and are told that they may cat of

every tree of the Garden, except of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil; "for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die." But man did not continue in a life of obedience to the commands of God. He broke the covenant and was expelled from the Garden, By reaction against God instead of with Him as before, he fell from his pristine state of obedience and of life. Now it is not actually said that God made a covenant with Adam when He created him and placed him in the Garden, but the essential of the covenant is there, that which is involved and signified in every covenant, command and instruction on the part of God, and free consent with obedience on the part of man. In this view it will be seen that the principle of the covenant is universal in the Word, and the actual appearing of the covenant in sacred history is but an ultimate type and manifestation of the prime essential end and purpose in all revelation, the conjunction of God with man and of man with God. This universality of the covenant is manifest in the ten commandments, for they are called a covenant. "And He declared unto you His covenant, which He commanded you to perform, even the ten commandments." (Deut. iv: 13. Exod. xxxiv: 28. Lev. xxvi: 15.) They are called also the "tables of the covenant," (Deut. ix: 11, 15); and the ark which bore them is called the "ark of the covenant." (Deut. x: 8. xxxi: 26.) Now we read that the commandments are the first of the Word (T. C. R. 283. A. E. 939). They are the first historically, morally, and spiritually. They were written on two tables of stone. The first table treats of the duties of man to God, and the second of his duties to his neighbor; or the first treats of love to God, and the second of love to the neighbor. They are thus essentially one with the two great commandments on which hang all the law and the prophets, as our Lord said to Hi's disciples. The Lord thus teaches that the two great commandments, or what is the same, the ten commandments, are the all of the Word of God, in which we see illustrated the law that what is first reigns universally in what follows. The ten commandments are therefore universal in the Word, and since they are twofold, the Word also everywhere is twofold, that is, the conjunction of the Lord and man, or the marriage of the Lord and the church-the essential covenant-is everywhere. This is the reason why the Word is called the Book of the Covenant (Exod. xxiv: 7, 8, and II Kings xxiii: 2). The Old Testament is also called the Old Covenant, and the New Testament the New Covenant (Life 60). A summary from the Writings on this general subject is presented as followsThe whole Word is the covenant (A. C. 6804). The two loves joined together are the essential covenant (A. C. 2037). The Law is called a covenant (Life 57). The Law is called a covenant because a covenant signifies conjunction (Life 60). To keep the covenant is to live according to the commandments (A. C. 8767, 4197). The Decalogue is called a covenant because conjunction with the Lord is effected when man keeps the commandments (A. E. 1027). Regeneration is signified by the covenant. The Lord enters into a covenant with man when He regenerates him (A. C. 665). The covenants with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, were but representations of regeneration (A. C. 665). A covenant signifies regeneration, and indeed the conjunction of the Lord with the regenerate man, by love (A. C. 1023). In the Word the Lord Himself is called a covenant because He alone regenerates (A. C. 666). Every covenant is for the sake of conjunction, namely, that the parties may live mutually in friendship, or in love; hence marriage is also called a

covenant (A. C. 1038). A covenant was representative of the conjunction of the Lord's Human Essence with His Divine (A. C. 1864). The Lord never establishes a covenant with man, but when conjunction by love and charity is treated of, it is also actually exhibited as a covenant (A. C. 2842). The conjunction of the Lord with the church was represented by a covenant, such as is made between two who swear to their compact; on which account, because an oath was part of a covenant, it is said that Jehovah sware (A. R. 474). We now see that the abstract or universal idea of the covenant is that of action and reaction, and conjunction thereby, -action on the part of God and reaction on the part of man. Concerning this we read as follows: "Since man must desist from evils as sins as if from himself, these ten commandments were inscribed by the Lord on two tables, and these were called a covenant.; and this covenant was entered into in the same way as it is usual to enter into covenants between two, that is, one proposes and the other accepts, and the one who accepts consents. If he does not consent, the covenant is not established. To consent to this covenant is to think, will, and do as if of oneself. Man's thinking to shun evils and to do good as of himself is done not by man but by the Lord. This is done by the Lord for the sake of reciprocation and consequent conjunction; for the Lord's Divine Love is such that it wills that what is its own shall be man's, and as these things cannot be man's because they are Divine, it makes them to be as if they were man's." (A. E. 971.) From the teaching of the foregoing number it is clear that the covenant stands as a universal of the Word, appearing in some form in every chapter and in every verse, as expressive of the marriage of the Lord and the church, the marriage of good and truth, or the conjunction of God with man and of man with God. Man therefore fulfills his part of the covenant when, in full freedom of will, he acts as of himself from God, and thus reacts with God. The signs of this covenant are everywhere, and should be looked for and noted in the study of any chapter or paragraph in the Word. It is to be especially noted, however, in the places where it is the dominant idea, when the purpose is exposition, or the setting forth of the internal sense in the form of a sermon or discourse. For the leading idea of the series should be the leading idea of the sermon; which in this case would be the conjunction of the Lord with man, or the marriage of the Lord and the church, or the marriage of good and truth. In choosing a text therefore, and in studying the chapter where the text occurs, the minister will find an especial value in noting in it the element of action and reaction, action on the part of God and reaction on the part of man, and in comparing this truth with the related truths which will appear when the other rules are applied to the text, and when the explanations given in the Writings are also brought to bear in its elucidation. CHAPTER XVI AFFECTION IN THE WORD AFFECTION IS THE PRIME ESSENTIAL OF THE WORD, BOTH IN ITS NATURAL AND IN ITS SPIRITUAL SENSES.

It is necessary in the study of the Word to observe not only what is said, but also the affection from which a thing is said; for the Word is constituted of thought and affection together, but the affection is primary.* Until it is seen that the Word is both affection and thought, the internal sense is not fully before us, for in that sense especially is found the true spirit of the Word, which is affection and thought together, or good and truth, or love and wisdom. We can see that this is so when we understand that the Word is a Man, the Divine Man, the Divine Human of our Lord Jesus Christ (John i: 1-14). The Lord or the Word is Love itself and Wisdom itself, and is thus the one only source of love and wisdom with angels and men, the one only source of all human affection and thought, of everything of human life, even down to the body itself and all parts of it (D. L. W. 18). All this from the Lord is primarily and essentially the Word, which is the life and light of men. Man is thus the image of God, especially the image of the Divine Mind, or of the Divine Love and Wisdom. We know that it is the mind, or love and wisdom, or will and understanding, that make a man; this also makes the Lord or the Word. * The affection and the thought from affection, which make the Word as to its internal sense, are in the angels who are present when the Word is read by man. Heaven is thus within the Word, and the Lord is within heaven. Now the Doctrine teaches that there is a ruling love, or a ruling affection of love, in every man, that governs everything of his life (A. C. 6159, 7342). From this ruling affection of love there are many derivative affections, so that there is always some affection from which words are spoken and deeds are done (A. C. 1758). There can be no speech, nor any action of the body, that is not inspired by some affection of the mind, some love of the will, which takes the form of thought in the understanding; so that there is no thought without its affection, and the two are present in every word that is spoken, as well as in every deed; and what is true of human speech is true also of all human writing. That there are in general two states of life, a state of thought and a state of affection, see Arcana Coelestia, number 8750. A man gives expression to both of these in all that he speaks, in all that he writes, and in all that he does. Since this is true of every man and of every angel and spirit, it is eminently and supremely true of the Lord as the Word, and of the Lord in His Word. It is from this source, from the Lord as the Word, that the whole heaven, which is the Maximus Homo, is arranged into angelic -human -societies according to affections (D. Love ix), and not according to thoughts or truths, except so far as these are from affections or have affection in them. The ruling principle, the very life itself of a heavenly society, is some affection which is the activity of a ruling love. Indeed affection is the active and leading principle of every function whether in heaven or on earth; and a heavenly society is nothing else than a function, a function that is expressed by a name in the Word, and is present in that name when the Word is read'. Hence until we see the affection as well as the thought from which the words of Scripture are spoken, the interior life of the Word, the Divine Mind itself, is but obscurely revealed; for the Word is the Divine Mind of the Lord revealing itself to men, and the Divine Mind is Divine Love and Divine Wisdom, -both together and not one without the other. It is not, however, as easy for a man to see his own or another's affections as it is to see his thoughts; and so in the Word it is not so easy to see the affections that are in it, as it is to see the thoughts or truths (A. C. 6159). Hence the application of this law as a rule of exposition will be somewhat difficult. Still it is important to know this as one of the general

) Since love "shines forth from the very words" of the literal sense. in words that are expressive of love. this state in the Lord is spoken of as illustrating the fact that "the internal sense is such that the affection which lies concealed in the words is what constitutes it. 236). C. It is usual with us to think of the spiritual sense as truth. It frequently occurs. even though the perception of its operation be obscure. either from want of knowledge. and used. it is evident that love is primary in the celestial sense of the same words. for example. What is this that thou hast done?' That these words signify that he was grieved may appear from the indignation with which they are spoken." (A. for the affection of love shines forth from the very words. humiliation. But there is contained within this a spiritual or a celestial sense. . Whatever is revealed and taught in the Writings is intended to be known. and hence a consideration of this law. or in other words of a similar character. In the number. contempt. "'Abraham said unto God. The internal sense is such that the affection which lies concealed in the words is what constitutes it.' -That it signifies the Lord's perception from love. because that sense is nearer the infinite fountain of love. aversion. accompanied with indignation and grief over the loss of the scientifics which He loved. understood. a part of which is quoted above. that affection is the primary essential of the Word. horror.principles by which the spirit of the Word is revealed and its interior life made known. know what the ruling affection is (H. Such words indicate the activity of sonic affection. but within the truth that first appears to us is affection which is its soul and life. They thus perceive clearly what we can perceive only obscurely. That the Lord said this from love is evident. and ideas of thought secondary. where it is said. That affection is primary in the spiritual sense is still more true. The subject is further illustrated in the numbers which now follow. especially in Arcana Coelestia. but even this obscure perception is of supreme value in the understanding of the Word. and the words of the letter are not attended to but are as if they were not. in human writing. fear. appears from the signification of saying unto God as denoting to perceive. and above all in the Word when it is read by man. We find this truth illustrated in the following passage: "'And he said. . They can see this in human speech. that attention is called to the affection contained in the words used in the literal sense. cannot well be left out in any treatise on the exposition of the Word. anxiety. zeal. 'O that Ishmael might live before Thee. loathing.) In the natural sense it is the indignation and grief of Pharaoh On account of the treatment be had received from Abram in respect to Sarai. from a single series of words. C. Let us now proceed to a consideration of certain teachings of the Writings that bear distinctly on this general subject. in which Pharaoh and Abram wholly disappear. which is in the Lord and is the Lord. the sorrow thence arising is thus expressed. and the presence of such affection is taken as a sign of what the internal sense is in any given passage. H."' (A. and indeed this is so. and the temptations of the Lord in His childhood come into view. anger. and correspond with sonic affection in the spiritual sense. We are taught that the angels. . 1492. . 2077. though this is not generally realized. and its application be attended with difficulty." Even in the natural sense affection is primary. indignation. or because it is not reflected upon.

That it is the affection of indignation. much variety in each. whilst He thought of the state of the human race." (A. without which a chapter cannot be thoroughly analyzed. as from the affection that is manifest as soon as they are read. as a fundamental of preparation for entering into the internal sense. See also A.) Here we are told that the internal sense does not so plainly appear from the words. and this the anxiety of love towards the human race. That this will sometimes be difficult of accomplishment does not appear as a reason why the attempt should not be made. that affection appears in any word or phrase of the literal sense is taken as an indication that there is some corresponding affection in the spiritual sense. and leading principle. We have now presented to our minds a feature of the literal sense. I pray. We have in these pages frequently dwelt upon the importance of a thorough analysis of the literal sense. 'Pass not. . does not so plainly appear from the words. the taking note of the natural affection from which the words of Scripture are spoken. falls into these words is evident. that poetic words are those which express affection. 2157. I have found favor in thine eyes. my Lord be angry. the Psalms. The Prophets. and in those which follow. C. 2275.' That it signifies the respectivity (respectivum) of the Lord's state when He observed that perception. from over Thy servant. C. either the one or the other being dominant. -a positive indication that it is more important to observe the affection of the literal sense than its thought.) "'And he said. and also in those which immediately follow. C. It is well known that poetry is weak in the degree that truth or intellectual thought appears as the active and leading principle in the language used. as in poetry. form and structure. but it is not so active and . and it is clear that these two elements are in the Word throughout. The point of interest to us in this connection is. affection also dominates in the spiritual sense. may appear from the affection of humiliation in these words. but sometimes in human language truth appears as the first the more active.' -That it signifies anxiety concerning the human race. Let us quote one more example of the operation of this law. but also in the spiritual sense.' -That it signifies indignation appears from the affection in these words. are signs that affection is active and leading not only in the natural. as in ordinary prose. and I will speak. and then at the same time innumerable and inexpressible things are insinuated into them concerning the anxiety of love Which the Lord induced. nor is the way fully opened to the ruling affection of the spiritual sense and its truth. "'And he said unto Laban. I pray. 2543. however. from the ideas of thought in them. which is essential to such analysis. that is. as from the affection in the words. Not only in Scripture. I pray. according to the historical series. Affection is indeed the first. a clear view of the scientifics contained therein. 6178. which." (A. The Word is the type and at the same time the fountain of all prose and of all poetry. . There is.) In all these passages and in others like them in the Writings. and Revelation are essentially poetic: the historical parts of the Old Testament and the Gospels are more like prose in their." (A. C. Another indication is also afforded. namely. . even in the prose parts of the Word. let not. to which the natural affection and its truth corresponds. but at other times affection is manifestly the dominant quality. 2802. which is that since in such terms affection is the dominating element. When these words are read."'If. the celestial angels instantly perceive a certain anxiety. 3839.' in which likewise is humiliation.

but this sense can scarcely be unfolded. 830. that he may take away from me this death only. 42. and natural affection to spiritual affection." It was a natural affection of fear felt by Abimilech and his servants. But the natural affection of offspring has in it by correspondence the spiritual affection of truth. excited while He was in the world for "those . S. and elsewhere. we read of the increase in numbers of the children of Israel by births. S. R. of reputation. but of the fear of those in the spiritual world whom Pharaoh represented. This latter fear has its ground. and so the internal sense treats of the increase of truths from the spiritual affection of truth. but in the love of the things of the church and of heaven. natural truth in the Word corresponds to spiritual truth. In human speech also when strong feeling. C. and yet they contain in their bosom the Divine Love itself. 40. however. of honor. Fear. and entreat the Lord your God." (S. not in the world and the love of worldly things. "And the men feared exceedingly. and against you. my sin only this once. I pray thee. and who were now about to be judged and cast into hell. we have the words. "And Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron in haste. A. as for instance in Exodus i: 7. the words are not the same as when the language is more deliberative. . but the celestial sense as affection or good or love. as into the affection of the will. Again in Genesis xx:8. As we have already indicated. But the affection of fear in the spiritual sense. making itself visible and felt in the seeming heavens which were now to be judged and dispersed. which is called celestial . See also S. The spiritual sense appears as truth. 10265. as contained in the above words. 80. C. that "Isaac returned and digged again the wells of waters which they had digged in the days of Abraham his father . 17. . and he said. in the words. In respect to affection in the Word we are told that it is the celestial sense. but in the spiritual or celestial sense this natural affection wholly disappears.does not appear as the leading and dominant quality.) The affection is the affection of love to the Lord. which with them was from the affection of the love of offspring. This fear was inspired by the Divine Truth proceeding from the Lord.) The terms spiritual and internal are. emotion. and of worldly things. has respect to the loss of life. . and in its stead is seen by correspondence the affection of the Lord. (See A." In the natural sense of these words the predominant feature is the affection of Isaac for the memory of his father Abraham.* * It may be remarked that the Writings in their linguistic form and construction are essentially prosaic or didactic. . because their purpose is to teach truth of doctrine to the understanding. It is thus a spiritual fear and a spiritual affection (A. and he called their names after the names by which his fattier had called them. 2543). hence it is often said that the celestial sense treats of the Lord alone. as a natural affection. Now therefore forgive. is fear for the loss of the things of spiritual life. I have sinned against the Lord your God. -the fear of those in the imaginary heavens who had been subjecting the simple good to their dominion. for it does not fall so much into the thought of the understanding. or more from the thought of the understanding. often used to include both the spiritual and celestial senses of the Word. S. Again it is said in Genesis xxvi: 18. The affection of natural fear appears again in Exodus x: 16." But the spiritual sense does not treat of the fear of Pharaoh on account of the threatened destruction of himself and of his people. and all heavenly affections. S. or affection dominates the mind and is seeking utterance. 19. for we read that "there is a still more interior sense in the Word.

C. that is.truths which were known and received among the Ancients. and the affections of good. and also for the sake of the correspondence of natural things with spiritual. as far as we are able. but if Elohim be used we know at once that the affection of truth or the affection of love to the neighbor is the leading affection in the internal sense. This end or affection with its corresponding truth. with their varieties. or in every verse and in every word of the group. Such affections. But it is not necessary to multiply examples." and that the affections of good are affections of love to the Lord. or the affection of love to the neighbor.) In the same number we are told that "there are principally two kinds of affections which shine forth in brightness from the Word before the angels. good or the affection of love to the Lord is active and dominant in the internal sense. 3419). for natural affections. or love towards the neighbor. whether the ruling love in the series is love to the Lord or love to the neighbor. for heaven is interiorly in the Word." which were now opened to Him (A. if Jehovah be the name of God that is used." We have already seen that the end in a chapter or paragraph in the Word is in the first thing said and appears at the close of the series. for the sake of the understanding of the literal sense. are what are stored in the internal sense of the Word . and those few are simple persons." (A. We learn also from the passage quoted just above. . namely. it is a sign that the affection of. we shall know what the affection is that . . with all its life of affection and thought. This end is the affection of a love reigning in some angelic society. and this with all variety according to the kinds of affections in which they are. and which are not apparent to the natural thought of man. and that the angels are in the ends of the Word which are affections. whether it be the affection of good or the affection of truth. There are many signs in the literal sense of the active presence of these loves or affections. the dominant spiritual affection in any passage of the Word. and this with ineffable variety. when yet they fill the universal heaven. which is the end in the first thing said. The rest of mankind do not even know what genuine affection is. "have nothing in common with the affections which are in the internal sense of the Word. For instance. Thus the angels are in the affections of the things contained in the Word. the affections of truth. and shine brightly before the angels when the Word is read by those who are in simple good and at the same time in innocence. because few are in them. 3839. It is desirable to discover the natural affections which are in the Word. that affections are ends. for the sake of the instruction of children and young people and others who may need such instruction. Persons who are not in them believe that they are. which man is the less capable of perceiving. the affection of love to the Lord. as they may be found everywhere in the Word. for what a man loves he regards as an end. Among these signs are the names of God. But these natural affections of the literal sense are not the affections which are spoken of as being concealed in the words of Scripture. which is in the first thing said. these latter being the affections of spiritual and celestial love. and the affections of truth are affections of mutual love. nothing. or as we read: "Ends are nothing else but loves or affections. who cannot reflect upon their affections. If we are able to determine what the affection is. These spiritual and celestial affections are contained in charity towards the neighbor and in love to God. reigns universally in what follows. We can see from this teaching the importance of finding.

H. in the vowels and in the consonants. No thought and idea at all is given without affection. Vowels are thus made by which affection expresses itself in sound. hence it is that the art of music is able to express various kinds of affections. It is well also not to forget that with affection there is also illustration." (H. expressive of thought. and hence they have no language. Since vowels are merely sounds. they are not a part of human speech properly considered. The fact that there is in the Word not only thought but affection. their soul and their life is from it. that also is spiritual. C. but to the elevations of its words by various affections according to the state of every one. represents affection because it is the mode of expressing affection. thus taking the form of thoughts which clothe affection. not only truth but good. nor do they become a part of the speech until they are clothed with consonants. Hence we read that "vowels do not belong to the language (of the angels]. 241. 19. This can be found by the application of several of the rules. The sound of speech corresponds to their affection. but prior to it and thus within it as its soul and life. and because language corresponds to them. This is seen in the very structure of language in the twofold character of the letters.) We are told further that "the language [of the angels] flows from their very affection and thought. takes form in consonants and thus in articulate speech. . the angels then know also the quality of the thought of man. A. We read also that "because affections manifest themselves chiefly by sounds. and is intended to express not only the thought of the understanding but also the affection of the will. This affection will be some affection of love to the Lord or of love to the neighbor. . From the sound of the vowels the angels know the quality of a man as to affection and love. 241. 29. H. for it is affection sounding and thought speaking. and the words correspond to the ideas of thought which are from affection. 236. H. and they are Also variously pronounced. therefore also in human discourse when great subjects are treated of. Musical sounds also have an elevation to the same vowels." (H.) But when the affection or love. ultimating itself in vowel sounds." For this reason "in the Hebrew language the vowels are not expressed. the form of affection. which is nothing but a sound or tone of the voice. thought. R. Animals can express affection by vowel sounds. Man in early infancy is like an animal. not only wisdom but love.is present throughout the following series. which may be determined according to the principles already laid down in these pages. T. R. a thing which animals possess in common with men. understanding. since language is nothing else than an ultimate expression of the mental state. he does not clothe his vowels with consonants until he is prepared to enter into the processes of thought and clothe his thought in the articulate words of speech. 261. namely. W. D. 241. or an affection opposite to these. vii: 5." (H. those words are preferred which contain the vowels u and o. but as they do not possess thought or reason they have no consonants to clothe their vowel sounds. truth.) . which are laid open to view when we know what the affection is which is the end in the chapter. as heaven (coelum) and God (Deus). when such things are expressed. . and consonants are made by which the affection in the vowel or tone takes form as speech. and in the same manner one man knows the thought of another. is represented in human language itself. or some affection of good or of truth. it is otherwise when subjects not great are treated of. perception. Now the vowel.

not only to acquire a just . It is indeed a rule that may be usefully applied in the study of any subject in any domain of human research. both existing in the literal sense and in the internal sense. and among them is the rule of comparison. and in the preparation of lessons for the religious instruction of children.* The use of this principle in the study of the Writings themselves is clearly shown by the great number of references to the same subject as treated elsewhere. and the church builded on this understanding as formed and established in the minds of men. that is. These teachings are given that the Word may be laid open as to its interior contents. CHAPTER XVII COMPARISON OF WORDS AND PASSAGES THE INTERNAL SENSE MAY BE DISCOVERED BY MEANS OF A COMPARISON OF WORDS AND PASSAGES. The great practical value of it in the expounding of a given text for a sermon. as to its spiritual sense. trusting that we shall be able to show that this rule occupies a position of the same dignity and importance as the other rules of ex-. becomes apparent as the subject is developed. But there are aids to this light. All the principles of exposition set forth in this work are based on teachings of the Writings.These considerations establish and confirm the teaching that there is in the Word not only thought but affection. and hence that in order to fully understand the Word it is necessary to observe not only its thought but its affection. but its use in the study of the Word. wherein the numerous related passages quoted bear testimony to the value of this principle of exposition. natural or spiritual. or otherwise we see it only in part or as through a glass darkly. The Apocalypse Revealed. It is a rule therefore that should be used in the study of the Word. when the mind is enlightened by truth of doctrine. There is no truth. Without this light the mind wanders in dark and tortuous paths. We must not indeed lose sight of the fact that the light of doctrine is the one essential factor in the understanding of the Word. and that the understanding thereby may enter into the interior mysteries of faith. without relation to other truths more or less closely connected. is what we would endeavor to present in this chapter. and these related truths should be seen and known in order to obtain a comprehensive view of any subject tinder consideration. We find the application of the rule of comparison carried to the full in works like Arcana Coelestia. The value of comparison in the teaching and in the study of any subject is generally recognized. In drawing to the close of this chapter it may be well to remark that the teaching concerning affection in the Word is given us for the sake of the understanding of the Word. This work is an attempt to bring them together for those who wish to enter into the spirit of the teaching concerning the white horse in the Apocalypse-the Word laid open by the understanding thereof. in -its literal sense. and The Apocalypse Explained. and thence' for the sake of exposition and instruction. position that have been discussed in the preceding pages. of which latter the literal sense is the ultimate form and image. They cannot fail therefore to be of use to a minister who will apply them for the sake of understanding the Word.

when the attention of the mind is exclusively occupied with one truth without due consideration of related truths (A. and even books of the Word. although in the external form it appears to be founded in the civil state. but a number of truths. and not from the light of human intelligence. in order that the subject may be seen in an entire view.) * The amount of material from the literal sense collected in the Writings affords the student abundant help in procuring passages for illustration and comparison." (A. Matt." (A. For one truth does not make a form. In other words the particulars of doctrine must be supplied from revelation and its light. as we have said. and that there may be no defect to be supplied from the human rational. for one truth without connection with other truths does not confirm. however. as we learn from the following teaching: "The command given in the representative church that all truth shall stand on the word of two or three witnesses. and that which is lacking must be supplied from the rational of man.) This number clearly indicates that the application of the rule of comparison will lead to related truths. and not on that of one (Num. These are the things on which the above law is founded. C. We are taught also in the passage quoted concerning the importance of collecting all the doctrine on a given subject. C. from the light of the world. that is. as -Daniel and the Apocalypse. which is blind and under illusion in spiritual and Divine things when its conclusions are from itself. xvii: 6. This rule is followed in the Writings. The use of this rule. 4197. xxxv: 30. On this account the Word was given to the church. 362).understanding of the letter. Bibles with marginal references have been provided. but also for the sake of entrance into the spiritual sense itself. is founded on the Divine law that one truth does not confirm good. but groups of verses and chapters may be compared. for then that which is lacking must be supplied from the rational of man. for these [doctrinals] are the things on which it is built. that it is based upon the fact that truths have. and how blind and under illusion this is in spiritual and Divine things. when its conclusions are from itself. which are necessary to a complete form. xix: 15. We read that "when the church is being established. therefore unless they are first gathered into one. or on a given text of Scripture. but there is also direct teaching on the subject. need not be confined to the study of words and sentences. For this purpose also. One does not produce a form. xviii: 16). but a number that are connected in a series. as is also the case with the precepts of the Decalogue. for from one truth another can be seen. It will thus be of value even where passages are . and the Gospels with each other. and we further learn that heresies arise when this law is not observed. has been abundantly shown above. or from the destructive criticism of men. the doctrinals of good must first be gathered into one. but the one is not contrary to the other. 3786. Doctrinals have also a connection with and a mutual looking to each other. there will be a defect. For as one tone does not produce any melody. -related truths appearing in the text and in the context of similar passages. This involves not only the collecting of the doctrine in the Writings that bears upon the leading idea of the text. 7. and thus not any quality. so neither does one truth. in which are all the doctrinals of good and truth. but a number together. but also the doctrine of the literal sense of the Word. still less harmony. Deut. a mutual relation to each other. C. We learn from this passage that the principle of interpretation we are considering is fundamental in the beginning of the church.

is not only for the purpose of revealing what is unknown. But its use will be seen especially where passages are not directly explained. There has been given us indeed explanation of every thing in the literal sense of the Word. gives breadth of view. of doing good and understanding truth. and provides material for genuine illustration. by extracts from the Writings. it may be found by a comparison of passages.explained in the Writings. and who do not search out the internal sense from other passages.) It has been shown elsewhere in this work. We find the same teaching in the following passage: "How deceived they are who abide in the sense of the letter alone. C. as has been hitherto shown.) The intellectual of the church is also what is called the understanding of the Word." (A." (A. and for confirmatory evidence. 2760 Preface. 7233. by which perception truths are placed in an orderly relation one to another. but it is also for the sake of confirming and establishing what a man already knows or perceives to be true. The bringing together of related truths bearing witness to each other. . and result in a form and state that is expressed by the term. For "the internal sense is not only that sense which lies concealed in the external sense. there is formed and established what is called "the intellectual of the church. 3436. 6222. "the intellectual of the church." (A. for a larger enlightenment of the mind. then "the Lord flows in while he knows it not. all of which comes when wisdom is the end regarded. and apperceived by those who are in illustration from the Lord.) The general proposition therefore follows that a comparison of the text and context of similar passages is often necessary for the complete understanding of any given passage. Two things contribute to establish this intellectual. and yet the end in view is to be taught of the Lord. and according to the affection thereof. for the Lord flows in while he knows not. gives understanding from other passages. For "he who reads the Word from the end of growing wise. C. C. where it is explained in the Word. 3436. unless there be perception which is from spiritual light in the mind.) As will be seen. the teaching in this passage is most clear that the mind of the student can be led to the spiritual sense by the comparison of one passage with another when there is illustration from the Lord. and illustration is given by true doctrine and by the affection of truth for its own sake. but they remain as an undigested mass. by which is all progressive growth in intelligence and wisdom. C. however. a wider field for the range of vision. and illustrates his mind." (A. if there is doubt or hesitation as to what is true. may appear manifest from the number of heresies that have arisen." This intellectual is the understanding of the Word as to its internal sense.) When wisdom is the end regarded in the reading and study of the Word. or if the knowledge is not clear and distinct. is instructed according to the end. gives understanding from other passages. if the perception is obscure." (A. By the latter the scientifics of truth may be gathered and heaped together. that the spiritual sense does indeed appear here and there in the letter of the Word. and carefully compares one passage with another. Comparison. that is. and now We have before us the teaching that when it does not appear in a given passage. C. each one of which is confirmed from the literal sense of the Word. and when he hesitates. but also that which results from many passages rightly compared with each other. perception and comparison. and when he hesitates. based upon the understanding of the literal sense." which "consists in man's perceiving when he reads the Word. what is thence to be believed and what to be done. but there are many portions that are not directly unfolded.

But if we are not told directly what He meant. . we read that "great multitudes followed Him. until the Son of Man be risen again from the dead. for a testimony unto them. Thou art the Son of God.) Thus to a mind that is in the light of revealed doctrine the spiritual sense appears in the letter by a comparison of passages. the spiritual sense appears."that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet. Tell the vision to no man. And He straitly charged them that they should not make Him known. . and He charged them that they should not make Him known. ix: 30. when He should send forth judgment unto victory. But the reason given for His charge to them follows. and John. spiritually known. ix: 26) is said after the woman was healed of the issue of blood. ix: 31). viii: 4. and He healed them all. The following are some examples of this charge as given by the Lord to His disciples. but we will endeavor to see if their spiritual meaning can be discovered by a comparison of the parallel passages. until He had subjugated the hells and glorified His Human. Luke ix: 21. till He send forth judgment unto victory. and smoking flax shall He not quench. "See thou tell no man. for we read such passages as the following: "And the fame hereof went abroad into all the land.) Two blind men were healed by Him.) It appears therefore that the Lord commanded that He should not be made known. and Jesus straitly charged them saying. and elsewhere. and healing every sickness and every disease among the people. may we not find by a comparison of related passages some hint of the mystery involved? Let us see. And He charged them that they should tell no man. and we must seek in the spiritual sense for the reason why this command was given. "See thou tell no man"? It does not appear that these words have been directly explained in the Writings. show thyself to the priest. It could not be otherwise. until true doctrine is revealed and the light of illustration is given." (Mark viii: 29." (Matt." (Mark iii: 11. In Matthew xii: 14-21. yet "when they were departed. and Peter answereth and saith unto Him. 12. and preaching the gospel of the kingdom. but go thy way. and yet He Himself publicly proclaimed His mission. they spread abroad His fame in all that country" (Matt." Yet it was known in the doing to great multitudes of people. Thou art the Christ. and to those whom He healed: He said unto the leper whom He had cleansed." (Matt. but this cannot take place until .) He said unto His disciples. and by a comparison of passages." (See Matt." (Matt. when they saw Him. ix: 35. Mark ix: 9. 36. and cried saying. . and offer the gift that Moses commanded. Although the two blind men who were healed were charged that no man should know it. James. and the fame of His deeds was spread abroad. 30. See that no man know it. In these words the clue is given and the mystery is solved. which will serve to show that with the light of genuine doctrine in our minds. and we are also told that the Lord Himself "went about all the cities and villages. For nothing is really known.Let us illustrate by some examples. Hence when He came down from the mount of transfiguration. where He had manifested His glorified Human to Peter. fell down before Him. A bruised reed shall He not break. See also Mark ix: 9.) "And unclean spirits. "and their eyes Were opened. namely. "But whom say ye that I am. teaching in their synagogues. nor could He be really known. xvii: 9. Why does the Lord say after certain of His miracles.) Yet although the Lord commanded that He should not be made known. He was not to be known." (Matt. until the last judgment was accomplished. "He charged them saying. it appears that His words were not fulfilled." The time when He should be made known is here mentioned.

many publicans and sinners sat also together with Jesus and His disciples. standing afar off. We shall begin with Luke xv: 1. And the Pharisees and scribes murmured. and x: 40. viewing them at the same time in their context. Jesus said unto the priests and elders in the temple. It is also apparent here and elsewhere that the latter had hatred and contempt for the publicans. Again. and the other a publican. 32. Again let us suppose that we wish to find in the same manner the signification of the word publican in the spiritual sense. for there were many. "Verily I say unto you. beyond Jordan. . or verse can be treated in this way. we find it stated that from him that hath not "shall be taken away even that which he seemeth to have." (Luke xviii: 10-13." The significant facts in these words are. "And it came to pass. and he shall have more abundance. 16.the last judgment is performed. Let us therefore examine several passages where the word occurs. we shall find that the Gentiles are signified by examining Matthew iv: 15. it will become transparent as we proceed. . Again. and ye believed him not.) The words and the context here as elsewhere. "For whosoever hath." In Matthew xiii: 12. from him shall be taken away even that which he hath. "then drew near unto Him all the publicans and sinners for to hear Him. for they are the class of persons who only seem to have the knowledge of truth and of the things of religion. for they are also spoken of as the "other husbandmen" to whom the vineyard should be let (Matt. Again. would not lift up so much as his eyes unto heaven. they with whom the Christian Church was to be established. and examining each in its context. that as Jesus sat at meat in His house. but the publicans and harlots believed him. That the publicans and the harlots go into the kingdom of heaven before you. saying. and the land of Nephthalim. sentence.) These indications lead to the general conclusion that the word publican is used in a good sense. to him shall be given. all these things which they seem to have are taken away from them. and this is directly taught in A Continuation of the Last Judgment. God. . and sinners?" (Mark ii: 15." (Matt. After death. saying. where it is said. And the publican. that the publicans and sinners drew near unto Him. but whosoever hath not. they said unto His disciples." (Matt. Again we have these words. God be merciful to me a sinner. as we are taught. This man receiveth sinners and eateth with them. How is it that He eateth with publicans. Almost any word. . 12. xxi: 31." If we wish to know who are here meant. Galilee of the Gentiles. This is in fact declared in The Apocalypse Explained. the one a Pharisee. by a reference to Luke viii: 18. indicate clearly that the Gentiles are meant. numbers 11.) Let us note also that Matthew was a publican. xi: 19. and the spiritual sense will shine in the letter. And when the scribes and Pharisees saw Him eat with publicans and sinners. and that they are placed in contrast with the Pharisees who were hypocrites. The Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself. I thank thee that I am not as other men. "The land of Zabulon." When we read this latter we know at once that the hypocrites are meant. xxi: 41. but smote upon his breast. By reading similar passages. 2. For John came unto you in the way of justice. and that one of the charges brought against the Lord was that He was "a friend of publicans and sinners.) The same thing occurs and the same question is asked by the Pharisees in Luke v: 27-30. if we wish to know what is signified by "beyond Jordan" in John i: 28. that they desired to hear Him. these words occur. "Two men went into the temple to pray. number 617. and they followed Him.

Thus it may be considered the true mode of teaching the literal sense of the Word to the Gentiles. R. for speaking by parables is nothing else than teaching by comparison. the minister is in this state when in the presence of a passage the spiritual sense of which is unknown to him. If. most young people. 334. 401). R. producing the appearance of contradiction in Divine Revelation. and correspondence for the rational and spiritual mind. E. C. and thus comparison represents correspondence and is the means of approach to it. 69. it will also be of value by way of confirmation. 10445). for what is naturally comparison is spiritually correspondence. is in the position of the disciples and the multitudes whom the Lord taught by comparisons. in order to see its bearing upon the subject of the study and analysis of the Word. Comparison is for the natural mind. however. and at the same time from reason. 7571. A. 3901. 376. 4599. C. to the simple-good. C. We shall now consider these two phases of the subject of opposites. 4231. EITHER EXPRESSED OR UNDERSTOOD. See also 3579. who see better by means of comparisons than by deductions formed analytically from the Word. it will be well to bring into view both the fact and the use of such opposition. 5115. the fact that it exists. and if he has acquired the principles of exposition as there given. he may not need to apply this rule.A minister or student of the Word. especially of teaching the multitudes. In order to comprehend the subject of opposition in the Word. we learn from the following passages: All comparisons in the Word are correspondences (A. CHAPTER XVIII THE OPPOSITE SENSE THE OPPOSITE IS ALWAYS PRESENT. 8989. 131. and many adults. In the Old Testament also we find this method followed. "Whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God? or with what comparison shall we compare it?" (Mark iv: 30. he has a knowledge of true doctrine as given in the Writings.) This was His usual manner of teaching. 3941. -the former for the juvenile state. As was said. It is evident therefore that comparison precedes correspondence and is introductory to it." (T. That there is a direct relation between comparisons and correspondences. when he already knows the spiritual sense through the other modes that are given.) The simple are children. We read also that "comparisons are made for the sake of the simple. the spiritual sense of which he does not know. . who is face to face with a passage. and it follows that the study of the science of correspondence should be preceded by a study of the principle of comparison. and the reason why it exists and is permitted to exist. and the latter for the adult. A. -which is thus of especial value where other resources have failed. and to children. All comparisons in the Word are significative and representative (A. and who can find no direct explanation in the Writings. Hence children are to be taught by comparison before they can be taught by correspondences.

C. have an opposite sense. C.) And we read that the cause of this opposition appearing in the Word is "that the same things. The same can easily be seen by a comparison of the use of terms in the texts of Scripture. In the Sacred Scripture many words. but also what is actively arrayed." (H. are changed into things opposite.The word opposite signifies a thing that is placed over against or contrary to another thing. and this for the sake of equilibrium. a universal affection constitutes a society in heaven. 5268. Now in every truth of heaven there is a perpetual endeavor to descend into ultimates with men. which we learn from the Writings. and actually turned towards heaven to the good and truth from which they originated. if not all. it is turned into its opposite by falsification and perversion. and also into as many societies as heaven.) Since "every society in heaven has a society opposite to it in hell. 2). one thing against another for the purpose of removal or destruction. and when separated from their heavenly origin receive influx from a society of hell. which are being done in heaven. also that "most things in the Word have a twofold sense. may be known from this. it follows by the law of opposition that every verse also communicates with some society in hell. 541. S. 4750. This is always the case with the evil who read and study the Word. They are not able to see anything but the opposite of the truth. and that between them there may be equilibrium. . but in its reception on the part of men who are evil. That to every good there is an opposite evil and to every truth an opposite falsity. 64. This is true of the natural sense of the words. R. or something opposite" (L. Thus the truth is true to the good. and which is to a large extent confirmed in the lexicons. namely. A universal truth from." (A. but it is evil and false to the evil. and that from the opposite is known its quality. and to every heavenly society an opposite infernal society. are diametrically contrary to those which are in the good. and that hence comes all perception and sensation. H. thus it indicates not only what is passively. as one army or one antagonist against another.as its ground and origin the fact that to every truth there is an opposite falsity. and the origin of the societies of hell. that there is not anything without relation to its opposite." (A. hence the origin of all evil and all falsity. and in what degree it is. This is the reason that many things in the literal sense of the Word put on the appearance. -appearances are bent by the Lord. for the things which are in the opposite sense.) We are further told that "hell is divided into societies in like manner as heaven. for influx is always according to the form of the receptacle. from their good sense it is known what is the quality of their opposite sense. having. and thence something of heaven and the church from Him. when they flow down towards hell. or to take form in the literal sense of the Word. of evil and falsity. to every good an opposite evil. and also of their spiritual sense. The opposition of hell to heaven thus appears in every part of the Word. But when the good read the Word-those who are in charity and in love to the Lord. because the societies in heaven are distinct according to goods and the truths therefrom. But the societies in bell are distinct according to evils and the falsities therefrom. 200. A. even though in the form of appearance and fallacy. for every society in heaven has a society opposite to it in hell. De Verbo 10). hence the teaching that "in the Word there is not only a natural but also a spiritual sense. On this account the Lord continually provides that every society of heaven may have its opposite in a society of hell." and since every verse in the Word communicates with some society in heaven (S. and in this sense by the name of persons or places is signified something of the Lord. a good sense and a sense opposite to that. the likeness and form.

A passage in the literal sense of the Word, false and evil in external form, becomes also to the regenerating man a source of infestation and assault from the society in hell which inflows and ultimates itself therein; and thus serves as a means of growth by resistance; for the ground of spiritual growth is by resistance to evil and falsity. But the evil experience no infestation nor temptation, for the opposite does not appear to them as opposite. It is only the truth that appears opposite to them. Hence we learn that those who are interiorly evil cannot see truths, because to them opposites appear (A. C. 3425). It is for the same reason that after death they can never see heaven however much they may seek for it, because they have been by life in the world interiorly confirmed in a life of evil, or in a life contrary to the things of religion. Such as these cannot be permitted to see truth, neither in this world nor in the other, lest they profane it. This is the reason why the things which are opposite to the truth and good of heaven are the only things that appear to them. For it is better that their eyes should be blinded and their hearts hardened (Matt. xiii: 13, 14), than that they should become guilty of profanation. Hence when opposites appear they immediately seize upon them, and tenaciously adhere to them (A. C. 3436). For they love only the things that are opposed to the life of heaven, and after death no man can see anything he does not love-neither can he in this world as to his spirit. There are two classes of those who are in things opposite, which two classes include all mankind in the early stages of life. The one class will remain in things opposite, and can never be led out of them; but the other class is led out of them in the process of regeneration and is thus prepared for heaven. Hence the teaching that "the literal sense is such that in many passages it appears opposite to itself, but the reason is, because in that sense there are appearances of truth accommodated to those who are in externals, consequently who are also in worldly and corporeal loves." (A. C. 3451.) All are at first in worldly and corporeal loves, and in this state are unable to see the truth; for they are in mere appearances of truth. These are in fact the first things by which the human understanding is formed (D. L. W. 40). But in adult life these are to be dispersed by regeneration. With those who persist in a life of evil, however, this cannot be done. With them appearances are more and more confirmed, and appearances confirmed establish and make permanent a state of opposition to the truth. They therefore see nothing but evil and falsity in the Word, even as they see nothing but evil and falsity in the neighbor. All this is of the Divine Mercy and permission that men may not profane the interior things of the Word. It was for these reasons that the Jewish nation was chosen to take on the form of a church. They were in opposite states, and thus the Divine Truth might accommodate itself even to the evil, and in this manner might appear to the simple who at first are in opposites or in mere appearances of truth and good. The same law is seen in nature itself. There is not a plant, shrub, animal, or mineral, to which there is not placed something over against it, actively assaulting it with the attempt to destroy. We see it illustrated too in human life, for there is a nothing a man thinks or proposes to do, to which there is not immediately presented something actively opposing, which would overturn and destroy were it not successfully resisted. The fact of opposition is indeed universal, and there seems to be no created thing against which something opposite does not arise with hostile intent.

Hence we are able to see that the opposition in the Word is an active and a real opposition. Evil spirits who are in the opposite, and who are thus present in the ultimates of the Word when it is read by man, inflow and are received by the evil, and would be received by the good also if not resisted by them. This influx of spirits who are in the opposite, is permitted by the Lord on account of certain uses which are thereby performed, of which we have spoken, and to which we shall again refer. It is in fact a general truth that all in the other life are allowed to have an ultimate in this world, in order that they may live, for no life in the spiritual world is possible that does not rest on some basis in the natural world. That this universal opposition is not only represented in the literal sense of the Word, but also in nature and in human life, is distinctly set forth in the Writings, as in the following passage: "There is not anything in the universe that has not its opposite, and opposites are not things relative to each other, 'but they are contraries; relatives are between what is greatest and least of the same thing, but contraries are in the opposite against them, and the latter are relative to each other as the former are to each other, wherefore also the relations themselves are opposite. That every and each thing has its opposite, is manifest from light, heat, the times of the world, affections, perceptions, sensations, and many other things. The opposite of light is darkness, the opposite of heat is cold, the opposites of the times of the world are day and night, summer and winter; the opposites of the affections are joys and sorrows, gladnesses and sadnesses; the opposites of the perceptions are goods and evils, and truths and falses, and the opposites of the sensations are things agreeable and things disagreeable. Hence in all evidence it may be concluded that conjugial love has its opposite; that this is adultery every one may see, if he will, from all the dictates of sound reason; tell if you can, what else is its opposite." (C. L. 425.) Now a fact that is general must exist from a general law, which is of the Divine provision or permission, and must lead to a use that is also general, since the Lord's kingdom is a kingdom of uses, and there is nothing in His kingdom which is not of use. The use of opposition is of this character, and hence we find it distinctly treated of in the Writings. That this use is one that is fundamental to human life in establishing freedom of choice, by which the human rational is formed, is most clearly set forth in Arcana Coelestia, as follows: "It is further to be known, that it is according to the laws of order that no one ought to be persuaded instantaneously concerning truth, that is, that truth should instantaneously be so confirmed as to leave no doubt at all concerning it, the reason is, that the truth which is so impressed becomes persuasive truth, and is without any extension, and also without any yielding; such truth is represented in the other life as hard, and of such a quality as not to admit good into it, that it may become applicable. Hence it is that as soon as any truth is presented before good spirits in the other life by manifest experience, there is presented some opposite, which causes doubt; thus it is given them to think and consider whether it be so, and to collect reasons, and so to bring that truth rationally into their mind. Hereby the spiritual sight has extension as to that truth, even to opposites; hence it sees and perceives in the understanding every quality of truth, and hence can admit influx from heaven according to the state of things, for truths receive various forms according to circumstances. This also is the reason why it was allowed the magicians to do as Aaron did; for thereby doubt was excited amongst the sons of Israel concerning the miracle, whether it

was Divine, and thus opportunity was given them of thinking and considering whether it was Divine, and at length of confirming themselves that it was so." (A. C. 7298.) This then is why opposition is permitted to have a place in all Divine Revelation, why the falsity opposite to the truth is permitted to appear there, simply because human liberty and human rationality, human freedom of choice, cannot otherwise be established and provided. In no other way can man appropriate to himself in freedom the spiritual truth of the Word given by revelation from God. We are further instructed that it is of use to the good to learn what evil is; and that this use is provided for when evil is permitted to appear; and also that when evil is known as evil, its opposite good appears and is acknowledged. Concerning this we read that "besides the [instructing] spirits, of whom mention has now been made, there are given also spirits who infuse contrary persuasions; and they are those who, whilst they lived in the world, were banished from the society of others because they were evil. When they approach there appears as it were a flying fire, which glides down near the face; they place themselves beneath at the man's posteriors, and hence speak to the parts above. They speak things contrary to those which the instructor-spirits from the angels say, namely, that they ought not to live according to instruction, but at their own disposal and license, and like things; they generally come immediately after the departure of the former spirits. But the men in that earth know who and of what quality these spirits are, and therefore they pay no regard to them; nevertheless they thus learn what evil is, and so what good is; for by evil is learnt what is good, inasmuch as the quality of good is known from its contrary; every perception of a thing is according to reflection relative to discriminations arising from contraries in various Modes and degrees." (A. C. 7812.) We learn of certain of the Africans, with whom there is a beginning of the New Church, that on one occasion "there then appeared many from this place . . . who spoke with the angels, and were instructed through heaven from the Lord, concerning such things as belong to the Heavenly Doctrine; and they said that they would communicate these to their people. Afterwards came hypocrites, and some from hell, and bore in contrary things, to which, however, the former spirits did not attend but yet heard, in order that they might know contrary things, and so be the better illustrated in truths, for where there is illustration, there also must be an idea of contraries." (S. D. 4772.) By means of opposites there is equilibrium, or an equal balance of all the forces operating on any given subject, preserving all things in their order and use. Without such equilibrium, arising from opposite forces equally balanced, all created things would perish. The Doctrine teaches, "the existence and subsistence of all things, both in the natural world and in the spiritual world, depend upon a just equilibrium between two activities that are opposite; and when these act against each other manifestly, they act by forces, but when not manifestly they act by endeavors. By means of equilibrium all things in both worlds are preserved; without this all things would perish. In the spiritual world the equilibrium is between good from heaven and evil from hell; and thus between truth from heaven and falsity from hell. For the Lord arranges unceasingly that all kinds and species of good and truth in the heavens shall have opposite to them in the hells evils and falsities of kinds that correspond by opposition; thus goods and truths from. a celestial origin have for their

reaction rises up and as it were opposes itself to action. R. See also A. -the spiritual world . contrary to the reigning love. and it is an ever present reality with man. The cause of these equilibriums is to be found in the fact that the same Divine goods and truths that the angels in heaven receive from the Lord. and on the plane of spirit. There is reaction which acts with and co-operates with the action. which is not hostile. freedom of choice and the action which follows choice. bringing about an equal balance of the two forces. This is true of all love. If man were not free to react against God he would not be free to react with God. Let us repeat. and of man from God. by which.opposites evils and falsities that are called devilish. also establishes freedom. The spiritual disease is an evil love. nor would there be any freedom if there were no freedom to react against action. and of man against God. The freedom which is exercised to react against that which it should react with. The two loves come into conflict with each other. In the one equilibrium. D. if it be not resisted and removed. -on the plane of nature. the body is destroyed. opposing each other. the spirits in the hells turn into evils and falsities. there is brought about indeed a temporary equal balance of forces. that the opposition indicated or expressed in the Word is an active opposition. 69. In all equilibrium there is freedom to react with or to react against action. These loves. and which does not attempt to destroy. that which is established by reaction which is against the action. -acting against. but in the other equilibrium. but as there is no real conjunction. 38. This brings forward the fact that there is an opposite which is not contrary. leading to conjunction with God and eternal life. 62. of hell against heaven. thus establishing equilibrium. of hell from heaven. of the reaction of man with God. It is like a disease in the human body. Hence reaction is twofold. In his freedom man deliberately chooses to react with or against God. It should be noted that all reaction. 2686. 2443. there is conjunction. is the cause of all opposition that is contrary." (A. For the whole spiritual world is interiorly in the Word. whether good or evil. This is the opposition which appears in the Word and is expressed or understood in every chapter and in every verse. falsities that are called infernal. that which is established by reaction with or co-operation. because it establishes equilibrium. The reaction as it were opposes the action. conflict. for the effort of every love is to remove that which is opposed to itself. are in the Word because they are in man. and in like manner goods and truths from a spiritual origin have for their opposites evils and. hence there arises collision. Equilibrium may be established by either mode. hostile. E. freedom of movement. There is reaction with and reaction against. S. C. there is final disjunction and separation. All such opposition is interiorly and essentially negative. or in the reaction of the effect with its own correspondent cause. leading to a permanent separation of the natural from the spiritual. and there is reaction which acts against or contrary to the action.) It is well known as a principle of science that equilibrium is the result of a reaction that equally balances the action. For as was said. C. as something inimical to its life. D. 1043. But the equilibrium in which is disjunction by reason of a hostile reaction is illustrated by the reaction of the natural man against the spiritual. An example of the equilibrium in which there is conjunction is in the reaction of the external with its correspondent internal. only a conflict for supremacy. P. attacking with the intent to destroy. It is the cause that brings all evil into existence and creates hell. T. 3300. 4863. 3425. 5798. or in general.

" that is. "Cursed are the proud in spirit. active in the states that are treated of in the internal sense. when the active assault by evil spirits is described. or in states before regeneration has begun and before temptations are actively present.as made up of the good and the evil who have left this world. but is held back by motives of fear or other causes from actual evil. . The opposite is always present in the Word. "Blessed are the poor in spirit. When such states are treated of in the internal sense. to be sufficient to suggest that it will be useful to hold it in mind when the rule concerning the opposite is applied in the analysis of any chapter of the Word. and in later states their opposition will become active. or from the opposite. It is from this cause that we find our life actively imaged in the Word. and it may be said that evil is latent. and are not allowed to infest by exciting hereditary evils into activity before the appointed time. for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you. . in which regeneration from its first beginnings in adult life to its close is treated of. or to be taught by Him. Let us take for an example the ten Blessings. or that it has ceased to be active. . The idea of opposition naturally suggests that of separation." This persecution was involved in the first Blessing. The first may be called the latent opposite. by opposition everywhere in the Word. and hence are unwilling to acknowledge the Lord. number 1667 where the subject is the representation of Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him. evil spirits are held in subjection by the Lord. because they treat of the first state or beginning of regeneration. because the Word treats of the states of men and spirits. we learn that in early childhood. or what is the same. This is the case later in the Blessings where persecution by the evil is plainly spoken of: "Blessed are ye when men shall revile you. The opening words are. . wherein we see ourselves as in a mirror. which can readily be seen by stating the words in their negative form. but not expressed until afterwards. and say all manner of evil against you falsely for my sake. it may be taken as a sign that the opposite is not. is universal in the Word. and a chapter might well be devoted to this subject. has been overcome. but knows only as he is taught by revelation from the Lord. There are other general laws that may be so applied." The opposite does not appear in these words. that the Lord took on and glorified when He came into the world. but it does not always appear. those who are confirmed in the pride of their own intelligence. Such evil spirits are therefore present in the very beginning of regeneration. for the idea of separation from evil. and the second the active opposite. and will appear in the literal sense which follows. and we are such as they were. -as in the other world. opposites are not expressed in the sense of the letter. and persecute you. who does good works. placing it among the rules of exposition. It is with evil spirits then as it is with an evil man. wherein man acknowledges that he knows nothing from himself. Still the opposite is involved as present. or not as yet. but it does not seem to be necessary to go further into the subject at this time. that is. This chapter closes the series of principles of exposition which we have had under discussion in this work. the natural of the Word. as we have remarked before. Hence in any passage where the opposite evil or falsity is not expressed. It seems. or of conditions and states of human life: It is this condition and state of the natural man. of the separation of the good from the evil. In Arcana Coelestia. however.

the idea of a city. it represents what is more universal. R. and is expressed or understood in every verse. These two chapters are abundantly explained as to their spiritual sense in The Apocalypse Revealed. This establishes the fact that the doctrine of the New Church is the subject of these two chapters." (A. We learn that by the city New Jerusalem is signified. as applied to the two closing chapters of the Book of Revelation. and emphasizes it as the leading general idea in what follows. for the sake of a fuller understanding of the spiritual sense. If therefore we obtain from the Writings the signification of city. we need not pause to discuss it further here. since they are essentially one chapter. it will be necessary. This idea of the city is thus present even in the first verse. called by name. Jerusalem the new. This is evident also from the fact that it is the first thing spoken of. THE FIRST THING SAID . to find the signification of the new heaven and the new earth which John saw. being its origin. As we have. we have before us the general subject of the spiritual sense of the two chapters as a whole. But as the new heaven. being included as particulars in it. and all doubt will be removed. "the doctrine of the church.CHAPTER XIX APPLICATION OF THE RULES We shall now endeavor to show the practical working of the rules of exposition. THE GENERAL SUBJECT It is clear at once that the subject of the two closing chapters of Revelation is "The Holy City. the New Jerusalem. There is nothing said that does not bear relation to this essential idea. R. For the sake of our purposes let us assume that we are ignorant of the explanation of these chapters in the Writings. and hence that all things of their spiritual sense bear relation to this general idea. with incidental explanations elsewhere in the Writings. 712). coming down from God out of heaven. "doctrine and a life according to it. We have thus taken the first important step in the elucidation of their spiritual sense. however. We propose to treat the two together." (A." (A. 861). still an analysis of them according to the rules will serve to exhibit the value and use of them as aids to the understanding of the Word. or one general group and present a continuous subject from first to last. new Jerusalem. 194). and that we are approaching them through our rules. "the doctrine of the New Church. If any doubt were left we have only to translate the second verse according to the order of the words in the original. and the same in general is said in the Writings wherever the signification of city is given. "the New Church as to doctrine. 879)." The term city occurs many times. But since the city has its origin in the new heaven. is prior to the city. R." (A. This leads us to the next rule. "I John saw the city the holy. R. descending as it does from the new heaven. coining down out of heaven from God. previously shown that the general subject of a chapter is subordinate to the first thing said. and in particular of the holy city New Jerusalem." This exhibits the origin of the city.

By the new heaven is signified the new heaven of Christians (A. 785). and in general the good of life from charity and faith (A. 11. Men are thus able to see or understand because the former heaven and the former earth are passed away. This twofold idea runs through the chapters. and of man as seeing and thus receiving. L. R. 229). that is. 5. E. R. E. and that doctrine as received by man. the idea of the Lord. 9824. that is. For revelation from heaven can be made to no others than to those who are in the good of love and charity (A. or those who are able to receive that revelation in the understanding and confirm it in the life. John also represents the good of love to the Lord (A. A. E. and there is no more sea. or uses. and is present in every verse and in every word. they see or perceive the internal sense of the Word in which the new heaven is. and by the holy city New Jerusalem. 342. 119). the works of charity. 19). L. and which makes that heaven. 3934. To see signifies also perception (A. Thus there are here two ideas." what John saw here in the opening of the twenty-first chapter. They also see the new earth. and the idea of John seeing what the Lord is showing to him. We read further that no one can come into a state to see and hear the things given. John represents. -the idea of the Lord as giving. those who are represented by John see what is signified by the new heaven and the new earth. 65. Those who are represented by John see this new heaven. was a revelation to him from the Lord Jesus Christ. These only are able to see or to receive interiorly in the understanding the new revelation as given by the Lord out of heaven. 486). 416).The first thing said by John is. A. that is. 7. For these reasons John and not Peter is the first of the apostles (A. 45. they not only perceive the state of the interior heavens. 17. because the last judgment has been performed. R. that is. and the imaginary heavens have been removed (C. and what is signified by his seeing and by what he saw. and be held in a state of reception. E. 879. 12). 8)." Now since this book is called the "Revelation of Jesus Christ. E. it signifies the illustration of the understanding with those who are represented by him. "And I saw. 7038. Pref. This. since this is universal in all that follows. connecting as it does with the preceding chapter. 61. R. The subject of the two chapters is thus the descent and establishment on earth of the New Church by the understanding of truth. those in the Christian Church in whom there is still preserved some idea of the Lord and His Divinity. E. and thus doctrine concerning the Lord (A. 260. and the second is that John sees what is revealed. C. What John first saw was the new heaven and the new earth. 11. It is essential then to know what John represents. especially by what he saw first." and the first thing he saw was "a new heaven and a new earth. except through angels adjoined to him (A. 32. J. 10087. Concerning John the teaching is that he represents good works. Hence John represents doctrine itself as coming from the Lord. the New Church considered as a state receptive and perceptive of the new revelation. and who are to come into spiritual enlightenment as to all things of the -new revelation given by the Lord for the establishment of the New Church (A. The first and prime universal is revelation by the Lord to John. some love to Him and charity to the neighbor. 6073. We read further that John in the supreme sense represents the Lord Himself as to doctrine (A. For to see signifies to understand. A. as well as the state that is receptive of it. but that of the church . as elsewhere in the work. 6. E. 619). 1081). must be kept in mind in all that follows. as we are told. C. In a general sense therefore John represents. 945). R. and when John says he saw.

By earth is signified the earth in the spiritual world (A. W. for this is the prime and universal essential of heaven. -this end. which was in the beginning. and by means of the understanding with those who can be associated in spirit with that new heaven. We may expect therefore the end in all revelation from the beginning of Genesis to appear in the close of the Apocalypse. but the closing words of the whole book of twenty-two chapters. the church is established in the understanding. E. the remnant of the Christian Church. appears in the last of a series. the ultimate heaven (A. appears in the closing words in the idea of the conjunction or marriage of the Lord and the church. As revelation and the reception of it are treated of in the opening of the two chapters before us. 552.in the world of spirits. 173). and which thus reigns throughout. and what is more. 413. But now the internal sense of the Word is revealed and also the doctrine of genuine truth which is in its external or natural sense. for heaven and the church are from the Word and according to it. . P. and in them is revealed the end for which that Divine Book was given. 742. The external of the Word is also revealed. This end. It may be repeated here that any chapter in the Word is essentially opened as to its internal sense when we know the signification of its leading subject in the literal sense. and the significance of the names of the Lord and of the other proper names. because it had been covered and concealed by the thick darkness of a false theology. the revelation itself of the internal and external of the Word. becomes more complete when we shall have added a knowledge of the preceding chapter. 327. 877). are able to receive the revelation descending from God out of the new heaven in the form of Divine Doctrine-the holy city. But the phrase John saw is put first because the subject of the series is the establishment of the church by means of the understanding of doctrine from heaven. for after the judgment upon the former heaven and the removal of those who were in it. which is a state of illustration or understanding of the Word. that the one grand conclusion of all revelation is the appearing of the Lord in His glorified Human. 417. But the first two rules applied give the essentials of the chapter. they are treated of in a variety of application and detail in all that follows. L. or two ideas associated: first. as revelation from. and thus of the internal and external of the church. 304. or what is the same. and second. namely. R. and the view enlarges as we apply the remaining rules. represented by John. the entire Word in its literal sense comes to a conclusion. THE LAST THING SAID We have shown in its own chapter that the end which is in the first. But there is a more interior end. and the world of spirits (A. and the closing chapters of the Apocalypse are essentially laid open. 865. the Lord. This is essentially the new heaven and the new earth. In the conclusion of the twenty-second chapter of Revelation there are not only the closing words of the two chapters under consideration. Thus the first words of these two chapters have a twofold idea. is a heaven from the human race (D. That is. but also its external. E. since it is that which forms them. 342). Word as revealed. appertaining to the Lord Himself. it is conjunction with God. This. D. which is one with the end of creation. Hence those represented by John not only see the internal of the. 323). in that last chapter. that of a state receptive of revelation. 858. and also when we know what is interiorly contained in its introductory words. 342. however.

Lord Jesus. the Beginning and the End. These are the subjects that appear everywhere in the intermediate chapters of the Apocalypse. We wish. Jesus Christ. "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all." In verse 17 the desire for His Coming by those who are to form His New Heaven and New Church is expressed in what is said of the spirit and the bride." And in verse 21 is the Divine salutation. in this connection to call attention to the fact that the Lord calls Himself Jesus in this conclusion of the Apocalypse. And conjunction with Him when He comes is treated of in verses 17..the twenty-first verse being the last of the entire series. 12. In verse 16 His Second Corning. that is. Other names and titles indeed occur. Amen. the First and the Last. This end of ends appears. 24-28) that the Lord is called by that name when the Word and revelation are treated of. redemption. the Lord is treated of as the Word. but always by something expressive of the Word as Divine Truth and its power.. for judgment is from the Word and according to it.which appearing is called His Second Coming. Indeed the first words of the chapter and of the book are. is meant by "the morning star. The appearing of the Lord in His glorified Human. It is three times said. In verses 18 and 19 we are told that the things revealed must be altogether kept and done. and conjunction with Him. "Behold. for thereby alone is conjunction with Him. hence in the first chapter. for the essential of the new heaven is conjunction with the Lord. Concerning the signification of the Son of Man the teaching is (L. Hence we find that the judgment or separation of the evil from the good is the subject all through the intermediate chapters. etc." In verse 20 the response of the church is expressed in the words. and the idea of the Lord as the Son of Man continues nearly to the close of the book. I come quickly. The same thing is meant in verses 6 and 16 by "sending His angel. however. thus also when judgment. from the second half of the first to the close of the twentieth. but the all in all of it is His glorified Human. temptation. and which is His final Coming to the human race. or to conjunction with the Divine Human. come. and 21. "The Revelation of Jesus Christ."* The Lord calls Himself Jesus or Jesus Christ also in the opening of the Apocalypse." In verse 13 He makes manifest His glorified Human by declaring Himself to be the Alpha and Omega. the appearing of the Lord in His glorified Human. being wonderfully Manifest in its final words. wherein the new heaven is seen after the former heaven has been removed. according to the usual rule. after being called Jesus Christ. In this conclusion of revelation there is thus a twofold idea. His appearing as the one and only God Man. "Yea. "I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. But in all the intermediate chapters." The Apocalypse thus opens and closes with the idea of the glorified Human of the Lord Jesus Christ. and 20. 20. and the prayer is to the Lord Jesus. in verses 7. becomes clearly manifest early in the twenty-second chapter. or what is the same. This twofold idea or end is in the first verse of the twenty-first chapter. -if we include the pronouns. the Lord in His Second Coming. This is His name in the first half of the first chapter. regeneration. This same twofold idea or end is manifest in the final words of the twenty-second chapter. and this because the Word and doctrine from it are the means of approach to the Lord in heaven. or appearing in His glorified Human. are treated of. occurring many times." namely. In verse 16 He says. in the first of the Apocalypse and runs through to the last. He appears to John as the Son of Man.** .

These could not exist until what is described in the preceding chapter had taken place. which could not be formed until what is previously described had taken place. THE FOLLOWING SERIES There is of course no following series in the literal sense. And so a look forward to what follows the Apocalypse aids to a broader view of what is contained in it. This rule is illustrated in the opening verse of the twenty-first chapter of the Apocalypse. 953). modifying it and all that follows in that chapter. THE PRECEDING SERIES In treating of the preceding series it was shown that the subject of a chapter or group passes over to the next and is contained in what is first said therein. but also the mention of the former heaven and the former earth which have passed away. since that sense of the Word closes with the last chapters of the Apocalypse. the last judgment upon the old heaven and earth. Not only the particle and appears there as a connective with what precedes. and that this reveals the further fact that the leading idea in that book concerning the Lord is that in His Second Coming He appears in the Human which He assumed in the world and glorified (A. R. and of a new church in the natural world. The phrase "a new heaven and a new earth" also suggests what precedes. and it is added that the sea also was no more. treat of the means by which the end is accomplished. THE NAMES OF THE LORD We have noted that the Lord is called Jesus in the opening and closing of the Apocalypse. What follows. since what follows in the closing chapters could not otherwise be understood.* It is notable that the Apocalypse opens and closes with a Divine salutation. It is then and not before that John is able to see the new heaven and the new earth. and the holy Jerusalem descending from God out of heaven. therefore. in which kingdom He is perpetually present to save all those who believe in Him and keep His commandments. The twenty-first and twenty-second chapters treat of the results of the judgment in the formation of a new heaven in the spiritual world." it was shown that the intermediate verses of a chapter. ** In the chapter on "The Last Thing Said. and the salvation of the faithful. the Lord is called by that name when the judgment is the subject of the series. in which chapter is described the final damnation of the dragon. The judgment continues to be the leading subject until the close of the twentieth chapter. or the intermediate chapters of a book. namely. The value of knowing the subject that precedes becomes manifest. is the everlasting kingdom of the Lord with men. for as we have shown. but that He is no longer called by this name . for in them the end of all prophecy is fulfilled which is the appearing of the Lord in His glorified Human and the establishment of a church that is to endure forever. or at least would remain obscure. The subject of the last or universal judgment begins to be treated of with the appearing of the Son of Man in the first chapter of the Apocalypse. It was shown that shortly after the opening of the work the Lord is called the Son of Man.

after the judgment.. and after the coining of the Lord. all expressing the truth that the Lord in His coming to build a New Christian Church appears as the glorified Lord. THE NAMES OF PLACES The places are the new heaven. the Lord God Omnipotent. of the last judgment. because in the last two chapters is described what takes place subsequent to the last judgment. angels. as described in the two chapters and in the Apocalypse in general. THE PERSON SPEAKING The Lord speaks. He it is who sees and hears all the things that are done. the Beginning and the End. when the Word is studied for the sake of finding its internal sense. when obtained and brought together. TIME The time when the events occur. There are also mentioned men." and "Yea. and of the coming of the Lord. which points to the glorious light of truth that is to be in the New Church after the consummation. then John. But it is the representation of John in particular that must be known in order to understand what is meant in these chapters and in the book at large. kings. THE NAMES OF PERSONS There is first of all John. and in xxii: 11." "Behold I come quickly. as revealed in the names mentioned. etc. I come quickly. See the chapter on this subject. The signification of all these. the Alpha and the Omega. the First and the Last. and what is represented by them." There are similar expressions in the first chapter and elsewhere in the Apocalypse. can be fully understood. the new earth. would make this chapter too long. nor the Apocalypse as a whole.after the twentieth chapter. 18. -indicated in the twenty-second chapter by such phrases as. whose name is expressed or implied in the Apocalypse from beginning to end. the city. the sea. To discuss at length every rule of exposition. In the chapter on "The Person Speaking" it was stated that the speaker represents that which is active and leading in the internal sense. will broaden the view of the chapters as a whole. The Isle of Patmos where John was is also understood. "The time is at hand. the tabernacle of God. as applied to the matter in hand. and in which there is to be no night. servants. neither the two closing chapters. is the period of the consummation of the age. In this is exhibited the value and use of observing the names by which the Lord is called. It was also shown that in these last chapters He is called by other names and titles. the New Jerusalem. the first heaven and the first earth. Without this idea of the Lord. The idea of the bright light of day in which the city is to be. We shall therefore pass rapidly over some of them. 15. and the persons and things spoken of. nations. and also an angel. 27. and several classes of those in the opposite are spoken of in xxi: 8. etc. is also prominent. But we have already discussed the importance of finding the signification of the places mentioned in any group. The two chapters should also be examined to find the persons spoken to. 19. It is evident .

the Beginning and the End. a knowledge of which is fundamental to a proper understanding of them. as. and which are called genuine to distinguish them from the appearances of truth that make up a large part of the letter. twelve apostles. twelve foundations. No analysis of these chapters would be complete without obtaining the signification of the number twelve. A study of the number twelve where it occurs in the Word. NUMBER The frequent mention of the numbers seven and twelve in the Apocalypse is one of the remarkable features of the book. which there become general. and may be found on close examination. It will be seen at once that the number twelve indicates that introductory truth is one of the essential subjects treated of in the two chapters before us. Introductory truths are such as are contained in the literal sense of the Word. one hundred and forty four cubits. twelve precious stones. twelve angels. Duality in the Lord appears several times in these chapters. as was said. twelve thousand furlongs. There are twelve gates. They are universal spiritual truths appearing in the literal sense. Alpha and Omega. the First and the Last. and the marriage of the Lord and the church appears under various forms. for instance. the first heaven and the first earth. the twelve fruits.therefore that the things involved in these ideas of time are essential to an intelligent comprehension of the two chapters as a whole. the twelve gates by which entrance is made into the city. . being present for instance wherever the term city occurs. and is as we have shown a leading characteristic of these closing chapters of the book. the Divine and the Divine Human. -that is. THE TRINITY The trinal form. in the twenty-second. especially where He is called God and the Lamb. THE COVENANT The idea of the covenant or of the conjunction of God with man and of man with God is in every verse. since that number is involved even where it is not expressed. all mentioned in the twenty-first chapter. DUALITY We have previously dwelt on the importance of remembering that there is no place in the Word where duality and trinality are not found. The idea of the Lord and the church. twelve tribes. the bride and the wife. and. is everywhere. and in the same chapter the number twelve has a very prominent place. for with the city are its walls in which are twelve gates. etc. There is also the new heaven and the new earth. called also general truths and genuine truths. and of its signification as given in the Writings. will show that it is used where introductory truth is the subject treated of. The number seven is mentioned three times in the ninth verse of the twenty-first chapter. twelve pearls.

THE OPPOSITE SENSE In the chapter on "Opposites in the Word" it was stated that the opposite is always present either expressed or understood. and it continues even to the end. Matthew ix: 17. and if these have been explained we shall probably find that the spiritual significance of new has been given. a comparison of leading words and phrases. "Behold I make all things new. This is in fact the case. therefore. The opposite appears all through this last book especially in what is said of the dragon and of Babylon. There should at least be. with such words as heaven. although a chapter at times may be compared to similar chapters elsewhere. This rule receives illustration in the closing chapters of the Apocalypse. for Jesus is the Divine Love in the glorified Human. and when a single verse is studied each word in it may be compared with the same word as used in other parts of Scripture. This opposite appears at once in the first verse of the twenty-first chapter. of new wine in new bottles. we can then have recourse to other passages where the word occurs. where it does not present itself it is still involved in what precedes. and the ruling affection in the understanding is the affection of truth. for by city is signified doctrine in the understanding. xxxvi: 26. xviii: 31. tree of life. for the first thing John sees is a new heaven and a new earth. however. temple. that . notably by the woman clothed with the sun mentioned in the opening of the twelfth chapter. for by woman is signified the affection of truth. and elsewhere. the Lamb's wife." To know what is signified by new. Let us take for example the word new. The affection of truth prepares the way and is evidenced in what is said of the city. and especially in the use of the term Jesus as the name of God. water of life. The affection of truth is also expressed in the twenty-first chapter where the city New Jerusalem is spoken of as the bride. The Lord also says in the fifth verse. If we may suppose that this word as occurring in the twenty-first chapter has not been explained in the Writings. is to take an important step in the elucidation of this chapter. for it is a word of frequent occurrence. It is an opposite. and in the response to the announcement of His coming. COMPARISON The comparison of words and passages applies especially to the verses of a chapter or to its individual parts. for the old heaven and the old earth have passed away. Jerusalem. which represent those who compose the former heaven and the former earth and upon whom judgment was performed thus preparing the way for the new heaven and the new earth and the descent of the New Jerusalem. But even if its spiritual sense had not been declared in the Writings. gates. and book of life.. earth. See the chapter on this general subject where it was shown that affection is the dominant element of the Word. The same may be done with other leading words in this connection according to the principles laid down in our chapter on Comparison. we find a hint of it in the mention of a new heart and a new spirit in Ezekiel xi: 19. It is evident that this is an exceedingly important word in the twenty-first chapter.AFFECTION The affection of love to the Lord is manifest in the closing verses of the last chapter where the desire is expressed for the Lord to come. city.

and which constitutes the First Corning of the Lord. A knowledge of correspondences is also essential-as. without which there is no proper entrance into the interior spiritual truths of the Word. Thus this rule is found to be of essential value even in these last chapters of the literal sense of the Word. for separation from the opposite. Not one of these alone but all three together are essential to the opening of the Word. and whoremongers. We shall treat of the sermon later. in these chapters a knowledge of the correspondence of city and finally illustration from the Lord. that the doctrine of genuine truth is not the only means of entrance to the interior of the Word. A close examination of every verse in these last two chapters will therefore reveal the presence of the opposite. with a view to finding the general doctrine or leading idea in the spiritual sense of any group or series in the Word. and all liars. to which we called attention early in this work. and as .. for instance. such as is furnished in the letter of the Word. they are the sorcerers. which is usually chosen for the text of a discourse or sermon. effected by the Lord. but we wish here to deal with the subject of the text. for the last judgment has been performed. CHAPTER XX THE TEXT We have been discussing thus far the principles of exposition as applied to the chapter as a whole. is the first and last of all revelation. We trust that it has now been sufficiently shown. in order that a new heaven and a new church may exist and in order that salvation may be effected. the evil have been separated from the good. We trust therefore that we have exhibited their use in this chapter. or the doctrine of genuine truth. applying the same principles to their elucidation. The principles of exposition as taught in the Writings bring these three modes into full play. in the second of which we shall endeavor to apply these principles to a. But we would not lose sight of the fact. We propose to present some considerations on this latter branch of the subject in the two chapters which now follow.has been put away from the presence of the Lord and of heaven. that these rules of exposition are of use in the analysis of a chapter for the sake of the opening of its internal sense. and it is now possible for every man to be saved who is willing to fulfill the conditions of salvation. study of Revelation xxii: 14. and if so we are now ready for the study of the individual verses. still the dark clouds of the imaginary heavens have been removed. They are of use in entering that sense by means of general or introductory truths such as appear in the literal sense. and furnish a field for their legitimate operation. but an opposite that is no longer within but without. preparatory to His Second Coming in the revelation of the internal sense. To enter through introductory truth. and those who are in the opposite are now spoken of as being without the city. is to enter through the door or gate into the city -a door or gate which is Divinely provided and Divinely revealed in the literal sense. and while the judgment will continue and infestations and temptations will occur. It is now in order to take up for consideration the verse. and idolaters.

. 50-54. 3819. In the literal sense is fullness. It is a distinct grouping of words making a complete sentence. A. The Apocalypse Revealed. 39. R. 3690. E. 33. and power (S. A. such as conscience. 9809. 10324. and he inspired thereby to the good of life. E. 3982. The Writings contain other teachings bearing on this question. 6222. 34. 27. The Divine Love and Wisdom. 9034. The doctrine of genuine truth is from the literal sense of the Word (S. 8705. and the literal sense is not so frequently quoted as it is in Arcana Coelestia. E. 5945). 38. If this may be considered an example to be followed. S. D. Among the doctrinal reasons. 49. E. which we shall now present in a summary form. 9026. 4121. The literal sense serves for introduction to the spiritual sense (A. why a text should usually be taken from the literal sense of the Word. 736. 6775. or some doctrinal subject without a text may be used. 593. 902. according to the judgment of the minister. But a text may also be taken from the Writings. 9430. many texts could be taken from the doctrinal statements of the Writings. choosing some terse or epigrammatic statement of doctrine with which the Writings abound. C. S. 1085). 627). 10028). We have shown in the chapter on "Affection in the Word. 931. 260. A. C.the study of the text includes the preparation of material for the sermon. This will depend upon the purpose the minister has in view. 10441. 356). C. A. 4122). A full discussion of each in its application to the line of thought that is before us would be valuable. C. 59. are examples of the exposition of doctrinal propositions which are set at the head of chapters or sections. that also may be considered as the subject of this chapter. has in view. But doctrinal classes seem to afford abundant field for this kind of work. more than the doctrinal class. 4783. R. given in the sphere of worship. 6333. The literal sense of the Word is for the simple and or children (A. 9360. A. 1087). 545). It is therefore left for those who may wish to enter more fully into the subject. 9025. and firmament of the spiritual and celestial senses (S. 37. 10453. 9163. and we shall give reasons why this as a general rule should be done. 6832. The literal sense is the basis. D. 6071. A. The Divine Providence. These general principles from the Writings. As is well known. 739). 31. leaving the sermon to be based upon texts derived from the letter of the Word. E. We are assuming that a text will be chosen from the literal sense of the Word. in addition to the above. bearing upon the question of the source of the text. 221. 1086. The things of the literal sense are truths in the ultimates of order (A. but it would cause us to depart too far from the present plan. W. E. A." that affection is the dominant quality of the literal sense. The literal sense is first in order of time (A. or one or more sentences co-related with each other. and this would seem to give us a full and sufficient reason for the choice of a text from that source. 6839. A. A text is a verse or passage of Scripture chosen as the subject of a sermon. 175. repentance. and influx. 6774. S. C. the Writings are not all direct explanations of the literal sense of the Word. are presented merely for the sake of suggestion. It will sometimes include more than a verse and sometimes less. the inspiring of affection as well as the instruction of the understanding. are the following: In the literal sense are general truths (A. C. in order that by unfolding its meaning the members of a congregation may be instructed in the truths of doctrine contained 'therein. 4861. 5620. S. holiness. 6997. L. and The True Christian Religion. and useful sermons written therefrom. A. continent. E. and The Apocalypse Explained. The scientific of the church is the Word in its literal sense (A. For the sermon.

Hence we are told that not a word can be moved out of its place without disturbing the order and connection of truths (L. however. Apply to the text the general rules of exposition. that have been published in the New Church and in the Old. It is at least important to know the first word or the first thing said. The reason it is necessary to observe this sequence of the words is that the truths of the spiritual sense follow each other in a regular succession of ideas. which is expressed in the words as they follow one after another in the literal sense. is also necessary for the application of the rules of exposition. 41. 2. Reflect on the same. calling attention in the sermon. 9. and too liberal interpretations of the same. First as to the literal translation of the text: When one wishes to enter into the spiritual sense of any passage of the Word. We shall now take up for a brief consideration each one of these propositions.* If it be desired to make a sentence in good English or in any other modern language. Copy also explanations of the individual words of the text. Make a literal translation of the text in the order of the words of the original language.Let us now proceed to the practical study and analysis of the text for the sake of the preparation of material for the sermon. it is not safe to depend wholly on the common printed translation of the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures. J. to any variation or departure from the original. 4. C. if it appears to be necessary. COPY from the Writings explanations of the text. no 'translation can present the full meaning and spirit of an original language. 5. the order of the words in Hebrew or Greek cannot always be followed. 10633). 3. This is so clear that we leave it without further discussion. For this the authorized version may be used. Read in the Writings on the general subject of the text. But the minister should have before his mind the order of the words as Divinely given. Besides possible errors and variations from the original. Examine the early works of Swedenborg for material bearing on the text. Consult commentaries and similar works. We would. See also A. 7. 6. To have the text written out in a literal translation and according to the order and sequence of the words. and let it first take the form of the following general propositions: 1. Gather from the Hebrew or the Greek the meanings and roots of the words of the text. add a few words on the importance of writing out a translation of the text in the order of the words as they occur in the original. and the last word or the last . * It is not proposed that such a literal translation of the text should necessarily be placed at the head of the sermon. 8. and read from the pulpit.

thing said, also the relative position of the leading word that expresses the general subject of the text. For this purpose the common translations cannot be depended upon. If a minister desires to make in his sermon a complete exposition of the internal sense of the Word, it follows that there should be a degree of familiarity with the source of Revelation, in the language in which it was first given. This requires a knowledge of Hebrew and Greek, -and of Latin also, for Swedenborg's translation of the text into Latin should be examined, since his translations are made in the light of the internal sense.* * It is important to study the Writings in Latin for a full understanding of the Heavenly Doctrine. Evangelistic discourses on some general doctrine of the church may be made, based on a text as translated in the common version, and from a study of the doctrine in the ordinary translations of the Writings; but this is not sufficient when a minister is addressing an intelligent New Church audience. After a literal translation of the text has been made in the order of the original, the next step to be taken is to find and note down the meanings and the roots of the words. If the particulars of the internal sense depend upon the proper order of the words, much more is this true of their fundamental meanings or roots. The use of finding the etymology of words in linguistic studies has many values, and is a use that is generally recognized; but the greatest use of all to a New Church minister is a study of etymology as a source of inspiration, and as a means of entrance into the spiritual sense; for that sense rests fundamentally upon the roots of words, especially in the Hebrew language. There are indeed rich stores of ideas concealed in the meanings of words, as existing in a given language or in the languages that are collateral, or in those of a more ancient original stock. As this work of etymology is pursued, ideas are inspired replete with suggestion, looking to the spiritual sense. Notes should at once be made of these, for such ideas make a valuable groundwork of material for the sermon, and readily take their place in relation to the general subject. What are called derivative meanings or the abstract sense of words, should also be noted, since these contain hints of the spiritual sense, and sometimes actually suggest or express it. In fact the derivative meaning of a word is frequently nothing else than the spiritual sense appearing in a general form in another passage of Scripture, concerning which we spoke in the chapter on "Comparison of Words and Passages." It is as it were the ascent of the word from its root or stem towards its own spiritual sense, that sense becoming manifest in another place or in a related passage. The value of knowing the root meanings of words and of proper names is frequently referred to in the Writings, and it is clearly shown that the spiritual sense of any given word rests upon the meaning of the same in the original tongue.* See for instance what is said in Arcana Coelestia, numbers 4029, 4031, 4453, 4591, 4592, 4702, 5323, 5353, 5618, 5621. * It may be suggested that it is often profitable to obtain the root meanings of the doctrinal terms used in the Writings. With a literal translation of the text, and the meanings of the words collected, we are prepared for copying the explanations of the text as given in the Writings. If the text is from Genesis, Exodus, or Revelation, we shall at once have recourse to the works in which those three books are expounded as to their spiritual sense. We may find too that the text has been

explained elsewhere, and this explanation should also be noted. But if the text is from some book of Scripture other than the three above mentioned, the Index of Scripture passages by Le Boys des Guays, or the one later by Searle, will inform us whether any explanation of the text has been given in the Writings. The Potts Concordance will prove to be of valuable assistance. There are also Rich and Beyer, and the Indexes which Swedenborg himself prepared, all of which may be usefully consulted.* The Concordance and the Indexes are of especial use when we wish to find the spiritual sense of some prominent word of the text. * General Index of Passages from Scripture, by J. F. E. Le Boys des Guays. General Index to Swedenborg's Scripture Quotations, by Arthur Hodson Searle. The Swedenborg Concordance, by John Faulkner Potts. Commentaries on Some of the Books of the Old Testament, by Elihu Rich. Index Initialis, by Gabriel Andrew Beyer. In respect to the explanations of the text in the Writings, they should be not only copied, but the whole number where the explanation occurs, and sometimes the context of several numbers, should be read, -if there is time for the reading to be done without an atmosphere of hurry and anxiety.* Connection with the series in which the explanation occurs is of use in several ways, especially in giving breadth of view or ,greater expansion of thought, to say nothing of the additional ideas that are thus obtained. * The thought will readily suggest itself to the reader that it may not be necessary always to carry into practice all the modes of finding the internal sense of any chosen passage. Sometimes the application of a few principles, and the gathering of a small amount of material, is all that is needed, and reflection will do the rest. If, however, we can find no direct explanation in the Writings, let us seek for parallel passages elsewhere in the literal sense of Scripture; for sometimes passages occur in almost the same words as the text. If we can find that such similar passages have been explained, we shall receive thereby suggestions as to the spiritual meaning of the text. We must be careful, however, to compare the context of the similar passages with the context in which the text itself occurs, to note what precedes and what follows each, bearing in mind that the sense of each is modified by its own series. Many passages in the Word have no direct explanation in the Writings, nor will any reference to them be found in the Indexes spoken of above, nor shall we be able to discover any parallel passage that has been explained. It is left for us then to proceed to the next proposition, and seek for the significations of the individual words; for there is seldom a word of the literal sense that is not directly or approximately explained, or a synonym or antonym of it. Especial attention should be paid in this to the leading word of the text, and to the first word or to the first thing said. The Hebrew and Greek Concordances will aid in the search for Englishman's the passages in the literal sense where the same word occurs as in the text, an explanation of which we shall find somewhere in the Writings. It will be well to obtain the Latin word by which Swedenborg translates any given word, and seek the explanation of it by means of the Concordance. If the signification of the word is not found, then it will be proper to seek for a related word of similar meaning, and see if its signification has been given in the Writings. For instance, supposing the word revile in Matthew v: 11, not to be explained, let us look up the signification of blaspheme, which has nearly the same meaning in the

original Greek: the spiritual sense of the one will throw light upon that of the other (See A. E. 778). By these means the signification of almost any word can be obtained, and will readily find its place under the general sense of the text, or under its general doctrine. As to the general doctrine of the text there will be no great difficulty in finding it by seeking the explanation of its leading word, viewed in connection with the leading word or idea of the chapter, and also by applying the other rules of exposition, as will be shown in what follows. Let us introduce a final remark in regard to the discovery of the spiritual sense of the individual words of the text. Useful results may be obtained by examining the given word as expounded in the dictionaries,-Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and English or of any other modern language. A dictionary is not only a repository of words, but of ideas or natural truths; and it is frequently the case that the natural truth involved in a word, examined in its roots and derivations, is transparent and thus suggestive of its own spiritual sense. The early works of Swedenborg come next in importance to the Writings as aids to the understanding of the Word. We may even go so far as to say that neither the Sacred Scripture nor the Writings can be fully understood without a knowledge of the wonderful philosophy contained in these early works. This is especially the case where a word or phrase involves the elementary kingdom, or where mention is made of some part of the human body. Any one who has read, for instance, The History of Creation,* will know that what is given in this little work is essential to a complete understanding of the first chapter of Genesis. Sometimes also in the philosophical works individual passages are explained. For example there is a rational unfolding of what is meant by searching the heart and the reins, in the chapter on The Kidneys in The Animal Kingdom. But there is no work of Swedenborg's previous to Arcana Coelestia, that is so direct an aid in exposition as The Adversaria [The Word Explained], especially if a text should be chosen from the historical parts of the Old Testament, or from Isaiah or Jeremiah. The Adversaria must be regarded as a work preparatory and introductory to the Arcana, and the student of the latter would do well to consult the former, especially if he is endeavoring to expound a text from Genesis or Exodus. * See the excellent translation by the Rev. Alfred Acton. Although no New Church commentary on the Word as a whole has been prepared, yet certain books of the Old Testament and of the New have been expounded by well known writers, beginning with Clowes, and their works may be usefully consulted. The sermons of New Church ministers, as printed in the periodicals of the Church for many years past, would also be a valuable resource, especially if an index of them could be prepared.* Commentaries in general, Bible dictionaries, encyclopedias, and works of a similar character should by no means be neglected. They throw light upon the natural sense of the text, and sometimes even give hints looking to the spiritual sense. Clarke's Commentary ** is an example of what appears to be a sincere effort to find the real meaning of the literal text of Scripture. For when the literal sense of a chapter or verse is fully understood, the way is made plain for the spiritual sense; hence any work that will aid in the analysis of the letter of the Word has a value in exposition. * A beginning of this work was made by the late Mr. Bennet Yarnall, and the results of his labor are in the Library of the Academy of the New Church.

Make notes while reflecting. by Adam Clarke. 6. 7. and read in a state of repose. that there is in it affection.** Commentary on the Old and New Testaments. there will accrue a valuable preparation of material for the sermon. and a person or thing spoken of. to the chapter? Under the general law that a part is similar to the whole it is clear that the verse is an image of the chapter. that in it there is always expressed or understood a name of the Lord. that there is a person speaking. . that a number is expressed in it. Read especially on the general subject or doctrine of the text. a name of a person or persons. a course of reading in the Writings on. the subject of the text. and a name of a place. Keep the text in mind while reading. Having analyzed the text and collected the material. Such a course of reading may be divided into the following heads: 1. and to some extent the explanations of the individual words. and parallel chapters and passages in the literal sense of the Word. Read much before beginning to write. Read in the Writings the explanations of the text. When this is done in addition to the other modes leading to the internal sense as described in this chapter the construction of the sermon is a relatively easy task. The question next arises. and the context where the explanations occur. and that there is always present an opposite sense either expressed or understood. 3. that it has a connection with the preceding verse and also with the following. and the results are written down. that there is in it a duality and a trinity which can be found on close examination. one spoken to. and it follows that the principles of interpretation which apply to the one apply also to the other. as in all things of the Word.* 2. and the minister will then put into it only what he finds in the text. and led by Him. accompanied and followed by reflection upon it. Can the principles of exposition be applied to the verse as they are. namely. that it has opening and closing words or statements which are significant. 4. Hence it is clear: that the literal sense of the verse has a leading idea expressed in the leading word or phrase. or if only involved what it is can be found from the context. If the text is examined faithfully according to each one of these principles in its turn. that it can be usefully compared with parallel passages. that the idea of a covenant or reaction with God can be seen in it. He thus places himself in a position to be taught of the Lord. but there are two more things necessary to a complete state of preparation. that the idea of time is in it. 5. Make notes while reading. Read carefully the chapter where the text occurs. or led by the spirit of truth to all truth. the minister might now proceed to the writing of the sermon. or in what goes before or follows after.

734. The final stage in complete preparation for a sermon is reflection. the affection of truth is excited. E. 3682. By revelation is meant illustration when the Word is read and perception thence (A. having its basis in physical rest. nor does he know anything else. there should be time for reflection after the material for the sermon had been collected. The Lord enlightens those who love truths when they read the Word. The doctrinal definition of reflection is that it is "the intuition of a thing. as to how it is and what it is. and instruction by the Lord while the Word is being read (A. 8694. for nothing else can take the place of it as a means to illustration or spiritual enlightenment. This of course applies to all teaching or to any work requiring the exercise of the mental faculties. and thought from affection (A. there can be no complete digest of the matter in . 7012. R." (A. the importance and use of which cannot be too strongly emphasized. Swedenborg was enlightened by the Lord when he read the Word (T. and the reading of the Word. 737. for the Lord is in the Word and speaks there with every one according to his comprehension (A. 739. but not what it is. thus no reformation. C." (S.) And we are told further that "without reflection a man knows nothing. if he has at his disposal enough time for the preparation of material for his sermon. 779). 1183). Reflection is defined as the reverting of the mind to that which has already occupied it. C. Illustration is influx. There is thereby insertion into angelic societies. D. For such preparation. thus not its quality. nor the text as to its internal contents thoroughly expounded. By reading. C. 6222. On the importance and use of reading there is much said in the Writings. since without the knowledges of truth there can be no reflection.* It may be well to remark that repose of mind. C. and the people should be encouraged to do the same. and is not burdened by the pressure of other work. him (A. 10400)." (S. when he reads the Word. Heaven flows in with the man whose internal is open. 796). that "there are more arcana in the doctrine of reflection than in any other whatsoever. C. cause the presence of the Lord (A. and for the writing of the sermon an entire week is needed with no other absorbing occupation. its anxieties and cares. S. Without this condition no sermon can be well prepared. 923). C. 8780). from whence is perception. but he should go to the church and enter into the service in a state of rest of body and mind. 140). for without reflection the sermon will probably be lacking in the important elements of conclusion and application. when there is reflection or spiritual thought in a state of repose. by reflection from the light of knowledges acquired the mind is in a position to see a higher or more interior light. 733. 6516. that is. which is the source of all inspiration and is inspiration itself (T. R. The acknowledgment and worship of the Lord. Not only should the minister prepare his sermon in a state of repose. as for example the following: When the Word is read the Lord flows in and teaches (A. and also for his congregation.) And finally the teaching is given. As we have shown. D. except that a thing is. is one of the essential elements of Worship. E. and gives him perception and thus teaches. D. perception. Hence the acquiring of knowledge must precede reflection. "In Thy light shall we see light". C. for "to know truths is of the greatest moment." (S. Happy is it for a minister. thus when the mind is abstracted from the light of the world. 10215). S. 3661.) Into these arcana the mind is able to enter.) By reflection therefore are fulfilled the words of the Psalm. 9188. 78). R.

The Greek word for happy or blessed is "makarioi. but in what follows it is modified or applied. according to the order of procedure as indicated in the last chapter. We shall now endeavor to exhibit the working value of the one and of the other by a practical example. and the composition of the sermon might indeed be undertaken under this leading idea. and may enter in through the gates into the city." the root meaning of which is. taking for that purpose the fourteenth verse of the twenty-second chapter of Revelation. which can be done by means of particulars. The translation of the text in the authorized version is as follows. and through the gates they may enter in into the city. CHAPTER XXI THE TEXT II In the foregoing chapter certain methods of procedure were proposed. acquired eternal life and happiness by virtue of having kept the commandments during their abode in the 'world. that they may have right to the tree of life.hand. But it is always well to present familiar truths in a new light. since it is one. We have herein the general sense of the text. and thus there will be wanting a complete kindling of the fires of inspiration and enlightenment. the blessed. for particulars strengthen and renew general truths. or the spirits or angels who were once men. according to the rule that what is first said is universal in what follows. as applied in the text. the immortal gods." A more literal translation. simple. and are able to enter in through the gates into the city. We will suppose that this verse has been chosen as the text of a sermon. and that we are to proceed in the gathering and preparation of material for it. The happy. An examination might indeed be . as applied to the text. and clear. by which the preparation of material for a sermon on a given text might be carried systematically into effect. being alive or immortal by virtue of so doing. The rules of exposition were also considered as aids to the same end. (Theoi makarioi) is common with the Greek writers.: "Blessed are they that do His commandments. We have at once an example of the root meaning of a word suggesting the spiritual senseeternal life to those who keep the commandments. The term "makarioi" was in use as an epithet of the gods. for they are thereby conjoined with God." We shall now examine the words in the above order with the meanings and roots in the Greek language. that is familiar. and which is also a literal rendering of Swedenborg's Latin. the immortal gods. which is in the order of the words in Greek. Since it is the first word it therefore gives a key to the whole verse. that there may be power to them in the tree of life. Let us then continue the work of preparing material. not dead. having their power in the tree of life. that is. they are not dead who are doing His commandments. proceeding to a consideration of the remaining words of the text. and the phrase. have. Thus in every word of the verse the idea of eternal life reigns. is as follows: "Happy are they who are doing the commandments of Him.

they are alive. In this. or carry into effect. We shall therefore confine ourselves here to the Latin word mandatum. We shall therefore proceed to the word next in order. 3795). and least of all to celestial truth (C. the sphere which then goes forth is described by the word magnetism. for. otherwise he is in no permanent power. This immortality suggests the teaching that they who continue to do His commandments to the end of life in the world. -and if he has been inspired by affection. The next word of the text is the one translated commandment. as in all texts of the Word. C. for no reasonable man will command another to do that which he is unable to perform. in order to be spiritual power. to place in one's hands to perform.* * When a minister or other public speaker is thus affected and inspired by his subject. furnishing much material for a sermon on the opening clause of the verse. But as we are proposing to expound the text as a whole. in Hebrew. should we decide to confine our exposition to those opening words. The store of material could also be considerably increased by examining the meanings of the words do and make in the ancient and modern languages. signifying to give in the hand. and what he appears to have will in the other life depart from him. But on account of the abundance of ideas involved in the consideration of the roots and meanings of words. It has been of use to him for his mental growth. Mandatum or mandare is a compound of manusdo. Neither does the Lord. to the consideration of a single word. By virtue of such perpetual doing they are not dead. It is clear that when this is done there goes with it as involved in it the power to execute. L. If he knows more than he can express in the sermon.made of the roots of the words blessed and happy. execute. In this case we shall keep the commandments merely for the sake of natural life in the world. to commit to one's charge. we shall have to content ourselves with merely selecting and bringing forward certain ones as examples of the rest. however. from which the English word commandment is derived. the word commandment connects with the phrase which immediately follows. Latin. Let us note first the force of the present participle. it is not well to occupy much time in preparation. and English. still less to spiritual truth. that is. also for the implantation of affection. must be in the tree of life that is in the Lord. after all. for our own gain and reputation among men. 185). are always doing. Here. or they who during life undergo the gradual and successive process of regeneration. and such an examination would lead to useful results. . it is not the truth that teaches but the affection of truth and the sphere which affection engenders (A. are they who will be saved. His commandments."* His power in keeping the commandments. which power is His. and for a store to be drawn upon in the future. but which we may persuade ourselves is our own. He gives into our hand the commandments with power to do them. immortal. Those are said to be blessed or immortal who are doing His commandments. however. They are not only doing now but are continuing to do. immortality by keeping the commandments. We are hereby again introduced to the leading thought of the text. or much space in the sermon. -he has a strong reserve and hence a sphere in the delivery of -the sermon. 3066. The minister will thus nearly always gather for his sermon more material than he can use. Yet it cannot be said that what is left over has not been of use. For there is no end to natural truth. This thought. or idea of doctrine is expounded at large in the Writings. "the tree of life. but now by a continual keeping of them. we find an embarrassment of riches when we enter into the particulars of the natural and spiritual senses thereof.

where we are told that the general sense of the verse is "that those have eternal felicity who live according to the precepts of the Lord. by the gates of the wall of the New Jerusalem are signified the knowledges of good and truth from the Word. and introduced into His New Church by knowledges concerning Him. but enough has been said here and in the previous chapter to illustrate the use of examining the roots of words for the sake of their application to the leading idea of the text. this is given in The Apocalypse Revealed. * We are constantly coming face to face with the importance of noting what precedes and what follows any portion of the Word. that is. Hence it is not correct to say that man has a right to the tree of life by virtue of doing the commandments. to the end that they may be in the Lord and the Lord in them by love. since the power to obey the commandments is not his but the Lord's and His alone. since they are in the Lord and the Lord in them. and by the city or Jerusalem is signified the New Church with its doctrine. and the New Church are the grand trinity of the text. the New Heaven. and keeping the commandments is the means of entering into or becoming an image of such a trinal form. and it is shown that they who are in the Lord and the Lord in them. which is that of collecting the explanations of the text that may be found in the Writings. Many interesting things could be brought forward from the various languages concerning the meanings of the remaining words of the text. An explanation of the individual words follows. The text is quoted or referred to several times but there is only one explanation of it as a whole. as will be shown presently. The translation right conveys an idea of an inherent right which no man possesses. which is ail expression of the general law that no truth is seen clearly when not regarded in its relation with other truths.This fundamental idea is therefore suggested to us by observing the original meaning of mandatum. It is the text under a spiritual idea. and in His New Church by knowledges concerning Him" This is the internal sense of the text brought into one general statement of doctrine. he is in the New Heaven. Even the individual words are not fully understood without observing this rule. that their power may be in the tree of life signifies to the end that they may be in the Lord and the Lord in them by love. "By the blessed are signified those who have the felicity of eternal life. which is confirmed by passages in the Gospels." It is further added that by the tree of life is signified the Lord as to the Divine Love. It has already been indicated that power is the correct translation of the word that is rendered right in the common version. Eternal felicity follows. by entering through the gates into the city is signified that they may be in the Lord's New Church by knowledges concerning Him. are in all power. By such living man is conjoined with the Lord by love. and an analysis of it would be an analysis of the text itself. Thus the Lord. number 951. for the sake of the Lord. . Let us therefore proceed to the next point in order. by doing His commandments is signified to live according to the precepts of the Lord. that is. We learn from it that the result of living according to the commandments is twofold and threefold. and finally some things are added concerning the power which the angels of heaven have. having thus no self-derived power nor merit of his own. but that he has power in and from the tree of life or from the Lord when he does them.

* There are in number 951 thirteen references to other parts of the Writings. R. and five to the letter of the Word. for as has been remarked by a writer whose name has been forgotten. the minister must stop somewhere. not complete without some consideration of the opposite. and hence we learn from this explanation that those who. so far as this word is concerned . since they are all on the general subject of the text. in which we have a suggestion for the style of the introductory portion of the sermon.The above words compared with similar teachings and connected with the leading idea. namely. that is. The signification of blessed is given in other passages as follows: Those who have eternal life and felicity are signified by blessed (A. after the last judgment. Some of these passages could be usefully applied in the sermon. Let us then study the explanations of the words in the order of their statement. 639. which point out the mode of comparative study and investigation. but there will be a still further guard against introducing particulars foreign to the subject. R. The series in which the text occurs shows that the New Heaven is meant. "Endeavoring to collect all that pertains to a given subject. and they are spoken of as the good works a man ought to do that he may be saved. are introduced as to their spirits into the New Heaven. however. for the subject is universal in the Writings. It should be noted that they are called His commandments. 8). will open a rich field for thought and reflection. the commandments of the Lord Jesus Christ. and then the signification of the individual words. the first clause. keep the commandments from religion. This should receive attention. The term blessed is explained many times in the Writings.* * As to collecting material for the sermon. who is the God of heaven and earth. since it is the first word. and may supply all that is needed for the sermon. commandments.* and examine the explanations of the individual words in other portions of the Writings. also those who as to their spirits are in heaven. still it may be useful to act on the intimation given above. "Blessed are they who do His commandments. The number also treats of the falsity which is opposed to the truth of the text. It is added that a man is not justified and Saved by faith alone without the works of the law. but it is unnecessary to pursue it further. With these explanations the minister might rest satisfied and proceed with the writing of his sermon. who spake them in the Old Testament and repeated them in the New as . But on this subject see the following chapter. some of the passages might be read since they treat of the leading idea of the text." in order to illustrate the necessity of living according to the commandments. A part of the text is quoted in The Apocalypse Explained. This signification of blessed is illuminating and is of value in the interpretation of the text." There is no need to quote passages on the next word. as well as to follow the indication given in the number quoted (A. and a number of passages are quoted in confirmation from the literal sense of the Word. for valuable ideas in addition will not only be thus acquired. as the preparation is. R. number 785. and the same in 852 and 944). as we have all that we need for the sermon. thus while they live in the world they are in communion with-the angels of heaven (A. is like standing on the bank of a river and waiting for all the water to run by. We observe also that there is first given the general sense of the verse. 951). This is a most valuable point for the sermon.

which comes next in the common version. and the truths which introduce are the genuine truths of the literal sense of the Word. Examine the early works of Swedenborg for material bearing on the text. or all things of the Word in its literal and in its internal sense. who enter into it through the gates. as for instance where the Lord says. R. No others will be able to enter in. its gates. This is the city into which those enter who do His commandments. its streets. and the uses performed in it. however. since it has already been spoken of. and its signification is so manifest. since it will furnish us with one of the essential ideas of the text. R. In a first view there would seem to be . for the wall in which were the gates signifies the Word in the sense of the letter (A. is so fully explained in the Writings. "Enter ye in at the straight gate. showing it is to be the important word at this point. 899). and where we are told concerning those who shall "in no wise enter into it. A comparative study of the word enter might be made by examining its use in other passages of Scripture. its inhabitants. many explanations of it may be found in the Writings by means of the Concordance. for he who does this is called a thief and a robber (John x: 1). It is fundamental then to know what is meant by the gates. by it is signified all these things revealed. We are to enter into the city through the entrance and not climb up some other way. In our fifth proposition in the previous chapter it was said. A sermon on this text therefore must give an important place to the consideration of such genuine truths of the Word. But as we shall speak of this when we treat of the first thing said and of the last thing said. except to remark that a complete study of what is spiritually involved in the idea of a city would include its walls. And in His Second Coming in the Writings the keeping of them is the burden of every page. there are no other means of entrance to the interiors of the Word and of the church. This leads us to the subject of the gates. The root idea of gate in the various languages is that of opening and entrance. we forbear further comment here. The gates in the wall of the city were twelve. or acknowledge in heart the new revelation of doctrine from heaven. being included in the all-comprehensive term. We may. But as the city is said to descend into the world. are those who enter in into the city New Jerusalem. the Divine Doctrine. Special attention should also be paid to the fact that entrance is by the gates. 904). who have power in the tree of life. Also the phrase "the tree of life" we leave for the present as it is here treated as a name of the Lord. We shall speak of it later when we consider the names of the Lord in the text. remark that those who are already internally conjoined with God and associated with heaven by virtue of obeying the commandments. which in the original is mentioned before the word enter. and who are said to be blessed. In such a study we find that in the idea of city is included all things of heaven and the church. 898. The phrase enter in. We read that by gates are signified knowledges of truths and goods from the sense of the letter of the Word (A. and the number twelve is used where introductory truths are treated of." in Matthew vii: 13. and xxii: 15. We also pass by the word power which comes next. Finally we have the word city in which is the end for which are all the means treated of in the text." in Revelation xxi : 27.the essentials of salvation. that no special preparation of material seems called for in connection with it. its buildings. These then are what are signified by the twelve gates.

Into such a train of thought are we led when we take note of the bearing of the philosophy of creation upon the root meaning of the first word of the text. the subject broadens and we are able to see. of the Lord. But since in Swedenborg's philosophy the law of creation and of the human form are unfolded to our view. It is the general containing all the particulars of the verse. Sometimes even hints looking towards the spiritual sense are given. But when he has this he is not dead because he has in him life from the Lord. who have been doing them. for action is of life and reaction is the return of action. For instance a Biblical scholar. It is also a genuine truth of the Word in its literal sense. that when anything is said to be dead the meaning is that it has no active center. Not dead are they who are doing the commandments. The natural sun and all things created from it are dead because there is no active center in any particle of them. but is merely acted upon from without. Now Swedenborg teaches in his philosophy. As we expect to show later. While the preparation of further material for a sermon on this particular text is hardly necessary.nothing in the passage under consideration that would receive light in this way. in the chapter on the Decalogue. As it is the leading idea of the text it naturally becomes the leading idea of the sermon. as being not dead. and who will continue to do them. The value of knowing this we have already shown. which should be devoted to an exposition of it. Adam Clarke. We spoke also of the value of consulting commentaries and similar works. It is therefore introductory to all things of the spiritual sense. For it is of this that blessing is predicated. that more is involved in keeping the commandments than doing them in the external form. We see this to be the case in the first word of the text-blessed. Dr. giving a fuller knowledge of manners and customs. -the text expanded and at the same time accommodated to the understanding of those who hear. Man is said to be dead when there is in him no active center or regenerate internal. from any one of . we shall now take them up in their order. and at the same time enlarge our view of the literal sense. still as we wish to show the working value of the rules of exposition as applied to a single verse of Scripture. They are merely acted upon by the life which is round about. and are thereby prepared to enter interiorly into the doctrines of the New Church. The text is predicated of all such. These are of use because they explain. and they enter in through the gates into the city. and the same is confirmed in the Writings. But as we enter interiorly into the idea of keeping the commandments. This then becomes the subject of the sermon. as taught in The True Christian Religion. We have shown that in the Greek this word signifies in its root not dead. for the sermon is the text. are as to their spirits associated with the angels of the New Heaven. It does not even act but merely resists action. we may expect to find in it something bearing upon any portion of the Word that may be before us for examination. there are four planes of the Word or four distinct senses. as arranged in the successive chapters of this book GENERAL SUBJECT The subject or leading idea of the text is doing the commandments. those who do this have power in the tree of life. The Divine purpose in the text is to show that those who are doing the commandments from loving them have the beginnings of a regenerate internal. calls attention to the root meaning of blessed in the Greek language. who are doing them now.

Keeping the commandments is therefore the means of entering into the city or into the doctrine of the New Church. is therefore the subject of this verse. It is the holy city New Jerusalem. THE PRECEDING SERIES .and the End. 309312). Finally in the celestial sense it is hatred of the Lord Himself that is to be fought against as the most deadly sin of all (T. which is the New Heaven. the Beginning. loving. In the spiritual sense hatred of the spiritual truth of the church is to be resisted and removed. and a man is thereby inserted as to his spirit into the New Heaven. Man is blessed in doing the commandments because they are His commandments. Thus in every end there is always a prior end. THE LAST THING SAID The last word occurring in this verse is city. or into that which is interiorly contained in the doctrine. Thus the New Heaven is interiorly in the New Church or in its doctrine. THE FIRST THING SAID The first word is blessed-blessed are they that do His commandments. To enter into the New Church on earth and through it into the New Heaven. who is God in His Human. from Him alone is power to keep and to do. loving the Lord. them. The end in keeping the commandments is entrance into the city. As has been frequently shown. which end is to enter in through the gates into the city. The leading idea of the preceding verse passes over into the first thing said in this verse. and material for the sermon could be drawn from any one of them. and any one of these could be chosen as the theme of the sermon. It also connects with what precedes and contains the end in view which appears at the close. for He alone is the Tree of Life. as established after the last judgment. So in the text we are considering. Let us take for illustration the commandment. Thou shalt not kill. or the commandments of our Lord Jesus Christ. In it is accomplished the end which is in view. The first thing said in this text has in it the end in view in keeping the commandments. the first word or the first thing said plays an essential part in the elucidation of what follows. In the mere letter or lowest plane of the Word it is the act of killing another that we are forbidden to do. In the wider or more interior natural sense hatred of the neighbor is the sin to be shunned. which is contained in the word blessed. Now since the first thing said is universal in what follows. This introduces us to the universal of the series. and because there is conjunction with Him by doing them. R. the First and the Last. or applying to life the truths of the Word. A sermon on the above commandment could treat of any one of these senses the others being referred to perhaps but not treated of at large. They are His commandments. the planes or senses are in general. These four planes are in every verse of the Word. loving the spiritual truth signified by them. and He alone is able to bless in the doing. and the mode and manner of such entrance is by doing the commandments. and shows that the commandments are given by Him who is the Alpha and the Omega. and they are to be kept for His sake.which the leading idea of the sermon may be chosen. doing the commandments. C. for the last two chapters of Revelation treat of the New Heaven and the New Church. signified by city. it is also universal in the last thing said. but within this end is the prior or more interior end of entering the New Heaven.

D. involving the reciprocal love to Him with those who do His commandments. in verse 16 He speaks of Himself as Jesus. It is Jesus therefore that calls Himself Alpha and Omega. It is the Divine and the Human together. but specifically in this verse the Divine Love of His Divine Human. Christ as the Master teaches. A. have sent mine angel". hence this rule introduces us at once into a knowledge of those who are not able to effect such entrance. -which they have who do His commandments. which reveals to us.The preceding series closes. the First and the Last. "I. By examining what follows we find also that the Lord is called Jesus. and in verse 20 He is addressed as Lord Jesus. reigning in all that precedes and in all that follows this verse. 2187. which is the only tree of life. as we have shown. THE NAMES OF THE LORD To discover the names of the Lord in this verse we of course seek for the antecedent of His. and 20. We have also seen that the glorified Human is the one grand universal of the Apocalypse. If then there were any doubt as to who is meant by His in the phrase His commandments. 12. and the antecedent of I in the preceding verse. Who is it that says. with the idea of the glorified Human of the Lord. but also who do not enter into it. R. if we have not discovered it before. with which a man is conjoined by doing the commandments. 89. and perception from that love. The meaning of the name Jesus is also significant. P. that the Divine Love is the supreme and universal active of the series. It is not only important to know who are they that enter into the city. 951). the First and the Last. an examination of the verse which precedes the text would remove the doubt. THE NAMES OF PERSONS . Let us note also that tree of life is here as a name of the Lord. and to the reason why they are unable to do so. love to the Lord from the Lord. It is the glorified Human in the New Heaven. he it is that loveth me. The Divine Love in the Divine Human of the Lord is therefore what is meant by His. which receives confirmation in the Lord's own words. but it is the Divine Love or Jesus that saves." (John xiv: 21. "He that hath my commandments. for the tree of life in Genesis and in the Apocalypse is the Lord as to the Divine Love (A. In the whole series of the Apocalypse we have before us the idea of the Divine and the Divine Human. power in the tree of life signifies power against evil spirits when there is perception from love to the Lord. Jesus. THE FOLLOWING SERIES The verse immediately following treats of those who are not conjoined with the Lord in the New Heaven because they do not keep His commandments. Hence it is said of them that they are without the city. 933. conjunction with which in that heaven is eternal life.-Jehovah the Savior. C. and His commandments are the commandments of Jesus.) The tree of life is also love to the Lord. for He speaks of His coming in verses 7. and keepeth them. This is indeed the ruling love or affection in this verse. "I am Alpha and Omega"? It is the Lord Jesus Christ. the Beginning and the End. 241.

the New Jerusalem. Perception could thus be taken as the leading idea or thought of the sermon. which is also. We have also shown that time in the Apocalypse has . TIME We have shown that the idea of time. but the text speaks of those who do His commandments. 50). as received by those who keep the commandments of the Lord. Even where nothing of time is mentioned it is always understood. and because He loves He reveals Himself. a man is able to enter in through the gates into the city. by virtue of doing the commandments. and also children and young people. THE PERSON SPEAKING It is not directly said who speaks. By the light of perception and the power that is in it. that is. as we have said. In considering the representation of John we should not forget to note the meaning of the name. is understood everywhere in the Apocalypse. signified by the tree of life. They do His commandments. they have power in the tree of life. It is by perception that the knowledges of truth are revealed. and the signification of the terms involving time. perception is the leading idea of the verse. for otherwise this idea about perception and revelation by perception might not occur to us. whose state is akin to that of the Gentiles. who are in ignorance of truth but who can be brought to the church and receive illustration (A. It is the angel speaking to John. Here it is the doctrine of the church signified by city. John as being in the spirit on the Lord's day on the isle of Patmos. Patmos is also understood here and all through the Apocalypse. The value of noting the place where an event occurs is thus made manifest. Jehovah loves. The place here is the city. The same are meant in general by John. and those represented by him are also in the spirit. who is understood here as present. are fundamental to the understanding of the Word. and they enter in through the gates into the city. This is John in the highest sense. The simple good of the Christian church are also meant. John thus represents those who receive Jehovah's love. A. it is some one else who is speaking. and the angel represents heaven. these are all the true men of the church on earth. R. but since the Lord is mentioned in the third person. We see the value of noting who it is that speaks. and also the city into which they are to enter. or are as to their spirits in heaven while -they still live in the world. It was shown in the chapter on Place that the church on earth is understood by the place named in any passage. John is spoken to. E. Jehovah hath good will. It may be said therefore that. The perception of love is given by keeping the commandments. and they who do His commandments are spoken of. for to speak is to reveal or to give perception. 34. PLACE There is no verse in Scripture where a place is not expressed or understood. No name of a person is mentioned. -Jehovah favors. An angel speaking signifies revelation from heaven. which they have who love the Lord by doing His commandments.Next to the names of the Lord are the names of persons. by which is signified the state of the Gentiles.

and twelve fruits. the knowledges of truth or thoughts from perception. In the first sentence also is the idea of the Lord as to His Divine Love. such doctrine as appears in the literal sense of the Word. or a marriage of the Lord and the church. for in connection with the city we are told that there were twelve gates. In the first sentence heaven as the internal is represented in the word blessed. and which is the essential means of entering into the internal sense. This marriage or conjunction appears in the literal sense under many forms. twelve pearls. also twelve thousand furlongs. and the church. no regeneration. twelve tribes. no separation from evil spirits. twelve precious stones. which reaction and co. But the grand trinity of the text. The universal of the covenant is that of action on the part of the Lord and reaction or cooperation on the part of man.operation in general consists in keeping the commandments. perception from that love. This could be commented on at large in the sermon if thought necessary. but is especially expressed in the name and idea of covenant. the last judgment. or a marriage of love to the Lord and love to the neighbor. This is expressed in some manner in every part of the Word and manifestly in the text. or a state existed. and those on earth who do the commandments represent the external. -the Divine and the Divine Human. We have already shown that this number usually occurs where the doctrine of genuine truth is treated of. There is also a trinity in the names the name of the Lord or Jesus. that is. The signification of the number twelve therefore assumes considerable importance. twelve foundations. These ideas are necessary to a complete understanding of the text. and the name of the place or the city. in the second. There could otherwise be no repentance. and of love to Him. and the same with the duality in the remaining sentences. the name of the person speaking or the angel. and the advent of the Lord. one hundred and forty-four cubits. and also wherein they are spoken of as entering by the external into the internal. In the text there are three distinct sentences. There is a wonderful duality in the names of the Lord as occurring in the preceding verse. in which it would not be possible for any man to keep the commandments. The application of the rule therefore suggests introducing into a .reference to the consummation of the age. in all things of the Word. wherein those in the external or on earth have power from the Lord in the internal or in heaven. or through the gates into the city. each dual in form. or internal and external. or of love and wisdom. is the Lord. for the time was at hand. THE COVENANT We are taught that there is a marriage of good and truth. heaven. twelve apostles. The duality and the trinity in the Lord and from Him appears also under other forms in this verse. unless the things mentioned should take place. though not always apparent at first sight. NUMBER No number is spoken of in the text. but the number twelve is understood in the mention of the city. and hence no salvation. and in the third. DUALITY AND TRINITY There is no part of the Word where duality and trinity are not found.

and he is so separated when he obeys the commandments and loves the truths of the Word. 947." (A. 7." (A. From these passages we learn that they are blessed. AFFECTION We have shown in the chapter on this subject that affection is the prime essential of the Word. which may be enlarged upon as much as is necessary.* and may at the same time look to applications or to conclusions formed from the knowledges of truth that have been gathered together. 959. about keeping the words of the prophecy of this book. and if they are accommodated to the understanding the application by the individual to his own life will not be difficult. with the statement in verses 6. that is. 957. C. 8). As we know. 944. It presents itself forcibly in the verse immediately following the text. 958. or "who keep and do the truths or precepts of doctrine of this book now opened by the Lord. The regenerating man must be separated from these while he still lives in the world. Similar words occur also in the opening of the book (i: 3). R. From all that has been said. and from the very words of the text. we are prepared for further reading and reflection in order that we may come to see the text under one idea (A. that doing the commandments is one with living according to the doctrine now revealed from heaven. R. and is distinctly spoken of in several passages of the chapter in which the text occurs. Having now made notes under the principles as laid down in the foregoing chapters. but it is present all through the Apocalypse. 946. and 19.sermon on the text before us. 10. there is but little need of applying the rule in respect to the comparison of words and passages. COMPARISON Some hint of the spiritual sense of most words is received by examining the same word in other passages of Scripture. These applications or conclusions will be such as to make it clear to the understanding of the hearer that the truths set forth are contained in the text. expressed or understood. for as was shown. Yet it may be of use to compare what is said in the text about doing His commandments. it is evident that the affection of love to the Lord is the ruling affection of the text. and are not mere human inventions.) This comparison brings forward a point of great importance to the exposition of the text. which is inspired by doing the commandments. of those who have no genuine truth of doctrine implanted in their life. THE OPPOSITE SENSE No preparation for a sermon can be considered as complete without some reference to the opposite sense. a thought concerning the necessity of co-operation with God. and as so much material has already been acquired. . and who are signified by the dragon and Babylon. in the mention of those who are without the city. The opposite does not manifestly appear in the text. or are as to their spirits in heaven "who live according to the doctrine of the New Jerusalem. 18. namely. the spiritual sense of the text and of every word in it. however. the opposite is always present. 2343).

CHAPTER XXII THE SERMON We have reached the point toward which our effort has been directed from the beginning of this work. a leading idea with subordinate ideas under it. and spiritual in the internal sense. It was stated in a former chapter that there is in every verse of Scripture. and preparation for it by obedience to the commandments of the Lord. There is a field indeed for this kind of sermon in the New Church with children and the young. the unfolding and expanding of a text from Scripture into the form of a sermon or religious discourse. there will be of course much variety in any given congregation. expounding the internal sense without digression or excursion into realms of thought extraneous to the subject. for the instruction of those who are receptive of the spiritual truth of the Word. 1986. The spiritual sense of the Word treats of nothing else. or to the most intelligent. as we have shown. The group of words under a leading word indicates a group of ideas under some leading general truth-natural in the literal sense. or to the least intelligent. As to the understanding of the Word. But the minister should always speak primarily to the center. and the New Church sermon falls short of its purpose if it does not aim to unfold in the form of doctrine this spiritual sense of a text in language adapted to the understanding. that for which the rules of exposition have been preparing the way. This indeed should be done but under the guidance of the leading idea Of the text as a whole. The old church sermon at its best is an exposition of the literal or general sense of a verse in the Word. But if he speaks to the circumference. but the essential purpose of the New Church sermon is to address the adult or rational mind. expressed in the verse in the leading word and in the subordinate words. Supremely considered. for upon this depends in large measure the intellectual and spiritual growth of any society of the church. Every verse of the Word treats of this life to come and of the means of obtaining it. Note how this principle is followed in Arcana Coelestia. a logical sequence of ideas. the one purpose in a sermon is to present the Lord and life from Him. looking to eternal conjunction with Him. and for this end to expound the internal sense of the Word. The proper theme of a sermon is the life after death. . however.* We have previously called attention to the importance of this in respect to the chapter. It is clear that a sermon should follow this logical order. the life which makes the church and heaven itself. numbers 2003 and 2004. Without seeing the text under one idea. He will then feed all who bear. The growth of the rational is the growth of the church. namely. an exposition may be made of the individual words alone. as in every chapter. making these the primary object of his interest. under one leading idea involved in the order of the words in the original language. a famine will result that may in the end lead to disintegration and dissolution. There is also. which may be read in connection with numbers 1985.

The principle will thus be essentially the same in each case. the bearing and application to the sermon. The reason of this is. Without this prior state of loyalty neither doctrines nor rules of exposition will be of any use. for the interior understanding of man is what is illustrated. but which at the same time look strongly to the subject before us. In Arcana Coelestia. The sermon will thus become the expanded form of the text. . and being thereby illustrated from the Lord. We are not to import into it what belongs elsewhere or in some other series and above all not to insert something that is a mere product of human intelligence. that such communicate with heaven. for the Lord inflows through heaven into his understanding. or the truth of the internal sense of the Word. doctrine. and he is in such a state when he loves truth for its own sake. speaking from the Lord. they are led to see the truths of the Word such as they are in heaven. and in the abstract sense. and make thence to themselves doctrine. and not to put in something that is not there. and the second is to expound what is in it. and avoid the temptation to seek and set forth something that has another origin. and not for the sake of self and the world. He should not enter into a consideration of it with a preconceived idea in his thought. something not inspired by the Word of God. and to the state of the minister when preparing it." The foregoing passage is a part of a number that gives the internal sense of the words." Since Aaron represents the priesthood.teachings which indeed have a wider application. We are to take out what is there. -the former and the latter having nothing else in view than that the student may find what is in the Word of God. but only for heaven and the Lord. and not for any considerations of himself and of the world. and what is most essential. In this state he sees the truth of the Word such as it is in heaven. He will thus be introduced into the stream of the Word. Thus his purpose in collecting doctrine and his use of the rules should be to discover first of all the leading idea of doctrine contained in the internal sense of the text. "And behold Aaron and Hur are with you. and see truth. and he is able at the same time to accommodate it to the understanding of . number 9424. for the Lord inflows through heaven into their understandings. and he is in illustration when in the love of truth for the sake of truth. and will be led to expound only that which is in the Word. What we wish especially to guard against is the putting into a text that which does not belong in it. giving him illustration or spiritual insight. His mind should be open and unbiased-in a state of readiness to be taught by the Lord.The first thing is to choose the text. These are they who are illustrated in the Word when they read it. and while it is being collected. man must be in illustration from the Lord. There are certain teachings that bear upon the construction of the sermon. thus with the Lord. and a text sought which contains and expresses it. and the state in which the minister ought to be. his thought then communicates with heaven. For this end true doctrine has been given and the principles of exposition have been provided. and not by anything of man's own intelligence. is manifest. we are taught that "doctrine is to be collected from the Word. and the minister while bringing together such doctrine must be in a state of illustration. It is not meant that a doctrinal subject may not at times be chosen. which it may be well for us to consider in this connection. The sermon must be formed of doctrine collected from the Word. but in this case the minister should make sure that the doctrine is the doctrine of the text.

and nothing should be . things new are the things of its internal sense. for these are the things on which it is built. for such a man is a church in particular. who also can be brought into states of illustration." (Matt. The teaching in The True Christian Religion. numbers 2343. numbers 146.) The treasure is the Word. so as to be seen tinder one general idea. Hence as the thought of the angels is removed from any idea of time. Unless." (See also the following numbers. therefore. 3786. the doctrinals of good and truth must first be collected into one. Armed in this manner. To be in a state of illustration is to be elevated by the affection of truth into a sphere of light similar to that in which the angels are. they are at first collected into one. If he is in a state of illustration the sphere of his illustration will be communicated to his congregation. which defect must be supplied by man's rational. place. was given to the Church. the internal sense of the Word has been laid open. which contains all the doctrinals of good and truth. and things old are the things of the literal sense. That the doctrinals of good and truth which belong to the Church. He will think and speak solely of the truth and of the life. or person. concerning the illustration of the clergy.* nor will he mention any person save those named in revelation. The Minister is then able to act in the spirit of the teaching of the Lord to His disciples that the "scribe instructed unto the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder. which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old. and to express them in forms accommodated to the understanding. and to his sermon. and he will be saved from the blind and fanciful conclusions of his own intelligence. the minister will be able to collect into one the doctrinals of good and truth. bears special relation to the state of the minister. from the wise to the simple. For even children are to be fed from the unlimited store of the Word. The doctrinals of good and truth must first be gathered into one. the doctrine of genuine truth has been revealed. 155. so the minister will not inject into his sermon any thought involving these things. In this the church in general is circumstanced as in particular with the regenerate man. which is signified by the sending of the Holy Spirit. The thought of the mind is then concerning the truth and nothing but the truth. We have the further teaching given in Arcana Coelestia. He will be provided with an abundance of spiritual and natural truths. He will above all not intrude himself nor his own opinions into his sermon. the light of the world being for a time closed out. and a state of illustration is provided. 3074. the principles of exposition have been given. xiii: 52. * See the distinct teaching on this point in Arcana Coelestia. Doctrinals have a connection with each other and a mutual respect to each other.* To aid in this and to make it effective. there will be a defect. On this account the Word. especially when they are in a sphere of worship. sufficient for all who hear. and as it is in the mind so it is in the sermon. both in its preparation and its delivery. whilst its conclusions are from itself.) As described in this passage the building of a sermon is like the building of a church. and how blind and fanciful this is in things spiritual and Divine. What was addressed to the disciples who were to become apostles is addressed to every teacher of the Word of God.others in the world. must needs be first together in man before he is regenerated. has been shown above. number 3786: "The case is the same in general with the Church at its establishment. has been abundantly shown.

2. The reader is especially referred to the Principia. since each minister ought to be free to plan and build his sermon according to the form which the doctrine of the text takes in his own mind. it is a natural conclusion that a sermon in order to be a complete exposition of the Word ought to be written in a series. thus what the Divine thought is. The Apocalypse Revealed. and to The Economy of the Animal Kingdom. In the philosophical works of Swedenborg there is a wonderful unfolding of the law of series. 5. on their entrance into church. 3318. Since these things are true. 4443. 1. one -thing following another in the internal sense in a regular order of succession. 4289. and it is possible for it to exist in fullness now that the last judgment has taken place (C. 12). A statement of the general truth contained in a verse or a sentence is given. 4. has been left behind. and that all things of nature. When we examine these works we find that: 1. In the Writings much is said on the same subject as applied to the Word. The above plan with some variations is followed throughout in the three works mentioned. J. 11. 4298. 4160. that the Writings are written in a series. still for the benefit of those who may desire suggestions. The significations of the individual words follow. and The Apocalypse Explained. The internal sense of groups is placed at the heads of chapters.said by him to bring them back to the sphere of the outer world which. That the internal sense is not fully evident until . L. Although it is not within the scope of our purpose to take up for special treatment the subject of the construction of a sermon. * What the minister thinks of the truth is of no consequence to the hearers. 6750). are also in a series. We learn by frequent teachings: That the internal sense of any given passage cannot fully appear except from a knowledge of the series in which it occurs (A. 3. as exhibited in nature. for the thing of consequence is what the truth itself is. an expression of the law that the Word itself is in a series. since they have been created by the Word. and especially since the Word is expounded in a series in the works above mentioned. The Word is expounded in a series. as has been done in the three works above mentioned. THE WORD IS EXPOUNDED IN A SERIES We have shown by citations from the Writings that the Word from beginning to end is in a series. number 351. It is but natural therefore that the Word should be expounded in a series. C. Finally the general sense or the leading idea of the verse is expounded. it may not be amiss to call attention to the model of exposition that is given in the Writings. especially in such works as Arcana Coelestia. Let us now consider this plan in the order given above. This is the ideal of the New Church sermon. 5432. We have also referred on a previous page to the statement in The True Christian Religion.

verses 22-26. Let us take as. especially of a knowledge of the leading idea of doctrine in that series." and the one on "The Following Series. Concerning the Divine stream of the Word. 4429. when there is a state of illustration from the Lord. verses 9. and words. 41). and the doctrine of groups of verses or parts of the chapter is also given. verse 11. At the head of this chapter in The Apocalypse Revealed. C. will not be an exposition of the text in its entirety. A description of it as to its intelligence derived from the Word. Otherwise it will be difficult to determine with certainty the general of the text. THE INTERNAL SENSE OF GROUPS IS PLACED AT THE HEADS OF CHAPTERS Groups. 4368. As to its doctrine thence derived." We observe here that the doctrine of the chapter as a whole is first given. and some particular of it may be expounded. verses 1221. an analysis of which has already been given." These numbers establish the importance of a full understanding of the series in which the text occurs. The heads of the groups are subordinate generals under the leading general of the whole chapter. Its conjunction with the Lord. and the Prophetic Word is treated in the same manner in A Summary Exposition of the Prophets and Psalms. sentences. Then follows a spiritual exposition of its verses. is to write a series of sermons. The leading doctrine of a chapter is the ship that guides in the navigation of this stream. which. That all things are to be taken in application to the subject of the series of the internal sense (A. 2. J. 7933. -a subject of which we have frequently spoken. C. 4502). taking the chapter in regular order. and it was. C. still the general doctrine of the chapter should be found and the text viewed in relation to it. we would remark in addition to what was said above that the best way to imbibe thoroughly the leading idea of doctrine in any text. But if the course above indicated be pursued by a mind imbued with the spiritual affection of truth. And as to every quality thereof. That one series is distinguished from another by the use of and. that various significations are given in the Writings of the same word of Scripture. especially in Arcana Coelestia and in The Apocalypse Revealed. C. however true in itself. That after the judgment. and much that it contains will remain unknown. verse by verse from its beginning to its end. verses 1-8. paragraphs. . a New Church will exist on the earth which will worship the Lord alone. we have the following summary of its internal sense: "This chapter treats of the state of heaven and the church after the last judgment. an example the twenty-first chapter of the Apocalypse. 4502). Even if only one verse of a chapter be taken as a text. the best way to enter into a full understanding of the context of a verse. and thus of the verse itself.* * It is because of the modification of the spiritual sense according to the leading doctrine of the series. 10. L. through the New Heaven. 4987).what precedes and what follows is examined (A. and which at the risk of repetition we again bring forward on account of its connection with the question of the sermon. such a mind wilt-be led into the full stream and tide of the internal sense of the Word. or and it came to pass (A. Since the preparation of sermons in a series is also involved here. See also the chapter in this book on "The Preceding Series. or parts of chapters are treated in this way in the works mentioned above. we are told that the internal sense is such a continuous stream that not even a syllable can be omitted without interruption of the series (A.

a sermon on the leading idea of each group. "And I John. then the reasons are given why the city is called holy and why it is said to be new. second. Or if he should decide to take only a single text from a chapter. for which his previous training in a theological school would be but a preliminary. and then he may make use of the mode of analysis which the Writings give and which we have attempted to present in the preceding pages. THE SIGNIFICATIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL WORDS FOLLOW The individual words of the verse above quoted are then taken up and explained in order. 5. of the whole chapter. and under the leading idea of the chapter as quoted above.In the light of revealed doctrine it is possible for a minister to prepare a like summary of any chapter of the Word. he would find it useful as well as safe to make first such an analysis as we have indicated. by the New Jerusalem is signified the New Church as to doctrine and as to worship. By John saw is signified those who are in the good of love to the Lord and in the good of life thence. first. FINALLY THE GENERAL SENSE OR LEADING IDEA OF THE VERSE IS EXPOUNDED . and that it will worship the Lord alone. 880. and finally by thought and reflection he may prepare a digest or summary similar to that which is commonly given in the expositions of the Writings. on reading which we discover that this New Church is to exist on the earth after the last judgment has been performed. 3. which will be consociated with the New Heaven in Divine truths as to doctrine and as to life. The minister could then write a series of sermons on the chapter. since worship is prescribed in doctrine and is performed according to it. saw the holy city New Jerusalem. a sermon on the chapter as a whole. descending from God out of heaven.first chapter of the Apocalypse is given in The Apocalypse Revealed. signifies a New Church to be established by the Lord at the end of the former church. and there would also be great spiritual benefit to the members of his congregation. 4. by the holy city is signified that doctrine. and thus are connected the idea of the judgment and the idea of the Lord. which should be made prominent in a sermon on the above text. A STATEMENT OF THE GENERAL TRUTH CONTAINED IN A VERSE OR SENTENCE IS GIVEN The explanation of a part of the second verse of the twenty. and why it is spoken of as descending from God out of heaven. expounding its leading idea. numbers 879. and finally a series of sermons on each verse. who by virtue of illustration from the Lord are able to see and understand the doctrine revealed from heaven. By such experiences in writing and in preaching a series of sermons the minister would obtain an education in the doctrines of the church. he may with this in view copy from the Writings the explanations of the chapter and its parts. In a sermon on this text a brief statement similar to the above might be made before proceeding to an exposition of its leading doctrine. that is." This general statement of the internal sense comes under the leading idea of the group of verses 1-8.

Still what is first said serves as an introduction. "the holy city New Jerusalem". and by its name being the New Jerusalem. as to what is in a verse or in a text that may be chosen for a sermon. and of the general of the group in which the text occurs. if this seems to be necessary. Also there are frequent introductions to books and chapters in the Sacred Scripture. closing and connecting with the leading idea of the text. but in a state of full freedom and judgment in producing the effect. and also in the other works where propositions are discussed seriatim. for this is what John saw. We read that "every verse contains a peculiar state or change of state in the . and to give a general view of what follows. and it might include a statement of the universal of the chapter. see Arcana Coelestia. Now the question might arise as to what is to be first said in a sermon. and it will doubtless be of interest to add here some further teaching on this subject. it is not always necessary to follow its form. since that is to be the topic of the sermon itself. and not the mere letter which in itself is dead. and in the conclusion the end in view in the text may be unfolded and applied. judgment must of course be used. After the general doctrine or subject of the text has been expressed in a few words. But a sermon should always present somewhere near its beginning the leading idea of the text. there may be a brief statement of the signification of the individual words.* * That evangelization and worship go together. The mode of exposition in the Writings may therefore be taken as a general guide in the construction of a sermon.It is clear that the general doctrine in this text is involved in the signification of the words. We have spoken of the importance of expounding only what is in the Word. This is not always done because it is not always necessary. as is well known. that is. drawing especial attention to the fact that doctrine and worship go together and cannot be separated. in order that the listener may know what the minister is going to talk about. for the text will not always present on its surface the general of its own spiritual sense. It is the spirit of truth that leadeth to all truth. and then after the same plan the leading doctrine in the text may be expounded at length. following the plan of the Writings. For although we should follow what is essential in that mode. The object of an introduction is to explain the purpose of the book or chapter. since it contains in some form a statement of the subject of the sermon that is to follow. The body of a sermon on this text should therefore be occupied with the unfolding of what is spiritually contained in these words. opening with an explanation of the literal sense of the text. for this is what is meant by the city being called holy. A sermon might therefore have an introduction or exordium. as required by loyalty to the truth. This is a common practice too in books of human authorship. and this is what came down from God out of heaven. or what kind of introduction should it have? In the Writings there is usually an introduction to chapters in the works above mentioned. and hence that with instruction there should be a sphere of worship. which is a sphere of love to the Lord. number 9925. for what is necessary in one sermon will not be necessary in another. It is by virtue of the conjunction of doctrine and worship in the New Church that there is to be consociation with the New Heaven. What should be the nature of -its opening words.

and a minister truly expounding it is giving general expression to the living active thought of an entire angelic society. and the thought of that society is stirred by his meditation. and this in an instant. each with a fullness of meaning all its own." (A. S. while I was reading the Word in the sense of its letter. now with that.' (John vi: 63). that the separate chapters in the prophetic Word correspond to individual societies of heaven. therefore the angels of the society did not know that these things came from any man. as a mother is stirred when her little one asks for food. or in the entire Word. concerning which we are informed in the following passages: "What is wonderful. and the Psalms of David. even every verse. for when I read through the prophetic books of the Word from Isaiah to Malachi. and that what I understood according to the natural sense. it was given me to see that societies of heaven were called out in their order and they perceived the spiritual sense corresponding to them. that when man reads the Word or speaks from it. 64. We can see how true this is when we realize that every verse communicates with some society of heaven. has been given me to perceive from this." (A. his source of inspiration and enlightenment is not in the outer world but in heaven.) And again we read: "From much experience it has been given me to know that the Word opens heaven to man.) Hence when man reads the Word in a state of meditative thought. was perceived in some heavenly society. that is. clearly that every verse communicates with some society of heaven. and that thus the whole Word communicates with the entire heaven. the Word is so written that it communicates with the universal heaven. I have read the prophetic Word through from Isaiah even to Malachi. C.church. or when he speaks from it.) "It has been given me to know by much experience. While I was reading the Word from the first chapter of Isaiah to the last of Malachi.) Hence every verse describes a state or contains a sense peculiar to itself. and it was given to perceive that every chapter. We therefore have no need of the light of the world nor of the scientifics of men in any . 113. concerning which elsewhere. and the celestial angels according to the celestial sense. is manifest also from these words of the Lord: 'The words which I speak unto you are spirit. in the book. it was given me to perceive." (S. distinct from every other verse in the chapter. and in its particulars with every society there. to enter into which is to enter into the unlimited store of. S. further: "That all things of the Word correspond to all things of heaven. And because the spiritual sense and not the sense of the letter is communicated. "It has been granted me to perceive that. the spiritual angels understood according to the spiritual sense. That the Word is such in its essence." (De Verbo." (S. now with this society of them. xviii: 1. communication was effected with the heavens. thus every verse is an expression of the state of an angelic society. communication is made with heaven. and are life. which it has been given me to know by living experience. 200. that man has communication with heaven through the Word. 205. truth which is the gift of the Lord to that angelic society. R." (De Verbo x: 1. We read.) A verse or a text in the Word therefore occupies a distinguished position.) There is thus no society in heaven that does not ultimate and give expression to its life of affection and thought in some portion of the literal sense of the Word.

We would now say a word concerning the concluding portion of the sermon. any one of which may be chosen as the topic or theme of the sermon." In closing a sermon on this text emphasis should be laid on the truth that the doctrine signified by the holy city . Hence we read: "The Word is from the Lord and concerning the Lord. and take their proper place in confirmation of that which has been given by perception. All thought. or of the Lord. the end in the text quoted above from Revelation xxi is contained in its last words. there being something intimately affecting the heart and spirit. the Word and the Lord are one. No one. and the understanding of the Word will be kept under unnecessary limitations. and writing derives its essence and life from him who thinks. or from communication with some angelic society-with that angelic society which is present interiorly in that particular portion of the Word we are studying." (A. or other Divine works and attributes. speaks. for heaven is interiorly in the Word. It is usually expressed in the closing words. There is in the Writings much of definite teaching as to what is in the Word.* * Let it not be thought. Their chief topic is the Lord. If the sermons of a minister never.sense of source. the man with all that he is being therein. The point that interests us here is. "from God out of heaven. The first thing in the order of time is the letter with its scientifics and knowledges of doctrine. Thus the sermon may treat of the individual man and his regeneration. and we find in their expositions a great variety of subjects. or but seldom. or point of beginning. and we shall bring forward somewhat of this in a later chapter. and finally the life of the individual man. that in each of these planes in the text there is a leading idea. Knowledges and scientifics in the mind are then enkindled. and thus is the Lord. however. but are confined mostly to the regenerate life of the individual. We refer the reader especially to what is said there concerning the four distinct planes in the Word. and consequent perception. or of the church and its growth and establishment. but the first thing in importance is inspiration from heaven. however. for the light in the minds of the angels is the presence of the Lord in their affection of truth. there will be wanting a large and comprehensive view even of regeneration. We have need of them indeed. and the last judgment. that there is any perception independent of the knowledges of truth as given in the written Word. 200. feels and perceives the Divine life in the Word but he who is in the spiritual affection of truth when he reads it. aim. and then His kingdom and church.) The Word and heaven are one. For instance. speech. for the Lord is the all in all the Word. R. Yet such knowledges are merely in the memory until perception is given. The Writings are again our model. treat of the church or of the Lord. His glorification. one within another. that is. for he is in conjunction with the Lord through the Word. It is not until then that truth is really revealed. but in the Word the Lord alone is. but merely to illustrate and confirm. to bring down and to accommodate that which has been perceived from the light of heaven. and writes. or purpose of the text. In the supreme idea inspiration and perception are from the Lord Himself in heaven. origin. To find and determine this end is an important part of the preparation. Such is the source of the infinite store of truth that is open to him who is willing to approach and enter. As a general rule the sermon should close with an exposition of the end. redemption. which inflows with light into the understanding and bears witness.

simply noting that the preceding verse closes with the idea Of repentance. if any man hear my voice and open the door. any one of which may be chosen as the topic or theme of the sermon. as we have said. but are confined mostly to the regenerate life of the individual. in a brief examination of Revelation iii: 20. even as the text itself does. In writing the sermon the minister is continually approaching the end and aim. A sermon with this as a text should therefore treat finally of conjunction with God. This passes over to verse 20. . receives instruction and repents. The words are addressed "to the angel of the church of the Laodiceans" as follows. The Lord is present when there is repentance. or other Divine works and attributes. and finally the life of the individual man. or but seldom. or by the understanding of truth. I stand at the door and knock. and that this doctrine leads to that heaven all who are signified by John. or of the Lord. as we have said. The Lord then enters by the door. As a general rule the sermon should close with an exposition of the end. In writing the sermon the minister is continually approaching the end and aim. and that this doctrine leads to that heaven all who are signified by John. as being the very state of heaven. which is signified by the words. while still on earth. and we find in their expositions a great variety of subjects. that in each of these planes in the text there is a leading idea. accommodated. Man hears His voice and opens the door. aim. The point that interests us here is. His glorification. an expansion of the text itself. The Writings are again our model. We would now say a word concerning the concluding portion of the sermon. It is usually expressed in the closing words. Thus the end in view in the verse is heaven as a state of conjunction with God. the end in the text quoted above from Revelation xxi is contained in its last words. It may in fact be said 'that heaven and the Lord are the end in every text. I will come in to him. or those who love the truth of doctrine now revealed and appropriate it in heart and life. or purpose of the text.New Jerusalem is from the Lord out of the New Heaven. redemption. treat of the church or of the Lord. "I will sup with him and he with me" -the supper of the spiritual marriage. Their chief topic is the Lord. and the last judgment. and then His kingdom and church. it is what is in the text brought forth. Thus the sermon may treat of the individual man and his regeneration." In closing a sermon on this text emphasis should be laid on the truth that the doctrine signified by the holy city New Jerusalem is from the Lord out of the New Heaven. For the sermon is. and qualifies all that is there said. there will be wanting a large and comprehensive view even of regeneration. and will sup with him and he with me. For the sermon is. "from God out of heaven. that is. To find and determine this end is an important part of the preparation. and the understanding of the Word will be kept under unnecessary limitations. or of the church and its growth and establishment. as expressed in its closing words. and as brought about by receiving instruction and by living a life according to the truth. and conjunction with Him is effected. or those who love the truth of doctrine now revealed and appropriate it in heart and life. an expansion of the text itself. "Behold. it is what is in the text brought forth. or a life of repentance." In order to be brief we omit a consideration of most of the rules as applied to this passage. For instance. Let us illustrate by another example. even as the text itself does. or. and applied according to its order and sequence of ideas from general to particular. If the sermons of a minister never. He stands at the door and knocks. or.

But the sermon itself is central. looks to the instruction of the adult mind in the interior or spiritual things of the Word. and by it is fulfilled the use of the Sabbath since the coming of the Lord-a day of instruction in Divine things (T. as expressed in its closing words. or a life of repentance. The Lord is present when there is repentance. there is left the immense subject of the literal sense. which is signified by the words. C. It is that for the sake of which the worship is. The poetic sphere is indeed present in the letter of the Word. It may in fact be said that heaven and the Lord are the end in every text. Every verse in the Word is like a star whose light scintillates in all directions. leading up to it and briefly following it. The Lord then enters by the door. It may be remarked in general that the style of the sermon is necessarily didactic. receives instruction and repents. The minister by his previous training will have acquired all the necessary instrumentalities for putting his sermon into proper form. since by it is opened the internal sense of the Word. It is not a part of our purpose to enter at large upon the subject of the external form and style of the sermon. as being the very state of heaven. should not be bound by rigid rules of construction." In order to be brief we omit a consideration of most of the rules as applied to this passage. I stand at the door and knock. in a brief examination of Revelation iii: 20. which has been given to prepare the minds of the young for . simply noting that the preceding verse closes with the idea of repentance. If there be enough thought and meditation on this. I will come in to him. and will sup with him and he with me. The form will take care of itself. or by the understanding of truth. that is. and applied according to its order and sequence of ideas from general to particular. and conjunction' with Him is effected. Fixed rules of construction may become a hindrance rather than a help if too much dependence is placed upon them. Under this there is room for great variety in the style and form of the sermon. and qualifies all that is there said. A sermon with this as a text should therefore treat finally of conjunction with God. and dominates in the service previous to the sermon. or that particular heaven with which the text is in communication. He stands at the door and knocks. or the doctrine that is contained in the text. All that we have said in the preceding pages up to this point. that the truth of doctrine may inspire and lead to the good of life. its one aim being instruction in the doctrine of the church. and in its light no two individual minds will give the same form and application of the text. there will be but little difficulty as to the form of the sermon. This passes over to verse 20. while still on earth. Loyalty to the doctrine is the prime essential requisite. and our chief interest has been in the matter of the sermon. and as brought about by receiving instruction and by living a life according to the truth. Thought from affection will take proper form in expression. Let us illustrate by another example. R. The words are addressed "to the angel of the church of the Laodiceans" as follows. Man hears His voice and opens the door. if any man hear nay voice and open the door. 301). "Behold. "I will sup with him and he with me" -the supper of the spiritual marriage. These have been taken for granted.accommodated. Thus the end in view in the verse is heaven as a state of conjunction with God. Such thought should be free.

given by the Lord in His Second Coming. which is opened in childhood and youth. It is the celestial delight of the angels which flows in and causes the delight of the infants. to the intent that whilst they are in holy delight arising from the historical sense. their attendant angels may be in the sanctity of the internal sense. and so written. but historically delivered. that all and single things therein contain in them things Divine. being affected from the Lord with the internal sense. CHAPTER XXIII CHILDREN AND THE YOUNG The internal sense of the Word." (A. consequently with those things which the historicals represent and signify. "These are the arcana contained in this and in the subsequent relation. and by children (pueros) are meant the same from seven to about fourteen years of age. In order that this first state may be the state of infancy and childhood of those about to be regenerated-the historicals of the Word were given. C.) The historical relation referred to in this passage is the story of Laban and Jacob. but still they are serviceable to infants and children. the attendant angels are in a delighted celestial state. We propose now to enter into a consideration of this subject. This is indeed the prime use performed by means of the historicals of the Word which is clearly brought out in the following number: "All the historicals of the Word are truths more remote from essential Divine doctrinals. Whilst infants are reading them and are affected by them from innocence. in such passages as the following: "The historical parts are given so that infants and children may be initiated thereby into the reading of the Word. which communication is grateful." (A. in order to introduce them into the interior doctrinals of truth and good by degrees. this is the reason that the historical Word is given. From the fourteenth year to manhood is the period of youth.) . Hence the literal sense of the Word has been given for the religious instruction of children and the young. Let us examine the evidence of the Writings on this important subject. and at length to the essential Divine doctrinals. is a revelation to the rational mind.introduction to the same spiritual things. but the literal sense is for the sensual and natural mind. because they are in a state of innocence and mutual charity. C. 6333. that the Word may be read with delight even by children and the simple. and the view is given us here of a much larger use than that of implanting remains in children-a use to the angels in heaven. and for adults who are in states similar to that of childhood and youth. We are taught that the historical portions of the Word especially have been provided for children.) It may be well to explain that by infants in the Writings are meant little children from birth to about seven years of age. for the historical parts are delightful and gain a place in their minds. 3690. 3982. for within them in their inmost is the Divine. Such stories as these in the Word delight children. which is opened or may be opened in adult life." (A. whereby communication is thus given them with the heavens. C.

. the attendant angels think of the Divine things which they represent and signify. who at first do not go beyond it. T. even the historical. .) In this number what is said in the Word about paradise and the tabernacle is referred to as illustrating the kind of knowledges meant. Reading to them comes in naturally and properly at a later period. and the simple. Yet in that sense truths he hid that are seen by none except those who are in good. But the Word is to be expounded on all planes. When these knowledges are known and thought of by an infant child. C. and are in this manner preserved before there is writing or printing. but is given only by oral communication. E. Esau is the firstborn and not Jacob. even though we have the written Word. 3665. and not told in language of interpretation and exposition. even as we tell them other stories before we read to them. Hence the telling of stories precedes the reading of them. is to accommodate the Word according to the capacity of reception with those who are taught. For the idea of God should be insinuated into the mind of the child as early as it is possible for it to be done. . Concerning the statement frequently made in the Old Testament that Jehovah repents. we are told: "It is so said in the Word concerning Jehovah. ." (A. There is no nation where such stories are not found. C. 384. on account of a reverence for the Word. . and seem to have been originally intended as explanations of the representatives. read aloud from a book. and thus accommodated to the states that are to receive it.) In this number and elsewhere in the Writings. as well as for children. are in general such as are contained in the historical parts of the Word." (A. from one generation to another. the simple are spoken of as being in a state similar to that of children. . and fables and folk tales have come into existence. A function of the parent in the home. C. 10441. for it is for the most simple. 21. way we are to begin. 693). . since love to God precedes even in time love to the neighbor.) The indication is given here and in the other numbers quoted. and those who are in evil see falsities." (A. They in fact had their rise in the representatives of the ancient Word. They are handed down from father to son. for the sense of the letter is adapted to the apprehension of little children. 20. "The sense of the letter of the Word is such that those who are in good see truths in it. and later still the reading to themselves of the same stories.We read further: "The knowledges of external or corporeal truth . (S. S. wherefore the Word in the letter is to be understood otherwise by those who are become wiser. even before he can read the Word for himself or listen to a connected and consecutive reading. There are many such in the Christian world and vast numbers among the Gentiles. In this. youths. as of the priest in the church. The first thing is to tell the stories of the Word to little children. and story books in great number. and have a kindred use. and is therefore according to appearance. Some New Church parents. For such stories are similar to the stories of the Word. or as soon as the child is able to hear and be delighted with the stories of the Word. that a life truly religious is to begin in the period of infancy. but the latter and the former are also in things most external from which they commence. such as are with infant children . . R. For these. and for infants. those who are in evil not wishing to see them. In certain races a story is never. and into which afterwards their interiors close. the historicals of the Word have been given. have thought that the stories in it should be read strictly and literally as they stand. because the sense of the letter is from such things as appear to man.

and also for the very simple. 627. the simple among adults in the Christian world. Hence for them. when he 'is teaching. E. he sets forth everything in accordance with their genius. number 3507. although he himself thinks from what is more interior or higher. Since the sensual degree is the only plane as yet opened in little children.) Although children are not mentioned we may take it for granted that they are understood.The number which follows bears directly on this point: After the Word itself is spoken of as having been accommodated to the comprehension of man. The evil. and the simple among the Gentiles.) We shall speak in a later chapter on the distinction between the sensual and the natural truth of the Word." (A. not speaking to them at first from their angelic wisdom. constitute this sensual degree. is such as is Divine truth in the sense of the letter of the Word. is said that "angelic ideas are spiritual. all of whom are sensual. yea. are celestial. Much can be learned concerning the state of children by reading the numerous passages where the simple are treated of. That the historical portion especially is the sensual of the Word. both the simple and children are in the sensual degree. and for the very simple. for those who are initiated into the exterior truths of faith. which is the good of simple obedience. and of little children. and constitutes their intelligence and science. where it. since it is according to the appearance before the sensual man. according to the fallacies of the senses. and when derived from things historical. being made up of things that appear to the senses. who are sensual. These Divine truths are in the Word in the order of their degrees. or in the ultimate of order. as in the following passage: "The literal sense of the Word is for the simple. which is for infants. or like casting seed upon a rock. C. because they are in what is called in the Writings simple-good. on account of the similarity of state. especially the worst of them." (A. and for those who do not comprehend interior things. for then the simple would comprehend nothing at all." The Word in this manner is accommodated to the apprehension of the most simple among men. that He . and when they go more interiorly. In fact there are three general classes of the simple. are also in the sensual. and Divine truth in the ultimate degree. we observe that in the Writings they are frequently spoken of without the mention of children. In regard to the simple. as that the Lord is angry. All things in it. C." (A. but human ideas are natural. 9025. is clearly indicated in Arcana Coelestia. are sensual. it is said: "Many things in the Word are spoken according to appearances. otherwise it would be teaching what would not be learnt. but with them it is a sensual that is perverted and altogether negative. We read also: "Divine truth of the fourth degree is that which comes to the perception of men of the church who are living in the world. children. In the passage last quoted the lowest or most ultimate plane of the Word in the literal sense is spoken of as the sensual degree or the Divine sensual of the Word. but they are in a sensual that is affirmative. they are in appearances of truth. and cannot as yet be in any other. this is called natural Divine truth. we are told that "the case herein is the same as it is with a parent who is teaching his little boys and girls. 2533. and live on the plane of the literal sense of the Word. that He punishes. and its ultimate is called sensual Divine truth.) Then we are told that the angels teach the simple in heart in like manner. thus according to the apprehension.

24)-is also the beginning of the New Church with every man in his childhood. for this would be hurtful to their simple state of faith. C. 1408. Such faith. 10028. W. Let us always remember that "appearances are the first things from which the human mind forms its understanding. E. when nevertheless in the internal sense it is quite the contrary. 2395.) The one thing needful. is for parents to inspire a life of charity both by precept and by example. they are in what is called in the Writings historical faith. or the sensual degree of the Word-in particular its historical portion-has been given for children. The literal sense thus serves the use with them of introduction to the internal sense. and we learn that "there must always be this historical faith before it becomes saving faith". that He kills. When this is done appearances do no harm. Later in life when the higher planes of the mind are opened. 40. The teaching is therefore distinct and clear that the literal sense. this is not hurtful. it is necessary to know that they are associated with the angels of the first or ultimate heaven. It is called persuasive faith. still less can He curse and kill.) Hence "there is no harm in believing the sense of the letter. nor should they be told that appearances in the Word are not true. and living according to them. provided they live in charity. 815. having been the beginning of the Christian church-for "the Christians in the primitive church were very simple men" (S. as a child to his parent. for that heaven is the heaven of the simple and children. although the internal sense teaches otherwise. L. In order to understand fully the state of children. This is in order that historical faith may be implanted." (D. provided it be done in simplicity of heart. and many more things of a like nature. they can be taught the genuine truth. for as was said.) This faith.) It is therefore not injurious for little children to believe in appearances." (A. becomes hurtful when it is confirmed. the sensual is the only plane as yet opened in them." (A. also all infants and children.even in the historical portion are simple truths that perform this introductory use. which is the faith of another received and adopted because of confidence in him or obedience to him." We read further that "a miraculous faith is the first faith with those among whom a new church is to be established". and that "this is the reason why the miracles performed by the Lord are described and preached. For in all parts of Scripture .curses. that the Lord cannot possibly be angry and punish. and "historical faith becomes saving by learning truths from the Word. especially those which treat of the manifestations of Divine Power such as the miracles of the Old and New Testaments. which is the first and the beginning of all faith. Hence the term persuasive faith is used mostly in an evil sense in the Writings. . But it is the beginning of faith with children. and for others like them. as we learn from Arcana Coelestia. All the simple good are taken there when they die. also that the "first faith of all is a historical faith". number 1408 quoted above. however. to those who from simplicity of heart believe the Word as they comprehend it in the letter. or to intelligence and wisdom. namely. and they should be allowed to remain until the sensual stage of life is passed. a faith founded on the stories of the Word. However. since in this early stage of life they cannot do otherwise. The first heaven is formed by means of the literal sense of the Word. On account of this state of children and the simple. S. C." (A.

is so we shall see later. C. there is. or what is essentially the same. In order that man in the three periods of his early life may be instructed in forms adapted to his comprehension. as we have intimated. or if we study the literal sense of the Word we shall learn much concerning both. inasmuch as the ideas of the former are procured from the latter. This is the order when there is a full development of life in a series from. its literal sense is what unites man with the first heaven. it follows that there must be a threefold division of the literal sense of the Word answering to the three successive periods of child life. and finally as an adult. from these afterwards may be learned and comprehended truths still more interior which are called doctrinal truths. given of the Lord to man. and scientific truths are those in which the same children are as they grow up. for no. young children are meant. That this. for the Word is the medium for uniting the earth with heaven. C. When it is said therefore that the historicals of the Word are for children.) The internal sense follows for the adult. afterwards as a youth. by means of the Word in its literal sense. those who are as yet in the earlier stages of life. In another order the teaching is as follows: "Sensual truths are those in which children are. thus for children and the young. Hence we read that "the Word was. . the innocence of ignorance to the innocence of wisdom. by its spiritual moral sense. This would include all those who have not reached adult age. it follows that the rest of the literal sense of the Word is for children as they grow older. and doctrinal. by the truth of the internal sense of the Word. he is led by the Lord first as an infant. that by it they may be present with Him. a threefold division of the literal sense of the Word which is distinctly stated as follows: "The literal sense of the Word is threefold namely. C. or for those in whom the rational mind has been opened. and by heaven with the Lord." (A. Concerning the three periods of the early life of man we learn that "when man is being regenerated. 3432. each of which is such that it can be apprehended even by those who are in externals. And since there are three periods of life previous to adult age. or are in the first heaven as to their spirits.) These are the four general periods of the life of man in this world. Now since the literal sense of the Word as a whole is for all who are still in sensual and natural states. C. one can be in scientific truths. 3665. and since the historical portions are for little children. But our interest here is with the children and the young in the New Church who may be prepared by means of the literal sense to become rational New Churchmen in adult life. and in adult life he is led. in the age of youth he is led by means of that portion of the literal sense that is called doctrinal. thus for all those in whom the rational plane has not yet been opened. and if we study the state of that heaven we shall learn much concerning the interior mental state of children. or the doctrine of genuine truth." (A. We have seen that the first step in this preparation is made by means of the historical portion of the Word in early childhood. then as a child. and also to the angels.) Children are present with the Lord. prophetical. 3309." (A." (A. in the age of childhood he is led by means of the internal historical sense of the Word. and very many in adult life among Christians and Gentiles. historical. It is clear therefore that the literal sense has been provided for all who are in sensual and natural states. especially its historical portion. 3476.in which the simple and children are. In the age of infancy he is led by the Lord by means of the literal sense of the Word in its sensual degree. unless he be first in sensual truths.

630. the Psalms. 435. 4279. and this is the internal truth of all history. 1024). 4279. C. These books of the Word answer to the second period. The second portion of the literal sense in the ascending scale is the prophetical. and also a threefold division of the literal sense of the Word. the latter being the final book of prophecy. or moral truth. or spiritual moral truth. 8818. 4690. or that period which begins with the age of puberty and extends. but as this sense is in essence the spiritual moral sense of the Word. to the young and the simple. In these two numbers scientific truth takes the place of the prophetical portion of the literal sense mentioned in Arcana Coelestia. at first sensual. It is the spiritual moral state of the Jewish nation that is specifically treated of in the internal historical sense.3310. is for young children. 2235. Concerning the internal historical sense we are told that it is "the internal sense determined to the nation which is there named. number 3432. 1012. See also 4280. For the literal sense is the Divine Natural of the Lord. E. and the Book of Revelation. and the proximate sense. It is elsewhere in the Writings called the spiritual natural sense (A. In this period children are ready to enter into the internal historical sense of the Word. 8588. All who are spiritual . This sense is veiled in the historical portion but comes out and is expressed manifestly in the Prophets. answers to the doctrinal portion of the literal sense of the Word. 4988. considered in a general way. as it is that sense of the Word which is accommodated to the natural heaven-the heaven of children and the young-and which forms that heaven. It is what we usually mean by philosophical truth. the sensual and the doctrinal. C. This sense under its various designations is always spoken of as being the sense of the Word that is accommodated to the natural heaven. it includes far more than the state of the Jews in their worship. 5008. in which the scientific or natural plane of the mind is opened. 3310. and doctrinal truth. and hence to children. 2166. fact it may be said that the Prophets are in general a revelation of the internal historical sense of the Word. 9407. and the first and third terms are the same in both series. In. numbers 3309. 4306-4317. the period of childhood answers to the prophetical portion of the Word.) This sense of the Word is also called the spiritual moral sense (A. then natural. 7245. and man is made in His image. We have stated that the historical portion or sensual degree of the Word. Another threefold order which is given in Arcana Coelestia. 1061. as that given in the prophetical portion of the Word. 1066. or that the natural mind answers to the literal sense of the Word. Thus the mind of man answers to all the planes of the Word. (A. which includes the Prophets. and finally rational. who are by that sense associated in spirit with the angels of that heaven. in whom the sensual plane only is opened. 4290-4293. scientific truth. Scientific truth is thus the same." (A. preparatory to becoming spiritual and at length celestial. the period of infancy to the historical portion. 4459. to the beginning of adult life.) The numbers quoted above show therefore that there is a threefold division of the early life of man. as distinguished from the sensual. or to the sensual degree of the Word. and the period of youth. is sensual truth. A. 1104). would follow as a legitimate conclusion. C. 4690). for history is on the plane of sensual truth. E. 4430. called childhood. That these two agree.

" (A. This sense is veiled in the historical portion of the Old Testament. and the truth concerning love truly conjugial is still further insinuated when the teaching is presented from the Writings. of His love. Isaac and Ishmael. simple good among Christians and Gentiles. and that all men should acknowledge and worship Him. 6023). even in the historical portions of the Word. and abundant opportunity is afforded for this when the mind of the teacher has been instructed and enlightened by a study of the Writings. may be insinuated by means of the literal sense anywhere. "He was gathered to his people. In this manner the teaching will be carried into effect concerning the initiation of truth into scientifics (A. and that application of it called the internal historical sense. 6004. It is for this reason that more of doctrine appears -in the Prophets than in the historical portions of the Word. the meaning is that by marriage they become one man. It is clear that the spiritual moral sense. The spiritual sense appearing in the Prophets takes the form of teaching that there is one God. that "a man shall leave his father and his mother. that a married pair in heaven are not called two but one angel (H. "The internal sense appears less in the historical parts than in the prophetical.moral. and very obscurely in the historical portion of the Old Testament. Let us take as another example the statement concerning Abraham when he died.appears obscurely in the Prophets. That the historicals of the Word are the farthest removed from Divine doctrinals is clearly shown in Arcana Coelestia. in the same number that the prophetical portion is not understood by man except obscurely. C. however. and for all who are in a state of preparation for the opening of the rational. but less than in the Gospel or doctrinal portions. 372). The doctrinal sense of the letter of the Word-that sense which is provided for the young after the age of puberty. Let us take as an example the statement in the historical narration concerning Adam and his wife (Gen. contains much of genuine doctrine. and much concerning the Lord and His coming and the way to conjunction with Him. H. and shall cleave unto his wife. and when seen at a distance appear as one. but it appears. 156). and power. but it comes out and is expressed clearly in the Gospels. More of the internal sense appears in the Prophets. of the necessity of obedience to Him. however. otherwise it would not be called spiritual. but clearly by the angels when read by man. and doubtless will not be forgotten. in both of which the state of the Jewish and of Gentile nations manifestly appears. Thus an idea of the eternity of marriage is joined to a natural idea of it in the mind of the child or young person. angels of the natural heaven. In the book of Revelation the internal historical sense treats of the spiritual moral state of the nations of the Christian world. But since in a broad sense by flesh in the Word is meant man (C. buried him in the cave of . Much is said of the advent of the Lord. and many things concerning His kingdom and church. 6333. Hence the above teaching is to be understood in a relative sense. 367. of the need of regeneration and a new life. C. children and the young-all are involved in the spiritual moral sense of the Word. ii: 18-25). than in the historical portions." The scientific or natural truth in the last clause is that the two by marriage become one flesh. number 3690. that He is the Creator of all things and the Redeemer of mankind. in the Prophets and also in the Gospels.) It is said. L. Doctrinal truth. because the historical parts are written in another style. nevertheless by significatives. for it is the idea of the Lord and life from Him that makes all truth spiritual. as was said. as we read. and they shall be one flesh. mercy. even moral and natural truth. and his sons.

and can be joined to a natural idea in the letter. There should be men and women. but does not appear plainly in the historical portion. and doctrinal. given by Divine provision to prepare them for entrance into the spiritual sense in adult life. who should be taken through the entire letter of the Word before adult age is reached. fourteen. third. answering to the three divisions of the literal sense of the Word. and contribute to a renewal of thought when he begins to think for himself. xlix: 33). that the literal sense of the Word is threefold.9. All this points in the direction of a general course of religious instruction extending from the earliest years to adult age." ** The division of the early life of man into three periods of years as indicated in the numbers seven. prophetical. learned and acquired. in preparation for his introduction to the spiritual sense in the full maturity of his powers. in the Prophets and still more clearly in the Gospels. and the doctrinal portion in the age of youth. * See a collection of numbers on this subject in the first chapter on "The Text. the prophetical portion in the age of childhood." (Gen. We are aware of Swedenborg's thorough study of the Word in its literal sense through a long period of time.* second. nor is it necessary that all teachers of religion to children should be ordained. that will remain to adult age. * A similar thing is said of Isaac (Gen. scientific. The literal sense has been given that it may be read and studied. for instance. we have before us three fundamental facts essential to the understanding of the subject: first. But they should receive a complete course of preparation for their work by a thorough study of the literal sense and of genuine doctrine.Machpelah. Hence the spiritual truth that man continues to live after the death of the body is insinuated into a purely natural scientific of the literal sense. xxv: 8. But it can be made to appear. that the literal sense of the Word is given for the instruction of children and the young. by a teacher who is informed and enlightened. of old were not inaugurated by the laying on of hands. For there should be in the New Church both priest and prophet. A similar work should be done in the New Church.** It is the one text book for the religious instruction of the young. Thus doctrinal truth is present everywhere in the Word. that there are three general periods of the life of man before adult age. is that Abraham was laid in the grave and buried. and twenty-one. beginning with children and the young. however. from first to last. In this manner there can be implanted in the mind of the child a spiritual truth in objective form. . and the time to do the beginning of this work and to go over the ground in general is in early life. and doctrinal. the historical portion in the age of infancy. A more rational study of it in the light of doctrine revealed may follow later in life. and thoroughly trained by an exhaustive study of the literal sense for this work of teaching children. historical. as there is much variation in the states of children. The prophets. should not be applied too strictly. XXXV: 29) and of Jacob (Gen. In considering therefore the religious instruction of 'man in his early life.)* The external or apparent truth. and that Abraham had now gone to them. versed in doctrine. But the spiritual idea is that by his people are meant those who went before him into the spiritual world. and the merely natural man thinks of nothing else. or natural scientific here. It is seen. a course that would include the entire literal sense of the Word. instruction in the historical portion might extend beyond seven years of age. or sensual.

and thus as a means of introduction to the spiritual sense of the Word. but abstract truth is reserved for the feeding of the rational or spiritual mind in adult age. They thus constitute a part of the spiritual natural or internal historical sense of the Word. it is easy to suggest that the angelic societies appear and are arranged like cities an earth. who are in ignorance of genuine truths. for there is no place in the literal sense where the memorabilia may not be introduced. But the abstract truth of the spiritual sense. They contain as much of the spiritual sense as the mind of the child is able to comprehend and appropriate. in the way of spiritual fact and law or interior spiritual truth. cannot be given by the teacher or received by the pupil before the rational mind begins to be opened. something that will appeal to the imagination of children. They express in an objective or spiritual historical form not only the phenomena of the other world. the thought can be directed to the concrete fact that the world of spirits is the gate and way to heaven. but also the general truths of doctrine.The teacher will thus be able to impart a knowledge of the letter in the light of the spiritual sense. and thus accommodate it. What we have just said suggests the use of the memorabilia as a means of conveying to the imagination of children the facts of the other world. For instance. or to the interior abstract truth of the Word. or when the words gate and way occur. 534). The objective realities of the other world can always be introduced. the opportunity for doing this is ever at hand in the literal sense of the Word. 14. suitable to the youthful mind. But the spiritual sense itself cannot be given to children except in a concrete form. The memorabilia have been given as a means of entrance to the spiritual sense. . and thus is giving all that is necessary for them to know. all that is possible for their young minds as yet to grasp. either expressed or understood. but more magnificent.* * The abstract truth frequently present in the memorabilia is of course beyond the comprehension of children. In each case the parent or teacher must decide whether to read it to the child. H. There is hardly a word or phrase in the literal sense that may not be used to suggest something objective of the other world. Hence being in their form spiritual historical they perform a use answering to the use of the historical portion of the literal sense. There is indeed hardly a word in the literal sense that may not suggest some concrete reality of the other world. They contain the doctrine of genuine truth as taught to newly arrived spirits. and the objective realities of the life to come. preparatory for the time when the rational mind can be fed by the interior forms of abstract truth. for these fundamental ideas are everywhere. When this is done the teacher is giving the spiritual sense to children in an ultimate form. or when the word house occurs the youthful mind can easily be led to the thought that the angels live in houses similar to those on earth. when the word city occurs. all that is possible for them to imbibe. or tell it in the form of a story. as in Matthew vii: 13. which loves and takes delight in concrete images of truth. and also to hell (H. The teacher should always be ready to insinuate into the minds of children the objective idea of God as a Divine Man. the internal or subjective of the other world. insinuating in a pictorial manner the afore-mentioned genuine truth. Truth in concrete forms is the food of the natural mind in childhood and youth. The literal text of Scripture can always be used as a means of introducing from the Writings all that is necessary for children to know. For at this period the imagination is active and is fed by sensuous images.

416). we have a clear indication of a course of religious instruction for the young that will in some way include the entire literal sense of the Word. for they set forth the objective realities of the spiritual world. 67. the correspondence or spiritual signification of any word appears as we pass from one passage to another containing it." (A.* For.. for it presents a view of the spiritual sense in a general and objective form. This may be left to those actually engaged in the work. Another suggestion is an introductory study of correspondences beginning with a comparison of passages. It would be both an ending and a beginning. making use of such works as The Heavenly Doctrine and The Four Doctrines. 410).. * Documents Concerning the Life and Character of Emanuel Swedenborg. C. L. add two or three suggestions of what may be done at the end of such a course. At the close of a course in the literal sense of the Word it would indeed seem fitting to take up for systematic study subjects that are introductory to the spiritual sense. and youth.) That the internal sense could not have been revealed to him unless it had been granted to him "to have consort with angels and to speak spiritually with them.That the objective phenomena of the spiritual world are in intimate relation with the literal sense of the Word and perform a similar use. We might. 11. such as the two mentioned. however. Ph. both introductory to the spiritual sense. 200. childhood. that is. a closing of what has been and a preparation for what is to come.D. 42. 55 and S. This will be of value to young people and will appeal to them. We are also distinctly taught that it is essential to know what is in the spiritual world in order to understand the internal sense (A. He says: That the internal sense was made known to him. outline in particular a course of instruction in the literal sense of the Word for children and young people. by taking a word and following it from one passage to another." (L. E. E. 38 See also Inv. In so doing he will soon come upon a verse containing the word he is studying that will give some suggestion of the spiritual sense. A. J. 503). in the three corresponding periods of infancy." (Inv. the doctrine of genuine truth.* and this we may be sure is because of their introductory use. Tafel.) He was also commanded to include the memorabilia in the Writings (Docu.) And that "in order that the true Christian religion might be manifested it was necessary that some one should be introduced into the spiritual world and derive from the mouth of the Lord genuine truths from the Word. D. These suggestions may be carried out in the last year of school life in the New Church. is shown by the teaching that the literal sense is for the most part derived from the appearances of the spiritual world (A. and it again gives to the teacher opportunity . C. and contain as we have said. Collected by R. and doctrine and.M. It is not our intention to. We have wished merely to point out that in the three grand divisions of the literal sense-history. Anyone will find this confirmed by making the experiment. 6663). The first suggestion is a study of the memorabilia. and that a knowledge of the memorabilia is necessary to the same end (A. as has been shown. prophecy. Some special instruction in the doctrine of genuine truth itself might at the same time be given. It was also fundamental to the preparation of Swedenborg that as to his spirit he should be introduced into the spiritual world which was done in the course of his studies of the literal sense-before he was ready to enter into the spiritual sense of the Word and become the medium of revealing it to men. which could never have been done "unless the nature of the things in the other world had been made known.

withholding the abstract sense. and it would prove a practical way of opening up the subject of correspondences. we have confined ourselves to the concrete spiritual sense. treating of the opening of the fifth sea]. which is said to be under the altar. third. It will be observed that in searching for and presenting the spiritual sense of the dry bones and of the slain. and is introductory to it. second. but who were elevated and introduced by the Lord into heaven after the last judgment was performed. The former and not the latter should be given at first to young people.to introduce something from the memorabilia. passing from one parallel passage to another. we finally have come to Revelation vi : 9-11. and the teaching concerning those in it who had been kept out of heaven by the evil. History and Law. and that we wish to know and to impart what is meant by the bones of these slain. and of showing that the Word has a spiritual sense. These after death are said to be under the altar. is not confined to the disciples and the martyrs. to the class of persons meant by those terms. that is. "I saw under the altar the souls of them that were slain for the Word of God. Thus the scene is transferred to the spiritual world. * If the teacher desired it. by which is meant heaven as we see from Revelation xvi: 7. The prominent idea in the passage is that they were the bones of certain ones who had been slain. however.* These then are the ones meant by the dry bones and by the souls under the altar. the subject of the lower earth could be developed from the literal sense of the Word. and for the testimony which they held. xxiv: 9. but it would be of use to lead them to see it from the literal sense itself. in illustration of which we have spoken above. Almost any word or phrase could be treated in the same manner as above. the reference in Revelation vi:9. but includes all who have been persecuted in this world and in the. The spiritual sense. For example. the law is a part of the history. In the first. * We have suggested elsewhere that comparison. or to introduce arcana of the spiritual world. The abstract spiritual sense of words should follow at a later stage. is to the disciples and other early Christian martyrs who suffered death on account of bearing witness to the truth. and not be given at this period except I perhaps in a most general way. the Gospels and Revelation. precedes correspondence. Now let us suppose that in our work of comparison. We would call attention to a twofold division of the three grand departments of the literal sense of the Word: first. the Psalms and the Prophets. It also would afford opportunity to introduce interesting and valuable particulars concerning the arcana of the spiritual world. wherein John says. where an angel is said to come out of the altar. and under the altar means under heaven. or when the rational is more fully opened. other on account of faith in the Lord and a life according to His commandments. let us suppose that we have as a lesson Ezekiel xxxvii: 1-4. John xvi: 2)." Now as the Lord told His disciples that they would be slain for His name's sake (Matt. Having gone thus far in the comparison it now becomes necessary for the teacher to introduce from the memorabilia of the other world the teaching concerning the lower earth. We of course could tell the class direct from the Writings what these things signify. and then from the Doctrine. but it is the . in the historical sense. treating of the dry bones seen in a vision in the midst of the valley.

therefore. namely. but it can be done if the teacher avoids going into particulars as the work proceeds. 26. though the actual entrance itself is effected by the three things quoted in the introductory chapter from De Verbo. No one in the course of a lifetime can compass or measure it. but one carefully digested and matured. It is worthy of a serious trial. a knowledge of correspondences. to which sufficient time has been given. numbers 25. It is to meet such a need that the principles of exposition have been given. and the teacher become lost in a sea of particulars. as are the things of . For they are the generals of the literal sense that contain in themselves by correspondence the generals of the internal sense. Treated historically the law of Moses can be made interesting to the children. a distinction between the Gospel and Revelation is manifest. that they are essential aids in analyzing the literal sense so that lessons from it may be prepared. The things pointed out by the rules as being in the literal sense are those which are to be kept in mind and emphasized in the lesson. The literal sense of the Word is like a vast sea to which there is no visible limit or boundary. Such a thing is not within human reach. What we wish now to show is that the rules of exposition have a value for this purpose alone. for the operation of those three essentials in the opening of the Word. These latter are for the minister in his work of expounding the internal sense of the Word. is sure to succeed in the hands of a teacher who loves the work. We propose. preparatory to entrance into the internal sense of the Word. a thorough analysis of any given chapter of the Word is necessary for an efficient performance of this work. In the second.. even though it involves a repetition of some things already said. But the faculty of generalization is given to men. and it is possible to develop a rational and logical plan-keeping to generals. and a state of illustration from the Lord. 'Die rules are intended for the purpose of clearing the ground and preparing the way by a thorough analysis of the literal sense. and The Sacred Scripture. Now although the law of correspondence is too abstract for children to grasp. It may appear like a great undertaking to include the entire literal sense of the Word in a plan of religious instruction. but the literal sense itself should be analyzed and understood in order that ministers and all teachers of religion to children may be prepared for the work which is given them to do. the doctrine of genuine truth. In the third. CHAPTER XXIV ANALYSIS OF THE LITERAL SENSE Since the literal sense has been provided for the sake of the religious instruction of children and the young. We have frequently called attention to the need of understanding the literal sense. the Psalms are prophecy but they are also songs. and should receive a distinctive treatment. to devote a chapter to this analysis. A hastily prepared plan might fail.history developed and applied and introduces the question of organization. number 21. But there should be thoughtful and serious preparation as in the accomplishment of every great work. and of all in similar states. and imparted to the youthful mind.

is also by correspondence first in the series of the internal sense and reigns throughout in that sense. or the universal of the chapter. in this chapter. garden in Genesis ii. the prime and universal of the first chapter of Genesis. to show how the rules may be used in furtherance of the purpose for which the literal sense is given. See the chapter on "The First Thing Said. number 8864. viii. THE GENERAL SENSE OF THE LETTER The first thing in the analysis of a chapter of the Word is to find the general subject or the leading idea in the literal sense. and it should be kept in mind all through the. This principle is not always clear at first glance in application to the literal sense of any given chapter. if a complete analysis is desired. in the order arranged in the preceding pages. serpent in Genesis iii. especially the generals thereof. THE FIRST THING SAID We learn from Arcana Coelestia. Thus what is general in the letter is by correspondence a door of entrance into the interiors of the Word. though the idea of the creation of heaven is present as understood and prior in all the. is concerning the creation of heaven and earth. For that which is first in the series of the literal sense. similar representatives that remain to us in mythology and folklore are of value for comparison and illustration. The first step in the preparation of a lesson should be to find this general subject. that the first thing said by the Lord in any series of the Word reigns in what follows.* * In teaching the correspondences of the literal sense. This law therefore becomes an essential principle of interpretation in the study of the Sacred Scripture. for instance. or things that correspond. but a close and discriminating view will serve to bring out the distinction. but in Genesis xxiv betrothal is the subject although the word itself does not occur. We propose therefore. The subject of a chapter is usually indicated in the leading word used. the first thing said. still it is essential to teach the things in the letter that are correspondences. but a close examination will bring it to light. The teacher therefore should carefully distinguish between the general of the chapter and its universal. We may teach correspondences. This is the general subject of the chapter. See the chapter on "The General Sense of the Letter. reigning thereby throughout in that sense. verses that follow. except those things of the spiritual world which are objective and concrete. both in its literal sense and in its spiritual sense. but the series that follows treats of the creation of the earth. taking them up." THE LAST THING SAID . as create in Genesis i. Confusion may arise because sometimes the first thing said. and flood in Genesis vi. and what pertains to the earth.the internal sense which correspond to those in the letter. may appear to be identical with the general subject of the literal sense. being universal therein. for that which is the subject of the literal sense contains by correspondence the subject or general idea of the spiritual sense." * * The summaries placed by the translators at the heads of chapters are of assistance in obtaining the generals of the literal sense. but not yet the things to which they correspond. preparation and in teaching the class. vii.

C. intention. Hence we find at the close of chapter xi his family moving towards that land. but also the one which follows. some sixty. THE PRECEDING SERIES The teacher should not fail to note the preceding chapter or group." The end which is in the seed thus appears in the last which is the fruit. See Chapter V on this point. and some thirty. We would here call attention to what was said in Chapter V on the use of the particle and as indicating such a connection between a chapter of the Word and the one that precedes it. for every series enters into and modifies that which follows. not any passage or verse that does not connect both in its language and sense with what precedes and what follows. and purpose of producing fruits. At first we are told that the sower goes forth to sow. and a knowledge of this modification is essential to a full understanding of any given passage of Scripture. It is indeed a law of all progression in a series. or as the end which is in the will through truths in the understanding to the actions of the body. closing in them. 374). An examination of the previous chapter in verses 1-9 gives us the reason for the call of Abram. exhibiting the reason why Abram was called and commanded to go to the land of Canaan. purpose in chapter xi thus appears at the close and reappears at the opening of chapter xii. which was established with Abram and his descendants in the land of Canaan. It is also to be noted that the end passes to its close through means. An example is afforded us in the parable of the sower. and also the illustrations there given. In this trinal or human form is the Word and every work of creation. It is especially important to observe the application of this law to the beginning of any given series. and at the close we are told that the seed having grown into a plant brings forth fruit. especially its close. because the people in consequence of building the tower of Babel were scattered abroad upon the face of all the earth. This has been fully shown and illustrated in the fourth chapter of this work. "some an hundred fold. and indicating that chapter xi should be examined in order to see what modification it introduces. manifestly connecting with the preceding chapter. namely. to which one example of its working may be added here. even as historical events cast a light backward upon a given . or in the spiritual sense because the ancient church was vastated by the love of dominion and a new representative church became necessary. and opens with and translated now. The end or. Chapter xii of Genesis begins with the call of Abram." (T. THE FOLLOWING SERIES Not only the chapter which precedes should be read and considered. It was also shown that both what precedes and what follows is present in the first and leading idea of any given chapter. the Word. applicable to every existing form. The teacher should keep in view the end or purpose of the chapter as revealed in its close. We have previously explained that the Word at any given point looks backward as well as forward. The same law may be seen as operative in every chapter or group in the Word. R. This is a principle that may be applied also to the interpretation of the laws of nature. even as "in the seed is concealed the end. There is not anything in. the fruits or effects appearing in the close of the series.The first of a series closes in its last and appears therein. as the seed through the plant.

Names. The name is indeed the Lord Himself appearing in the series under the image of a Man. There is hardly a chapter where there is not one or more names of persons. noting especially that such persons are distinguished above others as leaders of men.event and also forward upon those which follow. and as representatives of the Lord. Explain that a name is that by which a person is known. priest. Speak of the ancient custom in giving names. Point out to the children that in every chapter there is a person speaking-which is sometimes the Lord. which he carries through life. the names of the Lord. especially. but the evil disobey the Lord and lead people away from Him. There are also words indicating titles and functions that involve names. a person or persons spoken to. especially the names of the Lord. Solomon. and others. There is always one name that is more prominent than the others. and that every man receives a new name after death when he enters an angelic society. and the meanings as given in their roots. for children are interested in persons. The fact that there are three kinds of proper names in the Word should also be impressed on the children. and a person or thing spoken of. our Lord Jesus Christ. as a good name. as Moses. a bad name. as king. This is pre-eminently true with respect to the names of the Lord. prince. Do not pass by a lesson of Scripture without noting the names mentioned in the chapter. the names of persons. is because of their importance as representing leading ideas of the spiritual sense. See Chapter VI on this subject. See the chapters on names in the Word. Call attention to the fact that there must always be such leaders who represent the Lord among men. an idea of prime importance to children in their early years. governor. the good leaders are obedient to the Lord and lead people to Him. The teacher will find that the application of this principle will often explain difficult passages. Tell them also of a wider sense in which name is used. but that all are names of the One only God. Mention also that every person receives a name shortly after birth when he is baptized. or something that suggests place. etc. appeal especially to children on account of the personality involved. for such names suggest the idea or image of Him as a Divine Person. Joshua. The reason why the names in a chapter chosen for a lesson should be emphasized. David. -suggesting that man is in His image. THE NAMES OF PLACES In every chapter of the Word a place is mentioned. or bring suggestions of value to the subject in hand. This gives an opportunity to bring in . and that men receive names because the Lord has names. to which the attention of the children should be called. as taught in the Writings. and the basis of all their future ideas of Him. the leading names. either expressed or understood. THE NAMES OF PERSONS Next in importance to the names of the Lord in any chapter of the Word are the names of persons. It should also be made plain to the children that the Lord has many names. and this should be pointed out to the children and the reasons for it given. THE NAMES OF THE LORD The attention of children should be called to the proper names in the Word. and that by which he is distinguished from every other person. and the names of places.

cannot be given to children. ether. It is the same with the number seven in the first three chapters. mineral." The appearance of such duality should occasionally be pointed out to the children as one of the . is one." DUALITY Since the Word in its spiritual sense is dual. good and truth. Hence there is scarcely a word of Scripture that does not have associated with it some idea of number. and where time is not mentioned in a verse or chapter it should be sought for in the context. Let us take the word city in the last two chapters of Revelation. TIME Place or space suggests time. and the letter of the Word everywhere is in the appearances of time and space. and animal. For instance. as we have shown in the chapter on "Duality in the Word. but in creation a division appears. the sun. Assyria. first into two and then into three. and is one of the important indications of the spiritual sense of any passage. love and wisdom. as expressed in the doctrinal terms celestial and spiritual. carry always the suggestion of historical events or geographical location. causing plants to grow. even when not mentioned. and ten and two are always involved when the commandments are mentioned. Maps should be freely used.. and the third is found in the effects of heat and light in the visible things of nature. This of course must be made concrete and objective to the child. The teacher should call attention to the number occurring in the lesson. It is there even though not openly expressed. still the idea and mention of time as a vessel containant of the spiritual sense. heat and light from it are two. Out of two and three all other numbers exist. For number is found wherever the idea of time and space is present. and mountains. since names such as Egypt. etc. In a larger view all things of the three kingdoms of nature. These should be noted in a chapter as connected with place. See further particulars in the chapter on "Number in the Word. also the names of rivers. for place bears a direct relation to space. we may expect it to appear dual in the literal sense. In Him all things are one. vegetable. etc. for time is always present in the literal sense of the Word even when it is not mentioned. See the chapter on "Time in the Word" for a fuller statement on this subject. two in proceeding from God. For older children abundant illustration can be found in the facts of chemical union. producing all the forms of motion. the sun.points both of history and geography. are involved in place. since the two are inseparable. The time when an event occurs should be noted by the teacher. The context shows that the number twelve is inseparably connected with it. NUMBER The idea of number in the Word begins in the conception of the one God. and other names of places. that it may be grasped by his imagination. heat. While this latter. and three in the ultimates of creation. should frequently be called to their attention as one of the essential scientifics of the literal sense. also a fourth kingdom called the elementary to which belong the wind. light. air. The calling forth of these numbers by questions will add an interesting feature to any lesson. as we have observed. Damascus.

especially in the Psalms and the Prophets. Children should be made familiar with this important law. which is Use. It is everywhere. Call the attention of the children to these signs and requirements of obedience wherever they are seen. as offspring in marriage. Draw the attention of the children to the truth that man himself and all nature was created into an image of this Duality and this Trinity in God. frequently expressed in the Writings. which is essential and universal in both worlds. AFFECTION Affection or love is the prime essential of the Word as it is of the human mind. and the same law is exhibited in all things of nature and in the human body. See the collection of numbers from the Writings on this subject in the chapter on "Duality in the Word. It was fully shown in the chapter on "The Trinity in the Word" that where duality is there also is trinality. since the two great commandments are everywhere. The affection of love is the prime motive power of all human society. A history of the covenant may at times be given. Truth is more readily seen than . or by some love of the will. There is a Duality in God Himself. Explain fully what a covenant is. and that the Lord always keeps His part of the covenant. that in all creation as in the Word there is never a two without a three. to do what the Lord commands. It is seen wherever the idea of obedience appears. that no man is saved unless he performs his part in the covenant by obedience to the commandments. TRINITY It is a significant fact. This Divine Trinity is one in the one Divine Person of our Lord Jesus Christ. constantly renewed in our hearts. Son. and proceeding from Him is the third. for it represents the conjunction of God with man and of man with God. The Trinity in God appears in all things of the Word. and at the same time the reasons for the continual renewal of it with the sons of Israel. This is more fully treated in the chapter on this subject. and Use. Make clear that the covenant begins with a promise. and signs of this action and reaction are found in every chapter and in every verse.great and essential facts of the Divine Word. THE COVENANT The Covenant appears in all parts of the Word even where it is not expressed in terms. because nature was created by the Word. and that the Lord came into the world for no other purpose than to give man the power to keep the covenant with Him. in the human body and in the form of the mind. and the reasons for it. nor any action of the body. that is not inspired by some affection of the mind. just as heat or the fire of the sun is the prime essential of nature. Wisdom." and the illustrations there given as drawn from the literal sense. and note that the ultimation of this law gives to the Word a poetical form. and Holy Spirit. and lead the children to see that it is in the lesson. that where there is duality there is also trinality in the Word and in the works of nature. Affection is not so easily discovered or brought to view as thought. and in all things of nature. or Love. for when two are joined together a third is produced as the effect of that conjunction. There is no word uttered. It is expressive of the reaction of man with God: God acts and man reacts. This trinity has its origin in the Divine Trinity of Father.

For instance if Genesis xiii is the lesson and we come to the expression in verse 10. as in all human speech and action. Let us also add that the lesson should not be made a burden or a task to them. The Lord spoke to the simple multitudes by comparisons. and we have endeavored to show in the chapter on this subject that it has a distinguished place in the study and teaching of the Word. it should be taught so as to inspire affection in children. To accomplish this the teacher should be in a state of affection or delight and thus in a state of inspiration. it may be accomplished by frequent recitation together in class. The Writings frequently call attention to the affection expressed in the words of Scripture. since the latter introduce us to the realm of abstract truth for which their simple minds are not prepared. A sense of freedom and consequent delight in the sacred story and prophecy should be cultivated and preserved. and the affection will be revealed. "the garden of the Lord. when it is said "the vineyard of the Lord of Hosts is the house of Israel. Let the teacher search for these in the passages of the Word." (Isa. Affection is sometimes spoken of as the motive or the purpose or end in any given action. Genesis ii and iii. still it can be done when there is time for close scrutiny and reflection. There are many examples of comparison in the Word that involve correspondence and prepare the way for it. and much use might be made of them in instructing children. natural or spiritual. for they can comprehend comparisons but not as yet correspondences." (Ezek. When it is desired that certain passages should be committed to memory. and much valuable material in this way can be obtained in elucidation of the lesson. as for instance. and it ought to be done from time to time especially when it is strikingly apparent in the literal sense. insinuating the idea of correspondence by means of them. Hence the teacher will frequently find it difficult to determine the ruling affection in any passage." read what is said of the garden of Eden in." It may be remarked that if affection is the prime thing of the Word. which is without relation to other truths.good. xxxvii : 11. xxxi: 8. of the garden of God in Ezekiel xxviii: 13. This is because it leads the way to the understanding and elucidation of correspondences. This will beget a sphere that cannot fail to reach and penetrate the minds of children. and which may not be brought into a brighter light by comparison. for there is an inspiring motive for what is said in the Word.) The use of comparing words and passages as an essential aid in finding the spiritual sense has been fully discussed in the chapter on Comparison. 9. But we would impress here its value for the understanding of the literal sense. in order that the children may be impressed with the idea that love is the first essential of all things. See the numbers adduced in the chapter on "Affection in the Word. and other passages where the word garden and the . Comparison therefore precedes correspondence and introduces to it. to which the reader is referred. Hence we find comparison made use of everywhere in Scripture. and "these bones are the whole house of Israel. A lesson in the Word should not be treated as lessons on secular subjects. and so we are to do with children. v: 7). For there is no truth. the word tinder consideration can be found in some other verse or chapter. but correspondences are reserved for the opening of the internal sense. By the aid of a concordance of the literal sense. COMPARISON The value of comparison in teaching is well known. or in a children's service.

and their minds will thus gradually be prepared for the understanding of correspondences. 4006). some of which we expect to bring forward later in a study of the twenty-fourth chapter of Genesis. and the uses of opposition as presented in the chapter above on this subject. who see better by means of them. 3357. Hence when we read that every verse in the Word communicates with some society of heaven. nor is there any organ or part in the body without some disease threatening its life. which teachers may find of use in the preparation of lessons from the letter of the Word. then read what is said of them in Bible dictionaries and in commentaries. thus to compare. speaking to the children of the use of gardens and paradises in this world and in the other. That there is a direct relation between comparison and correspondence. there are other instrumentalities to the same end. As the Lord taught the simple in this world by means of parables. Children therefore should be taught by comparisons drawn from the letter of the Word. The uses of such opposition are many. This group of verses may be analyzed as follows: . See the subject of equilibrium in the Writings. introduce here a general mode of analysis by certain questions. because to every heavenly society there is a society opposed to it in hell. Let us take for the sake of illustration the story of Abram as related in Genesis xii: 1-5. There is no mineral. we can realize the truth of this proposition. One of the modes of teaching children and the simple there is by parables (S. 3916.word paradise occur. conducing to human freedom and perfection by establishing a freedom and equilibrium in all things. so does He in like manner in the other world by means of angels in the natural heaven. THE OPPOSITE SENSE We learn from the Writings that the words of Scripture have an opposite sense. The questions to which we refer are. which are comparisons. reinforced by those of a concrete character from the Writings. The word parable in the original signifies to lay by the side of. and which also may be used in imparting the lesson to children. and finally introduce what is said in the Writings of paradises in heaven. or animal without some enemy seeking its destruction. or plant. however. Any word or subject in the letter of Scripture can be treated in this way. D. In addition to the foregoing applications of the rules to the study and analysis of the literal sense. 3356. The law of opposites is exhibited in nature and in the human body. and the children can be interested by the concrete images presented. see the numbers collected in the chapter on Comparison. So it is in all human life and activity. This has its origin in the fact that to every truth there is an opposite falsity. with something that would hinder and destroy if not successfully resisted. We shall. and will assist both the teacher and the minister in preparing a digest of any chapter in the Word. and the teaching there that comparisons are made for the sake of the simple. and to every good an opposite evil. Who? What? Where? When? Why? and How? These questions when brought into use will involve some application of certain of the rules of exposition. There is nothing a man thinks or proposes to do that does not meet with opposition. and that this opposite is always present even though it is not expressed.

How did God speak to Abram? He spoke through an angel in vision. and because of the promise of the land to him and his posterity. The minister also on the basis of a thorough knowledge of the literal sense will find himself fully prepared for entering into the doctrine or spiritual sense of the chapter.Who was Abram? The answer to this question will introduce all that is known of Abram. the end appearing in the close of the series. The story of what precedes should be told and as much of what follows as the teacher may determine. Why did Jehovah speak to Abram and command him to go to the land of Canaan? Because. This introduces the subject of visions and dreams. the name of the leading person. But for the youngest children it is best to speak according to the most literal sense and say that it was the Lord who spoke and was seen. the name of the Lord. How did Abram obey? The mode of travel at that time and now by the Arabs in the Eastcan be introduced in answer to this question. The ordinary aids to the study of the literal sense will naturally be brought into useespecially in the development of particulars-such as the Concordance of the Writings. See also verse seven. and in the coming of the Lord to that nation. as involved in the mention of the land of Canaan. and was at the beginning of the establishment of the Israelitish Church. and the following chapters. the time when it occurs." -namely. the general sense or subject. When did the Lord speak to Abram? We have no definite knowledge of the time. "In thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed. the rules in respect to noting the preceding and following series. as the leading person mentioned. namely. especially that His purpose in speaking to Abram and commanding him was that the way might be prepared for His coming into the world. Where was Abram and where was he commanded to go? He was in Haran and was commanded to leave it and go to the land of Canaan. especially for the instruction of little children. in which a human angelic form was seen and a living voice was heard by patriarchs and prophets. the promise being given in verses two and three. nine of the rules of exposition are brought into use. a . all that precedes and all that follows concerning him. and it will be easy to introduce the remaining ones when a thorough and exhaustive analysis of a chapter is desired. and as many particulars can be 'Brought in about Him as thought best. What did Abram do? He obeyed the command of the Lord. Who spoke to Abram? This will introduce the Lord or Jehovah as the God of the Ancient and Hebrew Churches. in the giving of the Word through the Jewish nation. The use of the above questions thus affords a practical and ready mode of applying a number of the rules. the Lord as the Person speaking. The obedience of Abram is a leading feature here and in what follows. as He said to him. the place where the event occurs. and the teacher will thus be provided with abundant material for the lesson in view. Any passage of Scripture can be analyzed in this manner. What did the Lord say to Abram? The answer is contained in the first three verses. In this analysis of the verses chosen for illustration. Why did Abram obey? Because of his fear of the God who spoke to him. but it was after the events related in the preceding chapter.

As everything in the chapter relates to betrothal. and that as we proceed we are continually receiving suggestions and intimations of it. THE FIRST THING SAID The first verse or opening of a chapter contains. For. and when one is profoundly in the sphere of that use it cannot be otherwise than that the internal sense-interiorly present in the letterwill force itself upon the attention of a mind that is enlightened and thus open and affirmative to its influence. we wish to exhibit by a practical example the value of the rules as applied to the preparation of a lesson for the religious instruction of children and the young. 3021). and what he says exhibits the end that is in the very first verse of the chapter where the old age of Abraham is spoken of. The betrothal of Isaac and Rebekah is the subject of Genesis xxiv in the literal sense (A. which is the initiation that precedes the spiritual marriage (A.concordance of the letter of the Word. introducing nothing else. the last is a vast storehouse of knowledge and thus an invaluable aid in the preparation of lessons. this is the use of the literal sense. as we have before remarked. the teacher should talk to the children of betrothal and what relates to it. For. in order to illustrate by examples the use of the rules of exposition in the study of the literal sense of the Word. and thereby provide for the perpetuation of his race in a posterity which is to inherit the land according to the promise that had been given him. The first thing said by Abraham also points to the fact that conjugial love is the chief instrumentality in the building of the . We wish to show first that a thorough study of the literal sense leads easily and naturally to a view of the internal sense. and 4. as is always the case in the Word. as we have frequently observed. C. and corresponds to the spiritual betrothal. and Latin lexicons. 3. and the English dictionary. encyclopedias. which latter in this case is the marriage of Isaac. and the intervening verses. Let us now proceed to examine the aforesaid chapter in the order of the rules as arranged in the preceding pages. It is frequently the case in the Word-as it is here-that the end which is contained in the opening words of a chapter does not make itself manifest until the first words of the speaker are uttered. Abraham is old and he must seek a marriage for his son. a lesson in the literal sense of the Word should adhere closely to that in it which corresponds to its internal sense. Bible dictionaries. which here is betrothal and the things related thereto. THE GENERAL SUBJECT. CHAPTER XXV ANALYSIS OF GENESIS XXIV We propose to introduce here an analysis of the twenty-fourth chapter of Genesis. C. Greek. treat of the means to the end. Second. and corresponds to the leading idea of the internal sense. The end begins to appear in the first words which Abraham says to his servant in verses 2. and introduces the end in view. and he wishes to see this accomplished while he is still alive. Hebrew. commentaries. and matter that is foreign to the subject should not be introduced. 3012).

He must therefore provide for the continuation of his race in the land of promise. it does not fully appear until the closing words of the chapter. was a presage of his approaching death. Betrothal with the end of marriage is thus the one idea that is present in all things of the chapter even to its culmination in the marriage itself. THE LAST THING SAID Although the end begins at once to reveal itself. THE FOLLOWING CHAPTER The mention of Abraham's old age at the beginning of the twenty-fourth chapter. in the land of Canaan where the Hittites dwelt. the end for which he has been blest-the permanent occupation and inheritance of the land cannot be fulfilled unless a marriage be arranged for Isaac and a posterity thereby provided. and he sends his servant to his own land in order to obtain a wife for Isaac. THE NAMES OF THE LORD The Lord is called in this chapter Jehovah .indicated by the small capital letters. xxi: 5. The intermediate verses treat of the betrothal. THE PRECEDING CHAPTER The twenty-third chapter of Genesis. "And Abraham was old and well stricken in age. not seem important in the merely literal sense. and is treated of in all the intermediate verses. which precedes the one we are considering. or in the preparation for the spiritual marriage or the heavenly life. xxv: 20. number 3021. and we find this confirmed in the twenty-fifth chapter. Now since this chapter immediately precedes and the twenty-fourth chapter opens with the particle and.church. The old age and death of Sarah suggest the old age of Abraham. While the connection between the two chapters. and that the great change called death is not far away from him. in Arcana Coelestia. -which was the name of the Lord in the ancient church. See what is said. Hence the chapter opens with the words. but the last verse speaks openly of the marriage of the marriage as accomplished. But this name had been lost." and that his own death is in view is evident from what he says to his servant. and of his solicitude for the marriage of his son. may. The age of Abraham is spoken of in Genesis xii: 4. yet the signification of the two things and their connection in the internal sense is of importance. treats of the old age and death of Sarah and her burial in the cave of Machpelah. For this reason the teacher should emphasize it in imparting the lesson to children. or between the old age and death of Sarah and the old age of Abraham. was . xviii: 11. It is for this end that be sends his servant to the land of his fathers. -which was in the end from the beginning. The teacher should keep this end in view in all the course of the lesson. Abraham is old and although he has been blest in all things. there is plainly a connection between the two. The death of Sarah also brings prominently forward the fact that they have only one son. the legitimate son. and the passages adduced. wherein Abraham dies. and the inheritance goes to Isaac.

Abraham also speaks of his land or country in verses 4. (See Exod. with their meanings in the Hebrew so far as they can be obtained. even though nothing be said to the children about their signification and representation. Lahai-roi in verse 62.unknown to Abraham. Rebekah. and the land of the south in verse 62. Isaac. PLACE AND THE NAMES OF PLACES Place has a distinguished position in all parts of the Word. In respect to this chapter it might be said to them that for the sake of the internal sense the Lord is sometimes called Jehovah. See the previous chapter on this subject. and sometimes by other names. house in verses 32-41. and Jacob. who worshipped God under the name Shaddai. 16-31. 40. should be told when occasion offers that there is an internal sense. 38. vi: 2. sometimes God. as in this chapter the well of water without the city. 7. verses 11. 42-49. for instance. names are the signs and expressions in the literal sense of angelic functions. The places named are Canaan in verses 3. THE PERSON SPEAKING The person who speaks and acts the leading part should be emphasized. and the person or thing spoken of. C. 50-60. Aram Naharaim. 7194. 3. or Mesopotamia in verse 10. and that in the New Testament He is called Jesus. we are told. field in verses 63-65. Give the children the results of them and not the means to them. They should be told that the internal sense is for the angels. Let us observe here that the children. THE NAMES OF PERSONS The teacher should not fail to call attention to the names of the persons mentionedespecially the names of those who are prominent-as here Abraham. . which will tend to keep the lesson on those things which are representative in the chapter. where the main events happen. This may be brought out by questions. his servant. iii: 13-16. tent in verse 67.* * We would call attention to the fact that the rules are for the teacher and not for the children. as was said in our former chapter on this subject. and the other names spoken of. especially those who are older. For. but without making an effort to explain it to them . Jacob's sojourn in Aram Naharaim. inserted in Genesis for the sake of the internal sense. The minister in his sermon might occasionally mention the workings of a rule. as we learn from Genesis xv: 2. also A. he is there called the steward of his house. but it should be done with reserve. This affords sufficient reason for emphasizing the subject of proper names. 14. Note also the person to whom he speaks. and for adults who become intelligent and wise. 5-8. and references there. which means Jehovah the Savior.) Yet the name Jehovah was. and other events connected with them could be mentioned. 13. showing that it was Jehovah who came into the world. 5.for the reasons already given. because he represents the active of the series in the internal sense. The name of Abraham's servant was Eliezer of Damascus. still it is understood. or some word will occur which stands for place. These places could be shown upon the map. and even where the name of a place is not mentioned.

The same form appears in . It was custom the to celebrate marriages in the evening (A. See the next chapter verses 7 and 8. ten shekels. and even that number is increased in multiples of ten. number 3207. ten days. and of time and the divisions of time. or thousands of myriads. and references to related passages will accomplish this. Some interesting things in this chapter. as for instance.literally "towards evening" -when Isaac met Rebekah and the simple marriage ceremonial took place.TIME Like number. and his age could be spoken of to the children. The most significant reference to time in Genesis xxiv. The love of the ancient people for having many children. ten and the multiples of ten in what Abraham says of Sodom in Genesis xviii: 23-33. even when not expressed. It could also be impressed upon the children that the events at the well. -an expression of a wish for the indefinite increase of the posterity of Rebekah. There are ten camels. There are other numbers in the chapter but ten has the leading place. Even a casual reader of the Word must have noticed a remarkable frequency in the use of numbers. Young children cannot grasp the spiritual significance of numbers. The subject of old age in general could be introduced. He had reached the time or period of old age. DUALITY The dual form is everywhere in the Word. Passages from other parts of the Word where the number ten is used may be introduced. especially the leading references to time in the lesson. This establishes time as one of the generals of the letter and gives it an essential significance as respects the spiritual sense. since it is the first thing spoken of in. time is of frequent mention in the Word and is present in all parts of it. E. This is because the beginning of the church is treated of. and many sciences have grown out of it. and even in portions where it is not apparent at first sight it can be found on close examination. Thousands of millions is literally thousands of ten thousands. See what is said in Arcana Coelestia. and can be found by examining what goes before or what follows after. it is well to call the attention of the children to them when they occur. as indicated here. Children should be made aware of its presence by questions or otherwise. NUMBER Arithmetic is defined to be the science of number. are thus suggested by applying the rule as to time. occurs in the first verse. It is the same with the other rules. and in particular the betrothal covenant entered into there. and that it was "at the eventide" . On account of the significance of numbers. took place in the evening. It is sufficient to impress upon them the importance of the number itself. and in verse 60 the number ten becomes ten thousand. 252). and is an essential accompaniment of the idea of space and of objects in space. which otherwise might be unobserved. might be commented upon. as we know from the Writings. A number is present even where it is not expressed. the chapter. the leading personage. and this beginning is from remains which ten signifies. as described in verses 65-67. This is because number is universal. and is said of Abraham. In our lesson the number ten has a significant place.

and had received an abundance of the things of this world. For this reason it will be useful at times to call the attention of the children to some striking dual or trinal expression that appears in the lesson. The trinal form of the first. 3017. numbers 3016. This is done when we desire to Convey to another not only our thought but our feeling. and third person is never lacking.as representing Isaac-and Rebekah. which could not take place without the union of the two. or our affection. which is the end in view. and in what Rebekah said? What is it that moved Abraham-what love moved him-to send his servant to his own land to select a wife for his son Isaac? What was it that moved the servant to go to fulfil this duty? What was the motive or end that inspired Rebekah to . and finally the covenant between Isaac and Rebekah in their marriage. The essential idea of the covenant appears wherever there is action and reaction. In the Word the purpose is. Sometimes we repeat it a third time in order to make a still stronger impression. One proposes and the other agrees or consents and the united performance follows. what is the affection and thus the purpose that governs in what Abraham said. Thus the teacher will always find in the lesson some form of the covenant expressed. He was old. but he had been blessed in all things. not only to give ultimate expression to the truth of the internal sense. but also to its good. second. But it is the natural affection in the Word that we have in view in the teaching of children. We notice also trinality where Abraham addresses his servant concerning his son. In the literal sense this means that he was blessed with worldly goods or had become rich. Abraham was not only old and had increased in days.nature and in the human body. or action and reception." or more literally. our will. and it will afford opportunity to impress upon the minds of the children an idea of the covenant between God and man. Other illustrations of this principle may easily be found. We find a dual form of expression in the opening sentence of the chapter before us. "And Abraham was old and well stricken with age. For instance. in what his servant said. "He had come into days. TRINITY The trinal form appears also in the opening verse. For the internal sense see Arcana Coelestia. confirmed by an oath. and we often speak in this manner when we wish to impress upon another what we are saying. and the same is true of the Word. Duality in the latter can always be brought forward whenever the teacher may wish to illustrate the subject by striking and familiar examples. Two persons meet and are joined together for the sake of bringing into effect some common purpose or use. in which there is both natural and spiritual affection. AFFECTION In every man affection or love is the chief essential of his life. he had lived many days or a long life." He had reached old age and his days had increased. THE COVENANT There is first a covenant between Abraham and his servant. The chapter opens with this threefold idea of Abraham. The latter clause adds emphasis even in the literal sense. and then a covenant between the servant. See further in the chapter above on this subject.

Now in Genesis xxiv the spiritual sense of well of water is completely veiled. The subject of the evil nations in the land of Canaan may also be introduced. nor receive the ability to shun them. well of water. at least in a general manner.evils and falsities from hell. THE OPPOSITE SENSE There are many reasons why it is permitted that the opposite should be represented in the Word. a number of passages can be found where the spiritual sense of these words shines through the letter. Psalm xxxvi: 9. and wife are examples of such leading generals. There seems to be a need of further aids to the teacher. ten. but will give essential correspondences in the literal sense. water of life. camel. By taking the word well or fountain and the word water. and are intended for finding the general sense of the letter with a view to entering by means of it into the internal sense. As they are not intended primarily for an exhaustive study of the letter itself. 3025 and elsewhere.39. fountain of life. evil delights. If it be desirable to go into this see Arcana Coelestia. as we have so far developed them. and there is an exceeding great abundance of such things. but it shines forth when placed in comparison with the above mentioned passages. evil affections. Isaiah xii: 3. The rules of analysis. for. Otherwise he would never know them. In Genesis xxiv that which is not to be sought or cherished but shunned and avoided. This introduces the teaching that there should be marriage within the church. it will give at least a broader basis for the understanding of the letter which is as far as we can go with younger children. such expressions as wells of salvation. Revelation xxii: 1. an example of the value of such comparison is afforded in the phrase well of water. river of life. numbers 3024. the opposite in the mind of Abraham which was above all things to be avoided was marriage with the daughters of the land. Jeremiah ii: 13. John iv: 10-15. vii: 37. In our treatment of this subject in the preceding pages we have shown that this will often lead to hints and suggestions of the spiritual sense. Revelation xxii: 17. as we have often observed. and even where it does not. and that marriage to one who is opposed to the religion we love is to be avoided. In Genesis xxiv the words thigh. COMPARISON In the preparation of a lesson for the instruction of children it will be profitable to compare words that represent the leading generals of the chapter with the same words as used elsewhere. the need so to speak of a still further generalization of the literal sense. one is that by means of it there may be revealed to man the opposites that are in himself. and xxi: 6. Revelation vii: 17. apply to the Word in its literal sense. For older children or young people. or evil spirits who destroy in man everything of heaven. In the literal or historical sense. Even for the word camel there is a suggestion of a spiritual sense in Isaiah lx: 6. We find. for instance. and are at the .give her consent to the betrothal with Isaac? These questions properly answered will not only be interesting to children. the one purpose of the teaching should be to give to children those things of the literal sense which have correspondence with the spiritual sense. in order that such things in the letter as relate to nature and human life. the rules do not directly touch many things in it that would be of value in the instruction of children and the young. is represented by the daughters of the Canaanites.

and the other kingdoms are included in the term earth. 1208. The Lord or Jehovah was acknowledged by the ancients as the Ruler over both. H. light. as was said. or the elementary kingdom. by heaven is signified the elementary kingdom. and exercises all the senses by means of it. moon. and animal. vegetable. To this kingdom belong the wind. even as the brain is the real center of the body and not the heart. it is said "that all things of nature except the sun. Hence the apparent need of the further instrumentalities which follow. elementary. and evening also involves the elementary kingdom with the natural sun as a center. when we realize that man not only breathes in it. The spiritual sun. Thus arose the conception that God and the angels dwell above in the sky." (A. as what is prior or interior is present. the animal.. This is true when we. and that men as to their minds dwell interiorly in it with angels and spirits. and stars. moon. and examine what mention of these kingdoms is to be found in the chapter under consideration. mineral. See The History of Creation. they cannot always be quickly and readily found by a direct use of them. morning in verse 54. A reference to anything of this elementary kingdom in a chapter should be noted and spoken of. THE ELEMENTARY KINGDOM The kingdom of the atmospheres or auras is called by Swedenborg in the Principia the elementary kingdom. See also H. a kingdom that is prior and causative to the other kingdoms of nature. and evening in verses 11 and 63.same time correspondences. the sky. number 2. however. night.) In the Scripture in its most literal sense. night in verses 23. We shall begin with man in his relation to nature in her kingdoms. and is often referred to in the Writings. These things are indeed contained and involved in the rules. E. We can see therefore that the elementary kingdom is present. in every chapter and verse. which are recommended to teachers of religion to children. ether. or by a recourse to the ordinary but usually laborious means provided for study and research. think of the sky. the sun. and the mineral. as extending down to the earth where men are. 25. and to his relation with nature. heat. morning. 105. but that he also thinks and lives in it and from it. civil. and the God of the earth (verses 3 and 7). make three kingdoms. and religious environment. In the twenty-fourth chapter day is mentioned in verses 12 and 55. but. and the atmospheres. and 54. or heaven. moral. for instance. and also to many things of the human body and the human mind. may be more easily acquired than can be accomplished by a direct application of the rules. is the real or prior center. especially if it be prominent and general.* * The elementary kingdom is treated at large in the Principia. THE MINERAL KINGDOM . The mention of day. We shall continue the use of the twenty-fourth chapter of Genesis for the illustration of this further mode of analysis of the literal sense. The things spoken of as existing in the immense storehouse of the literal sense of the Word are such as have reference to man in his social. hence Abraham calls Him in this chapter the God of heaven. air. the vegetable.

. 3103) and not suspended from the ear. and especially their uses. There is also the mention in verse 35 of asses. 20.* and this being their origin they continue to subsist from it. 14. We therefore pass on to the consideration of the next kingdom. but this is very general. and as such should receive special attention. The teacher should call attention to things of this kingdom that may be spoken of in any chapter that has been chosen for a lesson-plants. The frequent mention of the well gives it a distinguished position. 30. trees. * According to Swedenborg in his philosophical works. The word occurs in verses 10. though usually classed with the latter. seeds. the teacher will be moved to acquire all available information concerning the nature and uses of wells in eastern countries. flocks. THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM The next kingdom in order is the vegetable. 16. and we pass on to the one thing of special import in this chapter pertaining to the mineral kingdom. But a special consideration of these could be reserved until a chapter is reached in which they have a prominent place. Uses are the essential things in lessons from the literal sense of the Word. and as betrothal presents they occupy a leading place in the chapter. C. 44. It will be seen therefore that camels represent a general of the chapter (A. especially in what is said of camels. and it is the things which correspond that should be objects for instruction from the Word. 62. as such it should not be passed . which is produced from the mineral by means of seeds planted in the earth. 35. In the twentyfourth chapter of Genesis the animal kingdom occupies a leading position.The mention of the mineral kingdom suggests to the teacher a survey of the chapter in order to see if anything of that kingdom is referred to. as for instance the custom of training them when young to kneel at command. might well be reserved for another department. 45. 11. 32. fruits. 29. and herds. and the customs connected with them. flowers. particularly such as are referred to in the context. * See Swedenborg's work on The Worship and Love of God. water is intermediate between the elementary and the mineral kingdoms. 3048). Their characteristics and uses should be noted and the customs connected with them. 47. There is but little mention of the vegetable kingdom in the chapter before us for analysis. and 53. and 64. referred to in verse 11. leaves. THE ANIMAL KINGDOM Animals were originally produced from the vegetable kingdom.by in the lesson. similar to hay and fodder. 30. and silver in verse 35. namely. and is expressed or understood in every chapter. It may be remarked that the jewel or ornament of gold (monile) was placed upon the nose (A. jewels made of gold are always a subject of interest to children. the well of water* spoken of in verses 11. and a vivid impression is made that is not easily forgotten. as from a nourishing mother. The botanical structure of plants. 30. The earth or land is spoken of. As the subject of the well occupies a leading place. 13. and constitutes it a general of the chapter. 43. For uses are chiefly what correspond. 63. 31. Twice there is the expression "straw and provender" -some kind of food for beasts. C. we find gold spoken of in verses 22. 46. 35. however. 22. For the youngest children the sand table can be used profitably since they take delight in constructing with their own hands the objects mentioned in the literal sense of the Word. 42. In searching for other objects of the mineral kingdom.

Hand is also mentioned in verses :2. which may be called the human kingdom. 17. 19. They are found in the historical portion. all customs looked to the life of religion and worship. and those of religious life. 10. 18. and ear or nose in verse 22. All these are either organs of the body or introduce certain of the functions thereof. the custom and mode of betrothals. those of moral life. 22. and hearing is involved everywhere. With the ancients. The human body is well nigh a kingdom itself. . eyes in verse 64. distinct from animal loves and appetites. having their origin in correspondences and representatives. and functions and uses from those loves. Thigh in verse 2 is one of these generals. in the Prophets. which a man has in common with animals. 9). (a) The Human Body The body. and there is no passage in the Word into which it does not enter in some manner. and may be considered intermediate between the animal kingdom and what we are here calling the human kingdom. nor is there a verse in this chapter or in any other in which the body or some part of it is not directly or remotely present. There is hardly a word of Scripture that does not suggest directly or remotely something of this kind. those of civil life. All the previous kingdoms are for the sake of the kingdom of man who is last in the order of creation (L. exhibited in the custom and manner of betrothal. Thus in the first verse of the chapter the old age of Abraham is the old age of his body but not of his spirit. eating and drinking in verses 14. They are divisible into four general classes. the manners and customs of social life. speaking in verses 2. On examining the twenty-fourth chapter of Genesis we find it rich in its suggestion of the representative customs of the ancient peoples. shoulder in verse 15. 22.THE HUMAN KINGDOM There is a fifth kingdom in the series of kingdoms represented in the literal sense of the Word.introduce what may be called the human kingdom proper. (b) Manners and Customs The activities of human loves and the relation of man with his neighbor and with God . and 49. yet each has a distinct place. namely. the teacher should call attention to such of these customs as are striking and prominent. 6. or to such as form a leading general of any series. as exhibited in the chapter we are considering. This universality of the human form in the Word should be noted by the teacher. In this chapter a prime essential of social life. because the activities of man constitute a department distinct from that of animals. 12. 45 and 54. 5. Because they are of interest to children. and because they are correspondences. in the Gospels. 33. is the perfection of the animal kingdom. and spoken of when it is sufficiently prominent to be treated as a general of a chapter. J. and in Revelation. (c) Social Life Social life and moral life are closely connected. 14 and 15. and form an essential part of the literal sense of the Word. as for instance. for what makes the latter kingdom are human loves. 18. however.customs and modes of speaking and doing .

45. calling attention to the fact that although the forms of the betrothal ceremony may vary much in different ages and in various parts of the world. 9. the leading subject. * Rebekah's nurse is afterward spoken of by name. ruler. and the custom of blessing the bride (verse 60). 14. The teacher should note the forms of government and the laws in use-referred to in the chapter. from whom and for whose sake all kings exercise their powers. and host. civil government and law had not yet extended itself beyond the family. Wilt thou go with this man? And she said. There are also mentioned forms of use or instrumentalities for social life. and the rest of the chapter should be treated with a view to this one topic. 57. and she thereby acknowledged herself to be betrothed. such as marriage in the family.* and seed or offspring. and the choice of a wife by a father for his son (verses 3-9. 20. 30. 46). reign. and the custom of hospitality in general (verses 23-25. 30-33. and the bride's covering herself with a veil when the bridegroom appears. but calling attention to the Lord as King of kings. 15. observing the words which suggest government. daughter. But betrothal with the end of marriage is. 27. 3741). as evinced in the frequent use of terms involving the family. 41). 3. son. damsel. wife. army. C.occupies the chief place. or that she was now a bride looking to marriage. and 58. hence the brother and the mother said. Other customs relating to betrothal and marriage appear in the chapter. sister. For acceptance is consent. servants. such as master. and inquire at her mouth. dominion. servant. The subject of betrothal as given in the Writings may be introduced. I will go. as was said. as we know it. and is the subject of the entire chapter. and retainers. 47. 8. The teacher should also note words which suggest laws. and compare with the laws which now exist. 53) and the tent (verse 67). who rules over his family. 43. mother. as the pitcher or earthen jar (verses 14. See Genesis xxxv: 8. Included in this story of a betrothal there are many things of interest concerning the family life of the people of that time. arose out of the necessity of association for common defense (A. as the forms of oaths when marriage was involved (verses 2. kingdom.eating and drinking together (verse 54). woman. 30. 10814). the custom of giving presents (verse 53). queen. and is the essential of marriage. the custom of washing the feet. as those against murder and other evils forbidden in the commandments. When Rebekah received the presents it was a sign of consent. but at that time it was primarily a religious act or rite. 54). As Abraham's life was patriarchal. Government was similar to that of an Arab chief at this day. the watering trough (verse 20). Civil government. brother. and was followed by a feast." Note also that the betrothal was in the evening. father. And they called Rebekah and said unto her. "We will call the damsel. the custom of women drawing water (verses 11. nurse. see verses 22. There is no real consent without freedom of choice. (d) Civil Life The subject of civil life is capable of wide extension . the shekel and jewels (verses 22. the one essential of them all is consent. The oath which Abraham caused his servant to swear approaches the domain of civil law. 13. such as king. virgin. There are other social customs of interest recorded.in connection with the subject of manners and customs. 16. (e) Moral Life . 20). Note in this connection the distinction between civil and moral law.

and this love constitutes the spiritual moral element of the chapter. The love of marriage as from God is the first essential of moral law. derived from the Word. now under examination. Moral law appears also in the loyalty and obedience of Abraham's servant. and 50). as set forth in the literal sense of the Word. a kingdom that is called the church or the Lord's heaven on earth. concerning which we have spoken and shall speak more fully in a later chapter. it would seem well to give it a distinct place in the presentation of the lesson. When this state arises from the acknowledgment and worship of God. It is important in teaching children. wherein He says that to Him is given all power in heaven and on earth. the forms of worship. The truths of religion. as a. the custom in all ancient religions of inquiring of Providence by means of a lottery. could be treated as a distinct kingdom. When a teacher knows what to look for in a chapter the preparation of a lesson is easy. This is seen as a genuine truth when compared with what the Lord declares of Himself in Matthew xxviii: 18. the first of these essentials is the idea of God and the acknowledgment and worship of Him. In Genesis xxiv. The Writings treat wholly of this kingdom and its origins. and words which suggest worship. (g) Worship The worship of God is essential in a life of religion. is plainly manifest in the prayer of Abraham's servant (verses 12-14). and is exhibited in the acts of hospitality and kindness related in the twenty-fourth chapter. 26. it is called by the Lord in the Gospels the kingdom of heaven. The most essential things to seek are the indications of a spiritual . but especially to the prayer of the servant at the well (verses 12-14. There is no chapter in the Word where something of worship does not appear. sacrifice. makes its appearance and deserves attention. teaching love to God and the shunning of evil as necessary to salvation. The acknowledgment of God.In every chapter something of moral life appears. (f) The Religious Life The life of religion. The teacher should always be on the lookout for evidences of moral law in any chapter chosen for a lesson. 52). are called in the Writings genuine truths. In the chapter tinder examination the teacher should call attention to the oath which Abraham caused his servant to swear. 42745. 27. -in general the life of obedience to Him and from Him. for there is indeed a human spiritual kingdom with men in the world. there are several of these genuine truths. -such as altar. but as the idea of worship. 48. We would note also that when the servant asks for a sign (verses 12-21.kingdom or of a moral and religious life. His mercy and Providence. 27. . incense. priest. 26. tabernacle. -appear throughout the chapter. it is spiritual moral and those who are in it are in a salvable state. 42-46. or the truths of the spiritual sense appearing in the letter. and in what Laban and Bethuel said (verse 50). Charity and good will from obedience and love to God is the internal of moral life. Marriage between those of the same religion is clearly indicated in verses 2-6. to note the appearings of this kingdom in the letter of the Word. temple. form of worship. In verses 3 and 7 'Jehovah is called the God of heaven and the God of earth. The spiritual world or the life after death is involved in the mention of an angel (verses 7 and 40). also the names of the Lord wherever they occur.

clothing. and the various products of their labor. Lovethe prime and essential quality of the mind-is spoken of in verse 67. and . There are not so many of these in the historical as in the prophetical and doctrinal portions of the Word. the natural. It is the spiritual world interiorly present in the natural. for the provision of food. C. prepared somewhat in the way which we have here outlined.* * The following suggestion is made to those who may wish to analyze a chapter of the literal sense of the Word.(h) The Mind The collective mind of man is itself a kingdom or a world. or to prepare a lesson from it for the instruction of children and the young: When going over a chapter of this book on exposition read at the same time the summaries placed at the heads of the Table of Contents. by way of a reminder of what to look for in the study and analysis of any chapter or portion of the Word. See what was said above under Social Life. spiritual. especially to see if they are prominent. and also useful to students. and the sensual is the historical. would be of use to teachers of religion to children. and we cannot forbear a final remark that a kind of commentary on the entire literal sense of the Word. The celestial sense treats of the 'Lord alone. and even to ministers in the New Church. the summary added to Chapter XXV in the same table. Any chapter in the Word may be analyzed in the manner we have indicated. of His universal kingdom. (i) Uses in General There is frequent mention in the literal sense of the work performed by men and of the products of human industry. which sometimes one actually does when alone. and to compare them with what is done by people of the present day. or senses of the Word. It is always interesting to know how things were done by the ancient people. including all that is historical in form." We learn also from the Writings that meditation is conversation with spirits. and habitation. But we read in the chapter before us of the meditation of Isaac. and sensual. 3196). CHAPTER XXVI PLANES OF THE WORD There are four distinct planes. "Before I had done speaking in mine heart. The teacher should note the manifestations of this kingdom in any chapter chosen for a lesson. In verse 45 the servant expresses this idea in the words. what kind of instruments they used in their work. of the church on earth -and its state. They are called in the order of descent celestial. degrees. and the list of questions contained in Chapter XXIV. The teacher while preparing the lesson should scan the chapter in order to see if any of these things are mentioned. The word meditate in the Hebrew signifies literally to talk with oneself. the spiritual. natural. who was thinking about his marriage (A. It is in this world that the Lord appears in His Second Coming.

that all the planes or senses of the Word are present in the last or lowest which is the sense of the letter." (T. an interior [sense] such as is in the first heaven. the spiritual. It may be said that the planes of the Word according to the heavens are human planes. "The Word in the sense of the letter appears very simple. but still in it is stored the wisdom of the three heavens. and the lowest.) .) Removing the idea of space we find. 212. one within another. the spiritual for the second heaven.expressive of things visible to the senses. number 210. The same in general is understood in the number which follows: "Inasmuch as Divine Truth. which is the Word in its literal sense for men in the world. and one after another is thence unfolded each from its own heaven. For a man while on earth is being prepared to enter one of the three interior planes of reception. just as the end is in the cause. If it can be unfolded to him when he reads. which is the Word in its descent into the world from the Lord. and thence by correspondences. E. For the Lord first creates a human or finite form capable of receiving. Hence in the literal sense the Word is in its fullness and completeness. one after another. the highest." (A. These interior senses differ in the degree of light and wisdom. so likewise there are three senses of the Word. the middle heaven makes His spiritual kingdom. It is from this that there are in the Word four senses. Man may have his understanding opened to any of these planes. We shall see later that each plane. 1079." (A. may be unfolded to a man on earth who reads under the guidance and leading of the Lord. and then accommodates Himself to that form. This Divine accommodation is the Word. or one within the other from the world even to the highest heaven. he can also think and speak from it. C. according to the heavens. E. for each sense is a Divine accommodation to a human receptacle in each heaven. as we shall see in the numbers which follow. and lastly to men also in the world. Me highest heaven makes the celestial kingdom of the Lord. with which also those things coincide which were said above. and the celestial for the third. sense. and he is prepared by that which may be given to him from one or another of those planes. and all the senses. the celestial. that the first is in the middle. it is accommodated to each heaven. Concerning these four planes or senses of the Word We have the following teaching: "There are three heavens. one outside of another from the highest heaven even to the world. and the natural. or the Divine applied and adapted to four successively distinct planes of human receptacles. 1066. for there are present in the single things therein senses more and more interior. imparting his knowledge to others by exposition and instruction. [a sense] still more interior such as is in the second heaven. the middle. the next for the ultimate heaven. passes through the three heavens.) There is thus a sense or degree of the Word for each heaven. according to the above teaching. This last is for the world. a plane below the heavens. or degree is capable of exposition in doctrinal form. and an inmost [sense] such as is in the third heaven. There is also a fourth sense or degree. As there are three heavens. namely. R. and by the cause. the spiritual. but nevertheless they make one by influx. and the lowest heaven makes His natural kingdom. and by the middle in the last. these senses are present in the sense of the letter. when the man who is led by the Lord reads it. These four senses are called the celestial. the natural from the celestial and the spiritual. and the merely natural. in the effect.

and Divine truth in the ultimate degree or in the ultimate of order is such as is the Divine truth in the . 1024. and almost in each angel. and is read by the angels daily." (A. the internal or spiritual sense is for the middle or second heaven. 1024. therefore in the inmost sense. and is called spiritual Divine truth. C. the second sense is the celestial spiritual sense. Divine truth of the second degree is that which comes to the perception of angels of the second or middle heaven and constitutes their wisdom and intelligence. These Divine truths are in the Word in the order of their degrees. In the New Church we may be inspired by association to do the same. E. Divine truth. in its own sense. We read further that the Word in its descent from the Lord through heaven "is accommodated to each heaven. From this is -the wisdom of those. which is for the first or ultimate heaven. But Divine. and the third sense is the Divine celestial. each tribe signifies the Lord in respect to some attribute and work of His. as may be seen from what follows: "There are in each commandment three interior senses. of the third degree is that which comes to the perception of angels of the first or ultimate heaven. set forth and expounded in a form capable of comprehension even by the natural understanding of man. But Divine truth of the first degree is that which comes to the perception of angels of the third or inmost heaven. in the chapter on the commandments we find the three interior senses as contained in their literal sense. for since the last judgment has been performed it is possible for the understanding to enter into and at the same time bring forth the interior arcana of the Word (T. wherefore also the Word is in each heaven. and doctrine is taught. which is for the third or inmost heaven. The same general doctrine given in the foregoing numbers is also taught in the two following numbers: "In the inmost sense is the Lord alone. subjugating the hells. thus such as is the Divine truth above the heavens. 435. each sense for its own heaven.) By referring to The True Christian Religion. for it treats of Him. angels. 508). R. There are three senses in the Word because there are three heavens. truth of the fourth degree is that which comes to the perception of men of the church who are living in the world. -and constitutes their intelligence and science. this is called celestial-natural and spiritual-natural Divine truth.) "By ultimate truth or truth in the ultimate of order is meant sensual truth such as the truth in the sense of the letter of the Word is to those who are purely sensual. from the highest or inmost to the lowest or outmost.The ten commandments illustrate this general doctrine. E." (A. of His glorifying His Human. Divine truth in its descent proceeds according to degrees. and the external or spiritual natural sense is for the first or ultimate heaven. and as this is infinite. The first sense is the spiritual moral sense.) Thus each sense of the Word is continually being expounded. Divine truth in the highest degree is such as is the Divine that most nearly goes forth from the Lord. and constitutes their intelligence and science. which is for the second or middle heaven." (A. and the Word in the external sense is such as it is in the sense of the letter. and there are preachings from it as on earth. the inmost or celestial sense is for the inmost or third heaven. this is called natural Divine truth and its ultimate is called sensual Divine truth. and is called celestial Divine truth. and establishing the church. There are thus three internal senses in every single thing of the Word. reducing the heavens to order. E. for there are three heavens. it cannot come to the perception of any angel. in the internal sense heaven and the church are treated of.

A. See also the subject as treated in general in A. the Word [the Lord's celestial kingdom. charity. 9389. in the internal sense. 359. R. than a man's declaration of his faith before the Lord.) Fourth in order is the fourfold signification of Judah and of confession. C. C. in the internal sense. 392. 4603-4606. 3960. 3712. R. . R. and Zebulun. 443. R. which is as follows: "In the supreme sense. 4603-4606. Compare A. ." (A. A. They are classified according to their mothers. C. the sons of Rachel were Joseph and Benjamin." (A. 357. in the external sense. Their fourfold signification is given or implied in the following order: First in order is the fourfold sense or signification of Reuben and of seeing or sight. the Divine of love and His celestial kingdom. obedience. the Divine of the Lord and the Divine Human. C. 435. 433." (A. in the interior sense. even in common speech. C. R. C. A. Judah." (A. A. Compare A. E. The sons of Leah were Reuben. Compare A. 445. 8943. 358. in the external sense. 350.) Second in order is the fourfold signification of Simeon and of hearing. here spiritual love. which is as follows: "In the supreme sense. the will. mutual love. . 3439. in the external sense. A. 3869. thus it comprehends in itself those things which a man believes. Issachar. doctrine thence [doctrine from the Word which is of the celestial church. 4603-4606. 6751.) That there are four planes of the Word is made evident in Arcana Coelestia where a fourfold sense or signification is given to the sons of Jacob. Arcana Coelestia. in the internal sense. 356. A. C. in the external sense. 10614. 3451. A. E. for confession signifies nothing else. in the internal sense. Simeon. faith. the Lord [the Divine of His love. conjugial love." (A. in the interior sense. the Divine good of truth and truth of good. 3880. R.) Third in order is the fourfold signification of Levi and of adhering. C. sight. . hearing. Compare A. which is as follows: "In the supreme sense.) . E. faith in the will which is from the Lord alone. which is as follows: "In the supreme sense. in the internal sense. here. the celestial marriage. which is for children and for the very simple who are sensual. 10370. in the internal sense. E. consequently the things which are doctrine to him. number 4606]. 443. 444. E. A. . ." (A. That to adhere in the external sense or proximately interior sense is conjunction appears without explication. A. 356. 3875. love and mercy. 6343. number 4606]. number 4606]. A. 10265. A. in the external sense.) Sixth in order is the fourfold signification of Zebulun and of cohabitation. Compare A. the sons of Zilpah were Gad and Asher. That to confess in the external or proximately interior sense signifies doctrine from the Word is manifest. 4603-4606. 3956. C. 3869. conjunction. C. the sons of Bilhah were Dan and Naphtali.) Fifth in order is the fourfold signification of Issachar and of reward." (A. here. Providence. 447. A. C. 627. celestial conjugial love. A. 4603-4606. Providence.sense of the letter of the Word. here. E. E. Levi. understanding. E. in the external sense. C. faith from the Lord. C. Compare A. which is as follows: "In the supreme sense. which is as follows: "In the supreme sense. 46034606.

and the twelve sons. which speak of a supreme or celestial sense for the inmost or third heaven. 4608. 438. but in the supreme . It is given in full under Reuben and Simeon. an interior sense. A. C. 3938. 4281). 3921. A. in the internal sense. Compare A. The four planes. spiritual truth which is from celestial good. C. delight of the affections. One sense is within another. C. C. an interior or spiritual-natural or spiritual-moral sense for the ultimate or first heaven. eternity. C. celestial.) It will be. E." (A. but where it is not expressed it is understood and can be supplied. felicity of eternal life. 448.Seventh in order is the fourfold signification of Joseph and of adding. E. C. spiritual. E. 4607. 4609.) Ninth in order is the fourfold signification of Dan and of judging. R. an internal or spiritual sense for the middle or second heaven. Jacob. the natural man in him who is being regenerated. 360. 4592. E. C. in the internal historical sense. which is as follows: "In: the supreme sense. Compare A. the good of life. A. an internal sense. the good of faith. in the internal sense. in the internal spiritual sense. which is as follows: "In the supreme sense. or the spiritual of the celestial. A. 352. the intermediate between the spiritual and the celestial. 449. which is as follows: "In the supreme sense. E. proper power. 3969. and one sense corresponds to another from the lowest to the highest. R.) Eighth in order is the fourfold signification of Benjamin and of the right hand. Omnipotence. C. A. fructification. and an external or literal sense for men in the world. and all are within the lowest or last. natural. A. in the internal sense. and an external sense. which is as follows: "In the supreme sense. 435. 361." (A. C. the holy of faith. and sensual are also represented by Abraham." (A. 4607. C. in the external sense. 439. A." (A. 354. his posterity (A. A. where we find mentioned a supreme sense. Compare A. A. which is as follows: "In the supreme sense. salvation. R. justice and mercy. or a sense for each heaven and one for the world.) Twelfth in order is the fourfold signification of Asher and of blessedness. in the external sense. in general. works. Compare A. C. Compare A. in the external sense. C. seen in the extracts above quoted that a fourfold sense is not given in all the numbers. the spiritual kingdom or the good of faith. Isaac. Compare A. C. which is as follows: "In the supreme sense. the last representing the genuine truth of doctrine in the literal sense of the Word. This is in agreement with the numbers previously quoted. 4609. R. 4608. in the external sense. Omnipotence and Omniscience. in the external sense. in the internal sense. the Lord as to the Divine Spiritual. 3934. in the internal sense. R." (A. We read that "Jacob in the sense of the letter signifies Jacob himself.) Tenth in order is the fourfold signification of Naphtali and of wrestling. resistance from the natural man. 353." (A.) Eleventh in order is the fourfold signification of Gad and of a troop. in the internal sense. 3927. and multiplication. temptation in which one conquers. A.

" (A. and from this. But Divine Love takes on the form of Divine Truth. Divine Doctrine itself is the Word in the supreme sense. the understanding of the natural man. C. 9030. is taught throughout the Writings. C." (A." (A. See also A. Thus doctrine is Divine Truth taking the form of teaching for the purpose mentioned. and becomes more interior and more universal as it ascends. It will be seen that the supreme essential Divine in the Word is love-Divine Love. There is the understanding of the sensual man. 9380. 7089. Divine Doctrine is also the Word in the literal sense.) Doctrine on all the planes of the Word is twofold. 9025. and as the literal sense altogether corresponds thereto by means of representatives and significatives. the understanding of the spiritual man. But doctrine is more general on the lower planes. 4310. That doctrine is the Lord because it is from the Lord. . C. There is no doctrine that is not from and concerning these two loves. and the understanding of the celestial man. in which the Lord alone is treated of. namely.) "The true doctrine of the church is what is here called the internal sense. as has been often shown. That there are planes of doctrine is clearly taught as follows: "By doctrine is meant the Word such as it is in its literal sense. doctrine is also the Word. that may be understood and by means of understanding applied to life. for doctrine is one with the understanding. Doctrine is Divine Love appearing and applying itself to the understanding of man. D. and Divine Truth is Divine Love taking the form of Divine Truth in order to approach and be received.) Since these planes of the Word are planes of Divine Truth. and by doctrine all are prepared to enter more and more into the interiors of the Word. C.) "The internal sense is doctrine itself. since it forms it. therefore also doctrine therefrom is Divine. and the doctrine of celestial truth. 7." (A. and since doctrine is Divine Truth." (A. Now Divine Truth from Divine Love is what is called the Word (John i: 1-14). in which the things that are in the world and on earth are treated of. It is the same with all other names. Divine Doctrine is the Word in the internal sense. in which the Lord's kingdom in the heavens and earth is treated of. and Divine Truth takes on the form of Divine Doctrine or Divine Teaching. that men by it may be taught and led to conjunction with the Lord as Divine Love. For Divine Love through Divine Truth must take the final form of doctrine or teaching in order to reach the human understanding. C. Its final approach and final form is doctrine. by the doctrine of sensual truth. 3712. the doctrine of love to the Lord and the doctrine of love to the neighbor. For doctrine is nothing else than the Divine Truth brought into a form that may be taught and received. the doctrine of spiritual truth. and is most universal in the supreme or inmost heaven where the Lord is Doctrine itself. And whereas the literal sense contains within it the internal sense.sense Jacob signifies the Lord as to the Divine natural. 9424. the doctrine of natural truth. C. the Word instructing and teaching. These planes of the understanding must be opened and formed by doctrine. Since there are planes of doctrine. namely. there are also planes of the understanding. thus it is the internal sense itself. 10400. but in the form of teaching. and H." (A. Thus love is in all planes of the Word. through life in this world and after death to eternity.) And in general that "Divine Doctrine is Divine Truth and Divine Truth is all the Word of the Lord. C. they are also planes of Divine Doctrine.) "The doctrine which should be for a lamp is what the internal sense teaches. and this the supreme sense.

and the spiritualnatural sense is the doctrine of spiritual-moral good. and on its natural plane still less universal. Hence the celestial sense of the Word is the doctrine of celestial love. or spiritual truth. or spiritual-moral truth. Love in the celestial heaven is love to the Lord. and The Apocalypse Explained. 375. Love in the natural heaven is also love to the Lord and the neighbor. since. 8943. but by the neighbor. but through the means of simple faith and simple obedience in good works. and also returns to the Lord by the neighbor. and indeed of all the Divine attributes and works of the Lord. E. 7258). D. on its spiritual plane less universal. The celestial sense treats of the Divine Laws by which the Lord. of Redemption. That the celestial sense treats of the Lord alone. there is a celestial sense and a spiritual sense in all things of the Word. truth. as we have said. and regeneration. and doctrine in these planes. 1215) Instead of truth we may say doctrine. and accommodated to the understanding. are Divinely provided and Divinely accommodated. 9407. of Providence. 3240. A. W. 4279. Since the reigning love of the spiritual heaven is love to the neighbor or spiritual love.truth is in all. or the doctrine of charity towards the neighbor. all from the Lord and all the Lord. the spiritual sense is the doctrine of spiritual love. and doctrine is in all. and the spiritual sense treats of the establishment and growth of the church. or there is doctrine concerning the Lord and doctrine concerning the neighbor in all things of the Word. The celestial sense treats of the Lord and of love to Him. see Arcana Coelestia. 10370. this truth from its good is what is called the celestial sense of the Word. 449. These planes of the Word. that all men may be approached and may receive that which is to save them and continue to save them to eternity. so the truth of that heaven is spiritual-natural truth. A. Since the reigning love in the highest heaven is love to the Lord or celestial love. In a larger view the celestial sense treats of the Advent of the Lord. Love in its descent through the heavens and in its reception in them is wisdom or truth. C. 6. which is love from the Lord returning to Him. love. and love' truth. so the truth of that heaven is truth concerning man or the neighbor. of Himself and by Himself. numbers 6343. 9568. for these two terms in the Writings are expressive of the two great loves. of repentance. Love in the spiritual heaven is love towards the neighbor. the truth that teaches concerning the regeneration of man and the establishment of the church. A. But doctrine on the celestial plane of the Word is universal. and the doctrine of truth. Now since the Word is nothing but love to God and love to the neighbor and treats of nothing else. or celestial truth. 10265. L. and constitutes the interior natural or moral sense of the Word (D . it is everywhere celestial and spiritual. 4286. That the spiritual sense treats of the Lord's kingdom. And since the reigning love of the natural heaven is the love of obedience in works. and the spiritual sense treats of man or the neighbor. And as every love takes form in truth. this truth is what is called the spiritual sense of the Word. number 435. which also is love from the Lord returning to Him. and of love to the neighbor. 10604. 9389. operates in His universe. reformation. and the spiritual sense treats of man as receiving those laws and operating from them and by them. C. 834. so the truth of that heaven is truth concerning the Lord. 232. which also is the doctrine of charity on that plane (H. doctrine is truth formulated. 107. or doctrine concerning the Lord. 10005. of His Glorification. S. namely. . S.

numbers 3439. It is clear that by the understanding man may enter any or all of these senses. If he is addressing children his primary object will be to explain to them the literal sense of the Word-that sense which is given for men on earth who are in worldly or sensual states of mind-insinuating as much of the spiritual sense as can be given in an objective . The minister may expound the general truth of any of these four planes. prophetical. see Arcana Coelestia. one in the spiritual heaven. from the lowest to the highest. If he is addressing young people. All laws of the spiritual world. The chief point of interest in our present consideration is. he will speak to them from the internal historical. that sense which has been given for the angels of the natural heaven. There is also a fourth society which is the church. 8943. or spiritual-moral sense of the Word. for they have been revealed. and in the Writings of Swedenborg they exist in a summary as Divine doctrine. We have mentioned in the chapter on "Children and the Young. or he may at times wish to present a comprehensive view of all planes of the text. It is primarily for this that a priesthood is organized and the church established. may be comprehended and understood by men in the world in a general manner when revealed in the form of doctrine. and which appears as the doctrine of genuine truth . and of the regeneration of man. For when it is said that every verse of the Word communicates with some society. and one in the celestial heaven. All the senses of the Word are thus subject to exposition in sermons and doctrinal classes. beginning with the literal sense and leading up to the celestial or to the idea of the Lord that is the inmost in it. or one in the natural heaven.genuine truth which is the general truth of the spiritual sense appearing in the letter. or those in whom the rational degree of the mind has been opened.of the church. and each communicating with some society of heaven according to the plane that is opened. or a church on earth to which the minister speaks. and returning again to the letter for confirmation. that the minister may expound any one of the four senses of the Word according to his judgment of the needs and intelligence of his congregation. descend to the literal sense and return again to the inmost. and who are able to enter intellectually into the things of faith. or he may begin his circuit from the inmost. The Writings teach us much concerning this prime essential plane of the Word of God. It is of especial moment to know something of the quality of the celestial sense. If he is addressing adults. and The Apocalypse Explained.or concrete form. all laws of the internal of the Word are represented in the literal sense. and this sense is the prime essential of the revelation made by the Lord in His Second Coming. one within another. he will speak to them from the spiritual sense and also from the celestial or supreme sense of the Word. or in written revelation." that the literal sense of the Word is threefold. 3451. there is the idea of three societies. spiritual-natural. Any sense of the Word seen and received by the angels of heaven. and to which he reads and expounds the text in its literal sense. There is no fixed rule to follow: the minister should know what is in his text. historical. 10614. one within another. closing his sermon with that from which he began. and judgment and experience will dictate the rest. for it is in this sense that the Word is in its very sanctity. There are these four planes or degrees or senses in every text of Scripture. number 392. and .

not confined to the Prophets. however. * The same law is exhibited in nature in her three kingdoms. This element of the Word is. one within another. It may be useful to restate here what we have already said on this subject. the prophetical is the internal historical degree of the Word. It is necessary now to add a fourth in the order of literal or written revelation. appear in a literal form successively developed in the order of time. 24). and in a fourth . As He Himself was the Divine appearing unto men. treating of the state of the nations where the church is. which is fully expressed in the early books of Scripture. Fourth.which is universal in the other three . the spiritual degree. Third. or the spiritual itself. but is universal in written revelation. but which is never absent in any of the forms of revelation. but not excluding the state of the nations where the church is not. beginning with the historical and closing with the revelation of the spiritual sense.* We have just seen that there are four planes of the Word consisting of a literal sense containing a threefold internal sense.doctrinal (A. as commonly supposed. But let us remember that the spiritual sense appears to the enlightened mind in all the forms of revelation. the historical is in general the sensual degree of the Word. degree is also restored. that which may be called the spiritual. the doctrinal degree is the spiritual appearing in the literal sense in the form of general truths. and animal. It should here be remembered that the primary idea of prophecy is not. as was said. a threefold order-the historical. so it is in the case before us. C. It is to be noted also that in this crown of all revelation the doctrinal. gradually ascending from the sensual to the spiritual and to the celestial. and the doctrinal. 3432). mineral.called the elementary kingdom. especially as a fourth in the order of written revelation is here introduced: First. but it is the teaching of the spiritual-moral state of the church. the prophetical. vegetable. especially of its aspect and relation to the advent of the Lord. who were simple men (S. Thus the four planes of the Word. and is there called the doctrine of genuine truth. that it shines out at times even in the literal statement of the historical portion of the Word. the mere foretelling of future events. Second. This nature or quality of the universal Word ultimates itself in the letter or in written revelation. appears in the teachings of the Lord as given by Him in His Second Coming. We have in the literal sense. Swedenborg says in The Animal Kingdom that wherever there is a threefold order there is also a fourfold order. so was His teaching that Divine in the form of spiritual truth accommodated to His hearers. S. It is their spiritual-natural or spiritual-moral state that is treated of. and is found especially in the New Testament in the teaching of the Lord as addressed to His disciples. . which is the spiritual sense as given in the Writings.

is to be drawn forth and presented to them. the plane of interior natural truth. and that it is necessary that only spiritual truth should be revealed. For there is still another step in the Divine accommodation.and that this plane is the final . first in the spiritual world. and the Divine Mind in all its planes and degrees has been revealed in the form of a book for the instruction of men. But to the adult. for essential truth is abstracted from sensual appearances. doctrine from all four of these planes as they appear in written revelation. accommodating them to the audience that is before him. doctrine is to be given for the most part in the form of abstract truth. and must be divested of them in order to be interiorly received. which is the Word of God. But when general truths are once known. that is not originally in the Word. For the Word is the Divine Mind which is Omniscient and Omnipresent truth. and in this way includes every phase of human thought that is possible to men. is constituted of four planes or degrees. namely.a process that never ends. and that the Writings as the revelation of the spiritual sense of the Word.* * It is commonly thought that man has discovered natural truth for himself. or expressed in the common intercourse of men. There is not any idea of human thought nor any principle of action contained in science. even natural truth. The four planes of the Word exhibit the fact that there are four universal classes of men. have been given for the instruction of the adult. or four universal states of mind. This Divine Book. CHAPTER XXVII NATURAL TRUTH It is a fundamental conception that all truth. To these four states there must be preaching. This distinction has to some extent appeared in the previous chapter on "Planes of the Word".In the chapter on "Children and the Young" we endeavored to show that the literal sense of the Word in its threefold division has been provided for the states of children and youth. what we wish to present in this chapter is that in order to comprehend the subject of religious education it is necessary to understand what is meant by natural truth. operating. We have shown that in order to expound the Word with intelligence. to create and to preserve. man. The minister will therefore speak from any or all of these forms of revelation. is essential to the formation of the youthful mind as it draws near to adult age-the third period of the early life of man . but we wish now to emphasize the fact that one of the four planes of the Word. then in the natural world as representing the spiritual. whether natural or spiritual. spirits. it is necessary to know these planes. In the spiritual education of children and the young. as distinguished from sensual truth on the one hand and from spiritual truth on the other. or literature. or angels to all eternity. can discover new truth . preaching-the preaching and teaching of doctrine and truth of doctrine. but in concrete form. for their education. But a little reflection will show that man at birth is in such total ignorance that he must be taught by the Lord even natural and sensual truth. It was the same in the infancy of the race. natural and spiritual. in the light of them and through the faculty of perception and mason given to him. philosophy. both in the world of spirits and in the world of nature. For this last and final step the priesthood and teachers of religion have been provided. is in the Word and from the Word. and thus for their eternal salvation.

) It thus will be seen that sensual truth relates to such things as are visible to the senses of the body. This sensual truth is insinuated only into the celestial man. or all the truth of the Word that is below the spiritual sense. C. these and similar sensual truths were insinuated into Him in His earliest years. 3294. C. and the teacher of religion to the young. the spiritual-natural sense. "It is now evident that fowl signifies spiritual truth. is frequently used in the Writings to cover all the truth of the natural mind.* * Not only is the literal sense of the Word sensual truth. should have a clear conception of this plane for the sake of the work that is before them. Sensual truths." (A. even though it may be called truth and be made to appear as such.means of approach to the pure spiritual truth of the Word. The minister. as in the one which now follows. however. In many passages. "Interior truth in the natural is what is called natural truth. and all and each for some end.) It is plain therefore that what appears as sensual truth is not truth unless the objects of nature are seen and acknowledged as created by God. 777. and that in all and each is seen a certain image of the kingdom of God. whereby He was prepared for the reception of celestial things. The first approach to the spiritual sense is by means of sensual truth. but the second and nearer approach is by that truth or plane or sense of the Word of which we are speaking. but also the objective or visible phenomena of the spiritual world as revealed in the memorabilia of the Writings. Before we proceed. Sensual truth consists in seeing all things of the earth and the world as being created by God. Nothing on the sensual or any other plane is truth that has not in it the idea of God. Nor is the literal or ultimate sense of the Word sensual truth unless the Word is acknowledged as Divine. and the internal historical sense of the Word. In order to enter into the subject intelligently let us consider more fully than in the last chapter what is meant by sensual truth. as we read. a clearly marked distinction is made between natural and sensual truth. 1434.) These distinctions will appear more clearly as we proceed. the spiritual-moral sense. Hence. but exterior truth there is called sensual truth." (A. hence it follows that natural truth relates to those things which are still natural but invisible to the external senses. Spiritual truth is still more invisible. and for an end of use to His kingdom. and because the Lord alone was a celestial man. as well as the term natural sense. let us observe that the term natural truth. As to what sensual truth is we are given a plain definition in the following passage: "Sensual truth is the first truth which insinuates itself into a child. hence in this view it is external natural truth that is called sensual truth. such as relate to seeing and hearing. and then we shall be prepared to understand what is meant by natural truth. and to which various names or designations are given in the Writings. C. But in this chapter we wish to present a discussion of natural truth as distinguished from sensual truth and from spiritual truth. and internal natural truth that is called specifically natural truth or by the other designations mentioned above. for in childhood the judgment does not penetrate deeper. are said to be winged because they are the extremes. and that truths are distinguished in this way. scientific truth. bird natural truth." (A. which is also the signification of wing in reference to other things. and winged thing sensual truth. . such as natural truth.

Doctrinal truth therefore is that teaching in the letter of the Word which is the most open. and it insinuates itself everywhere in the historical portion. 1061. Doctrinal truth is still less general. and from the holes of the rocks. the prophets speak of the Lord yet to come. scientific. the same is true of the literal sense of the Word.' (xvi: 15. 3318. and by which they are affected. 3309. and truths in the natural are spoken of as being in a threefold order: "Inasmuch as the truths of the natural man are those which are called scientific truths. R. or more distinct and clear.In the following number. of things not concrete but abstracted from sensual appearances. sensual truths are those in which children are. as are all things of the moral world. 1531. 5008. and nearer to the genuine spirit and life of the Word. 1968. is because bunting. . C. C. denotes those things which are taken by bunting. therefore each is here signified by hunting. plain. . where we shall treat of the Doctrine of Genuine Truth. . and after this I will send for many hunters. from above every mountain and from above every hill. and thus treats of things more interior or more hidden from the senses of the body. It is the natural of the Lord. 209. There is no passage of the Word without the appearing in some form of these two fundamentals of salvation. behold I send for many fishers. is present there as it were in reserve. J. 'I will bring them back upon their land. * The term philosophy naturally suggests itself here. It is not a physical but a morally imaginative world that is their leading theme . D. A. 1967. and they shall hunt them. 2807. L. and scientific truths are principally of two kinds or of two degrees. such as are the teachings of the Lord in the Gospels. and scientific truths are those in which the same children are as they grow up. whereof we shall speak presently. that which is spoken of above (A. A. but is sufficiently clear to enable the teacher to keep before the minds of the children the idea of a visible God. and the doings of men in the visible or physical world such as are found in the historical portion.* The Prophets are an example of this form of truth. which I have given to their fathers. and also from doctrinals. and they shall fish them. See further oil this branch of the subject in the next chapter. because nearer to the source of light. 777) as natural truth is called. in an external sense. 365a. Scientific or natural truth is that which is less general. In Jeremiah. for no one can be in scientific truths unless he be first in sensual truths. and direct concerning the Lord and His kingdom. 38. from these afterward may be learned and comprehended truths still more interior which are doctrinal truths. and hence we find in them but little connected with external nature. inasmuch as the ideas of the former are procured from the latter. 16)." (A. That by hunting are signified sensual and scientific truths in which they who are in the good of life are instructed. E. and which are signified by a man of the field. and treats of things not so visible to the external senses. C. 2577. and the need of obedience to Him. and the need of a true spiritual-moral life in order to receive Him when He comes. For that which is less simple and general is also less obscure. for this is in the natural. scientific truth. fishers signify those who teach from sensual truths and hunters those who teach from scientific truths. 4988. S. .a real though internal world. Concerning natural truth see also A.) Since truth in the natural is threefold. namely. sensual. The sensual truth of the Word is that which is most general and simple. and doctrinal. sensual and scientific.

The first sensual truths. 3310. but also preaching to children and youths. being a more efficient means of entering the understanding by stirring the affections. There seems to be involved. (See A. it is presented to view before his understanding. namely. the first truths are sensual. 1434 quoted above. and also from doctrinal truths. C. C. These are the first of the Word because they contain the first ideas of sensual truth to be taught to children. The subject continues in the Arcana concerning the three classes of truth in the literal sense of the Word. those who are to teach scientific or natural truths to older children. But let us not forget that this ascent is by truth. As there are doctrinal classes and sermons for adults. such things may really be presented to ocular view. he cannot be regenerated. will prove of great use in planting remains and thus preparing them for the conditions of adult life.even as to the deepest arcanum of faith . suitable to their age. and doctrinal truth in the literal sense of the Word? Short sermons to children and the young. or conception of them except from scientifics. the interior are doctrinals. and in the natural of man. This is the case also with spiritual truths. but doctrinals are what are signified by a man of the field. and even. which are called doctrinals. why not do the same in the form of sermons accommodated to their plane of thought. if he eagerly desires. are most general ideas about God as the Creator of the things evident to the senses in nature. thus they succeed in order with man. drawing on the immense store of sensual. from sensual through scientific and doctrinal truths to the spiritual sense itself. sensual truth being first in the order of time. There are to be those who are to teach sensual truths to little children. number 3309. in a general setting of music and ritual. for doctrinals are the interior truths which pertain to the natural man. as has been shown. thereby exciting affection. The preaching of sermons to the young in a sphere of worship. and by sensual and scientific truths is in doctrinals. . the sensual and scientific are what are signified by a man skillful in hunting. wherefore until man is in adult age. scientific truths cannot be comprehended by man. as follows: ". notion. for he cannot be confirmed in the truths of doctrinals except by ideas derived from things sensual and scientific. natural. these latter truths are founded upon scientific truths. not only teaching in classes." We are given here a clear intimation concerning religious instruction to children and the young.) There is thus a regular order of succession and at the same time a regular order of ascent.) The Lord in nature should therefore be taught to little children even before . and that truth is not truth except the Lord be in it. otherwise it is but an outward appearance deficient in the essential life of truth. however incredible it appears. insomuch that man can form and retain no idea. for nothing is ever given man in his thought . although man is in general ignorant of its quality. if he desires it. for in that other life. but in the other life. the next scientific. and hunters those who teach from scientific truths.We notice also in Arcana Coelestia. these truths. If children and the young are to be taught religion in a conversational manner in the class rooms." (A. before his sight. Since these are first in order of time the Scripture opens with the creation of the universe by Jehovah God. but scientific truths are founded upon sensual truths. so should there be the same for children and young people. would be a decided advance on the old Sunday School methods.which has not with it a natural and sensual idea. and those who are to teach doctrinal truths to young people. . and are still more interior commandments. the statement that "fishers signify those who teach from sensual truths. for without sensual truths.

unlike the little child and the simple idolater-he is able to see objects in his imagination and even in his rational or abstract thought. C. 9809). of faith-which has not with it a natural and sensual idea. which is the way to angelic intelligence and wisdom." and "abstract thought can pervade the universal heaven without tarrying anywhere. C. and tell them that all these were made by the Lord. E. W. Thus when the mind is prepared to see truths in abstract natural light. The rational mind is both abstract and concrete. 8861. 653. except incidentally. No thought of any human finite being can ever be altogether abstract. A. It may be remarked that the state of little children is similar to that of idolaters. I. independent of those in the external world. Do this at the very dawn of the opening of their little understandings. He was not a teacher of sensual truth or a teacher of what is called natural science. are not in abstract thought. All the words they use have relation to concrete objects. C." It is for this reason that no man is ever removed wholly from the necessity of external worship (A. but still under a sensual objective idea.as distinguished from sensual truth or that truth which deals with the physical ox concrete appearances of nature. L. and the truth Divinely provided for them is sensual truth. which helps to explain why the Lord came into the world and revealed Himself objectively as a Man. but thought determined to person or place is fixed and stopped. with sensual truths. They are not able as yet to enter into the realm of subjective ideas. The child and the idolater. 4211. or the world of objective appearances. They think in and from the visible world. D." * or when an abstract meaning is added to words already in use. he was a teacher of natural truth before he became a teacher of spiritual truth (Influx 20). 78. hence it is a misnomer to call his early works scientific. L. That good with infants is similar to that with Gentiles. when he is striving to coin abstract terms. however. think wholly from the objects of the senses. 228. 9828. "which are conclusions from the objects of the external senses. C. In The History of Creation Swedenborg presents a remarkable illustration of natural truth . 7.the stories of the Word are given. but philosophy has to do with rational truths. then civilization is at band. 9972.) Swedenborg was a philosopher before he became a theologian. (See the numbers just referred to.) * Andrew Lang. the trees. "nothing is ever given man in his thought . this is a period when man "is just beginning to free his thought from the bondage of too concrete language. Abstract truth is philosophical truth as distinguished from what is ordinarily called the truth of science. 8985. but the infantile mind and the mind of the simple gentile idolater.even as to the deepest arcanum. Show them the sky. see A." (A. who are in sensual truths and who are therefore in need of objects to assist their thought about God (A. is wholly removed from this need. No one. C. as for instance when they are ready to learn that the sun does not rise and set. that is. and Religion. 1618). or what is called the primitive man. that is. What is true of the first chapter . and thus their thought is sensual thought.) For." (A.the abstract truth of nature . C. and the hills.. for "abstract speech is angelic speech. The truth of science deals with appearances in concrete nature. especially of the sight. See also 9407. since they treat of the truths of invisible nature. When they are able to see the truth within the appearance. Myth. as is said in number 3310 quoted above. although . the way is opened to see them in abstract spiritual light. Ritual.

as has been shown above." (A. in the natural or scientific. but whereas in the sensual as the ultimate of order. 4009. Every word of human language has this interior natural or abstract sense. What we are to expect of them is obedience which prepares the way for all that is to follow. which are of the body and are open towards the world. namely in the sensual. preparatory to a further rise into the realm of spiritual truth. and the sensual by their sons. thus also a descent from the latter. and man does not advance to the rational. which is the ultimate truth of the natural. When man is in the sensual his thought is open only to the world. C. In Arcana Coelestia we are told that by the hoof of a horse is signified sensual truth. that all and single things may be exhibited representatively. open a fountain at which were . are truths which are interiorly in the natural and nearer the notice of the rational. the natural by Jacob and his two women. but fallacies are successively removed in the ascent towards the rational. There is in it a plane of natural truth as intermediate between the physical sense and the pure spiritual sense. It is this ascent and descent which is treated of in the internal sense of these chapters. This effect exists in man alone. in that with his hoof he broke.of Genesis is true of the Word throughout. for the natural of man on one part communicates with the sensual things of the body. to things rational which are of the rational mind. but when he has reached the rational his thought is also open to heaven. and in the doctrinal or rational of the natural. as belonging to things of sense. We must not therefore expect children to be rational before the time. and cannot until he approaches adult life. By these intermediates there is effected a kind of ascent from things sensual. they are the more purified from earthly and worldly things. Hence the ancient Sophi. and are open towards heaven. and on the other part with the rational things of the rational mind. or the truth of the spiritual sense of the Word. and which marks the rise from the savage or primitive state to the conditions of civilized life. that is from heaven to the world. C. for in proportion as truths have more interior admission. which is usually given in lexicons. fallacies adhere to sensual truths more than to others. is treated of as follows: "The truths which are here signified by sons are what are called sensual. Concerning sensual truths we read further: "Those truths are said to be external which are called sensual truths. which flow in immediately from the world through the bodily senses. therefore every son represents some general principle in which those prior things are. 4342. namely.) Since sensual truths are joined with appearances in the outer world. and thus truths become more and more genuine. and are the outermost of the natural mind." (A. who had a knowledge of correspondences.) It has been indicated before that there is genuine truth in each plane. "described the origin of intelligence and wisdom by a winged horse which they called Pegasus. the rational is represented by Isaac and Rebekah. The ascent from sensual to spiritual truths or from the world to heaven. and he is then able to view the world from the light of heaven. For the sensual plane of the mind is not properly opened and formed except by obedience. followed by the descent from heaven to the world. and since appearances are so often deceiving and therefore lead the mind astray. things prior co-exist. which are signified by the sons of Rachel. Sensual truth comes first in time. but interior truths. He is then capable of being in both abstract and concrete thought. fallacies and consequent illusions do not adhere to interior truths as they do to sensual truths.

whether natural or spiritual. is the origin of intelligence. when the literal page of Scripture is shown and read to them. unanimity. the intelligence of natural and spiritual things. For.nine virgins. and a principle of obedience and charity inculcated by precept and example." (Exod. and the things which are. and between this latter and the spiritual truth of the Word. and at the same time the truth that the Word is holy and Divine. which is. 7729. C. truths of the ultimate degree where is the origin of intelligence. xxiv: 4. "angelic ideas are spiritual and when they penetrate inwardly they are celestial. For instance.) In truths of the ultimate degree. by virgins. for they knew that by a horse was signified the intellectual. it is clear that there is a marked distinction between sensual truth and scientific or natural truth. and they are told that the words were spoken by the Lord. also. and it is said that "Moses wrote all the words of the Lord. 627. since this distinction when clearly seen will be of use to the minister in his study of the Word. as we have shown. it is necessary to keep in mind that the terms scientific and natural are not always used in the Writings in this specific sense. for they frequently include in their scope all truth in the natural. a word of frequent occurrence in Scripture. and thus its distinction from spiritual truth on the one side and sensual truth on the other. But such things at this day are among those which are lost. or as a literal and physical fact. the Divine Voice said to John on the isle of Patmos. but human ideas are natural. this physical idea of writing becomes a sensual truth. the sciences. we may look with hope to spiritual growth in the later years of life. by his wings. Hence the importance of implanting in a little child-as early as it is possible for him to receive them. and other truths which stand in relation to these. Our purpose however in this chapter is to bring out the signification of the term natural truth as used in the specific sense. or a truth about God associated with a visible object. For the purposes of religious instruction to little children. i: 11). that can be received through the sight and communicated to the mind. even sensual truth. This gives us an example of what a sensual truth is. i : 19). We shall make use of the word write. so in all other cases.) But as we have before remarked. and in the spiritual sense charity. by hoofs. in them is the beginning of all rational thought. E." (A. and this beginning should be made in early childhood. If these truths are sown in the infantile mind. for the purpose of showing what is meant by this intermediate plane between the mere sense of the letter and the purely spiritual sense. comprehend.) The things so written are Divine and holy and make the Word a holy book to be treated with sacred regard and reverence. and by His command the things heard or seen were written down by prophet or seer. and the things which shall be hereafter. "Write the things which thou hast seen. 3507. C. as a sensual truth. and this upon a hill. and also to the teacher of religion to children and the young. See also A. 1." (A. "What thou seest write in a book and send it unto the seven churches which are in Asia. Let us now proceed to illustrate more in detail what is meant by natural truth in the Word. as we read. From all that has been said. is to trace or inscribe on a page by the letters of writing things that can be seen and read. and receive. the spiritual." (Rev. . are sensual. To write. by hill." (Rev. and when derived from historicals. the first truth a child is able to acquire. or in sensual truths.the truths concerning the visible objects of nature as created by God.

2. that be should make these known. for the memory of man is wholly inadequate and insufficient to preserve this in its purity and integrity." (A." (A. R. As the memory of man is unreliable there is need of an ultimate and fixed memory outside of himself. To write. 9353. 886). and the derivative meaning to their abstract. but what is present to the imagination and natural thought and reason. In the rest of number 8620 it is shown that by a book is meant the memory. here. We read also in the Psalm (cii: 18) that "this shall be written for the generation to conic. "In the spiritual sense by writing is signified to commit to the heart for reception. or philosophical meaning. 8620. natural. after it is stated that by writing in the natural sense is signified "to commit to paper." and in Malachi (iii: 16) that "a book of remembrance was written before Him. that truths by it may be preserved for future use. that "they are for recollection. the art of writing and printing was invented. also that "it signifies to commit to paper and thus to posterity for remembrance. also " 'write this for a memorial in a book. or that they should bear them in mind. Hence when the memory and thought of man bad become so perverted that revelation could no longer be preserved by that means. 473. and in an eminent sense the Word of revelation. In this sense we use the word memorandum. This sense is given in the Doctrine and shines out in certain passages of the letter of the Word. and thus to posterity for remembrance. Thus writing means to communicate thought. and by the book of life. or objective sense of words. The Doctrine gives similar definitions of writing in the sense of natural truth as signifying "that it may be for remembrance to posterity." (A. C. because the purpose of writing is remembrance to all posterity. 39) "that he should commit these things to posterity for remembrance.' signifies for perpetual remembrance.) These latter words in their letter indicate clearly an interior natural sense. In The Apocalypse Revealed. visible. the second is that by writing is signified "to communicate thought by writing. S." (A. We read that by writing is signified "that all things which are now revealed may be for the use of posterity. to which writing in the literal sense corresponds. and not forgotten and lost. man's memory that goes with him into the other life. 3. physical. for them that feared the Lord and thought upon His name." (A." (A. not only to those of this generation but also to preserve it for those who come after us in the generations which are to follow. To write is also expressive of spiritual truth. This sense of the word is frequently mentioned in the Writings and also in the letter of Scripture." (A." Also that "to write denotes to impress on the life. D. and the Lord provided that what He had to say to men should be preserved in a fixed ultimate memory (A. Many examples are found in the dictionaries both of a concrete and of an abstract sense of words or of the root meaning and a derivative meaning. R. The first idea of the word we have already given." which expresses its essential use. describes what is not concretely visible to the senses. 816). The whole field of literature comes under this head. In fact a derivative idea or natural truth of a word for the most part indicates the use of the thing that the word expresses.) Hence what is written down is something to be remembered." All these teachings show that there is an interior natural sense or plane of natural truth in the word write. R. The root meaning has reference to the sensual. as a natural truth or as an abstract truth in the natural. The term write is used in this twofold sense. So it is with the things . 739). R. R. 639) "that it might be revealed to posterity. 63)." the explanation is added. R. Every book written is such a memory. number 473. C.

"Bind them upon thy fingers. In closing we recall that the sensual truth of the Word is the plane of the appearances of truth. then in the next chapter (ver. 5201. "'And I will write upon him the name of my God. write them upon the table of thine heart. thought. iii: 3. 222. but natural truth is a mirror brilliantly reflective of spiritual and celestial ideas. that the plane of natural or genuine truth should be entered. in the spiritual sense therefore it signifies that which is to endure in man's life. appears in some passages of the letter : in Jeremiah. and write Thy law in our hearts. even if he does not make a direct use of it in his sermon. . write them upon the table of thine heart. "Lord have mercy upon us." (iii: 3). and teaches that the things impressed on the internal memory remain to eternity." (A. and thus to the state of his illustration. The minister will therefore find it useful to analyze and exhaust the natural truth contained in his text. the one natural or external.) Paul expresses the same in these words. E.) In the Liturgy of the General Church of the New Jerusalem the same truth is uttered. Sensual truth is as it were a dull mirror. but in fleshy tables of the heart. C. for it will add much to his sources of material. C. to inscribe on the life. and hence when the abstract natural sense of a word is seen. For we read that natural truth is a mirror of spiritual truth (A. because to write is to commit to paper anything from the memory. "Written not with ink. or mind. . I will put my law in their inward parts.) The number then proceeds to treat of the two memories.after the minister reads the commandments-in the prayer of the people. "Let not mercy and truth forsake thee." (A. but it is spiritual to inscribe on the life. or to commit to the internal memory for use in the spiritual world. 6384). but with the spirit of the living God. Then follows the celestial sense of write presenting the truth as it is in the inmost plane or supreme sense of the Word. 10505. bind them about thy neck. 9386." (A. saith the Lord. "After those days." 4. when spoken of the Lord. C. and following the injunction to keep the commandments it is said. .' -signifies Divine Truth implanted in the life." The same truth appears in the book of Proverbs. 33) the spiritual truth appears. We propose therefore to devote the closing chapter of this work to a consideration of the Doctrine of Genuine Truth. Again. and write it in their hearts.impressed on a man's life." (2 Cor. "Write thee all the words that I have spoken in a book". . . Thus the natural sense of this expression is turned into the spiritual sense. . who see the Lord in all things that are said and done in the Word. and the other spiritual or internal. and are intended only for the early formation of the human understanding. inscribed on it and implanted in it. signifies to implant in the life . for those angels never forget that "what is written in the internal man is written by the Lord and remains to eternity.) The spiritual sense of writing as signifying to write upon the heart. for it is natural to write upon paper or in a book.) Every word of Scripture and every text may be treated in this way. and thus that the way may be opened for entrance into the pure spiritual truth of the Word. first as a sensual truth (xxx: 2). It is necessary for an interior opening of the understanding." (vii: 3. and these appearances are more or less filled with fallacies which lead astray if confirmed or blindly followed. the spiritual idea in it at once suggests itself. bringing into view the signification of the word as understood by the celestial angels. that is to be preserved. not in tables of stone.

Hence we read that "inasmuch as the Lord is the Word. "Divine Doctrine is Divine Truth. 3364. and Divine Doctrine is Divine teaching. 2533. C." (A. C. and from this. 2859). that "by doctrine is meant the Word as it is in its literal sense. 356). C. thus it is the internal sense itself. C." (A. 7089. 229. E. the Truth. R. 2516. 59. 320. 10400. S. S. (See the numbers cited in the second chapter of this work). and the all of doctrine treats of Him. 10763. 2531. C.) That the internal sense is doctrine we are taught further in the following passages: "The internal sense is doctrine itself." (A. And whereas the literal sense contains within it the internal sense." (H. 57-61. and thus to the Lord." (A. C. 9025. C. S. the Word also is doctrine. It is also said of this doctrine that it is to be drawn from the literal sense of the Word (A." (A. 9030.) It is also said. It seems appropriate to say a word here as to the necessity of doctrine. and this the supreme sense. C. there is introduction to the internal sense. C. 51. which treats of the things that are in the world and upon earth.) It is clear therefore that the term doctrine is used in more than one sense in the Writings. the Way. 52. C." (A." (A. D. 3712. the Light.) Since the Word is that which is given to teach men and lead them in the way to heaven. Divine Doctrine is also the Word in the literal sense. Divine Doctrine is the Word in the internal sense. W. the Door. because it is this doctrine that is specifically meant when it is said that the Word is not understood without doctrine (A. 53-56. but we are here interested in the doctrine which is called the doctrine of genuine truth. 50. T. therefore also the doctrine therefrom is Divine. Divine Doctrine itself is the Word in the supreme -sense. 3464. 3447." (A." (A. being from the spiritual sense of the Word. C.CHAPTER XXVIII THE DOCTRINE OF GENUINE TRUTH Doctrine is teaching. as in number 3712 quoted above. as we read. He is also doctrine. C. A. 7. That doctrine does indeed have a most essential place in the church is apparent from what has been said ." (A. which treats of the Lord alone. R. C. C. which is the same as the doctrine that is in heaven. which treats of the Lord's kingdom in the heavens and on earth. 10582. R. S. 5321).) "The true doctrine of the church is what is here called the internal sense. and that it does not appear in the sense of the letter of the Word to any but those who are in illustration from the Lord (A. T. 9424. the genuine truths of the literal sense of the Word which are at the same time general truths. 8. S. It is the Lord teaching the truth concerning Himself and the way to Him. 9380. 231-233). for. also that "the Lord is doctrine itself and therefore in the Word He is called the Word.) "The doctrine of faith of the church is the doctrine of the internal sense.) "The doctrine which should be for a lamp is what the internal sense teaches. A. 3393. 9424. and as the literal sense altogether corresponds thereto by means of representatives and significatives. and Divine Truth is all the Word of the Lord. also that by. C. 230). and that "the Lord is doctrine itself.) "The internal sense of the Word contains the genuine doctrine of the church. S. for the all of doctrine proceeds from Him.) The doctrine [of the New Church] is from heaven. H.

it is meant that He is Doctrine. the Way." (S. C. 3786. but remains natural. without its own doctrine or creed. by wrongly interpreting and applying it. for a man becomes spiritual by a life according to Divine truths. namely. Divine revelation. when anyone undertakes to study the Word for the sake of expounding its .) Let us now proceed to consider the value of knowing and understanding the doctrine of genuine truth. even the truths of nature. Hence we have the teaching that "the case is the same in general with the church when it is being established anew . and the Truth. For to them the Word is like a candlestick without a light. and their minds are wavering and uncertain. C. E." (A. and yet they scarcely see anything. There is still another sense in which the term doctrine is used in the Writings. for it is upon these that the church is built. which is natural. can become spiritual. there is doctrine drawn from revelation and confirmed by it for the use of the church by those who are in illustration from the Lord. and that when in the Gospel the Lord is called the Door. it means that the Doctrine which is from Him and is Himself. prone to errors and liable to heresies. 10582.) How necessary doctrine is to the life of the church will especially appear from the teaching noted above. where the Word is. before that which it contains can be made of use in the organized work of men. and thus the only means of salvation. 10324. as doors and windows to a house. 50. Besides the Divine Doctrine in its various forms revealed for the instruction of men.) "They who read the Word without doctrine. which they also embrace if inclination or authority favors and their reputation be not endangered. that without doctrine the Word is not understood." (A. and nerves and muscles to the body. or who do not acquire to themselves doctrine from the Word are in obscurity as to all truth. It is necessary therefore that great masses or collections of truth. Without these two man is not reformed. thus does not become spiritual. as was said above." (A.) "The Word in the sense of the letter cannot be comprehended without doctrine derived from the Word. although it is Divine Doctrine or teaching Divinely given to men. It is the Lord in the church pointing out the way to Himself. and by removing evils and falsities. as paths and roads in country places. that needs to be explored and surveyed. and they see many things as it were in the shade. When the Lord thus speaks of Himself. cannot even exist.the doctrinals of good and truth must be gathered into one.. for doctrine alone is the lamp. 52. S." (A. is the only way to conjunction with Him. formulated from the immense mass of revelation which the Lord has given to mankind. that without doctrine from the Word no one can fight against evils and falsities. and confirms his natural life by the sense of the letter of the Word. but there is still further teaching on this subject -teaching that directly asserts the use and necessity of doctrine. may be seen from what has now been said. C. as for instance this: "That without doctrine from the Word no one within the church. A church or organic body of men cannot hold together. which he is ignorant of without doctrine. Doctrine is as necessary to spiritual growth and progress as streets and ways to a city. 356. that the Lord is doctrine itself. is like a sea or immense collection of waters surrounding continents and islands.and quoted above from the Writings.) Also the following: "Those who read the Word without doctrine are like those who walk in the dark without a lantern. Every church or body of the church must have its doctrine so formulated and embodied that it may become its working creed. 51. should be reduced to doctrine and thus made ready for use. which cannot be done without doctrine.

The opposite or antonym of genuine is spurious. that is. that doctrine must be drawn from the sense of the letter of the Word and confirmed thereby. 914). and it has been necessary to. bring it forward from time to time because of what was stated in our introductory chapter. distracts the mind into various things. 911. and that this can be done only by those who are in illustration from the Lord. and the appearance there of fallacy and error is only with those who are as yet uninstructed. and if fallacy appears it is but little regarded. those in heaven and those in bell from some passages in the Word understood only according to the sense of the letter. are called appearances of truth. namely. We merely accept here as a fact that appearances in the Word have been received and confirmed as true. the meaning is that it appears to be what it is not. 898. or who are confirmed in falsity of doctrine and of faith. But. When it is said that a thing is spurious. and the latter word suggests the reason why the term genuine is used in the Writings to express what it does. but which appear to be so to the simple and to the ignorant. Now in respect to the literal sense of the Word. 311. and contain fallacies which become falsities when confirmed. The reasons are fully given in the Writings and also the reasons why men are permitted to believe in those appearances of truth. as was said. In fact wherever it is said in the Writings that doctrine is to be drawn from the Word and confirmed by it. and errors" (H. 904. all things in the Word are true. R. and not illustrated and explained by genuine doctrine from the Word. It is because of the distinguished place which this doctrine occupies that it is now proposed to devote an entire chapter to an elucidation of it. from which come ignorance. the doctrine appearing in the literal sense of the Word which is called the doctrine of genuine truth. This is also shown in the following passage: "They said that the Christian world had taken such a faith respecting. Both genuine truth and appearances that become spurious by confirmation appear in the literal sense of the Word. 902. that the doctrine of genuine truth is one of the three essentials by which the Word is opened and understood. and have been made use of to falsify and pervert the pure and genuine truth of the Word. or is laid aside until light is given. for appearances are not in themselves spurious. and in the common thought and speech of the world. in the Word inherently considered there is nothing but what is true. We shall see that the Lord has now revealed the presence of this doctrine in the letter of the Word. It does not belong to this place to explain why there are things in the Word which are not true. The reader will have noticed the frequent mention of this subject in the preceding pages. and elsewhere. and that by this doctrine the Word is to be understood. they become spurious by sinister and false interpretation. H. heresies. The same doctrine is also called the doctrine of the New Church (A. those things which not only appear to be true but really are so. is meant.) The same is taught in Arcana Coelestia. We would here repeat what was shown above from the Writings. and constitute the doctrine of genuine truth: but those things which are not in themselves true but appear so. number 10763. and which is at the same time instructed and enlightened in the genuine truths of the Word.internal sense. but when it is said that a thing is genuine the meaning is that it appears to be what it is. To the mind which is affected by truth for its own sake. unless genuine doctrine enlightens. so that the truth itself has been hidden from the sight of . in order that its essential nature may more fully appear. are said to be genuine. that the Word cannot be understood without doctrine. when yet the sense of the letter of the Word.

. .' (Deut. 2225. The same teaching is given in The Apocalypse Explained. THAT THERE ARE GENUINE TRUTHS IN THE LITERAL SENSE OF THE WORD. and thou shalt love Jehovah thy God from thy whole heart. and these words shall be on thy heart. as they are in its spiritual sense. or the sense of the letter." (A.) This number teaches plainly that the genuine truths of the letter being "similar to the internal sense. and "in it the internal sense is open. (A. for he who hates kills every moment. number 2143 may be profitably read. as in the Old Testament where in the Prophets it is. and from all thy strength. Concerning intimations of truth in the literal." are "the essentials of faith. Even in the historical portions of the Word.) In what follows in this number. We are further informed: "The truths of the sense of the letter of the Word are in part not naked truths. 'Jehovah our God is one Jehovah. and should call the attention of the children to them. which. especially when it is treating concerning the essentials of faith. numbers 816. the goods and truths that are clothed are called appearances of truth." Hence they "are expressed in the letter such as they are in the internal sense. as this in Moses. and from thy whole soul. FIRST. 5." It is indeed the Lord Himself appearing in the letter of His Word and teaching there the truths that lead the way to the internal sense and prepare for introduction to it. which a teacher who is alert will see. 3440. Again: "The sense of the letter here is similar to the internal sense. 778. E. but with his face and hands bare. "In the literal sense the internal sense is open in many passages. The suggestion may here be made that the teacher of religion to children should be continually on the lookout for genuine truths in the literal sense of any chapter chosen for a lesson. especially for the appearings of the Lord there. and making a new revelation necessary in order that spiritual light may again be restored and salvation effected thereby. C. these and many more are of the internal sense in the literal sense. thus as they are in the spiritual sense. but appearances of truth. besides other passages of a similar kind. vi: 4. . the goods and truths that are bare are called the genuine goods and truths of the Word.men. that to hate is to kill. sense. Let us now examine the teachings on this subject. that all the law and the prophets are to love God and the neighbor. as is sometimes the case. if there are not statements of genuine truth. AND THAT THEY ARE THE SPIRITUAL SENSE APPEARING IN THE LETTER. and are as it were likenesses and . are expressed in the letter such as they are in the internal sense.) This "internal sense in the literal sense" is what is called the doctrine of genuine truth. 6). said that the Lord would come for the salvation of the human race. and where the Word is thus bare. there its goods and truths are bare as they are in heaven. because they are necessary to salvation. For the Word in its ultimates is like a man clothed with a garment. there are at least intimations of it." (A. are goods and truths clothed. bringing about a state of blindness and thick darkness in all things of theology. and some only are bare. C. We are again told that "most things in the natural sense of the Word. 1033. Arcana Coelestia." There is thus in the literal sense of the Word not anything that is wanting to salvation." and "are necessary to salvation.

We would. that the Lord Jesus Christ is that God. 3447. Ahusath. These genuine truths which. each of whom represents some essential and primary of faith (ibid)." Concerning this we have spoken in the chapter on "Children and the Young. that the twelve princes. In many places also where they are clothed they shine through their clothing. by the tribes of . as we are told. that there is a life after death for which man must prepare by obedience to God. generals. are provided for the sake "of the simple and of little children. that the primaries of the doctrine of faith. The naked truths themselves which are enclosed. also by the number twelve. like a face through a thin veil of silk. But this also is by means of doctrine. but the other things are clothed. C. R. that the same is signified by the twelve sons of Jacob and the twelve disciples of the Lord. are also variously represented in the Word. See also S. and as a silver plate holds palatable food. S. Hence these truths of the letter are nothing else than the spiritual sense appearing on that plane. The bare hands and face represent the genuine truths of the Word. 2089). On this subject we read further: "The doctrine of genuine truth can also be drawn in full from the sense of the letter of the Word. and the twelve apostles. 55. as swathings do an infant. and that kings and princes named throughout the Word signify those things which are primary (A. are signified by Abimelech. For example. S. T. C. because in this sense the Word is like a man clothed.) From this passage we learn that the appearances of truth. C. that princes signify primaries for interpretation. the twelve sons of Jacob." But the other things which are clothed represent appearances of truth. 4790. 5084). which are from the literal sense of the Word. All things that concern man's life and consequently his salvation are bare. 3452). 2089. and there are other genuine truths there in the midst of a mass of appearances which are like the clothing which conceals the body. C. there are the teachings in the letter of the Word that there is one God. which are those which primarily conduce to the interpretation of the Word (A. as by princes. C. . and are like enclosing and containing vessels. which are "all things that concern man's life and consequently his salvation. held. But being correspondences they are receptacles and abodes of genuine truths. and are ranged in order by this love. They are also like the scientifics of the natural man which contain within them the perceptions and affections of truth of the spiritual man. and contained. De Verbo 10. that evil is to be shunned as sin. 5082. are in the spiritual sense of the Word.) Thus we are taught that "the doctrine of genuine truth can be drawn in full from the sense of the letter" because in the literal sense the Word is like a man whose face and bands are bare. kings. for the sake of the uses of salvation. the elders of Israel." to which the reader is referred. the sons of Ishmael. 3448. and thus accommodated and adapted to the apprehension of the simple and of little children. S. 40. signify the primary precepts which are of charity. that by the apostles. 4966. The truths of the Word also appear and shine through their clothing more and more clearly in proportion as they are multiplied by a love for them." (S. we read that princes signify the primary precepts of the Word. whose face and hands are bare. 229. and the naked goods are in its celestial sense. prophets. 1482. 51. clothed. call attention to the teaching in the above number that the naked truths are in reality the truths of the spiritual sense of the Word. the twelve tribes. as a crystal cup encloses noble wine. or truths covered and clothed. and as a pretty dress clothes a maiden.comparisons taken from things that exist in nature. . however. For instance. which are acquired in childhood (A. 215. and Phicol the captain of his army (A. . are laid bare in the literal sense." (S. 5044). They are also like garments which clothe.

See also 10632. C. 10637. "The reason why the spiritual sense of the Word has been at this day disclosed by the Lord is that the doctrine of genuine truth has now been revealed. The universals of the internal sense. 25. and the same is true of every general in the Writings. that the elders of Israel signify primary truth (A. the Lord has also revealed the arcana of heaven (H. This shows that the signification of the tribes. THAT BECAUSE OF THE UNIVERSAL FALSIFICATION OF THE WORD IN THE CHRISTIAN WORLD. That for a long time the spiritual sense will not be acknowledged. and by twelve.) Sometimes it is said that the twelve tribes and the twelve apostles signify the generals and sometimes the universals of the church and of the Word. These particulars contained in the general are the truth of the internal sense. but includes also all things of the internal sense. which are applications of the general. by general truths. is meant in Revelation by the beast. There is never a general without particulars. S. cardinal truths. are first formed by the Lord by means of primary truths. . as has been shown in the numbers previously quoted.Israel. of the apostles. 8773. and are also called the truth of doctrine. but when formulated for instruction are called the doctrine of genuine truth. H. A general truth in the literal sense is a universal truth in the internal.* * In addition to the spiritual sense of the Word. that they come into heaven who have lived well and into hell who have lived ill. that is. . They are at first general to us. 8681). 10638. 6524. Hence the general truths of the literal sense contain innumerable particulars. but they appear as universal when the spiritual rational is opened. are not only called general truths. C. . 10728. becoming general in the letter. 8578. and this doctrine and no other is in accord with the spiritual sense of the Word. SECOND. primary truths are. C. 4642). 7912." (A. 10682. and of twelve is not confined to the general truths in the literal sense. which are first insinuated by the Lord into the good with the man who is being regenerated. and by the kings of the earth. sense. and that this love cannot be given except by faith-these and the like are primary truths. and who therefore do not admit truths. or truths primary for interpretation. in which and from which the rest are. also that love to God and love towards the neighbor are the precepts upon which the rest depend. and the doctrine of genuine truth. which is the reason why it is frequently said they signify the universals of the Word. 3913). C. 1). The two are essentially one. that by the twelve sons of Jacob are signified the twelve general or cardinal things by which man is initiated into spiritual and celestial things (A. IT WAS NECESSARY THAT THE SPIRITUAL SENSE OF THE WORD SHOULD BE REVEALED. are signified the primary things of faith (A. because of the ignorance of men in the Christian . that there is a heaven and a hell. or the truth that is within the doctrine (A. that the Lord was born a man that He might save the human race.) It is clear therefore that the genuine truths which are in the literal sense of the Word have now been made known by the Lord. :2129). and that this is entirely owing to those who are in falsities of doctrine. AND THAT THE DOCTRINE OF GENUINE TRUTH SHOULD BE AT THE SAME TIME MADE KNOWN. especially concerning the Lord. that there is one God. 10699. primary truths. 8585. who should make war with him who sat upon the white horse (xix: 19). C." (S. and in treating further of the elders of Israel it is said that "they who are in good not yet formed by truths.

which in the Word are meant by cherubim. nor can the genuine be separated from the spurious in their minds until the judgment comes and a new revelation is given. no genuine light concerning the Lord and the way to Him. For the spiritual sense of the Word treats solely of the Lord and His kingdom. but these are mingled with fallacies and appearances. and must be in a state of illustration from the Lord. and may even force it to confirm what is false. Correspondences are of no use for opening the Word if the mind be in false doctrine.) . To this sense a man can do violence if he has a knowledge of correspondences. He who is in false doctrine cannot see anything of the spiritual sense. And therefore if anyone purposes to open that sense from himself and not from the Lord." (De Verbo 21. 26. T.world arising from falsification of the Word. 208. guards have been set by the Lord. could be seen in the letter of the Word-with the exception of some faint gleams for those who have lived a. R." (S. the way will be opened for a clear comprehension of the revelation which the Lord has made in His Second Coming. or from perverting the genuine truth that belongs to that sense. By virtue of this good they are in a few genuine truths. as follows: "Henceforth the spiritual sense of the Word will be imparted solely to him who from the Lord is in genuine truths. The reason of this is that no one can see the spiritual sense except from the Lord alone. and this is the sense in which are His angels in heaven. life of charity. C. so that unless a man is in Divine truths. he may from these falsify the truths. In the passages quoted above. and not without a medium does He pour new truths in. and in those which now follow. but not correspondences alone. The teaching about the distinction between the spiritual sense and the doctrine of genuine truth continues. but that they appear as two is practically what we are endeavoring to show in this chapter. and this would be doing violence to Divine truth and also to heaven. heaven is closed.) A knowledge of correspondences is necessary for entering into the spiritual sense. and He teaches from those truths which the man already has. for the mind must be informed in the doctrine of genuine truth. Therefore in order to prevent anyone from entering into the spiritual sense of the Word. the spiritual sense is spoken of as one thing and the doctrine of genuine truth as another. These latter are they that are called the simple and the simple-good in the Writings. This is made clear in the following passage: "No one can see the spiritual sense except from the doctrine of genuine truth. For through some correspondences with which he is acquainted he may pervert the meaning of it. as has been previously shown.* * The two indeed are interiorly and essentially one. and that both have been disclosed. and wishes by means of it and from self-intelligence to investigate the spiritual sense of the Word. S. and unless from Him he is in genuine truths. as it is well known is done by every heretic in regard to the sense of the letter of the Word. and then the man either sees nothing or else becomes spiritually insane. an ignorance so dense that no truth. for it is His Divine truth there. If it can be seen distinctly what the one is and what the other is. from this doctrine the spiritual sense can be seen when there is some knowledge of correspondences. or if he is only in a few truths and at the same time in falsities. Another reason is that the Lord teaches every one by means of the Word.

C. No spiritual law can be interiorly seen. was about to be established by the Lord. as said before (n. were not revealed by the Lord until after the last judgment was accomplished. 56. and the New Church. and it is guarded by Him as heaven is guarded. That the final judgment is now accomplished is shown in the small work The Last Judgment. and of the Word itself. "It is better therefore for man to study the Word in the sense of the letter. which is meant by the Holy Jerusalem. cannot draw the doctrine of genuine truth from the spiritual sense of the Word by means of correspondences. from this alone is doctrine furnished. "Genuine truths.the opposite of the doctrine of genuine truth is taught as follows: "It might be believed that the doctrine of genuine truth could be procured by means of the spiritual sense of the Word which is furnished through a knowledge of correspondences. It is better therefore for man to study the Word in the sense of the letter. it is only lighted up and corroborated. from this alone is doctrine furnished. being in ignorance or in confirmed falsity. It is foretold by the Lord in Revelation that after the last judgment is accomplished. Hence without this knowledge it cannot be understood why the doctrine of genuine truth could not be seen in the Word. Thus no consideration of this question would be complete unless the teaching concerning the judgment in relation to it be brought forward. for heaven is in it.) It is thus made clear that men.That a man will falsify the Word by means of a knowledge of correspondences if he is in false doctrine . S. and in . by connecting them together and interpreting them so as to confirm that which cleaves to his mind from some principle previously received. THE DOCTRINE OF GENUINE TRUTH. For. This is eminently true of the doctrines of the church." (S. Hence the Lord placed the doctrine of genuine truth in the literal sense. Moreover the spiritual sense of the Word is not given any one except by the Lord alone. the main point that is set forth is the reason why the revelation could not be made previous to the last judgment. and the spiritual sense of the Word disclosed. The doctrine of genuine truth is also the first doctrine with children. But doctrine is not procured by means of that sense. without a knowledge of what has been revealed concerning the judgment. In the numbers which follow. genuine truths are to be revealed. of which the spiritual sense of the Word consists. AND AT THE SAME TIME THE SPIRITUAL SENSE OF THE WORD COULD NOT BE REVEALED UNTIL THE LAST JUDGMENT WAS ACCOMPLISHED. that it has been effected. and from the Word made known to men. a new church established. and of what has been accomplished by it.* * It is in accordance with this teaching that the prime effort of the New Church missionary is to impress upon the minds of his hearers that the leading doctrines of the New Church are taught in the literal sense of the Word. and has now revealed its presence there. The conditions of human life in the world cannot be profoundly comprehended without a knowledge of the last judgment. 26). no one comes into the spiritual sense of the Word by means of correspondences unless he is first in genuine truths from doctrine. which we shall now proceed to do. R. Cf." The doctrine meant here is the doctrine of genuine truth in the letter as distinguished from the spiritual sense. See also De Verbo 21. If a man is not first in genuine truths he may falsify the Word by means of some correspondences with which he is acquainted. 230. THIRD. T. or seen in universal light.

) The establishment of the New Church on earth is the one grand result of the last judgment. . which is hell. 73). This could not have been done before. is to be instituted by the Lord at the end of the former church. for the reasons given in the foregoing number. in which this doctrine will hold the chief place. which also has been revealed. Behold I make all things new. because if it had been revealed previous to the restoration of spiritual liberty to men through the last judgment. the reason of which is. But this state of power on the part of hell was completely broken by the last judgment. had this doctrine been seen before. and could not be seen until after the judgment. that if it had it would not have been received because the last judgment had not then been executed. therefore between the Lord and the church. 264." (D. mentioned in Revelation xxi: 1. and previous to that judgment the power of hell prevailed over the power of heaven. or as when the sun is eclipsed and its light . 65." (L. this supreme truth of all truths was not seen by men. . and in no other way. but as not long after its setting up anew the church was turned into Babylon. or between the Lord and the church. is that it has been foretold in Revelation (xxi and xxii) that a New Church.A Continuation Concerning the Last Judgment. profanation would have taken place (L. man was unable to be enlightened. would have plucked it out of men's hearts. and would also have profaned it. xxi: 18-21.) The reason why neither the doctrine concerning the Lord nor any genuine doctrine of the Word could be seen and received previous to the judgment is fully set forth in what follows: "That before the last judgment was effected. xxii: 1. which has now been executed. because the last judgment had not been effected. was intercepted. 2). it is evident that the devil. and afterwards with others into Philistia. J. It was as when a sunbeam is cut off by a black interposing cloud. P. . is foretold by these words in the Revelation: 'He that sat upon the throne said. so that if the doctrine had been given before. and in the one which now follows: "This doctrine did not exist in the former church. The reason why it has not been previously seen from the Word [that the Lord alone is God] is that if it had been previously seen it would not have been received. and enters by an internal way. and as man is in the midst between the two. also xix: 17. much of the communication between heaven and the world.) Although it is taught in the literal sense of the Word that the Lord Jesus Christ is the only God of heaven and earth. All illustration comes to man from the Lord through heaven. This same doctrine had indeed been given in the Word.' (verse 5. . and by means of that doctrine men are able to enter into the spiritual sense of the Word. . We read further: "The reason why these truths relative to the Lord are now for the first time made known publicly.18. for the church sees the Word from the principles of its religion and from its doctrine. and acknowledge Him as the God of heaven and earth. even from the Lord's mouth. . Before that event the power of hell prevailed over the power of heaven." (L. That genuine truths are then to be revealed. So long as there were congregations of such spirits between heaven and the world. also that this is meant by the heaven and earth which are to pass away. that doctrine could not be seen from the Word. nor does it at this day remain except with those who approach the Lord alone. it would not have remained with men. 61. For this end the doctrine of genuine truth has been given.

For since communication has been restored by the last judgment. nor can he inwardly in himself think a single thought. J. it is plain that the communication between heaven and the world. to understand the Divine Truth of the Word. it is not possible for him to receive in his heart any pure and genuine truth of the Word. has been restored. 12. S. All his interior life and activity is inspired by those in the other world with whom he habitually dwells. second. L.) FOURTH." (C. It is plain from the teaching given that the reception of the doctrine of genuine truth is a condition precedent to the entering into the spiritual sense of the Word. and that no one can see the spiritual sense except from the doctrine of genuine truth. man is able to be enlightened and reformed. and in the Writings of the Church. It was shown above that the spiritual sense has been disclosed at this day because the doctrine of genuine truth has been revealed (S. AND WHO ARE IN ILLUSTRATION FROM THE LORD.) For a complete comprehension of the reason that the new revelation could not be made previous to the last judgment. no man can live.arrested by the interjacent moon. 25). 11. and a more or less clear understanding of it. S. and unless man can be interiorly separated from evil spirits and come into association with the angels of heaven. and when there is some knowledge of correspondences (De Verbo 21). Now since all these interposing congregations were dissipated by the last judgment. be affected by anything. and that man is an inhabitant of both and associated with those who dwell in both worlds. and to retain it when received. association with angels and influx from them is cut off from men in the world. The teaching that the spiritual sense of the Word can be given to none but to those who are in genuine truths. that is not in agreement with their life. J. especially without association with spirits in the spiritual world." (C. "that after the last judgment. We read. This calls for three things. for the interposing obstacles have been removed. to be separated from evil spirits and introduced as to his spirit into the company of the good in the other world. Without such association. to receive it when understood. needs special attention in order to understand its significance and bearing on the conditions existing when the New Church is established. revelations were made for the New Church. or receive anything into his interior mind. But since the judgment has been effected it is possible for any man who lives the life of repentance from sin. Wherefore if anything had been then revealed by the Lord. When therefore the whole world of spirits and the lower heavens are occupied by the evil. THAT THE SPIRITUAL SENSE OF THE WORD WILL BE GIVEN TO NONE BUT THOSE WHO ARE IN GENUINE TRUTHS. Revelation is therefore not made until the judgment is accomplished. 26). and not sooner. that is. or if received it would afterward have been suffocated. a thorough training and preparation of ministers and teachers in the letter of the Word. either it would not have been understood or if understood it would not have been received. that henceforth the spiritual sense of the Word will be imparted solely to him who is in genuine truths from the Lord (S. it is necessary to understand clearly the intimate relation of the two worlds. or between the Lord and the church. first. and that the spiritual sense cannot be approached or even seen without knowledge and information concerning the doctrine of genuine truth. the instruction of children and the young in the . L.

and handed over . They should be. who are not ordained and thus not authorized to administer the sacraments of the church. The third proposition is concerning the proclamation of the genuine truths of the literal sense of the Word in the work of general evangelization. It follows that a commencement should be made in imparting such genuine truths as soon as the understanding begins to be opened. The spiritual sense of the Word can be given only to those who are in genuine truths because these latter are the only means of introduction to the spiritual sense. and thus into the more interior life of the church. This opening is also the opening of the rational faculty. which is the faculty of discriminating between the true and the false. third. but who are thoroughly instructed in the genuine truths of the literal sense of the Word. As to the first.genuine truths of the literal sense. the genuine from the spurious. growth. but as their proper function is instructing the adult rational mind. beginning early in life. whose function would be instructing the youthful mind in the genuine truths of the literal sense. especially the instruction of boys and youths. This is indeed primarily a function of the priesthood. it goes without saying that a New Church minister should have gone through a course of thorough instruction in the literal sense of the Word and in the Writings in order to be able to perform the use of his function faithfully and well. can be treated as a special department of the church's activity. beginning early in life. teachers who are not priests or ordained ministers should be prepared for this work. and also between good and evil. and development of the rational. but as the chief work of a regularly ordained minister is the building up of societies by instruction in the spiritual truths of the Word. there seems to be no reason why some of the work of external evangelization may not be done by authorized evangelists or lecturers. It would thus appear that instruction in the doctrine of genuine truth as preparatory to introduction into the spiritual sense of the Word. and because of little children and girls some of these teachers should be of the female sex. and who are provided with other gifts necessary for such work. But in addition to this there should be the training of teachers for the religious instruction of children and the young. however. under the general direction and authorization of the priesthood of the church. It cannot be doubted that the training of this faculty of discrimination should begin at an early period of child life. As we have intimated. For the exercise of this faculty is to be perpetual . Ordained ministers may also do this work.the faculty of discriminating the true from the false. and of evangelists or lecturers for the general missionary field. as represented in the episcopal function. This branch of our subject therefore needs no further comment. This should be done in order to present to children from the Lord the material for the opening. When children begin to think and discriminate. instruction in genuine truths should be given at first in their most simple form and adapted according to the judgment of the teacher. it seems wise that there should be teachers especially prepared. the proclamation of the genuine truths of the Word in the work of general evangelization. The second proposition is that there should be instruction of children and the young in the genuine truths of the literal sense.

) Not only the spiritual sense. 231. the fire smouldering there begins to blaze and burn. or of shunning evil as sin against God. and they can be led ever more interiorly into the truths of the spiritual sense of the Word. xxxvi: 9). 1786. On this subject see also Arcana Coelestia. With others there is no illustration in the Word. 8694. This interior spiritual state is established in none but those who live the life of repentance. and to whom the Word shines and is translucent.to those whom the church has prepared for the work of instructing the young and for the general missionary field. 2513. so that when the doctrine of genuine truth is given. The knowledge of truth enters the memory from without. C.is not his however true it may be in itself. 'Blessed are the pure in heart. Let us now enter a little more fully into the teaching concerning the necessity of illustration from the Lord in order to understand and receive the spiritual sense of the Word. neither does genuine doctrine introduce unless there be in the mind the interior light of illustration. the way is open to an ever more increasing understanding of the Word. and their thought is not thought from perception but from memory. and make My abode with him." (S.it is loved when it is made of use. and I will love him." and unless the Lord as the only God be acknowledged in heart. unless there is a state of illustration from the Lord. cannot enlighten. For the Lord is His own Divine truth.) And in Matthew. and exists with those who love truths because they are truths and who make them of use for life.' (v : 8. The reason why illustration exists with those who love truths because they are truths and who make them of use for life. 'In that day ye shall know that ye are in Me and I in you. In such as these there is kindled a spiritual fire in the interiors of the mind. number 9424. the gift of illustration cannot be imparted so as to be received. with others there is no illustration in the Word. 23. which the Lord in His second coming has revealed to mankind. cannot appear to any one so as to be interiorly seen and acknowledged. but even the genuine truths which are in the literal sense of the Word. T. and will manifest Myself to him. and when this is loved because it is Divine truth . 5097. 57. Those who are in such acknowledgment of the Lord "love truths because they are truths and make them of use for life. R. is that such are in the Lord and the Lord is in them. This the Lord teaches in John. in the light of which they are able to see light (Ps. 8780). and the man who is in it stands as yet on the outside.the Lord is in it with man. A man may be informed thoroughly in genuine truths. For truth is not truth to a man . and elsewhere in the Writings. and does not see even the gates of the holy city.) These are they who are enlightened when they are reading the Word. but it . So that if a man be in these two essentials of introduction." There is no interior light in their minds. and I will come unto him. The teaching is as follows: "The genuine truth which must be of doctrine appears in the sense of the letter to none but those who are in illustration from the Lord. He that hath my commandments and doeth them. For "illustration is from the Lord alone. False doctrine cannot introduce to the interiors of the Word. to a continually progressive entrance into its spiritual sense. S. Cf. until he has a perception of it. he it is that loveth Me. 21. 5111. The reason why illustration is from the Lord alone is that the Lord is in all things of the Word. for they shall see God. Illustration is from the Lord alone. but he at the same time may not be in a state of illustration. C.' (xiv: 20. Hence the teaching that perception is revelation (A.

the Advent of the Lord. and they exist there as instrumental to spiritual enlightenment and as the means of introduction to the spiritual sense. and thus draw anything of true doctrine from the Word. Now it is possible for the understanding to enter into the interiors of the Word by means of the genuine truth of doctrine. Even the simple and well-disposed have not been able to sift the true from the false. The spiritual sense of the Word as revealed in the Writings . 12). nor does it enter the mind itself until there is a perception of it. in agreement with the principles herein presented. still they have been so covered and buried in the heaps of a false theology. Evangelization. Now although the literal sense abounds in such truths. the Word. As has been said. This explains why it is sometimes said that the doctrine of genuine truth is from the literal sense of the Word. A man cannot perceive what he does not know. H. The Lord Himself is doctrine because He is the Divine Teacher of men. Some examples of spiritual truths taught in the literal sense are presented in the following list of doctrines:* The Unity of God. Doctrine. His temptations. R. 1. Omniscience. and that they are the spiritual sense appearing in the letter. Additions may be made to the list. * It may be remarked that in the Liturgy for the General Church of the New Jerusalem the Antiphons and the Doctrine are arranged under heads according to the doctrine of genuine truth. D. Hence it became necessary that true doctrine should be revealed by the Lord. This could not be done. They are the universals of the spiritual sense appearing and taking form in the letter as general truths.goes no further. as distinguished from those things that are mere appearances of truth. Repentance. for until then there could not be any illustration from the Lord (C. the Holy Spirit. as the means of salvation to men. the Life after Death. and we called attention to the various senses in which the term doctrine is used in the Writings. R. 11. that they could be seen by no man in the world. Perception in the New Church is to be perception of the truth of doctrine given in written revelation. Faith. It was said and shown above that there are genuine truths in the literal sense of the Word. Creation. however. These doctrines will be found expressed in various forms in the literal sense of the Word. L. and sometimes that it is a revelation from God out of heaven (A. Charity. His combat with the hells. Regeneration. the Second Coming. but there is not anything genuine in the literal sense that may not be included under one of the above heads. the genuine or pure spiritual truths in the literal sense of the Word are the spiritual sense appearing in the letter. the Resurrection. In the opening of this chapter we stated that doctrine is teaching. Providence. Master and also Christ. and they constitute there what is called in the Writings the doctrine of genuine truth. the Divine Mercy. C. His Glorification. based upon appearances. and the presence of genuine truth in the letter of the Word made known by Him. It should be remembered that the knowledge of a thing precedes the perception of it. His Omnipotence. the New Church. hence He is called in the Gospels. Heaven and Hell. and which become spurious by falsification and perversion. J. and to expound that truth in enlightened discourse to men in the world (T. 879. the Last judgment. Redemption by Him. 63. L. the Conjunction of the Lord with the human race. 508). the Divine Love. and Omnipresence. which is immediate revelation from heaven. the Divine Human. the Old Church. the Divine Trinity. 7). until the last judgment was performed.

But specifically the literal sense is doctrine where the pure truths of the spiritual sense appear and shine forth in the form of the doctrine." (D. In this the minister must be versed if he would enter into the interiors of the Word and expound its spiritual sense to men. for nothing spurious or erroneous.is also doctrine or teaching. This he will be able to do thoroughly and well if he at the same time has some knowledge of correspondences. of genuine truth. doctrine which is accommodated there to simple minds and to children. . and is in a state of illustration from the Lord (De Verbo 21). In such a state the work of the minister will be constructive.) The literal sense is also doctrine. hence we read of "the genuine truths of which the spiritual sense consists. or false is there. P. 264. and it is the teaching of genuine truth. and a society which he serves will grow in the understanding of the Word. and the way will be opened to all spiritual intelligence.

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