Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium[1] to a surface (support base).

The application of the medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. Paintings may have for their support such surfaces as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay, copper or concrete, and may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, clay, paper, gold leaf as well as objects. Painting is a mode of expression and the forms are numerous. Drawing, composition or abstraction and other aesthetics may serve to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational (as in a still life or landscape painting), photographic, abstract, be loaded with narrative content, symbolism, emotion or be political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by spiritual motifs and ideas; examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery to Biblical scenes rendered on the interior walls and ceiling of The Sistine Chapel, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other scenes of eastern religious origin.

Elements

Chen Hongshou (1598±1652),Leaf album painting (Ming Dynasty)

[edit]Intensity What enables painting is the perception and representation of intensity. Every point in space has different intensity, which can be represented in painting by black and white and all the gray shades between. In practice, painters can articulate shapes by juxtaposing surfaces of different intensity; by using just color (of the same intensity) one can only represent symbolic shapes. Thus, the basic means of painting are distinct from ideological means, such as geometrical figures, various points of view and organization (perspective), and symbols. For example, a painter perceives that a particular white wall has different intensity at each point, due to shades and reflections from nearby objects, but ideally, a white wall is still a

white wall in pitch darkness. In technical drawing, thickness of line is also ideal, demarcating ideal outlines of an object within a perceptual frame different from the one used by painters. [edit]Color

and tone

Color and tone are the essence of painting as pitch and rhythm are of music. Color is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but in the East, white is. Some painters, theoreticians, writers and scientists, including Goethe,Kandinsky, and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover the use of language is only a generalization for a color equivalent. The word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations on the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as C or C in

music. For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic and derived (complementary or mixed) colors (like red, blue, green, brown, etc.). Painters deal practically with pigments, so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phtalocyan, Paris blue, indigo, cobalt, ultramarine, and so on. Psychological, symbolical meanings of color are not strictly speaking means of painting. Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, and because of this the perception of a painting is highly subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear²sound in music (like "C") is analogous to light in painting, "shades" to dynamics, and coloration is to painting as specific timbre of musical instruments to music²though these do not necessarily form a melody, but can add different contexts to it.

Georges Seurat (1859±91), Circus Sideshow (1887±88)

[edit]Rhythm Rhythm is important in painting as well as in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence", then there can be rhythm in paintings. These pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations²form, melody, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art and it directly affects the esthetical value of that work. This is because

collage.e. Spain. in art as well as in other forms of "techne". rhinoceros. ink and color ink historically predominated the choice of media with equally rich and complex traditions. in northern Australia. Corel Painter.the esthetical value is functionality dependent. Portugal. France. etc. [edit]Non-traditional elements Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include. In the lowest layer of material at these sites there are used pieces of ochre estimated to be 60. straw or wood for their texture. mammoth or humans often hunting. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to paint color onto a digital canvas using programs such as Adobe Photoshop. (Bos primigenius primigenius). Lascaux. for example. [1] There are examples of cave paintings all over the world²in India. . lions. buffalo.000 years old. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet and Anselm Kiefer. directly contributes to the esthetical value. cement. that is dated 40 000 years old. France. In Western cultures oil painting and watercolor painting have rich and complex traditions in style and subject matter. i. Archaeologists have also found a fragment of rock painting preserved in a limestone rock-shelter in the Kimberley region of North-Western Australia. China. which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense. claimed by some historians to be about 32. In the East. the freedom (of movement) of perception is perceived as beauty. [edit]History Main article: History of painting Cave painting of aurochs. Australia. Free flow of energy. They are engraved and painted using red ochreand black pigment and show horses. These images can be printed onto traditional canvas if required. However the earliest evidence of painting has been discovered in two rock-shelters in Arnhem Land. Some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand.prehistoric art The oldest known paintings are at the Grotte Chauvet in France.000 years old. and many others.

Appropriation. Fauvism. This can stem from an actual group that the artist was consciously involved with or it can be a category in which art historians have placed the painter.Postmodern painting. Minimalism. Hard-edge painting. In 1829. the first photograph was produced. is dead. and paint-on-glass animation. Computer art painting. The vitality and versatility of painting in the 21st century belies the premature declarations of its demise. This has not deterred the majority of living painters from continuing to practice painting either as whole or part of their work. painting lost much of its historic purpose to provide an accurate record of the observable world. Eastern and African painting. environmental mural painting. as it became more widespread. PostImpressionism. as a serious art form. Abstract Expressionism. techniques and methods that typify an individual artist's work. continued a long history of stylization and did not undergo an equivalent transformation at the same time. however. Landscape painting. Intermedia painting. there is no consensus as to a representative style of the age. though it continues to be used in popular contexts.Expressionism. Assemblage painting. Shaped canvas painting. the marketplace being left to judge merit. Op Art. Neo-Dada painting. Neoexpressionism. Lyrical Abstraction.The invention of photography had a major impact on painting. Hyperrealism. There began a series of art movements into the 20th century where the Renaissance view of the world was steadily eroded. Such movements or classifications include the following: . Expressionism. From the mid to late 19th century. through Impressionism. traditional figure painting. Color Field painting. In an epoch characterized by the idea of pluralism. Pop Art. this led some to say in the 1960s that painting. \ \ \Painting styles Main article: Painting style Style is used in two senses: It can refer to the distinctive visual elements. Geometric abstraction. Portrait painting. Among the continuing and current directions in painting at the beginning of the 21st century are Monochrome painting. Collage. The word 'style' in the latter sense has fallen out of favor in academic discussions about contemporary painting.Cubism and Dadaism. photographic processes improved and. Important works of art continue to be made in a wide variety of styles and aesthetic temperaments. Modern and Contemporary Art has moved away from the historic value of craft and documentation in favour of concept. Photorealism. It can also refer to the movementor school that an artist is associated with.

social organization and daily life were becoming outdated in the new economic. The style was widespread from the 1940s until the early 1960s. religious faith. literature. A significant event of 1863 was the Salon des Refusés.[20] The resulting work often emphasizes the physical act of painting itself as an essential aspect of the finished work or concern of its artist. and work that draws attention to the processes and materials used (and to the further tendency of abstraction). social and political conditions of an emerging fully industrialized world. the Bauhaus and Synthetic Cubism and the image of being rebellious. originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Other modernist styles include: .[17] [edit]Impressionism The first example of modernism in painting was impressionism. but outdoors (en plein air). A salient characteristic of modernism is self-consciousness. the government-sponsored Paris Salon. rather than being carefully applied. but instead see light itself.[19] Action painting. some feel. highly idiosyncratic and. [edit]Abstract styles Abstract painting uses a visual language of form. This often led to experiments with form. splashed or smeared onto the canvas. a school of painting that initially focused on work done. architecture. is a style of painting in which paint is spontaneously dribbled. Modernism was a revolt against the conservative values of realism. timing them to coincide with the official Salon.[15][16] The term encompasses the activities and output of those who felt the "traditional" forms of art. and became increasingly influential. nihilistic. the Impressionists organized yearly group exhibitions in commercial venues during the 1870s and 1880s. The school gathered adherents despite internal divisions among its leading practitioners. Impressionist paintings demonstrated that human beings do not see objects.[edit]Western [edit]Modernism Modernism describes both a set of cultural tendencies and an array of associated cultural movements. Initially rejected from the most important commercial show of the time. color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world. anarchic. not in studios. sometimes called "gestural abstraction". created by Emperor Napoleon III to display all of the paintings rejected by the Paris Salon.[18] Abstract expressionism was an American post-World War II art movement which had a combination of the emotional intensity and selfdenial of the German Expressionists with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools such asFuturism. and is closely associated with abstract expressionism (some critics have used the terms "action painting" and "abstract expressionism" interchangeably).

literature. Hyperrealism is a fully fledged school of art and can be considered an advancement of Photorealism by the methods used to create the resulting paintings or sculptures. [edit]Photorealism Photorealism is the genre of painting based on using the camera and photographs to gather information and then from this information. philosophy and social theory. unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur." regardless of their circumstances or the content of their work. eventually affecting thevisual arts. Surrealist artworks feature the element of surprise. . Dubuffet focused particularly on art by insane-asylum inmates. The term is sometimes misapplied as a catch-all marketing label for art created by people outside the mainstream "art world. Hyperrealism is a genre of painting and sculpture resembling a highresolution photograph.[21] Outsider art has emerged as a successful art marketing category (an annual Outsider Art Fair has taken place in New York since 1992). with the works being an artifact.   Expressionism Cubism Pop art [edit]Other styles [edit]Outsider art The term outsider art was coined by art critic Roger Cardinal in 1972 as an English synonym for art brut (French: >D E \W@. "raw art" or "rough art"). The term is primarily applied to paintings from the United States art movement that began in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The term is primarily applied to an independent art movement and art style in the United States and Europe that has developed since the early 2000s. and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. [25] [22][23][24] and as a [edit]Surrealism Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s. creating a painting that appears to be very realistic like a photograph. a label created by French artist Jean Dubuffet to describe artcreated outside the boundaries of official culture. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement. the movement spread around the globe. Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities of World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. Photorealism evolved from Pop Art counter toAbstract Expressionism. as well as political thought and practice. As a full-fledged art movement. From the 1920s onward. however. film and music of many countries and languages. many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost.

5 in x 36 in) 1945 . Vermeer. Picasso. Reynolds. Club Filipino Collection 1939 .com/Q/Who_are_the_famous_painters#ixzz1TxGgdXyr \ \ \\ \ \Fernando Amorsolo List of his masterpieces are 1920 ± My Wife. Gauguin.The Conversion of the Filipinos 1936 ± Dalagang Bukid.answers. Klimt. Simone Martini 15th c. van Gogh 20th c. Jan van Eyck 16th c. Central Bank of the Philippines Collection 1931 . Turner. Raphael.: Matisse. Gainsborough 19th c.: Dürer. oil on canvas (60. Chagall «. El Greco. Salud 1921 ± Maiden in a Stream.Defense of a Filipina Woman¶s Honor.: Caravaggio.Our Lady of Light 1958 ± Sunday Morning Going To Town.The Explosion 1945 . Manet.: Watteau. GSIS Collection 1922 ± Rice Planting 1928 ± El Ciego. 18th c.Cebu High School Princess Urduja Sale of Panay Early Sulu Wedding Early Filipino State Wedding . Rembrandt.: David. Vélazquez. Renoir. National Museum of the Philippines Collection 1944 .The Burning of Manila 1946 ± Planting Rice. Monet. Michelangelo. Rubens. Read more: http://wiki. P Bruegel 17th c. Constable. Ayala Museum Collection The First Baptism in the Philippines . Fragonard.14th century: Giotto.The Rape of Manila 1942 .The Bombing of the Intendencia 1943 ± The Mestiza. United Coconut Planters Bank Collection 1950 . Leonardo da Vinci.: Botticelli. Titian. Dalí.Afternoon Meal of the Workers (also known as Noonday Meal of the Rice Workers) 1942 . Sargent.

and Muslim Betrothal Juan Novicio Luna His most famous piece. Cesar Legaspi His works include Man and Woman (alternatively known as Beggars).´ Back drop. The Invasion of Limahong. Man and Carabao. Ancestors. Serenade. Jeepneys.5 inches x 38 inches. His works were exhibited in Washington. First Mass at Limasawa. Bayanihan sa Bukid. 1965 Carlos V. which served as the basis of curtain design in the Cultural Center of the Philippines Main Theater. Hernando R. Gadgets and Procession. Fifty-three "Q. Fiesta. New York. oil on canvas. The Martyrdom of Rizal. The Spoliarium. Nude with Candle and Flower. Palayok at Kalan. 28. and Tokyo. Portrait of Purita. Kalabaw (Carabao). London. is currently in the National Museum in Manila. geometric ordering of figures into a social expressionism rendered by interacting forms filled with rhythmic movement \ \ \ . The Resurrection. Easter Sunday. Isda at Mangga. Ocampo His major works in the visual arts include Ina ng Balon. Sandugo. Bayanihan. Critics further described that Legaspi "reconstituted" in his paintings "cubism's unfeeling.Mother and Child. for which he won top prize at the 1884 Madrid Exposition. Fiesta. Angel's Kiss. and his most acknowledged work Genesis. Slum Dwellers. Francisco His great works include Blood Compact.Traders Sikatuna The First Mass in the Philippines The Building of Intramuros Burning of the Idol Assassination of Governor Bustamante Making of the Philippine Flag La destruccion de Manila por los salvajes japoneses (The Destruction of Manila by the Savage Japanese) Bataan Corner of Hell One Casualty El Violinista (The Violinist) Vicente Silva Manansala His masterpieces are Madonna of the Slums. Magpupukot. Calvary.

279 x 200mm. Hans Holbein the Younger. Holbein Hans Holbein the Younger was born in Augsburg. http://www. rather than monarchs. Catherine of Aragon. though the family later moved to Basel. they went on to have two sons and two daughters. most English art emanated from the Catholic Church. his second. he specialised in painting altarpieces.npg. Holbein¶s portrait of Erasmus can be seen in the Louvre. which was not published until 1538. their families and courtiers. and his third marriage.uk/live/search/portrait. His father Hans. In 1536 ± the same year that saw the natural death of his first wife. uncle Sigmund and brother Ambrosius were also painters of note. to Jane Seymour ± Henry VIII appointed a Court Painter. Paris. and another vocal critic of the Catholic Church. Switzerland. In 1519. Holbein married Elsbeth Binsenstock. which took place from 1534-1536. Basel became heavily influenced by the teaching of the anti-Catholic Martin Luther and Desiderius Erasmus. As the Protestant Reformation took hold in Northern Europe. His other works included painting Basel¶s Great Council Chamber at the town hall and house façades in Lucerne. the Dutch scholar and leader of the humanist movement. a young widow with one son. Holbein in England . oil on copper.asp?mkey=mw03082 In the wake of the dissolution of the churches and monasteries.\ \FOREIGN ARTISTS IN THE ENGLISH COURT Until Henry¶s Reformation. Holbein¶s early subjects were of a religious nature. He started to work as a book illustrator for Basel publishers and his most notable work from this period was the woodcut. Germany. after Hans Holbein the Younger. Dance Of Death. a series of 41 allegorical scenes. apostles and Biblical tales. But during the 1520s. highly decorated churches fell out of favour and Holbein¶s work dried up. the execution of Anne Boleyn. Like most artists of the time. thousands of religious works of art were destroyed.org. so artists concentrated on portraying saints. King Henry VIII.

banners. but I fear he is not likely to find England so fertile as he hoped. after John De Critz the Elder. The King¶s painter Sir Thomas More. to whom Erasmus wrote. in protest against Henry¶s divorce from Catherine of Aragon and his split from the Roman Catholic Church. babies¶ cradles and book bindings. Henry sent Holbein to Europe to paint portraits of five potential brides. oil on panel. who would become Henry¶s fourth wife.uk/live/search/portrait. including Christina. As well as his iconic portraits of Henry and his court. Holbein¶s first major commission from the King was the mural for Whitehall Palace. Holbein also designed furniture.asp?mkey=mw0341 In 1526. to England. 572 x 419mm.npg. ³Here the arts are freezing. after Hans Holbein the Younger.org. most significantly. he produced around 150 life-size and miniature portraits of England¶s royalty and nobility. once again. Holbein took commissions from German steel merchants. During the next seven years. ³Your painter is a wonderful artist. After the death of Jane Seymour in 1527. Levina Teerline Holbein was not the only foreign painter commissioned by Henry: he also favoured the work of Levina Teerline. his household and his descendants by Rowland Lockey. now at the National Gallery.org. 2274 x 3302mm. The town council maintained his family while he was away ± and he is known to have returned in 1538 ± but his will shows that he was keeping a second family in London. and. Basel. Holbein left his wife and family in Basel and moved.´ After More resigned as Lord Chancellor. which included the famous The Ambassadors. http://www. The picture was later destroyed by fire but Holbein¶s sketches for it can be seen in the Kunstmuseum. which impressed the King and led to his royal appointment. In around 1532. so Holbein is on the way to England to pick up some coins there. to mark the birth of his son Edward. Bishop William Warham and Sir Thomas More. oil on canvas.asp?mkey=mw01734 It was Holbein¶s 1534 portrait of Thomas Cromwell. http://www.´ Holbein¶s first commission was to paint a portrait of Sir Thomas More and his family. his father. silverware and jewellery for the King. although I will do what I can. he made his first visit to England ± then a Catholic country ± taking with him a letter of introduction from Erasmus to his friends. Duchess of Milan.uk/live/search/portrait.King James I of England and VI of Scotland. Henry VIII¶s secretary. horses¶ bridles. Anne of Cleves. a . More was extremely impressed with the work and wrote to Erasmus.npg. as well as state robes and motifs used on buttons.

Some still remain in the Royal Collection. Teerline presented the Queen with a new royal portrait. came to England from Holland in the mid-1560s and found favour in the court of James I. Between 1625 and 1629 Charles dissolved Parliament three times ± it was not summoned again for 11 years. Marcus Geerhardts. Anthony van Dyck (Antonion van Dijck) was a prodigious apprentice of the Flemish baroque artist Peter Paul Rubens. serving briefly as his principal assistant. east London. like her father before her. The best known was Nicholas Hilliard. Whether Hilliard¶s portraits were true-to-life isn¶t known. In fact. The King was a great art lover and collected many works by Rubens. Aged just 17. the Queen sent her court artist to paint a portrait of a prospective suitor: the Duc d¶Alencon. van Dyck opened his own studio in Antwerp and broke with his mentor soon afterwards. his Queen Henrietta Maria. and ill-advised wars with France and Spain further depleted the Exchequer and increased tensions between the King and Parliament. van Dyck travelled and worked extensively in Italy. The Stuart monarchs who succeeded Elizabeth I were equally keen to assert their divine right to rule through the dominant media of the day ± iconic portraiture. one of his most important works was The Continence Of Scipio (now in Christ Church. Windsor. Van Dyck¶s portraits of the doomed Charles. The Lady Grace Mysteries: Feud. Teerline¶s influence is still recognised in some quarters: she makes an appearance in the children¶s book. Nicholas Hilliard After Henry¶s death. after seeing it. as it vastly increased the Crown¶s debts. a pupil of Hilliard¶s and son of a Huguenot goldsmith. Hans Holbein The Younger died of the plague in London in 1543. creating portraits of wealthy Genoese families. but we do know that. came to London in 1568. Every New Year¶s Day. he returned to London and was knighted by Charles I (who had succeeded his father James in 1625) and appointed ³principalle painter in Ordinary to their Majesties at St James´. Oxford). She was particularly favoured by Elizabeth. in which Patricia Finney writes as Lady Grace Cavendish. yet not one work that can be attributed to her has survived. Howard was a close friend of the King before he came to the throne and this connection proved fruitful for Mytens.miniaturist from Bruges. in 1577. Isaac Oliver. One of his most famous paintings was the Equestrian Portrait Of Charles I (c. The historical allegory was commissioned by George Villiers. his expenditure on his picture collection contributed in part to his eventual downfall. commemorating the fact that he lived in the parish. Mytens dominated English portraiture until the early-1630s. Teerline was paid far more for her work at court than Holbein. Edward VI. Titian. . begins with the Queen having her portrait painted by Levina Teerline as the monarch¶s maids try to keep her amused throughout the sitting. who he appointed to court in 1546. There is also a brass tablet on the south wall of St Andrew Undershaft. Teerline went on to become a court artist for Henry¶s children. the sixth in a series of historical thrillers. He left nothing in his will except some debts .and two illegitimate children. bought by the National Gallery in 1885. The story. Leadenhall Street. their children and courtiers sealed his place in art history. He was buried in St Katherine Cree Church. He succeeded his mentor as principal court miniaturist in the early 17th century. one of Elizabeth¶s maids of honour. a miniatures specialist. And. Charles had inherited debts from his father. Daniel Mytens arrived in England from The Hague in 1618 and his first commissions were for Thomas Howard. James I. After his brief spell in London. who was commissioned to paint several portraits of Elizabeth. some English painters did finally find favour at court. Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael. Earl of Arundel. However. 1st Duke of Buckingham and favourite of James I. who went on to paint many portraits of Charles in the early years of his reign. Oliver¶s brother-in-law. Elizabeth decided not to marry d¶Alencon« Van Dyck The tradition of having a foreign Court Painter did not die with the Tudor dynasty. Mary I and Elizabeth I.1637). He worked briefly for James I in London in 1620. Leadenhall Street. when he was eclipsed by yet another immigrant Flemish artist. serving as Gentlewoman of the Privy Chamber from 1558 until her death in 1576. In 1632.

4th Earl of Pembroke and his family (17ft x 11ft) is the largest ever painted by van Dyck. and historians as Old Masters. reality and art parted company ² the ratio of the king to his steed would have us believe he was a towering figure when he was. including The Madness Of King George (1994). it could be argued that van Dyck¶s efforts failed. in fact. . the 5th Earl of Pembroke. George Stubbs (1724-1806) Equestrian artist. the strong-willed but somewhat foolish sovereign wanted an image that would stamp his authority on the realm and make all potential plotters and rebels think twice. a slender 5ft 4in. London. Thomas Gainsborough (1727-88) Portrait artist. The picture of Philip. The King is dressed in full armour. and the couple became great patrons of the arts. in particular inspiring the work of Thomas Gainsborough. In 1634. Van Dyck did not live to see his patron¶s tragic fate: the artist died of the plague in Blackfriars. The Double Cube Room has featured in a number of British films. married the poet Mary Sidney. horse painter. With the Gunpowder Plot still fresh in the public mind. In 1577. Wilton House. where all the paintings on the walls are by van Dyck or his studio. Joshua Reynolds (1723-92) Eminent portraitist. 1641. In this respect. Richard Wilson (1714-82) Founder of modern English School of landscape painting. founder of English School of figurative painting.It was created to portray the king as a warrior who had an absolute. Their social circle included Christopher Marlowe. commissioned van Dyck to paint a series of portraits of his family. holds a commander¶s baton and is shown to be the confident horseman he was in real life. in other respects. animalier. near Salisbury. In 1653. divine right to rule. More recent painters are typically divided into the following categories: English School (1700-1900) William Hogarth (1697-1764) English painter. However. Joseph Wright of Derby (1734-1797) Midlands portrait painter. their son. Philip Herbert. and was buried in the ³old´ St Paul¶s Cathedral ± the pre-Wren version was destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666. President of London Royal Academy. Ben Jonson and John Donne. They are housed in its Double Cube Room. engraver. Sense And Sensibility (1995) and Mrs Brown(1997). the Earl moved his family¶s collection of van Dyck portraits from their London home to their country seat. landscapes. noted for his chiaroscuro & candlight scenes. \ \ \ \ List of Famous Painters (1700-present) Long established European painters are classified by museum curators. the second Earl of Pembroke. on December 9. His influence on British portrait painting lasted for centuries. Henry Herbert.

sculptor) of the late 19th century. decorative artist. William Morris (1834-96) Painter. scenic views. painter to King George III. George Caleb Bingham (1811-1879) Missouri genre-painter.Boston and London. Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1836-1912) Classical subject painter. noted for Greek subject paintings. who defined Tonalism. George Inness (1825-1894) Brilliant Impressionistic painter. Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) Greatest American portrait painter of late-18th/ early-19th century. frontier luminist landscape artist. portraitist. and portraiture. watercolourist and illustrator. printmaker. noted for female nudes such as The Tepidarium. JMW Turner (1775-1851) The greatest English watercolourist and landscape painter.Henry Fuseli (1741-1825) Romantic expressionist artist. George Frederick Watts (1817-1904) The most revered English artist (portraitist. See also Best English Painters. "Father of American Painting. active in Edinburgh. Frederic Edwin Church (1826-1900) Pupil of Cole. and America's greatest ever landscape painter.1700-1900) Benjamin West (1738-1820) Innovative history painter. designer. leader of Arts & Crafts Movement. Alfred Stevens (1817-75) Outstanding Victorian painter and sculptor. William Blake (1757-1827) The outstanding English engraver. John Crome (1768-1821) Norfolk landscape artist. Luminism style. Civil War paintings. Thomas Cole (1801-48) Founder of Hudson River school of American wilderness landscape painting." John Sell Cotman (1782-1842) Watercolourist of the Norwich School of landscape painters. Thomas Lawrence (1769±1830) Regency society portraitist. Thomas Girtin (1775-1802) England's first major watercolourist. Albert Bierstadt (1830-1902) German-born landscape artist of Hudson River School. President of Norwich School. Henry Raeburn (1756-1823) Scottish portrait artist. President RA London. history painter . American School (c. exponent of Romanticism. etcher. John Martin (1789-1854) History painter of Biblical scenes. John Constable (1776-1837) England's greatest naturalist landscape artist. symbolist painter. famous for The Skating Minister. portraitist." John Singleton Copley (1738-1815) American portraitist. Thomas Eakins (1844-1916) . Frederic Leighton (1830-1896) Victorian neoclassicist. Noted for "The Hay Wain. Winslow Homer (1836-1910) American pioneer-style seascapes. influenced by Hobbema.

taught Monet plein air painting. Huge influence on Andre Breton & Surrealism. noted for society portraits. Gustave Courbet (1819-77) Founder of French Realism art movement. like The Lady of Shalott. Jean-Francois Millet (1814-75) Realist painter. founder of French Barbizon School of landscape painting. best-known for his romantic painting Ophelia. Theodore Gericault (1791-1824) Known for his masterpiece "The Raft of the Medusa. Edward Burne-Jones (1833-1898) Painter. leader of Realist Artists. graphic artist and realist painter. . one of the first great modern artists. anticipated Surrealism.Greatest American exponent of figurative realism. Odilon Redon (1840-1916) Painter. Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood William Holman Hunt (1827-1910) Co-founder of PRB. stained glass/tapestry designer for William Morris & Co. Noted for The Gross Clinic." Eugene Delacroix (1798-63) Leader of French Romantic art movement and 19th century Romantic Artists. noted for The Cyclops. Impressionists Eugene Boudin (1824-98) Influential forerunner of Impressionism. printmaker. Ferdinand Hodler (1853-1918) With Arnold Bocklin. one of the founders of modern art in Switzerland. Honore Daumier (1808-79) Renowned French Caricaturist. Realists Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (1796-1875) Romantic/Realist French landscape painter. 19th Century Painters Romantics Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840) German symbolist landscape painter. Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-82) Co-founder. John Singer Sargent (1856-1925) Portrait artist in the grand manner. noted for The Annunciation and other romantic works. John William Waterhouse (1849-1917) English Romantic painter of historical/literary works. Famous paintings include The Lady of Shalott. John Everett Millais (1829-96) Traditional portraitist. Edouard Manet (1832-83) Father of modern painting in France. James Ensor (1860-1949) Belgian exponent of Symbolism. famous for Christ's Entry Into Brussels. Symbolists Gustave Moreau (1826-1898) Noted for his history painting.

noted for The Talisman & his religious art. influenced Synthetism. P. Founded Camden Town Group.Claude Monet (1840-1926) Founder of Impressionistic plein-air painting. Alfred Sisley (1839-1899) Like Monet. Mary Cassatt (1845-1926) American Impressionist artist. precursor of Cubism. Vilhelm Hammershoi (1864-1916) Danish Intimist genre-painter of muted interiors in blues and greys. Camille Pissarro (1830-1903) Outstanding cityscape and landscape painter. printmaker. Cloisonism and Primitivism. Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940) Co-founder of Intimism: noted for genre-paintings of intimate interiors. Paul Signac (1863-1935) Leader of Neo-Impressionism after Seurat. a pure Impressionist specializing in landscapes. Gustave Caillebotte (1848-94) Rich Impressionist. Maurice Utrillo (1883-1955) French painter. developed Chromoluminarism. Georges Seurat (1859-1891) Founder of Neo-Impressionist art: colour theories of Pointillism & Divisionism. Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890) Founder of modern Expressionism. Walter Sickert (1860-1942) Greatest British Post-Impressionist painter. noted for 'mother and child' paintings. famous for his colourism and intimate interiors. Berthe Morisot (1841-95) Leading female Impressionist. best known for his nudes. Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) Finest exponent of 'dappled light' in Impressionist movement. best known for Paris: A Rainy Day and his art collection. founder of Nabis. Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) Arguably the greatest of all Post-Impressionist painters. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) Genre painter. Kroyer (1851-1909) Norwegian-born post-Impressionist landscape painter.S. Post-Impressionists James Abbott McNeill Whistler (1834-1903) Member of the Aesthetic Movement: noted for his "Nocturnes" and etchings. Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947) Post-Impressionist painter. draftsman and illustrator. Edgar Degas (1834-1917) The greatest figure painter of French Impressionism. Paul Gauguin (1848-1903) Outstanding colourist. Anders Zorn (1860-1920) Famous Impressionist portrait painter from Sweden. Paul Serusier (1864-1927) Gauguin follower. noted for picture postcard views of Parisian streets. Russian School of Painting Ivan Shishkin (1832-98) . sister-in-law of Manet.

He remained . surrealist painter/graphic artist noted for his dreamlike imagery. Leonetto Cappiello (1875-1942) Caricaturist. Marc Chagall (1887-1985) Prolific. Aubrey Beardsley (1872-98) Art Nouveau illustrator. noted for his Demon paintings and mosaic-like brushwork. Portrait of Adele BlochBauer. Art Nouveau/Poster Designers Jules Cheret (1836-1932) Inventor of "3-stone chromolithographs". Henri Rousseau (1844-1910) (Le Douanier) Naive painter. stained glass artist.Forest/woodland landscape artist. Vasily Polenov (1844-1927) Landscape painter. Vasily Perov (1833-82) Critical realism-style genre painter. Isaac Levitan (1860-1900) Landscape painter: master of light and colour. Konstantin Savitsky (1844-1905) Critical realist genre painter. poster designer noted for his functionalism. illustrations. noted for his art nouveau style. versatile Jewish-Russian painter. Fauvists Henri Matisse (1869-1954) Founder of Fauvism and leading colourist in modern art. Noted for Leo Tolstoy (1873). Primitive/Fantasy Art Paul Klee (1879±1940) Expressionist. painted Slav Epic. noted for The Sleeping Gypsy and exotic landscapes. pioneer of advertising poster art. Mikhail Vrubel (1856-1910) Symbolist painter. also noted for biblical paintings. in the critical realist style. Ivan Kramskoy (1837-1887) Foremost portraitist of 19th century Russia. Valentin Serov (1865-1911) Greatest Russian Impressionist portrait painter. lithographer. Abram Arkhipov (1862-1930) Socially aware genre painter. and paintings using mosaic & gold. like The Kiss. See also: Russian Artists (1300-present). Vasily Surikov (1848-1916) Russia's greatest history painter of the 19th century. Ilya Repin (1844-1930) The finest Russian/Ukrainian realist genre-painter and portraitist. 20th Century Painters See also: Twentieth Century Painters. lithographer. Alphonse Mucha (1860-1939) Epitomizes Art Nouveau graphic art . known for illustrations of Salome and Morte d'Arthur. Gustav Klimt (1862-1918) Leader of Viennese Secessionist movement.posters.

Expressionists Arnold Bocklin (1827-1901) Symbolist painter from Switzerland. Emil Nolde (1867-1956) Powerful expressionist artist. landscape artist. Maurice de Vlaminck (1876-1958) Self-taught colourist painter. Kurt Schwitters (1887-1948) German Dada artist noted for his "Merz" collage art. Chaim Soutine (1893±1943) Expressionist painter from Russia. Amedeo Modigliani (1884-1920) Most powerful exponent of 20th century Expressionism in Paris. Kees van Dongen (1877-1968) Dutch Fauvist. portraitist. flower painter. multi-media "Merzbau". George Grosz (1893±1959) Berlin Dadaist. Edvard Munch (1863-1944) Norwegian Expressionist painter. Franz Marc (1880-1916) Leading member of The Blue Rider group of expressionist painters. Frank Kupka (1871-1957) Czech abstract painter. active in Paris. Georges Rouault (1871-1958) French expressionist painter. friend of Fauvist painters like Matisse. De Vlaminck. noted for his non-objecrtive colourism. Max Beckmann (1884-1950) Member of New Objectivity group (Neue Sachlichkeit). noted for figurative painting.obsessed with colour all his life. famous both for his Impressionism and Expressionism. noted for his portraits (Heads) Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944) Russian painter and art theorist. one of the longest-lived expressionist painters. famous for The Scream. Andre Derain (1880-1954) Member of Ecole de Paris. a precursor of German Expressionism. Alexei von Jawlensky (1864-1941) Russian colourist of Der Blaue Reiter group. Raoul Dufy (1877-1953) French Impressionist/Fauvist painter noted for his colourism & mural paintings. member of Dresden Die Brucke expressionist group. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880-1938) Member of the Die Brucke art group. based in Paris. best known for Island of the Dead. Egon Schiele (1890-1918) Short-lived but outrageously talented figure-painter. printmaker (woodcuts). Oskar Kokoschka (1886-1980) Portraitist. gouache. Otto Dix (1891-1969) Powerful anti-war painter. influenced by Van Gogh and later Cezanne. and watercolours. Powerful self-portraits. known for his oils. Cubists Francis Picabia (1879-1953) . portraitist. expressionist painter. Lovis Corinth (1858-1925) German modern artist. founder of Der Blaue Reiter art movement. member of Neue Sachlichkeit. Member of New Objectivity group.

. Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) Co-founder of Cubism. muralist. Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968) Also a pioneer of Dada and Object Art. founder of Orphism (Orphic Cubism) or Simultanism. A Stag at Sharkey's. Norman Rockwell (1894-1978) American Saturday Evening Post illustrator. Fernand Leger (1881-1955) Fourth Cubist. Lucian Freud (1922-2011) British realist noted for his understated masterpieces of figurative art. watercolourist. Man Ray (1890-1976) Dada artist. Surrealists Paul Nash (1889-1946) Leader of English surrealism. Edward Hopper (1882-1967) American realist painter. later Dadaist and member of Surrealism. leading expressionist-style artist of 20th century. exponent of American Scene Painting and Regionalism. from which Conceptual Art emerged. book illustrator. subject-painter and portraitist. leader of The Group of Eight and Ashcan School. inventor of frottage and decalcomania. socialist painter. 20th Century Realism Robert Henri (1865-1929) Realist New York painter. active in Paris. Joan Miro (1893-1983) Spanish surrealist painter: ceramicist. Rene Magritte (1898-1967) Belgian classical painter. printmaker and stained glass artist. War Artist. Paul Delvaux (1897-1994) Surrealist painter. Robert Delaunay (1885-1941) Abstract painter. Thomas Hart Benton (1889-1975) Realist artist. Grant Wood (1892-1942) Realist painter from Iowa. noted for his mid-West landscapes and portraits.Avant-garde Cubist painter. Metaphysical Painting Giorgio De Chirico (1888-1978) Italian artist. painter. Giorgio Morandi (1890-1964) Minimalist still life painter. George Wesley Bellows (1882-1925) Ashcan school urban painter noted for sports pictures. sculptor. Georges Braque (1882-1963) Co-founder of Analytical and Synthetic Cubism. member of Magic Realism and Surrealism movements. Juan Gris (1887-1927) One of the great Cubist painters and the movement's leading theorist. Andrew Wyeth (1917-2009) Realist tempera painter and watercolourist from Pennsylvania. co-inventor with Carlo Carra of Pittura Metafisica. noted for his narrative urban genre-paintings. stained glass and textile artist. noted for Surrealist photography & junk art. Max Ernst (1891-1976) Ex-Dada artist. famous for his Magic Realism and female nudes.

co-founder of Colour Field painting. Willem De Kooning (1904-97) Noted for his gesturalism and "Woman" series. Theo van Doesburg (1883-1931) Abstract artist. Robert Motherwell (1915-91) Painter. famous for Elegy to the Spanish Republic. Sam Francis (1923-1994) American painter.1924) Associated with Hard Edge Painting. Mark Rothko (1903-70) Latvian-American abstract painter. co-founder with Rothko/Newman of Colour Field painting. painter. Nicolas de Stael (1914-1955) Russian-French abstract painter noted for his colourism & Lyrical Abstraction. like "Wham!" Andy Warhol (1928-87) . noted for his shaped canvases and printmaking.1936) Minimalist. collagist. variant of Abstract Expressionism in USA. Sean Scully (b. Hard-Edge painter. Arshile Gorky (1904-48) Last surrealist. member of Tachisme & Lyrical Abstraction movements. Pioneer influence on Post-Painterly Abstraction. a form of calligraphic gesturalism. a form of geometric abstract art. Bridget Riley (b. tachisme art. Leading member of Dutch De Stijl group.1931) Leader of British Op-Art movement. influenced De Kooning. One of the pioneer abstract painters. Victor Vasarely (1906-1997) Hungarian painter. Kenneth Noland (b. Minimalism & Post-Painterly Abstraction. Barnett Newman (1905-70) Colour Field Painter. painter noted for Homage to the Square paintings. Frank Stella (b. Pop Artists Roy Lichtenstein (1923-97) Creator of comic-strip style. founder of Suprematism. Clyfford Still (1904-1980) American artist. Jackson Pollock (1912-56) Founder of 'action-painting'. Piet Mondrian (1872-1944) Member of De Stijl movement.1945) Renowned for large-scale elemental shapes. founder of Op-Art.Salvador Dali (1904-89) Spanish painter. explored Kineticism. noted for geometric abstract paintings. lithographer. Josef Albers (1888-1976) Bauhaus teacher. Franz Kline (1910-1962) Famous for gestural action-painting & calligraphic black-and-white pictures. one of the most famous surrealist artists. designer. Geometric Abstraction Kasimir Malevich (1878-1935) Cubist. Abstract Expressionists Mark Tobey (1890-1976) Noted for his White Writing. benday dot paintings. first abstract expressionist. graphic designer.

Tracey Emin (b. Richard Estes (b. Asger Jorn (1914-73) Danish gesturalist painter. member of Art Informel & Tachisme. Neo-Dada. Jean Dubuffet (1901-1985) French experimental painter. acrylics/oils. mixed media Matter Painting style of Art Informel. assemblages and conceptualism. gesturalist. noted for sculpture and installations. Art Brut collector. etchings and photo-collages.1930) Painter.1951) Populist British genre-painter.1965) Leader of Young British Artists. wife of Alfred Stieglitz. Francis Bacon (1909-92) Noted for his grotesque imagery and surrealistic-style compositions. Lowry (1887-1976) English genre-painter and urban cityscape artist noted for "matchstick men". founder of COBRA group.Founder of Pop-Art movement. with David Siqueiros and Jose Orozco. lithographer. David Hockney (b.1931) British semi-abstract portrait painter. linked to Art Informel. Balthus (Balthazar Klossowski de Rola) (1908-2001) Surrealist-style figurative painter. collages. noted for portraits. leading South American painter noted for obese figures. Jasper Johns (b.1923) Spanish abstract artist. Agnes Martin (1912-2004) American Minimalist painter.1932) US superrealist painter of urban architecture. Fernando Botero (b. Karel Appel (1921-2006) Dutch abstract painter. member of Art Informel. Diego Rivera (1886-1957) Greatest Mexican fresco mural painter. noted for screenprints & popular imagery. Wols: Alfred Otto Wolfgang Schulze (1913-51) German painter. Georgia O'Keeffe (1887-1986) American artist. Chuck Close (b.1940) Leader of American photorealism style. urban landscapes. L. like: A Thousand Years (1989). noted for gigantic self-portraits. wife of Diego Rivera. best known for abstract Cubist/Expressionist war portraits. portraitist. collage & multi-media artist.1937) English Pop artist. noted for heavily impastoed paintings. best known for pictures of young girls.S. noted for The Singing Butler. flower-painter. The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living (1991). Frank Auerbach (b. Tachisme and Lyrical Abstraction. Frida Kahlo (1907-1954) Mexican surrealist self portraitist.1932) Columbian artist. Contemporary Artists Marsden Hartley (1877-1943) American painter. Antoni Tapies (b. hand-drawn pencil grids on gesso. Damien Hirst (b. Robert Rauschenberg (1925-2008) Noted for his "Combines". and For The Love of God (2007). sculptor. Ansel Adams (1902-84) America's greatest landscape-photographer. Jack Vettriano (b.1963) .

noted for My Bed (1998).British multimedia postmodernist artist. .

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