Food additive

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Jump to: navigation, search Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste and appearance. Some additives have been used for centuries; for example, preserving food by pickling (with vinegar), salting, as with bacon, preserving sweets or using sulfur dioxide as in some wines. With the advent of processed foods in the second half of the 20th century, many more additives have been introduced, of both natural and artificial origin.

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1 Numbering 2 Categories 3 Safety 4 Standardization of its derived products 5 See also 6 References 7 Additional sources 8 External links

[edit] Numbering
To regulate these additives, and inform consumers, each additive is assigned a unique number, termed as "E numbers", which is used in Europe for all approved additives. This numbering scheme has now been adopted and extended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to internationally identify all additives,[1] regardless of whether they are approved for use. E numbers are all prefixed by "E", but countries outside Europe use only the number, whether the additive is approved in Europe or not. For example, acetic acid is written as E260 on products sold in Europe, but is simply known as additive 260 in some countries. Additive 103, alkanet, is not approved for use in Europe so does not have an E number, although it is approved for use in Australia and New Zealand. Since 1987, Australia has had an approved system of labelling for additives in packaged foods. Each food additive has to be named or numbered. The numbers are the same as in Europe, but without the prefix 'E'. The United States Food and Drug Administration listed these items as "Generally recognized as safe" or GRAS; they are listed under both their Chemical Abstract Services number and Fukda regulation under the US Code of Federal Regulations.
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See list of food additives for a complete list of all the names. See E number for the numbers.

[edit] Categories
Food additives can be divided into several groups, although there is some overlap between them.

Acidity regulators Acidity regulators are used to change or otherwise control the acidity and alkalinity of foods. Glazing agents Glazing agents provide a shiny appearance or protective coating to foods. and also act as preservatives and antioxidants. and may be derived from natural ingredients or created artificially. Color retention agents In contrast to colorings.Acids Food acids are added to make flavors "sharper". or because they have beneficial effects for diabetes mellitus and tooth decay and diarrhea. They may be extracted from natural sources (through distillation. [edit] Safety . Sweeteners other than sugar are added to keep the food energy (calories) low. Antioxidants Antioxidants such as vitamin C act as preservatives by inhibiting the effects of oxygen on food. Anticaking agents Anticaking agents keep powders such as milk powder from caking or sticking. thus guaranteeing shelf life. malic acid. Flour treatment agents Flour treatment agents are added to flour to improve its color or its use in baking. they help to stabilize emulsions. Common food acids include vinegar. and homogenized milk. Sweeteners Sweeteners are added to foods for flavoring. Tracer gas Tracer gas allow for package integrity testing to prevent foods from being exposed to atmosphere. Food coloring Colorings are added to food to replace colors lost during preparation. citric acid. and lactic acid. color retention agents are used to preserve a food's existing color. as in mayonnaise. Flavors Flavors are additives that give food a particular taste or smell. Bulking agents Bulking agents such as starch are additives that increase the bulk of a food without affecting its taste. ice cream. maceration. Thickeners Thickeners are substances which. or to make food look more attractive. tartaric acid. like agar or pectin (used in jam for example) give foods a firmer texture. increase its viscosity without substantially modifying its other properties. thickeners and gelling agents. Emulsifiers Emulsifiers allow water and oils to remain mixed together in an emulsion. Humectants Humectants prevent foods from drying out. solvent extraction. and can be beneficial to health. Flavor enhancers Flavor enhancers enhance a food's existing flavors. While they are not true emulsifiers. bacteria and other microorganisms. Preservatives Preservatives prevent or inhibit spoilage of food due to fungi. fumaric acid. when added to the mixture. among other methods) or created artificially. Stabilizers Stabilizers. Antifoaming agents Antifoaming agents reduce or prevent foaming in foods.

and Yellow 6 are among the food colorings that have been linked to various health risks. For example. partly communicated to Congress by postage-paid postcards supplied in the packaging of sweetened soft drinks.´ In 2007. For many of the assessments there were small but statistically significant differences of measured behaviors in children who consumed the food additives compared with those who did not. after the banning of cyclamates in the USA and Britain in 1969. and pastries and there has been some evidence that it may cause .With the increasing use of processed foods since the 19th century. available food preservatives led to it being used again. and numerous studies have shown a link between nitrite and cancer in humans that consume processed and cured meats. the only remaining legal artificial sweetener at the time.[6] There has been significant controversy associated with the risks and benefits of food additives. In the February 2008 issue of its publication. For example. who have long doubted parental claims of the effects of various foods on the behavior of their children. an amendment to the Federal Food. For those comparisons in which no statistically significant differences were found. led to the retention of saccharin despite its violation of the Delaney clause. heart disease or obesity. as demonstrated in animal and human studies. Sodium nitrite is added to meats to produce an appealing and fresh red color to the consumer. even though it occurs naturally in sassafras and sweet basil. AAP Grand Rounds. Blue 1 is used to color candy. Due to the application of the Delaney clause. The results are hard to follow and somewhat inconsistent. soft drinks. safrole was used to flavor root beer until it was shown to be carcinogenic. However.[7] Natural additives may be similarly harmful or be the cause of allergic reactions in certain individuals. and an application of the precautionary principle led to the conclusion that only additives that are known to be safe should be used in foods. Sodium nitrite can produce cancer causing chemicals such as nitrosamines. and it is unclear whether some disturbances can also occur in mood and concentration in some adults.[4] In September 2007. it may not be added to foods.´ That study examined the effect of artificial colors and a sodium benzoate preservative.[2] Such cases led to a general mistrust of food additives. research financed by Britain¶s Food Standards Agency and published online by the British medical journal The Lancet. During World War II the urgent need for cheap.[5] The team of researchers concluded that ³the finding lends strong support for the case that food additives exacerbate hyperactive behaviors (inattention. presented evidence that a mix of additives commonly found in children¶s foods increases the mean level of hyperactivity. ADHD. In each case increased hyperactive behaviors were associated with consuming the additives. and found both to be problematic for some children. Widespread public outcry in the USA. this led to the adoption of the Delaney clause. Thus.[9] Blue 1. Some artificial food additives have been linked with cancer. the overall findings of the study are clear and require that even we skeptics. stating that no carcinogenic substances may be used as food additives. this was a carefully conducted study in which the investigators went to great lengths to eliminate bias and to rigorously measure outcomes. but it was finally banned in the 1950s. digestive problems. Red 3. and Cosmetic Act of 1938. saccharin.[8] Extreme caution should be taken with sodium nitrite which is mainly used a food coloring agent. In the USA. Drug. there was a trend for more hyperactive behaviors associated with the food additive drink in virtually every assessment. Blue 2. was found to cause cancer in rats. boric acid was widely used as a food preservative from the 1870s to the 1920s. the American Academy of Pediatrics concluded that a low-additive diet is a valid intervention for children with ADHD: ³Although quite complicated. admit we might have been wrong. there has been a great increase in the use of food additives of varying levels of safety. impulsivity and overactivity) at least into middle childhood. Food Standards Australia New Zealand published an official shoppers' guidance with which the concerns of food additives and their labeling are mediated.[2][3] but was banned after World War I due to its toxicity. Further studies are needed to find out whether there are other additives that could have a similar effect. neurological conditions. This has led to legislation in many countries regulating their use.

"Choosing the Right Stuff .1016/S01406736(07)61306-3. Codex Alimentarius Organic fertilizer Sugar substitute [edit] References ^ Codex Alimentarius.PEntrez. pp. 7. used in sausages.". The Outlook (Vol.the official shoppers¶ guide to food additives and labels. and has shown to cause brain tumors in mice. USA: 4.cancer. 6. "Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised.webmd. DIANE publishing. (1996). ^ Food Standards Australia New Zealand (2007).Pubmed.nih. 5..Y: Marcel Dekker. ^ Assessment of technologies for determining cancer risks from the environment. ^ http://www. Lancet 370 (9598): pp. A.htm[10][unreliable source?] [edit] Standardization of its derived products ISO has published a series of standards regarding the topic and these standards are covered by ICS 67. PMID 17825405.ncbi. and candy can lead to the attribution of gland and kidney tumors and contains carcinogens. Boca Raton: CRC Press. N. ^ Rev. soft drinks. L. E. Yellow A. Blue 2 can be found in pet food. doi:10. Nutrition applied to injury rehabilitation and sports medicine. 827. D. Outlook Co. 9. "Class Names and the International Numbering System for Food Additives. double-blinded. and pastries. kilojoules and fat content". 403. 1. pp. K. Lyman Abbott (Ed. 3. ISBN 0-8493-7913-X. New York. http://www. Darby. ISBN 0-82479691-8.Pubmed_ResultsP anel. but in minimal amounts. K et al. gelatin. http://www. 8. pp. Kitchin. placebo-controlled trial. pp. Lok. http://www. ^ http://www. ^ McCann.".220. Luke (1995). 1560±7. Retrieved 3 May 2009.nlm. ^ Fennema. Grimshaw.sixwise. PA. ISBN 142892437X.codexalimentarius. 2.[11] [edit] See also Food portal y y y y y y y y y y y y Color retention agent Delaney clause Dietary supplement Food fortification Food labeling regulations Food processing Food supplements Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives List of food additives List of food additives. ^ a b Bucci. 64). mainly used in cherries for cocktails has been correlated with thyroid tumors in rats and humans as well. ^ http://www. 177.foodstandards. (2007). Barrett. 1981. Food chemistry.) (1900).sixwise.htm . Cooper. Red 3. Owen R.

Castor oil. Retrieved 23 April 2009. FL: C.htm?ICS1=67&ICS2=220. Food and Health.e. Food additives". " 2007 Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS) i. Nelson.iso. (1993).K. (PDF) Food Standards Australia and New Zealand page on food additives Evaluation of certain Food Additives and Contaminants. Sixty-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives y y y y y y . Food and Drug Administration. Everything Added to Food in the United States. EU legislation on food additives CSPI's guide to food additives.S. Boca Raton. ^ International Organization for Standardization. etc.11. Erica Larkcom and Ruth Miller [edit] External links Food Trade's Juicy Secrets by John Triggs in the Daily Express July 17.220: Spices and condiments. Inc. Smoley (c/o CRC Press. by John Adds.). [edit] Additional sources y U. y The Food Labelling Regulations (1984) y Advanced Modular Science. http://www.

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