CHAPTER 4 : BASIC AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 1 CLIMATE, WATER, SOIL, and HUMAN RESOURCES 1.

1 : Climate Tropics -by high temperature & a lot of rainfall -allowing plants to grow -possible water + suitable temperatures = agriculture activities -Example : rubber, oil palm, cocoa, coconuts & sugercane Temperate -neither too warm or too cold -neither too wet nor too dry -the weather not extreme is very changeable -4 seasons :- warm summer/a cool winter/mild spring/autumn in between -usually planted in spring & harvested in summer (eg : maize & wheat) -vegetables can be grown continuously – during the winter season under shelter (glass-houses) Tundra Deserts -very low temperatures & short growing season with little -landscape forms that receive very little precipitation of less water & sunshine than 250mm. -3 types of tundra :-arctic / Antarctic / alpine -vegetation :-exceedingly sparce -dominant vegetation :- grasses / mosses and litchens / crops -usually have an extreme diurnal temperature range / very high can hardly be grown in the day / extremely low at night - crops & livestocks :-if raised  con only be done  in -only with sufficient irrigation. restricted enclosure adequate water supply 1.2 Water -agricultural activity :- need water  rain-fed / irrigated -water required seed germination & subsequent growth 1.3 Soil -important agriculture resource -soil plants obtain water + nutrients -rain water falls to the ground + soak up by the soil -nutrient  dissolved in the water are taken up by plants -water moves from the roots to be distributed throughout the plant & then lost through the process of evapo-transpiration -plant growsleaves becomes senescent & drop to the ground become part of the soil to be available againcompleting the nutrient cycle. -soilsclassified into 12 orders based on their physical & chemical composition 1.4 Human Resource -agriculture cannot operate without workforce

-human labour is required for land preparation, planting, and harvesting -labour can be replaced with machines CHAPTER 4 : BASIC AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 2 ENVIRONMENT 2.1 Global Agroecological Zones -not all agricultural commodities can be produced in all regions in the world -due to varying soils and climatic conditions / specific sites – suitable for only certain commodities/crops/animals 2.1.1 Tundra 2.1.2 Grasslands 2.1.3 Deserts 2.1.4 Tropics -very cold climate -American Prairies -very little precipitation -rain & sunshine all year round -low biotic diversity -Russian Steppes -extreme diurnal -rainforest -simple vegetation of mosses -African Savannah temperatures & grasses -Argentinian Pampas -barren -rubber/oil -dwarf trees -plants palm/cocoa/coconut & -low fertile land/mild breadfruit climate/field crops -African Sahara & Kalahari -China’ Gobi -such as : -Arabian soybean/wheat/maize/livestoc k 2.2 Impact of Climatic Changes 2.2.1 Global Warming 2.2.2 Desertification -extensive use :-fossil fuels power to industries & transportation release greenhouse gas carbon dioxide/nitrous oxide/methane ↓ Increased the world temperature & caused climatic instability ↓ Led to calamities like hurricanes/floods & droughts ↓ Melting of the polar ice caps – causes inundation in the coastal regions & lowlands ↓ The rise of sea water level causes flooding & inundates & -expansion of desert areas due to climatic changescausing drought ↓ Agricultural mismanagement has resulted in less arable land available for agriculture

renders coastal agricultural lands less productive

2.3 Impact of Pollution 2.3.2 Heavy Metal -deleterious to human, animal, and plant health -industrialised countries polluting gasses sulphur dioxide & ↓ nitrogen oxides Intensive in industry & with automobiles ↓ ↓ acid rains Zinc / copper / lead –most heavy metals ↓ ↓ It is defined as any type of precipitation with unusually low pH Could be bound to negative charges of some soil particles ↓ rendering them less soluble in water Acid rain has adverse impact on forest, fresh water & soil, killing ↓ off life forms & affecting crops and animal production Less particles rendering them less soluble in water ↓ This is less dangerous than the unbound soluble form which is easily transported and available to plants and animals ↓ Continuous use of fertilizer + contain heavy metals + such as cadmium + contained in phosphate rocks  will pollute the soil and render the crops toxic. 2.4 Pesticides - use on vegetables as detected on Cameron Highlands causes undesirable health effects & reduces biodiversity 2.5 Nitrates -increase in use of chemical fertilizer & solid wastes from livestock industry results in higher levels of nitrates being washed from the soil into the water ecosystem -causes :- an excessive enrichment of the water (eutrophication) leading to rapid algal growth which in turn creates an oxygen deficit & killing off aquatic life. 2.3.1 Acid Rain

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