# Lectur

Internal Combustion Engines

1

Air Standard Cycles
1. 2. 3. 4. Carnot Otto Diesel Brayton - maximum cycle efficiency - spark-ignition (SI) engine - compression-ignition (CI) engine - gas turbine

2

Air Standard Cycles
• Air standard cycles are idealized cycles based on the following approximations: – the working fluid is air (ideal gas) – all the processes are internally reversible – the combustion process is replaced by heat input from an external source – heat rejection is used to restore fluid to initial state

Thermodynamic Cycles • Air-standard analysis is used to perform elementary analyses of IC engine cycles.

• Simplifications to the real cycle include: 1) Fixed amount of air (ideal gas) for working fluid 2) Combustion process not considered 3) Intake and exhaust processes not considered 4) Engine friction and heat losses not considered 5) Specific heats independent of temperature

SI Engine Cycle vs Thermodynamic Otto Cycle
A I R Fuel/Air Mixture Combustion Products FUEL Ignition

Actual Cycle
Intake Stroke Compression Stroke Power Stroke

Exhaust Stroke

Qin Otto Cycle
Air

Qout
TC BC

Compression Process

Expansion Process

Const volume heat rejection Process

5

Air-Standard Otto cycle Process Process 3 Process 4 Process 1 1 2 Isentropic compression 2 Constant volume heat addition Isentropic expansion 3 Constant volume heat rejection 4
Compression ratio:

v1 v 4 r= = v 2 v3
Qin

Qout v1
BC

TC

BC

6

In Otto cycle, the combustion is so rapid that the piston does not move during the process, and therefore, combustion is assumed to take place at constant volume.

Otto cycle efficiency
η= wnet =1 qin qout =1 qin T4 - T1 =1 T3 - T2 T1 (T4 / T - 1) 1 T2 (T3 / T2 - 1)

7

Otto Cycle (Contd.)
For isentropic process: pvk = constant with k=cp/cv For process 1-2: p1 v1 k = p2 v2 k
RT2 k v1 p2 v2 T2 v 1 = = = k RT1 v 2 p1 T1 v 2 v1

k v1 v 2 T2 = k v 2 v1 T1 k-1

⎛ v1 ⎞ v1 T2 = k -1 = ⎜⎜ v ⎟⎟ T1 v 2 ⎝ 2⎠

k -1

8

Since m = constant:
T2 ⎛ v1 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ T ⎝ v 2⎠
k -1

⎛ V ⎞ ⎟ =⎜ ⎝ 1 ⎠

k -1

⎛ VB D C ⎞ = ⎜⎜ V ⎟ ⎝ TDC⎠

k -1

= rk -1

For process 3-4, using the same analysis:
T3 ⎛ V4 ⎞ = ⎜⎜ V ⎟⎟ T4 ⎝ 3 ⎠
k -1

⎛ VB D C⎞ =⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ VT D C ⎠

k -1

= r k -1

Then

T3 T2 = T1 T4 η =1 1

or r k -1

T4 T3 = T1 T2

9

Increasing Compression Ratio Increases the Efficiency

Typical Compression Ratios for Gasoline Engines

10

Higher Compression Ratios?
• Higher compression ratio leads to auto-ignition (without spark) • Causes knock • Engine damage • Thus, there is an upper limit of high compression ratio

11

CI Engine Cycle and the Thermodynamic Diesel Cycle
A I R Combustion Products Fuel injected at TC

Air

Actual Cycle
Intake Stroke Compression Stroke Power Stroke

Exhaust Stroke

Qin Diesel Cycle
Air

Qout

BC

Compressio n Process

Expansio n Process

Const volume heat rejection Process

12

Air-Standard Diesel cycle Process Process Process Process 1 2 23 34 41 Isentropic compression Constant pressure heat addition Isentropic expansion Constant volume heat rejection
Qin
Cut-off ratio:

v3 rc = v2

Qout

v2
TC

v1
BC

TC

BC

13

Due to ignition delay and finite time
required for fuel injection, combustion process continues till the beginning of power stroke. This keeps the cylinder pressure at peak levels for a longer period. Therefore, the combustion process can be approximated qo u t as constant pressure heat addition. qin Remaining processes are similar to that of Otto cycle.

14

• Cycle efficiency,
η= =1 -

wn e t qin

Cutoff Ratio, r = Compression Ratio, r = Expansion Ratio, r =

Cutoff Ratio Χ Expansion Ratio = Compression Ratio

c

V3 V2 V
1

15

e

V4 V3

assuming constant specific heats:
η=1 c v (T4 - T1 (T4 - T1 ) =1 =1 )p 3 k(T3 - T2 2 T1 (T4 / T1 - 1) T2 k(T3 / T2

for isentropic process 1-2:
T1 = ⎛ v 2 ⎞ T2 ⎝ ⎜ ⎠v1
1 k⎟

for constant pressure process 2-3: p2 = p3 ideal gas law:
RT2 RT3 = v2 v3 => T3 v3 = = rc T2 v 2
16

for isentropic process 3-4:
T3 ⎛ v 4 ⎞ = ⎜⎜ v ⎟⎟ T4 ⎝ 3 ⎠
k -1

⎛ v1 ⎞ = ⎜ ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ v3 ⎠

k -1

=

v1 2

k- 1

T2 k -1 v T1 = v k -1 k -1 ⎛v = ⎜⎜ v ⎝
3

T4 T3 ⎛ v 3 ⎞ ⎜⎜ v ⎟⎟ => == T1 T2 ⎝ 2 ⎠

v k -1 v3 ⎛ v3 ⎞ = ⎜⎜ v ⎟⎟ v2 ⎝ 2⎠

3 k -1

T = T1
2

⎛ v2 ⎞ ⎜⎜ v ⎟⎟ ⎝ 3⎠

k -1

⎞ ⎟⎟ 2 ⎠
3

k

= rck

then, η = 1

1 r k -1

rck - 1 k(rc - 1)

rck - 1 sin ce ≥ 1, for given r k(rc ηdiesel ≤ η- 1)

but diesel cycle has higher r!

17

Thermal Efficiency

η D iesel = 1-

1 r k -1

1 r -1 ⋅ k rc -1
1 r k -1

k c

Recall,

ηOtto = 1-

Note that the term in the square bracket is always larger than one so for the same compression ratio (r), the Diesel cycle has a lower thermal efficiency than the Otto cycle.

Note: CI needs higher r compared to SI to ignite fuel ⎤ ⎡

⎢ ⎢⎣

( (

)⎥ ) ⎦⎥

18

Remark

When rc (= v3/v2)1 the Diesel cycle efficiency approaches the efficiency of the Otto cycle
Compression ratio = 10-22 (Diesel) Compression ratio = 6-10 (Otto) Thus, efficiency of Diesel Cycle is greater than Otto Cycle.

Higher efficiency and low cost fuel makes diesel engine suitable for larger power units such as larger ships, heavy trucks, power generating

Diesel Cycle

Otto Cycle
The only difference is in process 2-3

20

Remark

Both heat

Otto

cycle

(Constant

volume

addition) and Diesel cycle (Constant pressure heat addition) are over-simplistic and unrealistic. In actual case, combustion takes place neither at constant volume (time required for chemical reactions), nor at constant pressure (rapid uncontrolled combustion). Dual cycle is used to model the

Modern CI Engine Cycle and the Thermodynamic Dual Cycle
A I R Air Combustion Products Fuel injected at 15o bTC

Actual Cycle
Intake Stroke Compressio n Stroke Power Stroke

Exhaust Stroke

Qin Dual Cycle
Air

Qin
TC

Qout

BC

Compression Process

Expansio n Process

Const volume heat rejection 22 Process

Dual Cycle Process Process Process Process Process
2.5 2 3

1  2 Isentropic compression 2  2.5 Constant volume heat addition 2.5  3 Constant pressure heat addition 3  4 Isentropic expansion 4  1 Constant volume heat rejection
Qin
3

Qin

2.5

4 1

2

4

1

Qout

23

Thermal Efficiency

η D ual = 1cycle

Qout m u4 - u1 = 1Qin m (u2.5 - u2 ) + (h3 - h2.5 ) ⎤ 1 ⎡ αrck - 1 = 1- k-1 ⎢ ⎥ r ⎣ (α -1) + αk (rc -1⎦)

η D ual
const cv

where

c

=

v3

v2 5 .

an α = d

P2.5 P2

Note, the Otto cycle (rc=1) and the Diesel cycle (α=1) are special cases: ηOtto = 11 r k -1

⎤ 1 ⎡ 1 rck η Diesel = 1- k -1 ⎢ k ⋅ ⎥ rc - 1 ⎦ r const cV ⎣

( (

)

24

The use of the Dual cycle requires information about either: i) the fractions of constant volume and constant pressure heat addition (common assumption is to equally split the heat addition), or ii) maximum pressure P3. For the same inlet conditions P1, V1 and the same compression ratio:

ηOtto > η Dual > η Diesel
For the same inlet conditions P1, V1 and the same peak pressure P3 (actual design limitation in engines):

η Diese l > η Dual > η otto
25

For the same inlet conditions P1, V1 and the same compression ratio P2/P1:

For the same inlet conditions P1, V1 and the same peak pressure P3:
Pmax

“x” →“2.5”

Po

Po Specific Volume Tmax

Specific Volume

Entropy

Entropy

References
Crouse WH, and Anglin DL, (1985), Automotive Engines, DL Tata McGraw Hill. 2. Eastop TD, and McConkey A, (1993), Applied Thermodynamics for Engg. Technologists, Addison Wisley. 3. Fergusan CR, and Kirkpatrick AT, (2001), Internal Combustion Engines, John Wiley & Sons. 4. Ganesan V, (2003), Internal Combustion Engines, Tata McGraw Hill. 5. Gill PW, Smith JH, and Ziurys EJ, (1959), Fundamentals of I. C. Engines, Oxford and IBH Pub Ltd. 6. Heisler H, (1999), Vehicle and Engine Technology, Arnold Publishers. 7. Heywood JB, (1989), Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw Hill. 8. Heywood JB, and Sher E, (1999), The Two-Stroke Cycle Engine, Taylor & Francis. 9. Joel R, (1996), Basic Engineering Thermodynamics, AddisonWesley. 10. Mathur ML, and Sharma RP, (1994), A Course in
1.

Internal Combustion Engines, Dhanpat Rai & Sons, New Delhi. 11. Pulkrabek WW, (1997), Engineering Fundamentals of the I. C. Engine, Prentice Hall. 12. Rogers GFC, and Mayhew YR, (1992), Engineering YR Thermodynamics, Addison
Wisley.

13. Srinivasan S, (2001), Automotive Engines, Tata McGraw Hill. 14. Stone R, (1992), Internal Combustion Engines, The
Macmillan Press Limited, London.

15. Taylor CF, (1985), The Internal-Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice, Vol.1 & 2, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
27

Web Resources
http://www.mne.psu.edu/simp son/courses http://me.queensu.ca/courses http://www.eng.fsu.edu http://www.per sonal.utulsa.edu http://www.glenro seffa.org/ http://www.howstuffworks.com http://www.me.psu.edu http://www.uic.edu/classes/me/ me429/lecture-air-cyc-web %5B1%5D.ppt http://www.osti.gov/ fcvt/HETE2004/Stable.pdf 9. http://www.rmi.org/s itepages/pid457.php 10. http://www.tpub.co m/content/engine/1 4081/css 11. http://webpages.csus.edu 12. http://www.nebo.edu/misc/learning_resources/ ppt/6-12 13. http://netlogo.modelingcomplexity.org/Small_engin es.ppt 14. http://www.ku.edu/~kunrot c/academics/180/Lesson 15. %2008%20Diesel.ppt http://navsci.berkeley.edu/NS10/PPT/ 16. http://www.career-center.org/ secondary/powerpoint/sge17. parts.ppt http://mcdetflw.tecom.usmc.mil 18. http://ferl.becta.org.uk/display.cfm 19.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

http://www.eng.fsu.edu/ ME_senior_design/2002/ folder14/ccd/Combusti on

20.