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Lancaster University Renewable Energy Group

Wales North Network

The Irish Sea's Tidal Power Potential including the Dee Estuary
George A. Aggidis
Director Lancaster University Renewable Energy Group & Fluid Machinery Group

g.aggidis@lancaster.ac.uk

Wednesday 24 March 2010

Lancaster University Renewable Energy Group

OVERVIEW

Introduction Tidal Resource Present state of the art, technology Tidal range projects Environmental implications UK and NW Tidal range projects including Dee Conclusions

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Introduction

The Irish Sea's potential for electricity generation from tidal power is substantial, comparable with that of the Bristol Channel. The presentation will touch on all major schemes being considered and developed, including the potential for the Dee Estuary.

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GRAVITATIONAL FORCE

CENTRIPETAL

Tides Governed by Earth-MoonSun

GRAVITATIONAL & CENTRIPETAL

Neap & Spring Tides


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Neap Tide
Spring Tide

( Moon & Moon)


(Full Moon & New Moon)

Lunar Month = 29.53 Days

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Earliest Tidal Research Dates back to ~ 350BC


ARISTOTLE Earliest reference on the world on ocean research

Aristotle Lyceum Ancient Greece

Evripos Straits

Pytheas Massalia Ancient Greece

Atlantic Ocean

PYTHEAS Produced accounts of tidal movements

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Historical development (to the 1970s)

Prof Steven Salter Edinburgh University

Salter Edinburgh Duck Edinburgh University

La Rance Tidal Barrage France Location: Saint Malo, Brittany D=5,350mm n=93.75 rpm H=11m
Prof Michael French Lancaster University

The Lancaster Flexible Bag Lancaster University

P=10 MW
24 Units (Alstom) Contract year: 1967

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World & UK tidal resource

Worldwide tidal energy potential about 500-1000TWh/year UK is estimated to hold 50TWh/year UK represents 48% of the European resource Few sites worldwide are as close to electricity users and the transmission grid as those in the UK Department of Energy (DoEn) studies in the 1980s, identified 16 estuaries where tidal barrages should be capable of procuring over 44TWh/year The bulk of this energy yield would accrue from 8 major estuaries, in rank order of scale, the Severn, Solway Firth, Morecambe Bay, Wash, Humber, Thames, Mersey and Dee
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Global Distribution of Tidal Range

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UK Resource

Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory

Key to map

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NW Resource

Atlas of UK Marine Renewable Energy Resources: Atlas Pages A Strategic Environmental Assessment Report September 2004

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Tidal Current Energy Resource

Tides depend on position of moon and sun in relation to the earth provide a highly predictable source of power
18TWh/year technically extractable tidal current resource in UK could meet 3-5% of energy demand1 Power extracted from kinetic energy of flowing water: P= AU3
Marine Current Turbines Ltd (MCT) Seagen 1.2 MW

Water 800 times denser than air, so require lesser flow rates
1 Carbon 2 DTI.

Trust. Future Marine Energy. January 2006.

Atlas of UK Marine Energy Resources. 2004

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Peak Flow for a Mean Spring Tide (2)


Spring tidal currents around double neap Tidal currents vary with depth

Atlas of UK Marine Renewable Energy Resources: Atlas Pages A Strategic Environmental Assessment Report September 2004

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Mean Spring Tidal Power Density (2)

Atlas of UK Marine Renewable Energy Resources: Atlas Pages A Strategic Environmental Assessment Report September 2004

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Tidal Current Turbine Technologies

Four main types of Tidal Energy Convertors (TEC) Horizontal Axis


Rigidly mounted Floating and SemiSubmerged

Vertical Axis
Hydrofoil
Oscillating Translating

Venturi Systems Other

Open Hydro

Horizontal axis turbines


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This device extracts energy from moving water in much the same way as wind turbines extract energy from moving air. Devices can be housed within ducts to create secondary flow effects by concentrating the flow and producing a pressure difference

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Horizontal Axis Turbines Rigidly Mounted


Voith Siemens Hydro (Germany) http://www.hydro.org/ne ws/Weilepp.%20Wave%2 0Power.pdf Tidal Generation (UK) http://www.tidalgeneratio n.co.uk

Rotech Tidal Turbine (UK) http://www.lunarenergy.co.uk/ Free Flow Turbine (USA) http://www.verdantpower.com

KESC Bowsprit Generator / KESC Tidal Generator (USA) http://www.kineticenergysystems.com

Kuroshio Ocean Turbine (TW)


Clean Current Tidal Turbine (Canada) http://www.cleancurrent.com http://www.iam.ntu.edu.tw/

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Horizontal Axis Turbines Floating & Semi- Submerged Devices

Underwater Electric Kite (USA)

http://www.uekus.com

Modril (Norway) http://www.statkraft.com

Hydro-Gen (France) http://www.hydro-gem.fr

OCGen (USA)
http://www.oceanrenewablepower.com

Horizontal Axis Turbines Rigidly Mounted


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The Blue Concept (Norway) http://www.e-tidevannsenergi.com Swanturbines (UK) http://www.swanturbines.co,uk/

Hydrohelix Turbine (France)


http://www.hydrohelix.fr/

Open Centre Turbine (Ireland) http://www.openhydro.com

Tocardo (Nederlands) http://www.tocardo.com

Seaflow (UK) & Seagen (UK) http://www.marineturbines.com

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Horizontal Axis Turbines Floating & Semi- Submerged Devices

Evopod (UK) http://www.oceanflowenergy.com

SRTT (UK) http://www.scotrenewables.com

TidEl (UK) http://www.smdhydrovision.com

Semi submersible Turbine (UK) http://www.tidalstream.co.uk

CORMAT(UK) Cameron@esru.strath.ac.uk

Vertical axis turbines


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This device extracts energy from moving water in a similar fashion to the horizontal axis turbines, however the turbine is mounted on a vertical axis.

Vertical Axis Turbines


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Proteus (UK) http://www.neptunerenewableenergy.com

Blue Energy (Canada) http://www.bluenergy.com

Gorlov Helical Turbine (USA) http://www.gcktechnology.com

Polo (UK) http://www.mech.ed.ac.uk

EnCurrent Turbine (Canada) http://www.newenergycorp.ca

Kobold Turbine (Italy) http://www.pontediarchimede.it

Vertical Axis Turbines


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Water Turbine (Norway) http://www.anwsite.com

Lancaster University (UK) http://www.engineering.lancs.ac.uk/REGROUPS/LUREG/home.htm

Water Power Industries WPI (Norway)


http://www.wpi.no

Alternative Hydro Solutions (Canada) http://www.alternativehydrosolutions.com

Oscillating Hydrofoil
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A hydrofoil attached to an oscillating arm and the motion is caused by the tidal current flowing either side of a wing, which results in lift. This motion can then drive fluid in a hydraulic system to be converted into electricity.

Hydrofoils
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BioStream (Australia) http://www.biopowersystems.com

Pulse Generator (UK) http://www.pulsegeneration.co.uk

Stingray (UK) http://www.engb.com

Harmonica (Norway) http://www.tidalsails.com

Aquanator http://www.atlantisresourcescorporation.com

Venturi Effect
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By housing the device in a duct, this has the effect of concentrating the flow past the turbine. The funnel-like collecting device sits submerged in the tidal current. The flow of water can drive a turbine directly or the induced pressure differential in the system can drive an air-turbine.

Venturi Devices
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Gentec Venturi (New Zealand) http://www.greenheating.com

Spectral Marine Energy Converter (UK) http://www.verderg.com

Hydro Venturi (UK) http://www.hydroventuri.com

Other Designs
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This covers those devices with a unique and very different design to the more well-established types of technology or if information on the devices characteristics could not be determined.

Generic Research
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SuperGen Marine II Energy Research Consortium


WS1: Numerical and physical convergence WS2: Optimisation of collector form and

response
WS3: Combined wave and tidal effects WS4: Arrays, wakes and near field effects WS5: Power take-off and conditioning WS6: Moorings and positioning WS7: Advanced control of devices and

network integration
WS8: Reliability WS9: Economic analysis of variability and

penetration

MARINE II

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University scale 1/100 testing

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UK marine energy
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infrastructure

At NaREC in NE England there is a 1/10th scale wave and tidal test facility

UK marine energy infrastructure EMEC Tidal Test Site


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5 Berths 10-50m Grid connected 3.5m/s flow Sheltered area

EMEC

The Birth of an Industry


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We have come a long way from the mid 1970s

We have moved from artists impressions to devices at sea generating into the electricity network

Device Development
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Open Hydro 250 kW open flow tidal current turbine in Orkney connected to the network

OpenHydro Marine Current Turbines SeaFlow has been operating for three years and is rated 300 kW Marine Current Turbines installed SeaGen a twin propeller device rated 1200 kW and connected to the network

MCT

MCT

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UK marine energy infrastructure


D D D

/MW

R
MARINE

The UK commitment to the marine energy provides this type of support for sectoral development
Scottish Enterprise

Research/Development/Demonstration/Deployment

MW to market

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Future Challenges for the Industry

The UKERC Road Map identified research priorities to establish the industry as: Test facilities Moorings and Foundations Resource modelling Device modelling PTO and control Installation and O&M Survivability Electrical Power infrastructure and technology Economics & Policy Standards & Life cycle analysis
UK Energy Research Centre

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Tidal Stream

Tidal stream offers predictable renewable energy

Existing commercial developments demonstrate the possibilities


Rapidly growing sector

Offers considerable advantage over other renewables


There exists significant potential for new inshore devices

The UK requires a varied distributed energy network to remain competitive

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The Northwest of England has the capability to provide at least 5% of UK power through renewable energy tidal schemes; around half the Northwests total energy needs

The NWTEG brings together the Northwests four pipeline tidal energy projects & key stakeholders to raise the profile of the sector and disseminate best practice
95 plus members Chaired and facilitated by NWDA

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Tidal Range Technology

Across Estuaries/Rivers/Islands
Manmade pools

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Barrage Tidal Energy

The energy available from a barrage is dependent on the volume of water. The potential energy contained in a volume of water is: where: h is the vertical tidal range, A is the horizontal area of the barrage basin, is the density of water = 1025 kg per cubic meter (seawater varies between 1021 and 1030 kg per cubic meter) and

g is the acceleration due to the Earth's gravity = 9.81 meters per second squared.
The factor half is due to the fact, that as the basin flows empty through the turbines, the hydraulic head over the dam reduces. The maximum head is only available at the moment of low water, assuming the high water level is still present in the basin.

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Terminology

The relative scale of turbine installation adopted from the Severn Tidal Group studies formed the basis of the DoEns follow-up studies, namely ebb mode being favoured with turbine numbers roughly compatible with extracting about 50% of the available ebb-phase energy.

This results in tidal levels in the estuary basins dropping only to mean sea level or thereabouts, and in this respect is consistent with the theoretical approach put forward by Prandle.
Schemes with these characteristics are referred to as 1xDoEn turbine installations.
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Ebb, Flood, Dual Generation

Delay the natural motion of the tidal flux as sea level changes: Holding back the release of water as tide level subsides under ebb generation so that head (water level) difference is sufficient for turbine operation Deferring the entry of rising tidal flow to the inner estuary basin for flood generation

or dual mode, a combination of both


Each mode has some restricting effect, so reducing the range of tidal variation within the basin, with ebb generation solutions uplifting mean water levels, flood generation reducing mean levels and dual mode operation resulting in little change
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Double regulated bulb turbine Hill-Chart (Escher Wyss)

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Tidal Range References

Existing tidal references world wide:


La Rance, France Bay of Fundy, Canada

La Rance, France,
Alstom

1967

Annapolis, Canada,
Andritz VATECH Hydro

1980

Sihwa, South Korea,


Andritz VATECH Hydro

2005

Bird's eye view of Sihwa, South Korea tidal power plant to be completed in 2010 DAEWOO

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La Rance Tidal Plant France


Completed 1966/67 8 m tidal range 330 m long 22 km2 basin 24 x 5.4 m turbines 240 MW total capacity

La Rance Tidal Barrage Brittany, France

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La Rance Tidal Barrage France

Location: Saint Malo, Brittany

D=5,350mm
n=93.75 rpm H=11m P=10 MW 24 Units Contract year: 1967

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Annapolis Tidal Plant Canada

Location: Bay of Fundy D=7,600mm n=50 rpm

H=7.1m
P=19.9 MW

1 Unit
Contract year: 1980

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Sihwa Tidal Plant South Korea

Location: Sihwa Tidal Plant

D=7,500mm
n=64.3 rpm H=5.8m P=26 MW 10 Units Contract year: 2005
Bird's eye view of Sihwa tidal power plant to be completed in 2010 DAEWOO

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SIHWA TIDAL Largest tidal power plant in the world


PROJECT BACKGROUND: An existing dam built in 1994 (agriculture, reclamation of land) Industrial and biological pollution return to natural exchange of water Korea is investing into renewable energies (KyotoMechanism): from 1.4 % to 5 % in 2011 & reducing oil imports Total project costs: around 250 million USD Specific Investment Costs: 250 million USD / 260 MW 1 million USD / MW

(A. Schwab/B. Hindelang Dec. 08)

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SIHWA TIDAL Largest tidal power plant in the world

Purpose of Sihwa power plant Improve water quality inside the lake

Power generation

Plant Data Mean Tidal Range : 5.6m Spring Tidal Range : 7.8m Basin Area : 43km2 Generation Method : One-way during flood tide Installed Capacity : 250MW (Horizontal Axial Bulb Unit) Estimated Annual Output : 553 GWh

(A. Schwab/B. Hindelang Dec. 08)

Other Systems
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Tidal Reef Barrage (UK) Tidal Lagoons (UK) http://www.tidalelectric.com http://www.evans-engineering.co.uk

Tidal Delay (Australia) http://www.woodshedtechnologies.com.au

Environmental Issues
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Modification of resource

Impact on flora and fauna


Birds, mammals, fish, invertebrates Habitats

Alteration of physical environment


Robustness of device (climate change) Connection to land

Terrestrial impacts

Anglersnet.co.uk

Environmental Issues
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Geographic variability

Match device to opportunity


Interaction between location and form of land Importance of dynamics Need to recognise risks & barriers

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Barriers

Economics
Environmental change

Social disruption
Electricity grid connection

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Environmental Issues

Siltation
Change in tidal regime

Whole system (terrestrial & marine)


Ecology

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Environmental constraints

Habitats
EU Habitats Directive Designated landscapes (RAMSAR, SAC, SPA, etc)

Species
Birds Fish Others (marine mammals, terrestrial plants and animals)

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Environmental Overview

A degree of environmental modification is, therefore, inevitable, but this does not necessarily imply serious degradation from a physical or ecological perspective, though

issues related to protection of habitats inevitably need to be confronted.

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IET Tidal Power

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UK Tidal Schemes - Severn

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UK Tidal Schemes - Other

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Severn Tidal options Map of proposed Project

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Severn Tidal Map of proposed shortlist Project

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Tidal Lagoon Proposed Location

Demonstration Scheme
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Solway
11 hours
7.46m

Irish Sea
?
8.5m

Morecambe
Wyre Ribble

10 hours
5.5m

Mersey Dee

The Northwest of England has a significant tidal energy resource, with capability to provide at least 5%of UK power through tidal energy.

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The Dee Estuary Aber Dyfrdwy

River Dee flowing into Liverpool Bay The estuary starts near Shotton after a five miles (8 km) 'canalised' section The river soon swells to be several miles wide forming the boundary between the Wirral Peninsula in north-west England and Flintshire in north-east 66 Wales

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Potential Dee Barrage alignment & extended DeeWirral lagoon


(Burrows, 2009)
Installing 2-3 times the number of turbines theoretically doubles the total energy capture, at unit costs around 10p/KWh (Dee) The SDC report shows 10p/KWh for the unit cost of energy from offshore wind installations which receive strong backing at present
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2-D ADCIRC modelling Flow simulations

Dee estuary with barrages in place


The whole grid

(Burrows, 2009)
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Upper Irish Sea

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Dee Estuary 40x21MW 8m turbines 40x8mx12m sluices

Operating Modes

Ebb 1.35 TWh


Dual 1.30 TWh Flood 0.78 TWh (Burrows, 2009)
External tidal elevation & reduced basin

level variations (m) against time (days)

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Dee Power outputs and basin/tide levels

(Burrows, 2009)

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Dee Annual Energy vs turbine numbers

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Estimated unit cost (p/kWh) for Dee schemes with different number of turbines

(Burrows, 2009)
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Dee with increasing installed capacity


(Burrows, 2009)

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0-D Modelling Summary

(Burrows, 2009) 74

Mersey
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Hatton, 2009

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Hatton, 2009

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Mersey Tidal Power Feasibility study 2010

The feasibility study is being led jointly by a consulting team comprising Scott Wilson, Drivers Jonas and EDF, on behalf of Peel Energy and the Northwest Regional Development Agency (NWDA). The study aims to identify a tidal power scheme that meets three prime objectives: The tidal power scheme has to be capable of generating a meaningful amount of electricity at a price that the country can afford; The direct impacts on the environment, shipping, local businesses and communities must be kept to acceptable levels (in determining their acceptability, measures may need to be provided to mitigate or compensate for the impacts); and The tidal power scheme should be to the maximum possible benefit of the region in a socio-economic and environmental sense.
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Mersey Tidal Power Four Technologies

The four technologies selected are: A tidal barrage incorporating conventional tidal turbines similar to those routinely used in low head hydroelectric power applications; A tidal power gate which could perform as a very low-head barrage containing a grid of specially designed, smaller tidal turbines This is the kind of technology used to produce power from, for example, reservoir spillways and sluices; A tidal fence a means of capturing energy from the natural or constrained velocity of the tidal flow with either horizontal- or vertical-axis turbines designed for generating electricity in open streams; and An alternative tidal fence based on a new proprietary device that concentrates the energy contained in a large body of slow-moving water into a smaller body of fast-flowing water using the Venturi effect. The developers warn that the list may be revised and developed 78 the as study proceeds and further information becomes available.

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Mersey Tidal Power Next steps

The Mersey Tidal Power project has completed in March 2010 the first stage (shortlist down to four technologies) of a major feasibility study designed to select a preferred tidal power scheme for Mersey Estuary, North West England. Next step in the progress of the feasibility study is to formulate an acceptable scheme on which to base a planning application by the end of 2011.
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Mersey Next steps

In the next stage of the feasibility study, indicative sites within the estuary where the different tidal power technologies could be best deployed will be identified and possible scheme layouts established. There will be an economic analysis that looks at the likely energy yields of the different tidal power schemes set against their anticipated construction and operating costs.

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Wyre
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Sand and Mud flats Salt marshes


RIVER WYRE

Southern barrage position


Edward Greenwood, Wyre Tidal Energy

AN IMPRESSION OF BARRAGES ON THE RIVER WYRE (SOUTHERN AND JUBILEE)


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River dredged to form access harbour to the lagoon Material dredged out for power generating barrages is used to reclaim land and make a deep water FLEETWOOD shipping terminal
Edward Greenwood, Wyre Tidal Energy A barrage on the River Wyre has a potential output of 90MW. Due to its unique location the opportunity exists for a Compressed Air Energy Storage Plant (CAES) by injecting compressed air into some of the redundant salt caverns in the area. The system can eliminate the problems associated with an intermittent power source and add to the economic viability of the project.

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Morecambe Bay Bridge Proposal

Morecambe Bay
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Bridge Across The Bay


Bridge

hosting/supporting renewable energy technologies

Tidal, wind and solar being investigated Free stream vertical axis tidal turbines favoured

Target to extract 200MW


Aims to have minimal environmental impact and maximum socio/economic benefit

Solway
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Solway Firth Energy Feasibility Study 2010 Halcrow RSK Mott MacDonald

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Catterson, 2009

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Multi Functional Infrastructure including Power Generation

Barrage schemes are unique amongst power installations, being inherently multi-functional infrastructure, offering flood protection, possible road and rail crossings and significant amenity/leisure opportunities, amongst other features. Thus, a fully holistic treatment of overall cost-benefit is imperative for robust decision-making. It is suggested that, to date, this position has been inadequately addressed in the formulation of energy strategy, especially in respect of barrages potential strategic roles in flood defense and transportation planning. It follows, therefore, that apart from the direct appraisal of energy capture, other complementary investigations must be sufficiently advanced to enable proper input in decision-making in respect of these secondary functions, as well as the various potentially adverse issues, such as sediment regime change, impact on navigation and 87 environmental modification.

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Multi Functional Infrastructure


Habitat & Land Species Flood Use Risk Fisheries

Cultural Heritage

Power Transport Generation


Tourism Job Creation

Water

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Conclusion

The UK has substantial potential of tidal renewable energy generation, to about 20% of present UK demand Eight major estuaries capable of meeting at least 10% of present electricity demand, employing fully proven technology

Achievable, under favourable UK Treasury discount rates

The UK has tidal stream practicable potential to about 5% of present electricity demand
NW potential from barrages at least 5% of present electricity demand Tidal barrages in the estuaries of the NW capable of meeting about 50% of the regions electricity needs The Challenge is for engineers and scientists to deliver UKs marine renewable energy targets

The Opportunity is for the UK to deliver renewable energy with minimal 89 environmental impact

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The Irish Sea's Tidal Power Potential including the Dee Estuary

Wales North Network

Thank you
George A. Aggidis
Director Lancaster University Renewable Energy Group & Fluid Machinery Group

g.aggidis@lancaster.ac.uk