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Electron = -1.602 19 10-19 C = 9.11 10-31 kg Proton = 1.602 19 10-19 C = 1.67 10-27 kg Neutron = 0 C = 1.67 10-27 kg 23 6.022 10 atoms in one atomic mass unit e is the elementary charge: 1.602 19 10-19 C Potential Energy, velocity of electron: PE = eV = 2 mv 1V = 1J/C 1N/C = 1V/m 1J = 1 Nm = 1 CV 1 amp = 6.21 1018 electrons/second = 1 Coulomb/second 1 hp = 0.756 kW 1 N = 1 TAm 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 Power = Joules/second = I2R = IV [watts W] Quadratic Kinetic Energy [J] b b 2 4ac x= Equation: KE = 1 mv 2 2 2a

[Natural Log: when eb = x, ln x = b ] n: 10-9 p: 10-12 m: 10-3 : 10-6 f: 10-15 a: 10-18

Rectangular Notation:

Z = R jX where +j represents

inductive reactance and -j represents capacitive reactance. For example, Z = 8 + j 6 means that a resistor of 8 is in series with an inductive reactance of 6. Polar Notation: Z = M , where M is the magnitude of the reactance and is the direction with respect to the horizontal (pure resistance) axis. For example, a resistor of 4 in series with a capacitor with a reactance of 3 would be expressed as 5 -36.9 . In the descriptions above, impedance is used as an example. Rectangular and Polar Notation can also be used to express amperage, voltage, and power.

To convert from rectangular to polar notation: Given: X - jY (careful with the sign before the j) Magnitude: Angle:

R = Rx 2 + Ry 2 R = tan 1 Ry Rx or Magnitude (length) of R tan R = Ry Rx Angle of the resultant

X 2 + Y2 = M (negative sign carried over Y from rectangular notation tan = X in this example)

you must add 180 after taking the inverse tangent. If the result is greater than 180, you may optionally subtract 360 to obtain the value closest to the reference angle.

To convert from polar to rectangular (j) notation: Given: M de X Value: M cos itu gn M Ma Y (j) Value: M sin

Multiplication of Vectors:

Cross Product or Vector Product: Positive direction:

i j=k

j i = k i i = 0

j i k

In conversions, the j value will have the X same sign as the value for angles having a magnitude < 180. Use rectangular notation when adding and subtracting. Use polar notation for multiplication and division. Multiply in polar notation by multiplying the magnitudes and adding the angles. Divide in polar notation by dividing the magnitudes and subtracting the denominator angle from the numerator angle.

i j = 0 a b = ab cos

ii =1

Derivative of Vectors:

Velocity is the derivative of position with respect to time:

v=

d dx dy dz ( xi + yj + zk) = i + j+ k dt dt dt dt

a=

dv y dv dv d ( v x i + v y j + v zk ) = x i + j+ z k dt dt dt dt

Coulomb's Law:

F=k q1 q2 r

2

[Newtons N] where:

E=

kqr R3

the other[N] k = 8.99 109 [Nm2/C2] q1 = charge [C] q2 = charge [C] r = distance [m]

the charge [m]

E=

Electric Field:

kq r2

the charge [m]

q F E=k 2 = r q

E = electric field [N/C or V/m] k = 8.99 109 [Nm2/C2] q = charge [C] r = distance [m] F = force

magnetic field:

Electric field lines radiate outward from positive charges. The electric field is zero inside a conductor.

Em 2 Bm2 c W/m = = 2 0 c 2 0

2

W = watts Em = max. electric field [N/C] 0 = 4 10-7 c = 2.99792 108 [m/s] Bm = max. magnetic field [T]

Relationship of k to 0:

k=

1 4 0

where:

A positive charge moving in the same direction as the electric field direction loses potential energy since the potential of the electric field diminishes in this direction. Equipotential lines cross EF lines at right angles.

Electric Dipole:

2k E= = r 2 0 r

0 = permittivity of free space 8.85 10-12 [C2/Nm2] r = distance [m] k = 8.99 109 [Nm2/C2]

d -Q +Q

p

z

kqz E= 2 ( z + R 2 )3 / 2

or if z >> R,

E=

kq z2

E = electric field [N/C] k = 8.99 109 [Nm2/C2] q = charge [C] z = distance to the charge [m] R = radius of the ring [m]

2kp z3 1 p E= 2 0 z 3 E=

when

0 = permittivity of free space 8.85 10-12 C2/Nm2 p = qd [Cm] "electric dipole moment" in the direction negative to positive z = distance [m] from the dipole center to the point along the dipole axis where the electric field is to be measured

zd

E=

1 2 0

2 2 z +R z

[C/m } 0 = 8.85 10-12 [C2/Nm2] z = distance to charge [m] R = radius of the ring [m]

2

2 ymv 2 = qEL2

E=

2 0

0 = 8.85 10-12 [C2/Nm2]

y = deflection [m] m = mass of the particle [kg] d = plate separation [m] v = speed [m/s] q = charge [C] E = electric field [N/C or V/m L = length of plates [m]

PE V = VB V A = = Ed q

PE = work to move a charge from A to B [Nm or J] q = charge [C] VB = potential at B [V] VA = potential at A [V] E = electric field [N/C or V/m d = plate separation [m]

Gauss' Law:

0 = qenc 0 E dA = qenc

0 = 8.85 10-12 [C2/Nm2] is the rate of flow of an electric field [Nm2/C] qenc = charge within the gaussian surface [C]

V =k q r V = potential [volts V] k = 8.99 109 [Nm2/C2] q = charge [C] r = distance [m] A d

CAPACITANCE

Parallel-Plate Capacitor:

C = 0 C = capacitance [farads F]

0 = permittivity of free space 8.85 10-12 C2/Nm2 A = area of one plate [m2] d = separation between plates [m]

CV]

qq PE = q2V1 = k 1 2 r

q1 at a point P q2V1 is the work required to bring q2 from infinity to point P

U = U f U i = W U = W W = F d = Fd cos W = q E ds

i f

a field [J] W = work done on a particle brought from infinity (zero potential) to its present location [J] F = is the force vector [N] d = is the distance vector over which the force is applied[m] F = is the force scalar [N] d = is the distance scalar [m] = is the angle between the force and distance vectors ds = differential displacement of the charge [m] V = volts [V] q = charge [C]

Cylindrical Capacitor:

L = length [m] b = radius of the outer

conductor [m]

C = capacitance [farads F]

conductor [m]

V = V f Vi = V = E ds

i f

W q

Spherical Capacitor:

ab C = 4 0 ba

C = capacitance [farads F]

0 = 8.85 10-12 C2/Nm2 b = radius, outer conductor [m] a = radius, inner conductor [m]

Q = VC

Q = Coulombs [C] V = volts [V] C = capacitance in farads [F]

= E dA = E(cos )dA

field [Nm /C]

2

E is the electric field vector [N/C] 2 A is the area vector [m ] pointing outward normal to the surface.

For capacitors connected in series, the charge Q is equal for each capacitor as well as for the total equivalent. If the dielectric constant is changed, the capacitance is multiplied by , the voltage is divided by , and Q is unchanged. In a vacuum = 1, When dielectrics are used, replace 0 with 0.

UE =

QV CV 2 Q 2 = = 2 2 2C

U = Potential Energy [J] Q = Coulombs [C] V = volts [V] C = capacitance in farads [F]

Resistivity: E J RA = L =

[Ohm Meters] = resistivity [ m] E = electric field [N/C] J = current density [A/m2] R = resistance [ ohms] A = area [m2] L = length of conductor [m] = resistivity [ m] 0 = reference resistivity [ m] = temperature coefficient of

resistivity [K-1] T0 = reference temperature T - T0 = temperature difference [K or C]

q A

q = charge [C] A = area [m2]

u = 1 0 E 2 2

u = energy per unit volume [J/m3] 0 = permittivity of free space 8.85 10-12 C2/Nm2 E = energy [J]

0 = 0 ( T T0 )

Capacitors in Series:

Capacitors in Parallel:

1 1 1 = + ... Ceff C1 C2

Ceff = C1 + C2 ...

Capacitors connected in series all have the same charge q. For parallel capacitors the total q is equal to the sum of the charge on each capacitor.

CURRENT

Current Density:

[A/m2] i = current [A] J = current density [A/m2] A = area [m2] L = length of conductor [m] e = charge per carrier ne = carrier charge density [C/m3] Vd = drift speed [m/s]

Time Constant:

[seconds]

= RC

= time it takes the capacitor to reach 63.2% of its maximum charge [seconds] R = series resistance [ohms ] C = capacitance [farads F]

i = J dA

if current is uniform and parallel to dA, then:

charging:

[coulombs C]

i = JA

V = VS (1 e t / )

discharging:

q = Q(1 e t / )

q = Qe t / V = VS e t /

Drift Speed:

q = charge after t seconds [coulombs C] Q = maximum charge [coulombs C] Q = CV e = natural log t = time [seconds] = time constant RC [seconds] V = volts [V] VS = supply volts [V]

J = ( ne)Vd

P = power [W] i = current [A] = emf potential [V]

[Natural Log: when eb = x, ln x = b ] Q = # of carriers charge/carrier t = time in seconds n = # of carriers q = charge on each carrier vd = drift speed in meters/second 2 A = cross-sectional area in meters 1. 2.

Kirchhoffs Rules

The sum of the currents entering a junctions is equal to the sum of the currents leaving the junction. The sum of the potential differences across all the elements around a closed loop must be zero.

I=

Q = (nqvd A) t

1. Assign current variables and direction of flow to all branches of the circuit. If your choice of direction is incorrect, the result will be a negative number. Derive equation(s) for these currents based on the rule that currents entering a junction equal currents exiting the junction. Apply Kirchhoffs loop rule in creating equations for different current paths in the circuit. For a current path beginning and ending at the same point, the sum of voltage drops/gains is zero. When evaluating a loop in the direction of current flow, resistances will cause drops (negatives); voltage sources will cause rises (positives) provided they are crossed negative to positiveotherwise they will be drops as well. The number of equations should equal the number of variables. Solve the equations simultaneously.

RESISTANCE

Emf: A voltage source which can provide continuous current

[volts]

2. = emf open-circuit voltage of the battery I = current [amps] R = load resistance [ohms] r = internal battery resistance [ohms]

= IR + Ir

3.

MAGNETISM

Andr-Marie Ampre is credited with the discovery of electromagnetism, the relationship between electric currents and magnetic fields. Heinrich Hertz was the first to generate and detect electromagnetic waves in the laboratory.

mv r= qB

r = radius of rotational path m = mass [kg] v = velocity [m/s] q = charge [C] B = magnetic field [T] B = magnetic field [T] 0 = the permeability of free space 410-7 Tm/A I = current [A] r = distance from the center of the conductor B = magnetic field [T] 0 = the permeability of free space 410-7 Tm/A i = current [A] = the arc in radians r = distance from the center of the conductor

[Newtons N]

B=

0I 2r

F = qvB sin F = qv B

F = force [N] q = charge [C] v = velocity [m/s] B = magnetic field [T] = angle between v and B

magnetic force B, thumb represents the direction of v (at any angle to B), and the force F on a positive charge emanates from the palm. The direction of a magnetic field is from north to south. Use the left hand for a negative charge. Also, if a wire is grasped in the right hand with the thumb in the direction of current flow, the fingers will curl in the direction of the magnetic field. In a solenoid with current flowing in the direction of curled fingers, the magnetic field is in the direction of the thumb. When applied to electrical flow caused by a changing magnetic field, things get more complicated. Consider the north pole of a magnet moving toward a loop of wire (magnetic field increasing). The thumb represents the north pole of the magnet, the fingers suggest current flow in the loop. However, electrical activity will serve to balance the change in the magnetic field, so that current will actually flow in the opposite direction. If the magnet was being withdrawn, then the suggested current flow would be decreasing so that the actual current flow would be in the direction of the fingers in this case to oppose the decrease. Now consider a cylindrical area of magnetic field going into a page. With the thumb pointing into the page, this would suggest an electric field orbiting in a clockwise direction. If the magnetic field was increasing, the actual electric field would be CCW in opposition to the increase. An electron in the field would travel opposite the field direction (CW) and would experience a negative change in potential.

i B= 0 4r

Hall Effect: Voltage across the width of a conducting ribbon due to a Magnetic Field:

( ne)Vw h = Bi v d Bw = Vw

Vw = voltage across the width [V] h = thickness of the conductor [m] B = magnetic field [T] i = current [A] vd = drift velocity [m/s] w = width [m]

F1 0 I1 I 2 = l 2d

F = force [N] l = length [m] 0 = the permeability of free space 410-7 Tm/A I = current [A] d = distance center to center [m]

[Teslas T]

B = 0 nI

[Newtons N]

F = BI l sin F = I l B

F = force [N] B = magnetic field [T] I = amperage [A] l = length [m] = angle between B and the direction of the current N = number of turns B = magnetic field [T] I = amperage [A] 2 A = area [m ] = angle between B and the plane of the loop

B = magnetic field [T] 0 = the permeability of free -7 space 410 Tm/A n = number of turns of wire per unit length [#/m] I = current [A]

= NiA

= NBIA sin

N = number of turns of wire i = current [A] A = area [m2] B = magnetic field [T] 2 A = area of loop [m ] = angle between B and the perpen-dicular to the plane of the loop

= BAcos

Webers]

Amperes' Law:

= B dA

B ds = i

0 enc

B = magnetic field [T] 0 = the permeability of free space 410-7 Tm/A ienc = current encircled by the loop[A]

d E ds = E 2 r = dt B B = BA = B r 2 d dB =A dt dt d = N dt

E = electric field [N/C] r = radius [m] t = time [s] = magnetic flux [Tm2 or

Webers] B = magnetic field [T] A = area of magnetic field [m2] dB/dt = rate of change of the magnetic field [T/s] = potential [V] N = number of orbits

Joseph Henry, American physicist, made improvements to the electromagnet. James Clerk Maxwell provided a theory showing the close relationship between electric and magnetic phenomena and predicted that electric and magnetic fields could move through space as waves. J. J. Thompson is credited with the discovery of the electron in 1897.

Inductance of a Coil: [H]

Faradays Law of Induction states that the instantaneous emf induced in a circuit equals the rate of change of magnetic flux through the circuit. Michael Faraday made fundamental discoveries in magnetism, electricity, and light.

N L= I

= N

In an RL Circuit, after one time constant ( = L/R) the current in the circuit is 63.2% of its final value, /R.

RL Circuit:

current rise:

such that it produces a current whose magnetic field opposes the change in magnetic flux through a circuit

V I = (1 e t / L ) R

current decay:

through a perpendicular magnetic field.

= Blv

B = magnetic field [T] l = length of the bar [m] v = speed of the bar [m/s] N = number of turns A = area of loop [m2] B = magnetic field [T] = angular velocity [rad/s] t = time [s] L = inductance [H] I = current [A] t = time [s] L = inductance [H] l = length of the solenoid [m] 0 = the permeability of free space 410-7 Tm/A n = number of turns of wire per unit length [#/m] 2 A = area [m ]

I=

V t / L e R

UB = Potential Energy [J] V = volts [V] R = resistance [] e = natural log t = time [seconds] L = inductive time constant L/R [s] I = current [A]

U B = 1 LI 2 2

= NAB sin t

QV CV 2 Q 2 UE = = = 2 2 2C

= L

I t

UE = Potential Energy [J] Q = Coulombs [C] V = volts [V] C = capacitance in farads [F]

In a series-resonant circuit, the impedance is at its minimum and the current is at its maximum. For a parallel-resonant circuit, the opposite is true.

L = 0 n 2 A l

fR = =

1 2 LC 1 LC

fR = Resonant Frequency [Hz] L = inductance [H] C = capacitance in farads [F] = angular frequency [rad/s]

q V = IR C R VX VR = =I X R V 2 = VR 2 + VX 2 VC =

VC = voltage across capacitor [V] q = charge on capacitor [C] fR = Resonant Frequency [Hz] L = inductance [H] C = capacitance in farads [F] R = resistance [] I = current [A] V = supply voltage [V] VX = voltage across reactance [V] VR = voltage across resistor [V]

q = Qe Rt / 2 L cos( t + )

where

= 2 ( R / 2L ) 2 = 1 / LC

When R is small and :

X VX = R VR V R cos = R = V Z tan =

( would be negative in a capacitive circuit)

= Phase Angle [degrees] X = reactance [] R = resistance [] V = supply voltage [V] VX = voltage across reactance [V] VR = voltage across resistor [V] Z = impedance []

Q 2 Rt / L U= e 2C

Parallel RCL Circuits:

q = charge on capacitor [C] Q = maximum charge [C] e = natural log R = resistance [] L = inductance [H] = angular frequency of the undamped oscillations [rad/s] = angular frequency of the damped oscillations [rad/s] U = Potential Energy of the capacitor [J] C = capacitance in farads [F]

IC

IT = I R + ( IC I L )

2

IR V IL

Z 2 = R2 + X 2 E = IZ Z XC R = = V VC V R Z = R jX

Series RCL Circuits:

= Phase Angle [degrees] X = reactance [] R = resistance [] V = supply voltage [V] VX = voltage across reactance [V] VX = voltage across resistor [V] Z = impedance []

tan =

IC I L IR

The Resultant Phasor X = X L X C is in the direction of the larger reactance and determines whether the circuit is inductive or capacitive. If XL is larger than XC, then the circuit is inductive and X is a vector in the upward direction. In series circuits, the amperage is the reference (horizontal) vector. This is observed on the oscilloscope by looking at the voltage across the resistor. The two vector diagrams at right illustrate the phase relationship between voltage, resistance, reactance, and amperage.

XL R I XC VL VR I VC

To find total current and phase angle in multielement circuits, find I for each path and add vectorally. Note that when converting between current and resistance, a division will take place requiring the use of polar notation and resulting in a change of sign for the angle since it will be divided into (subtracted from) an angle of zero. Equivalent Series Circuit: Given the Z in polar notation of a parallel circuit, the resistance and reactance of the equivalent series circuit is as follows:

R = ZT cos

X = ZT sin

AC CIRCUITS

Instantaneous Voltage of a Sine Wave:

Maximum and rms Values: V I V= m I= m 2 2 RLC Circuits:

V = VR 2 + (V L VC ) 2

V = voltage [V] f = frequency [Hz] t = time [s] I = current [A] V = voltage [V]

Z 2 = R2 + ( X L X C )2

Z=

R cos

Impedance may be found by adding the components using vector algebra. By converting the result to polar notation, the phase angle is also found. For multielement circuits, total each resistance and reactance before using the above formula.

Z = R2 + ( X L X C )2

tan =

X L XC R

reciprocal of resistance in siemens (S). Susceptance (B, BL, BC): The reciprocal of reactance in siemens (S). Admittance (Y): The reciprocal of impedance in siemens (S).

Susceptance

B

e nc itta m Ad

G

Conductance

ELECTROMAGNETICS WAVELENGTH c = f

c=E/B

f = frequency [Hz] E = electric field [N/C] B = magnetic field [T]

1 1 2 S= EB = E 0 0 cB = E

space 410-7 Tm/A E = electric field [N/C or V/M] B = magnetic field [T] c = 2.99792 108 [m/s]

1 = 10-10m

LIGHT

Indices of Refraction:

Quartz: Glass, crown Glass, flint Water Air 1.458 1.52 1.66 1.333 1.000 293

equal to 10-10 m m = (meters)

WAVELENGTH SPECTRUM

BAND METERS ANGSTROMS

Longwave radio Standard Broadcast Shortwave radio TV, FM Microwave Infrared light Visible light violet blue green yellow orange red Ultraviolet light X-rays Gamma rays Cosmic rays

1 - 100 km 100 - 1000 m 10 - 100 m 0.1 - 10 m 1 - 100 mm 0.8 - 1000 m 360 - 690 nm 360 nm 430 nm 490 nm 560 nm 600 nm 690 nm 10 - 390 nm 5 - 10,000 pm 100 - 5000 fm < 100 fm

1013 - 1015 1012 - 1013 1011 - 1012 109 - 1011 107 - 109 8000 - 107 3600 - 6900 3600 4300 4900 5600 6000 6900 100 - 3900 0.05 - 100 0.001 - 0.05 < 0.001

2

2

Angle of Incidence:

The angle measured from the perpendicular to the face or from the perpendicular to the tangent to the face

a higher index of refraction.

n

n=

c v

0 n

n = index of refraction c = speed of light in a vacuum 3 108 m/s v = speed of light in the material [m/s] 0 = wavelength of the light in a vacuum [m] = its wavelength in the material [m]

traveling to a region of lesser density: 2 > 1

2 n2 n1 1 Source Source refracted n2 n1 1

2 < 1

2 refracted

P I= s2 4 r

I = intensity [w/m ] Ps = power of source [watts] r = distance [m] 2 4r = surface area of sphere

Critical Angle:

n2 n1

The maximum angle of incidence for which light can move from n1 to n2

n2 n1 Source

refracted

sin c =

for n1 > n2

a) if the light is totally absorbed: F = force [N] 2 I = intensity [w/m ] 2 A = area [m ] Pr = radiation pressure [N/m2] c = 2.99792 108 [m/s]

reflected

Sign Conventions:

F=

IA c

Pr =

I c

When M is negative, the image is inverted. p is positive when the object is in front of the mirror, surface, or lens. Q is positive when the image is in front of the mirror or in back of the surface or lens. f and r are positive if the center of curvature is in front of the mirror or in back of the surface or lens.

negative m means that the image is inverted.

F=

2 IA c

Pr =

2I c

h i M= = h p

h = image height [m] h = object height [m] i = image distance [m] p = object distance [m]

plane refracting surface:

n1 n = 2 p i

Lensmakers Equation for a thin lens in air: f = focal length [m] 1 1 1 1 1 = + = ( n 1) i = image distance [m] f p i r1 r2 p = object distance [m]

r1 = radius of surface nearest the object[m] r2 = radius of surface nearest the image [m] n = index of refraction

a sin

Single-Slit Destructive:

intersection. m = fringe order number [integer] = wavelength of the light [m] a = width of the single-slit [m] L = the difference between the distance traveled of the two rays [m] I = intensity @ [W/m2] Im = intensity @ = 0 [W/m2] d = distance between the slits [m]

a sin = m

F2 C1

Virtual Image C2 F1

In a circular aperture, the 1st minimum is the point at which an image can no longer be resolved.

r2

p C2 F 1 F2 i

r1

Real Image C1

when the reflecting material has a greater index of refraction n than the ambient medium. Relative to the same ray without phase shift, this constitutes a path difference of /2.

Interference between Reflected and Refracted rays Thin Lens when the thickest part is thin compared to p.

i is negative on the left, positive on the right f = focal length [m] r f = r = radius [m] from a thin material surrounded by another medium: Constructive: n = index of refraction t = thickness of the material [m] 2nt = (m + 1 ) 2 m = fringe order number [integer] Destructive: = wavelength of the light [m] 2nt = m If the thin material is between two different media, one with a higher n and the other lower, then the above constructive and destructive formulas are reversed.

Converging Lens

f is positive (left) r1 and r2 are positive in this example

Diverging Lens

f is negative (right) r1 and r2 are negative in this example

Two-Lens System

Perform the calculation in steps. Calculate the image produced by the first lens, ignoring the presence of the second. Then use the image position relative to the second lens as the object for the second calculation ignoring the first lens. This refers to two materials with a single refracting surface. p = object distance i = image distance [m] (positive for real images) f = focal point [m] n = index of refraction r = radius [m] (positive when facing a convex surface, unlike with mirrors) M = magnification h' = image height [m] h = object height [m]

Wavelength within a medium: = wavelength in free space [m] n = wavelength in the medium [m] n = n n = index of refraction

c = nn f

c = the speed of light 3.00 108 [m/s] f = frequency [Hz]

Polarizing Angle:

n2 n1

by Brewsters Law, the angle of incidence that produces complete polarization in the reflected light from an amorphous material such as glass.

tan B =

n1 n2 n2 n1 + = p i r ni h M = = 1 h n2 p

r + B = 90

n = index of refraction B = angle of incidence producing a 90 angle between reflected and refracted rays. r = angle of incidence of the refracted ray.

non-polarized Source b b n1 n2 r

polarized

partially polarized

Constructive and Destructive Interference by Single and Double Slit Defraction and Circular Aperture

Youngs double-slit experiment (bright fringes/dark fringes):

Double Slit Constructive: Destructive: d = distance between the slits [m] = the angle between a normal line extending from midway between the slits and a line extending from the midway point to the point of ray

[Watts/m2]

initially unpolarized: I = 1 I 0 2 initially polarized: I = intensity [W/m ] 2 I0 = intensity of source [W/m ] = angle between the polarity of the source and the lens.

2

L = d sin = m L = d sin = ( m + 1 ) 2

I = I 0 cos 2

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