You are on page 1of 16


Small village settlements were dependent upon river, wells or tanks for the source of water supply which was hand carried and used for various purposes. Progress of civilisation created large settlements which in turn demanded more per capita, good quality water, with high supply efficiency. Further water supply system .required proper maintenance for dependable supply. Collective action was required to meet these challenges. Organised management of municipal bodies were required to mobilise large capital to design. construct and manage water supply. Contributions of urban inhabitants (municipal tax, octroi duty etc.) was required to meet the capital and recurring expenditure for water supply systems and large capital requirement. Large initial capital requirement was met from government grants. and loans from Life Insurance Corporations of India and other international and national agencies. Therefore public water supply scheme should meet the following : (1) Ensure the quality of supply for it's intended use like drinking. or industrial use. (2) Ensure sufficient quantity of supply. (3) Ensure convenient and easy accessibility of water supply distribution. (4) Ensure economic and financial viability of water supply product such that the capital and recurring cost falls within the affordable limits of the consumers of the system.

Water supply Problems

Insufficient water supply Quality Wastage Distribution network leakage, unequal distribution. Pricing of water Recycling of treated waste water Depletion of water table Unequal distribution of water

Water Supply for Residences

A minimum of 70 to 100 litres per head per day may be considered adequate for domestic needs of urban communities, apart from non domestic needs as flushing requirements. As a general rule the following rates per capita per day may be considered minimum for domestic and non domestic needs : 1) For communities with population upto 20000 and without flushing system

a) water supply through standpost b) water supply through house service connection 2) For communities with population 20000 to 100000 together with full flushing system 3) For communities with population above 100000 together with full flushing system

40 Iphd (Min) 70 to 100 Iphd 100 to 150 Iphd

150 to 200 Iphd

NOTE -The value of water supply given as 150 to 200 Iltres per head per day may be reduced to 135 litres per head per day for houses for Lower Income Groups (LIG) and Economically Weaker Section of Society (EWS), depending upon prevailing conditions. Out of the 150 to 200 litres per head per day, 60-75 liters per head per day may be taken for flushing requirements and the remaining quantity for other domestic purposes.

Water supply for buildings other than residences

Minimum requirements for water supply for buildings other than residences per day per day are as follows: 1. Factories where bath rooms are required to be provided. 2. Factories where no bath rooms are required to be provided 1. Hospital (including laundry): a) Number of beds not exceeding 100 b) Number of beds exceeding 100 4. Nurses' homes and medical quarters 5. Hostels 6. Hotel 7. Offices 8. Restaurants 9. Cinemas, concert halls and theatres 10.Schools : a) Day schools b) Boarding schools 45 litres 30 litres

340 litres 450 litres 135 litres 135 litres 180 litres 45 litres 70 litres/seat 15 litres/seat 45 litres 135 litres

NOTE -For calculating water demand for visitors a consumption of 15 litres per head, per day may be taken

Water Supply Requirements of Traffic Terminal Stations

Nature of station Where bathing facilities Where bathing facilities are provided are not provided

(a) railways,bus stations and sea ports Intermediate stations (excluding mail and express stops) Junction stations and intermediate stations where mail or express stoppage is provided terminal stations (a) airports International and domestic

Litres/capita 45 70

Litres/capita 25 45

45 70

45 70

The Authority shall make provision to meet the water supply requirements for fire fighting in the city/area, depending on the population density and types of occupancy. Provision shall be made by the owner of the building for water supply requirements for fire fighting purposes within the building, depending upon the height and occupancy of the building, in conformity with the requirements laid down in Part 4 Fire Protection.

Water Supply for Other Purposes

Water supply in many buildings is also required for many other applications other than domestic use, are air conditioning and air washing, swimming pools and water bodies.

Types of water sources

Sources from which water is available for water supply schemes are divided into the following three categories: (a) surface sources (b) underground sources (c) Combination of the above two in which percentage of underground water is more than surface water.

(b) Surface sources

In this type of source, the surface runoff is available for water supply schemes. Usual forms of surface sources are as follows: 1. Lakes and streams - the catchment area of lakes and streams is very small and hence it is not considered as principal source of water supply schemes for large cities but they can be adopted as sources of water supply schemes for hilly areas and small towns. The water, which is available from lakes and streams, is generally free from undesirable impurities and can therefore be safely used for drinking purpose.

2. Rivers principal source of water supply schemes for many cities. The quality of surface water obtained from rivers contains silts and suspended impurities therefore it requires an exhaustive treatment before it can be made fit for drinking purpose. 3. Storage reservoirs an artificial lake formed by the construction of dam across a valley is termed as a storage reservoir. It is considered as a chief source of water supply schemes for very big cities.

(c) Underground sources

In this type of source, the water that has percolated into the ground is brought on the surface. Following are the forms in which underground sources are found: 1. Infiltration galleries an infiltration gallery is a horizontal tunnel, which is constructed through water bearing strata. It is the form of an outlet pipe having perforations all around its surface and it is adopted when quantity of available ground water is small. 2. Infiltration wells in order to obtain large quantities of water, infiltration wells are sunk in series in the banks of river. 3. Springs when ground water appears at the surface for any reason, springs are formed. They serve as source of water for small towns, especially near hills. 4. Wells

Quantity of water
The quantity of water to be stored shall be calculated taking into account the following factors : a) Hours of supply at sufficiently high-pressure to fill up the overhead storage tanks b) Frequency of replenishment of overhead tanks, during the 24 hours c) rate and regularity of supply and d) Consequences of exhausting storage particularly in case of public buildings like hospitals research laboratory etc. If the water supply is intermittent and the hours of supply are irregular, it is desirable to have a minimum storage of half a, day's supply for overhead tanks.

Quality of water
Water can be classified according to the quality of water into five categories: A suitable for drinking after disinfection without conventional treatment. B suitable for outdoor bathing. C suitable for drinking with conventional treatment followed by disinfection. D suitable for propagation of wild life and fisheries. E suitable for irrigation, industrial cooling and to control waste disposal.

Technical parameters of categories Category A Dissolved oxygen : > 6 mg/l BOD : 2 mg/l Colliform : <100MPN/50 ml PH : 6.5-8.5 Category B Dissolved oxygen : > 5 mg/l BOD : < 3 mg/l Colliform : < 500/100ml PH : 6.5-8.5 Category C Dissolved oxygen : > 4 mg/l BOD : < 3 mg/l Colliform : < 5000/100ml PH : 6-9 Category D Dissolved oxygen : > 4 mg/l Colliform : 5000/100ml PH : 6.5-8.5 Free ammonia : < 1.2 mg/l Category E Sodium ratio : <26 mg/l (important for irrigation) Ozone : > 2 mg/l PH : 6. 8.5 Electronic conductivity : < 2250 micro ohms (shows salinity) Quality: Quality of water depends upon the use, it is put to. Drinking water must be free from pathogens, but presence of some minerals are actually beneficial. Water fed into the boiler should be free from chemicals causing hardness. should be conducted regularly on sample basis. Temperature: The drinking water should be cool (desirable 50 degree F and Generally less than 80 degree F) Turbidity: Turbidity for drinking water shall be between 2.5 and less than 10 parts per million(ppm) Colour : For drinking purpose the colour of water should be preferably be less than 10 p.p.m.. The maximum permissible amount of manganese and iron compound for water distribution is between 0.3. to 0.6 p.p.m. Odour and Taste: Odour and taste of water shall be unobjectionable. Odour can be removed by aeration and filtration.

Organic Pollution: The presence of nitrites and nitrates indicates organic pollution of distant origin, as these compounds are formed after sometime by oxidation. Presence of ammonia and albuminoid ammonia is an indication of contamination by vegetable matters. Oxygen:Organic life in natural water needs oxygen for life. The amount of oxygen thus consumed is known as biochemical oxygen demand (B.O.D.) Salt: Sodium chloride more than 250 p.p.m. makes the water unpalatable. Alkalinity: alkalinity helps the process of coagulation while purifying the water. Alkalinity also prevents corrosion in pipes which would otherwise take place, if acidity is present. Hardness: The soluble bicarbonates when boiled are converted into insoluble carbonates, which are precipitated, and hence the bicarbonates hardness is removed. It is therefore temporary hardness. Permanent hardness remains even when water is boiled that can be removed by using other chemicals. pH value: pH less than 7 is acidic water and more than 7 alkaline. An individual habitual of one pH value take another pH value of water will get digestive disorders. pH value determines the amount of alum required for coagulation. Bacteria: bacteria causing disease in the human body are called pathogens. The presence of these denotes contamination by sewage water contained in water. Sedimentation, filtration and sterilization are three processes for improving the quality of water supply. The process of removing suspended impurities is called sedimentation. Smaller particle and bacteria cannot be removed by sedimentation and have to be removed by filtration.

Quantity of urban water supply

quantity : Quantity of water to be supplied in a city depends on many factors like population and their characteristics, climatic condition, the type of sewerage system, metered supply fire fighting requirements. It also depends upon the evaluation of potential source of water supply. Characteristics of population Includes life style and economic status. The climatic conditions not only affect the per capita consumption but also affect the seasonal demand of water. Large quantity of water has to b rushed to the spot as quick as possible. This has got a bearing on size o distribution mains and distribution reservoirs. Dry latrines require the least amount of water while the conventional sewerage require the maximum amount of water for flushing. Design Period: For water supply projects, a 30 years design period is assumed. Per Capita Rate of Water Supply: As a general rule, the following per capita rates are recommended as the minimum for design of public water supply in India.

(a) For design population up to 10,000; 70-100 litres per day. (b) For the design population 10 to 50,000; 100-125 litres per day. (c) For design population above 50,000; 125-200 litres per day. Rate of Water Supply: The maximum seasonal demand may be 1.3 times average annual demand. The maximum hourly demand may go up to 2.5 times the average. Pressure: There shall be adequate pressure in the distribution system. The minimum residual pressures at the time of peak demand shall be 7 meters for single storey, 12 meter for two storey and >17 meter for three storey. Water Meters: it has been observed that metering reduces the water consumption. It has been further observed that in not metered conditions whenever intermittent water supply is provided, it increases the consumption contrary.

Balancing the required quantity with sources of water supply

The surface of the water under the surface ground level is called the water table, which moves up and down. The ground water is under constant movement. Its velocity which is a function of speed and direction can be studied with the use of dyes (colors). Test wells are dug at equal intervals in all direction. Dyes in proper quantity are injected in the central well. The well in which the color is first detected and the time at which it is observed are noted. The distance between the well divided by the time interval between the dropping of the dye and its reappearance in the next well gives us the speed of the water movement. Groundwater is generally devoid of suspended impurities, but the risk of dissolved impurities is more in ground water supply.

Materials, fittings and appliances

Materials for Pipes -Pipes may be of any of the following materials: a) cast iron, vertically cast or centrifugally (spun) cast, b) steel (internally lined or coated with bitumen or a bituminous composition, and out-coated with cement concrete or mortar, where necessary), c) reinforced concrete, d) prestressed concrete, e) mild steel tubes or tubulars (galvanized), f) copper, g) brass, h) wrought iron, The material chosen shall be resistant to corrosion, both inside and outside or shall be suitably protected against corrosion.

Rate of Flow - the rate of flow in the service pipe depends upon the number of

hours for which the supply is available at sufficiently high pressure. If the number of hours for which the supply is available is less, there will be large number of fittings in use simultaneously and the rate of flow will be correspondingly large.

The data required for determining the size of the communication and service pipes are : a) the maximum rate of discharge required, b) the length of the pipe, c) the head loss by friction in that length, and c) the roughness of the interior surface of the pipe.

Conveyance and distribution of water within the premises

Basic Principles there shall be no cross-connection whatsoever between the distribution system for wholesome water and any pipe or fitting containing unwholesome water. The provision of reflux or non-return valves or closed and sealed stop valves shall not be construed as a permissible substitute for complete absence of cross-connection. All pipe work shall be so designed, laid or fixed and maintained as to remain completely water-tight, thereby avoiding wastage, damage to property and the risk of contamination. No piping shall be laid or fixed so as to pass into or through any sewer, scour outlet or drain or any manhole. Where the laying of any pipe through corrosive soil or previous material is .unavoidable, the piping shall be properly protected from contact with such soil or material by being carried through an exterior cast iron tube or by some other suitable means as approved by the Authority. Underground piping shall be laid at such depth that it is unlikely to be damaged by frost or traffic loads and vibrations. To reduce frictional losses, piping shall be as smooth as possible inside. Change in diameter and in direction shall preferably be gradual rather than abrupt to avoid undue loss of bend or curve in piping shall be made which is likel to materially diminish or alter the crosssection.

Laying of mains and pipes on site

Excavation and refilling- the bottoms of the trench excavations shall be so prepared that the barrels of the pipes, when laid, are well embedded for their whole length. In the refilling of trenches, the pipes shall be surrounded with fine selected material so as to resist movement of the pipes. Laying Service Pipes Service pipes shall be connected to the mains by means of right-hand screw down ferrule or T-branches. Precaution against contamination of the mains shall be taken when making a connection and, where risk exists, the main shall be subsequently disinfected. The underground water service pipe and the building sewer or drain shall be kept at a sufficient distance apart so as to prevent contamination of water. Water service pipes or any underground water pipes shall not be run or laid in the same trench as the drainage pipe. The service pipe shall pass into or beneath the buildings at a depth of not less than 75 cm below the outside ground level and, at its point of entry through the structure, it shall be accommodated in a sleeve which shall have

previously been solidly built into the wall of the structure. The space between the pipe and the sleeve shall be filled with bituminous or other suitable material for a minimum length of 15 cm at both ends.

Water supply systems in high altitudes and/or subzero temperature regions

Selection and Source - Attempt shall be made, where feasible, to locate the source near the discharge of waste heat, such as of power plants provided it does not affect the portability of water.

Pumping Installation -Pump and pumping machinery shall be housed inside well-insulated chambers. Pump houses, as far as possible should be built directly above the water intake structures. Transmission and Distribution -Freezing of the buried pipe be avoided primarily by laying the pipe below the level of the frost line well consolidated bedding of clean earth or sand, under, around or over the pipe should be provided. For the efficient operation and design of transmission and distribution work, the available heat in the water shall be economically utilized and controlled. Where economically feasible, certain faucets on the distribution system may be kept in a slightly dripping condition so as to keep the fluid in motion and thus prevent is freezing. Heat losses shall be reduced by insulation, if necessary. Any material that will catch, absorb or hold moisture shall not be used for insulation purposes. Adequate number of break pressure water tanks and air release valves shall be provided in the distribution system. Materials for Pipes -Distribution pipes shall be made of any of the following materials conforming to Part 5 Building Materials: a) high density polyethylene pipes b) galvanized iron pipes, c) cast iron pipes, and d) unplasticized PVC pipes( where it is laid below frost line) Straw, grass or jute wrapped are the materials used for insulation of pipes.

Treatment of water
The degree of treatment depends upon the type of impurities carried by water which are further dependent on the sources Type of impurities, which are present in Ground water (a) Arsenic mostly oxidized mineral deposits. (b) fluoride (c) organic pollutants (d) Minerals surface water (a) pesticides & insecticides (b) domestic waste

(c) industrial waste (d) silts The various steps in which treatment of water may be carried on are: (a) screening (b) sedimentation (c) coagulation (d) filtration, and (e) Aeration (f) Bleaching and clorination

(a) Screening
To prevent the entry of leaves, sticks, large objects screens are provided which are the sections of wire cloth of 2 mesh. When the water passes through the upstream of these screens, the solids are retained and dislodged into a trough.

(b) Sedimentation
The specific gravity of impurities suspended in water is greater than that of water therefore when this water is stored in a tank the suspended matters tends to settle down at the bottom of the tank. The process of sedimentation is taken place in a settling tank where the velocity of water is very low (stagnant), detention time is allowed to settle down the impurities. Clarifier is a device, which separates such matters, which can be physically separated from water. The suitable depth of water is 3-4m. In the center there is mechanism, which rotates in one direction at a very slow rate. Suspended particles flow in circular direction and get collected at the bottom, which is then removed by the outlets provided in the center.

(c) Coagulation
The very fine and light particles and colloidal matters cannot settle in sedimentation tanks of ordinary detention period. By addition of certain chemicals these smaller particles are coagulated into larger ones in order to produce a gelatinous precipitate known as floc which is formed and settle at the bottom.

Broadly there are two types of filters(a) gravity filters which are further subdivided as: 1. slow sand filters 2. Rapid sand filters. (b) Pressure filters these are similar to gravity sand filters but in this water enters at 2.8-4.2 kg/ and they require more maintenance. 2. slow sand filters These are beds of sand up to 3 ft. deep laid over underdrained gravel in concrete tank. Water allowed into the tank drains through the sand, which after a day acquire a surface lime,

which does the actual work of treatment. This surface builds up until the water cannot get through; the filter is then put out of use and the surface cleaned. 3. rapid sand filters These are mechanical filters in which water under pressure (either pumped or under a gravity head) is forced through 2 or 3ft. of sand contained in pressure vessels. The capacity of these is about forty times than of slow sand filters.

The aeration can be accomplished by various means. It can be done by allowing the water to flow over cascades or series of steps or by spraying the air through nozzles under a pressure. The water due to aeration absorbs oxygen and allows carbon di oxide to escape. The aeration improves the taste and odour.

(f)bleaching and clorination

For the removal of pathogenic bacteria.

Distribution of water
Distribution system characteristics
Configuration of distribution system: the configuration of the system is dictated primarily by topogarphy degree and type of development of the area, and location of treatment and storage work Topography and Distribution: If there is changes in topography the distribution system is divided into zones. This will preclude extreme high pressure at lower areas and maintain reasonable pressure at higher elevation. Grid and Branching Systems: Distribution system may be generally classified as grid system branching system or some other combination of these. The grid system is usually preferred since it can furnish supply to any point from at least two direction while the branching system cannot permit such circulation. Grid system incorporates loop feeder, which can distribute water at several directions. Peak Demand for Rate of Supply: Ideally intermittent supply of water through the distribution system is not advisable and therefore 24-hour supply is suggested as far as possible. The distribution system is to be designed for the peak demand of the population. The recommended peak factors are: For population up to 50,000, 3 times the average rate of water supply. For population 50,000 to 200,000, 2.5 times the average rate of water supply. For population 200,000 and above, 2 times the average rate of water supply. Pressure Specification: The minimum residual pressure at the time of peak

demand shall be 7meters for single storey, 12meters for two storey, 17meters for three storey and 22meter for four storey houses are common.above 4 storey boosting arrangement should be made. Pipe Specification: Distribution pipes shall not be less than 150mm diameter in the Indian metropolitan cities to meet fire-fighting requirements. In other urban areas the minimum pipe diameter shall be 100 mm.

Distribution reservoir and operating storage

In order to get a balance between supply and demand a balancing reservoir or a distribution reservoir becomes necessary. Care has to be taken to see that enough storage is available for fire protection, so that fire demand can be continuously met for six hours.

Distribution system and pipe diameter

The spatial distribution of water supply can be estimated by studying population densities and commercial and industrial water use patterns. Water supply networks are laid out as a tree system (also known as dead end system)grid iron (also known as loop system) or a combination of tree grid iron system. Tree system is like a tree with branches and is suitable for towns that have one central road and by-lanes existing without regularity. The main is a larger diameter at the beginning and it becomes smaller and smaller as it goes further from the source of water supply. The size of the service (main) pipe may be 100 to 200 mm or even 300 mm. The supply of entire branch has to be cut off giving inconvenience to the majority. In grid system pipes are laid out as to form a network, so that water can reach one point from several directions. Therefore water never remain stagnant. This stagnancy and consequent deposit of suspended impurities can take place in a tree system. These points can effectively become the centre for breeding bacteria. Further in a loop network distribution of pressure is more uniform. If repairs are to be conducted it would be possible to close limited pipe lines without giving undue difficulty to the majority of the town population.

Logical sequence of design and layout of water distribution

a) On a development plan of the area to be serviced sketch the tentative location of all water mains which will be required to the supply area. The sketch should distinguish the proposed feeder mains and small service mains by color-coding. b) The pipelines shall be interconnected at the interval of 400m (1200 feet) or less. Two small feeder lines running parallel several blocks apart are preferable. Large capacity pipe than the two mains should be combined. c) Pipelines should be designed by assuming velocities of 1 to 1.5m/s. fire hydrants should not be further than 170m (500 feet) apart. It is ideal located at the intersection.

Systems of supply
Continuous supply The water is available to consumer all the twenty-four hours. Intermittent supply of water The supply in this case is for fixed hours and for the remaining hours in the day it is shut off. Disadvantages are wastage of water through leaky joints, when pressure in the pipe reduces the water returns back and lead to contamination, stored water is likely to be polluted. The only advantage in case of intermittent supply is that the water can be supplied to high level areas with adequate pressure.

Consumption according to activities All water supply units including the pumps treatment plants and pipelines of the distribution system, are designed according to a carefully decided rate of water consumption per head and per day. This rate of consumption depends on many factors like cost of water, pressure in pipelines, population, climate, no. of lawns and gardens, financial conditions of the population etc. The water, which is consumed, is different for different sectors. They are as follows: Residential 135 liters per capita per day Industrial 5 gallons per head per day Institutional Hotels 300 liters per capita per day Hospitals 500 liters per capita per day Variation in demand Water is not consumed at a constant rate. Rate of consumption varies according to seasons and from hour to hour in the day. More water is consumed in the morning and evenings, while after 10 P.M. in the night upto about 4 A.M. in the morning, consumption is very small, being practically nil after midnight. The rate of water consumption is maximum in peak hours it varies from 4 to 6 hours. The quantity of water, which is consumed in peak hours, is 1/3rd of the total day. Fire demand Fire commonly occurs in cities especially in industrial and high rise buildings. It is necessary to make suitable allowance for the same when deciding the rate of consumption of water. Fire hydrants connected to street water mains, are provided on all streets at a maximum interval of 500 feet and on crossings, bends etc. diameter of fire hose is 4. Requirement of water in case of fire is 0.5 gallons per head per day. Only high rise building( above 4-5 floors) requires water for fire fighting.

Layout of distribution system

Tree or dead end system

There is simple main, which goes on diminishing in size. This system is suitable for irregularly growing towns. There are many dead ends in the system, which cause the stagnation of water and the water pressure goes on decreasing as the trunk extended. However, the advantages are that this method will have lesser number of valves and pipe sizes are easy to calculate. Loop system In this case loop is created round the district and the water is supplied through the supply mains. The water reaches every point very quickly with minimum loss of pressure. This method of distribution is applied in planned cities. Service connection They connect the street mains with the interior pipeline of the consumer. The GI lead-lined and cement-lined steel and iron pipes are used for service pipes. There are two type of service connection: Ferrule connection it has fixed cross-section. This ensures the quantity of water delivered. Non return valve the purpose of this is allow water to flow in one direction only.

Typical Sketch for Identification of Different Types of Water Supply Pipes

Class Notes Subject: environment & infrastructure Topic: water supply

Submitted by :Shilpi mittal M.Planning(1st Sem) School of planning and Architecture