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Volume 98 - Number 2 - June 2007

Maurizio M. D'Eliseo

**Generalized Laplace Coecients and Newcomb Derivatives
**

Received: 25 February 2006; revised: 25 December 2006; accepted: 3 February 2007

Abstract It is shown how the generalized Laplace coecients can be emKeywords Generalized coecients ¡ expansions ¡ derivatives ¡ Newcomb

derivatives.

ployed to deduce explicit formulas for ordinary and Newcomb derivatives of the Laplace coecients.

PACS 95.10.Ce ¡ 95.75.Pq 1 Introduction

The concept of generalized Laplace coecient arises from the analysis of a class of mathematical functions obtained from the Laplace coecients in their integral representation after iterated dierentiations. The utility of this generalization from the numerical point of view has been formerly demonstrated [3], [4]. In this work it is presented a direct method to deduce explicit formulas for ordinary and Newcomb derivatives of arbitrary orders of the Laplace coecients starting from the representation of the derivatives in terms of the generalized coecients of D'Eliseo [3]. These expressions can be used as universal formulas in a symbolic program for the study of the planetary perturbations, mainly in the analysis of the long term behavior of the system, where high-order derivatives of the Laplace coecients are present in the literal developments of the disturbing function pushed to high powers in the eccentricities and inclinations [4].

Osservatorio S.Elmo Via A.Caccavello 22 - 80129 - Napoli - Italy E-mail: s.elmo@mail.com

2

Maurizio M. D'Eliseo

**2 Generalized coecients and their expansions
**

n; Let us dene the generalized Laplace coecient s h as the function of

cos n (cos )h d Y (1) ¡ (1 2 cos + 2 )s 0 0 where the left superscript n is an integer, the right superscript h is a nonnegative integer, the subscript s is half an odd positive integer and is a complex variable in the open disk d(0 ; 1). n; As s h = n; h , n can be treated as a non-negative integer. When h = 0 s n n; we recover the Laplace coecient s s 0 . For uniformity of notation, we omit the usual bracket around n in the coecient. A generalized coecient for every value of h can be expanded into an expression involving only Laplace coecients. For example, for h = 1, as 2 sn; h = %

cos n !h d

s

2 %

2 cos n (cos ) = cos (n + 1) + cos (n 1) 2 cos nY

(2)

we get from Eq. (1) 1 n+1 s + sn 1 ¡ sn X (3) 2 We obtain dierent expansions by opportunely writing and developing the product cos n !h in the integrand of Eq. (1). We consider here two of these, postponing in the Appendix their derivations. The rst is given by (Eq. (43), App. )

sn;

1

=

sn; h = e

1

h i=0

A1

e i;h sn i Y

1

(4)

**where e1i;h denotes the rational function of given by
**

i;h

n; According to Eq. (4) the generalized coecient s h can be expressed as a linear combination of h + 1 Laplace coecients with the same superscript n, having as coecients analytical functions of in the open disk d(0 ; 1) with poles of order h in the origin. It is evident that this development holds true only when s h b 0 h s. The second expansion is (Eq. (48), App. )

( 1)i h! 1 2 (2)h i! (h i)!

¡h i

X

(5)

sn; h =

h i i=0 j =0

( )h i h! ¡ n+i 2j X 2i j ! (h i)! (i j )! s

A2

(6)

We can put this expression under another useful form with the substitution i 3 r + 2j , so that we can write more simply

sn; h =

h r=0

e r;h n¦r Y s

2

(7)

Generalized Laplace Coecients and Newcomb Derivatives

3

where n¦r means n+r + n r . The double sign of r originates from the term s s s i 2j that takes the value 0 and integers values of opposite signs, while e2r;h denotes the polynomial in given by

e r;h

2

(h=2 r )

j =0

( )h r 2j h! X 2r+2j j ! (r + j )! (h r 2j )!

(8)

In the upper limit of the sum on j we have inserted a oor function because of the presence of the term (h r 2j )! in the denominator that requires the fullment of the relation r + 2j h to avoid factorials of negative integers. n In the practice it could also happen that in presence of the term s ¦0 a double-counting problem arises. In order to overcome this drawback we can n divide the term s ¦r by 2r0 , where r0 is the Kronecker delta. We agree that for the upcoming formulas similar remarks when not expressly stated n; are understood. Equation (7) expresses the generalized coecient s h as a linear combination of 2h + 1 Laplace coecients with the same subscript s, having as coecients polynomials in of ascending degree from zero up to h, and all values of h are allowed.

3 Derivatives

n; A basic relation is obtained by dierentiating s h with respect to the integral sign. If we apply the operator h dad to Eq. (1), as

under

(9)

h!h = h!h Y

1

h¡ s = 2s! ¡ s Y

( +1) 1

we get

**h sn; h = 2s sn; h h sn; h X (10) n in its integral representation The kth derivative of the Laplace coecient s
**

+1 +1

is obtained by means of iterated dierentiations under the integral sign. So from Eqs. (1) and (9) we get

h

k n= 2 s

%

0

h

k cos

**n d = 4s hk cos n ! d = 2s hk n; X s ¡s % ¡s
**

1 0 +1 1 1 +1

We could continue by using relation (10). This route leads to an explicit n formula for the derivative hk s in terms of generalized coecients demonstrated by D'Eliseo [3]: For any non-negative integer k we have

h

where

k n= s

k=2

h=0

**k fsh;k sn; k hh Y
**

+ 2 2

(11)

h k h fsh;k ( 1)k 2 2h)!k! ¡ (s)k hY h! ( and (s)k h is the rising factorial s(s + 1) X XX (s + k h 1)Y with (s) It is worth noting that the coecients fsh;k do not depend on .

(12) = 1.

0

4

Maurizio M. D'Eliseo

If we formally expand the generalized coecient present in Eq. (11), we will obtain an expression of the derivatives in terms of Laplace coecients n; only. In the chosen expansion formula of s h we make rst the substitutions h 3 k 2hY s 3 s + k h in order to make it compatible with Eq. (11). Thus if we insert in Eq. (11) the expansion formula (4) thus modied we get a derivative formula in which are present only Laplace coecients and the parameter . From Eqs. (4) and (11) we have

hk sn =

kh k=2 2

h=0 i=0

**e i; k h fsh;k sn k h i X
**

1 2 +

(13)

**We can obtain a separate expression of the coecients if we introduce in Eq. (13) a new index r = h + i. Then we get
**

1 2 2 + 2 +

( r k k r h e r h; k h fsh;k sn k r = k h1) ! (r! (1 h)!(k) r h)! ¡ (s)k h ¡ sn k r X h (14) As the index h does not appear in the Laplace coecient, we sum expression (14) rst on h with an upper limit given by the function min(rY k r), chosen because of the presence of the product (r h)! (k r h)! in the denominator, and after on r. In this way Eq. (13) can be reduced to the sum

hk sn =

where the coecients

k r=0

**g r;k sn k r Y ;s
**

1 +

(15)

**k (16) h r h k r h s Y h are analytic functions of in the open disk d(0 ; 1) with a pole of order k g r;k ;s
**

1 min( =0

r; k r )

( 1)r ! (1 2 )k r h k 2h ! ( )! ( )! ¡ ( )k h

in the origin. We have already seen the intrinsic limitations of the expansion formula (4). Nevertheless when we employ Eq. (4) in conjunction with Eq. (11) a negative subscript is forbidden. The variation range of the subscript is between s, when r = k, and s + k, when r = 0, so that Eq. (15) is applicable without any restriction. Let us apply now the same procedure to the second expansion formula. From Eqs. (11) and (7) we nd

h

k n= s

kh k=2 2

h=0 r=0

e r; k h fsh;k n¦kr hY s

2 2 +

(17)

that we will write under the form

h

k n= s

kh k=2 2

h=0 r=0

g r;h;k n¦kr hY ;s s

2 +

(18)

**Generalized Laplace Coecients and Newcomb Derivatives
**

where the coecients g2r;h;k are analytical functions of ;s d(0 ; 1) and are given by

5

**in the open disk
**

(19)

g r;h;k ;s

2

(k r 2h)=2

j =0

( 1)h k! ( 2)k r 2h 2j h! j ! (r + j )! (k r 2h 2j )! ¡ (s)k hX

s ¨ 1 ¡ n n ©= s n¦ 2 n ¡ X (20) s s s s For the derivative of order k, the number of the coecients in Eq. (11) is given by ka2 + 1, while the number of the Laplace coecients in Eq. (15) is given by k + 1, so that both formulas have a reduced number of terms. On the contrary, it is easy to see that in Eq. (18) the number x (k) of the Laplace coecients obeys to the dierence equation x (k) = x (k 1) + k + 1 with x (0) = 1, whose solution is x (k) = (k + 3k)a2 + 1. hsn = 2s sn;

1 +1

Equation (18) is an explicit formula that generates the expressions of the derivatives used by Sli et al. to deduce their results, and is equivalent to u their nal formula (10) [4]. n We have thus three explicit formulas for the computation of hk s in the integral representation, given by the Eqs. (11), (15) and (18). The rst contains for odd k only generalized coecients and for even k generalized coecients and only one Laplace coecient (corresponding to h = ka2), while the other formulas contain only Laplace coecients. All can be used in two ways: or to obtain a symbolic expression of the derivatives, or for a numerical computation. For example, the rst derivatives expressed by means of Eqs. (11), (15) and (18) are respectively given by =

2 +1 1 +1 +1

2

**4 The Newcomb derivatives
**

In the applications the derivatives of the Laplace coecients sometimes present themselves under particular forms. So in the development of the disturbing function we have often products as k hk and k hk ak!, and it is evident that such multiplicative factors can be directly embedded in our formulas without any diculty. The coupling h is at the foundation of the concept of Newcomb derivative, dened as the logarithmic dierential coecient

d d d ln = d = hX

(21)

This derivative appears in the development of the planetary disturbing function eected in terms of Newcomb's dierential operators as applied to the Laplace coecients, so that it is important to nd the transformation formulas between Newcomb and ordinary derivatives [1, p.505] or, specically, for every positive integer k, the reciprocal relationship between the symbolic power (h)k , which has the meaning of the recursive operator product h(h)k 1, and the derivative k hk .

6

Maurizio M. D'Eliseo

In practical terms we evaluate symbolically for every positive integer the nested derivatives

k

e (h X XX (h(h e)1 )2 X XX )k Y (22) and, as with the indicated operations and h always present together the same superscripts, at last we formally make the substitution 3 h.

So we nd (h)1 = (h)2 = (h)3 =

2 2

**h h + h h + 3 h + h Y and so on. For every integer k b 0, with the introduction of the vectors ¡ ¡T (h)k (h) Y (h) Y XX X Y (h)k (23) k k¡ ¡T h h Y h Y XX X Yk hk Y (24)
**

2 2 3 3 1 2 1 1 2 2

**we can cast the above linear transformation into the matrix form
**

where

where also A 1 is lower triangular, as A 1 = (1ajAj) ¡ adj(A) = adj(A). Let us examine now more closely the formation law of the matrix A. The elements of every row depend from those of the row above, because they originate from the Newcomb derivative of the expression of order immediately precedent. It is easily seen that for the generic element p q is valid the recursion p q = p 1; q 1 + q p 1; q with 11 = 1X (28) It is then evident that a general formula for p q must contain information on the structure of all rows above row p. From the analysis of specic examples we see that with an iterated application of recursion (28) every entry p q is reduced to a sum of products of positive integers from 1 to q , each raised to a non-negative integer power, whose greatest value is p q . Then it is not dicult to guess the general

If we multiply to the left Eq. (25) by A 1 , we obtain the inverse transformation k k¡ h = A 1 ¡ (h)k ¡ Y (27)

A is a square lower triangular matrix (that is, each entry pq with p ` q is zero) of order and rank k whose elements are non-negative integers and whose determinant jAj = 1. For example, for k = 5 we have I H I H H h I (h) 1 0 0 0 0 f (h) g f 1 1 0 0 0 g f h g g g f g f f (26) f (h) g = f 1 3 1 0 0 g ¡ f h g X d (h) e d 1 7 6 1 0 e d h e 1 15 25 10 1 h (h)

1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

(h)k = A ¡

¡

k

hk ¡ Y

(25)

Generalized Laplace Coecients and Newcomb Derivatives

7

pattern of the resulting formulas. First, we observe that we can specically write

p

+1

;p =

p u=1

1

u=

1

2 p 31

=

jp p j 1 jp 1

u=1

u

=

p

jp =0 jp 1 =0 jp 2 =0

¡¡¡

j1 +j2 +¡¡¡+jp =1 u=1 1 jp ¡¡¡ j3 0 p j2 =0

uju uju X

(29)

j1 =0 u=1

Let us do now a heuristic reasoning. If the last expression is a particular realization of a general formula for the entry pq , we can read the unity in the upper limits of the sums as the dierence (p + 1) p between the two indices of p+1; p , so that to obtain the expression of the generic element pq of A we replace in the right-hand side of Eq. (29) this unity by p q , while in the other appearances of p we replace p by q , since the second p in p+1; p is a column index. We obtain so the formula

pq =

where we have used the shorthand

p q jq =0 jq =0 jq 1 =0

]

p q q

jq =0 u=1

uju Y

¡¡¡

p q j3 jq ¡¡¡ 0 j2 =0 j1 =0

(30)

] ]

g

p q p q jq p q jq jq 1 jq 2 =0

X

(31)

The last summation, whose upper/lower limit can be any non-negative integer, acts essentially as a Boolean function. The demonstration of this formula is given in App. . So the elements of A are pq = 0 for p ` q and, for p ! q, they are given by Eq. (30). For example we have

A3

p

1

=

p 1 1

j1 =0 u=1

4 5

u

ju =

0

j1 =0

1j1 = 1

5

Y

pp =

p 0 jp =0 u=1

g

uju = 1

(32)

94 =

j4 =0 u=1

u ju =

5 5 j4

j3 j4 0

j4 =0 j3 =0 j2 =0 j1 =0

1j1 2j2 3j3 4j4 = 7770 X (33)

The symbol introduced in Eq. (30) is a particular realization of the nested summation symbol (NSS), which is a linear operator that represents a variable set of summation symbols. With this concept can be constructed many combinatorial objects, but NSS, besides permitting concise and compact formulas writing, has the important advantage of being an operator that is easily implemented in a computational environment [2, App. H ]. The vector component (h)k by means of the transformation (25) can be written (h)k =

k q=1

kq q hq Y

(34)

8

and from Eqs. (30) and (34) we get (h )k =

k q k q q=1 jq =0 u=1

Maurizio M. D'Eliseo

]

uju q hq X

(35)

n Let us apply now the dierential operator (35) to s . By the use of the three derivative formulas (11), (15) and (18) we nd in succession

(h

n )k s =

k q=2 q k q q=1 h=0 jq =0 u=1 k q q k q

= =

] ]

**q uju q fsh;q sn; q hh
**

+ 2

(36) (37) (38)

q=1 r=0 jq =0 u=1 k q=2 2h q q k q

]

**uju q g r;q sn q r ;s
**

1 +

q=1 h=0 r=0 jq =0 u=1

**uju q g r;h;q n¦qr hX ;s s
**

2 +

In this way we can obtain a symbolic expression or a numerical computation of the Newcomb derivatives in terms of generalized and Laplace coecients.

5 Conclusions

The generalized Laplace coecients can be conveniently used in the numerical computation of the derivatives of the Laplace coecients because of the compactness and simplicity of the formulas. They are important also on the theoretical side because their employment allows easy demonstrations of new results. With their aid we have found three formulas for ordinary and Newcomb derivatives, and other similar formulas could be easily deduced with the same methods, so that they constitute a useful tool for the researchers. We think that a comparison between the other methods available, hypergeometric series and recursions, and ours based only on computation times often miss issues of programming complexity and general
exibility. At this regard some of our formulas have a small number of terms, are easily programmable and allow the computation in situ of the only wanted coecients at the required precision. We suggest also the use of Eqs. (11), (36) or Eqs. (15), (37) as universal formulas for the computation of the Laplace coecients and of their derivatives in a celestial mechanics package within a computer algebra system.

**6 Appendix A1 - First expansion formula
**

As

¡ = 1 2 cos +

2

= 1 2 (cos ) 2 = 1 2! 2 Y

(39)

**Generalized Laplace Coecients and Newcomb Derivatives
**

we have so that we can write

9

(40)

! = 1 ¡ Y 2

2

n; h 2 s =

%

0

cos n !h d

¡s

=

%

2

0

cos n 1 2 ¡ (2)h ¡s

¡h i

¡h

d Y

(41)

but since

¢

1

2

¡

¡

£h

=

h i=0 h i=0

( 1)i h! 1 2 i! (h i)!

¡i Y

¡ sn i X

(42)

substituting this development in Eq. (41) we get

sn; h =

h i=0

e i;h sn i

1

( 1)i h! 1 2 (2)h i! (h i)!

¡h i

(43)

**A2 - Second expansion formula
**

It is useful to write rst denition (1) of the generalized Laplace coecient under the form of a contour integral in the complex plane z

¡ zn !h dz 1 s zn 2 h z + z 2 h dz Y %i
z ¡s %i
z [(1 z)(1 z )]s where is the unit circle jz j = 1 described counterclockwise.

1 n; h s =

s

1

1

(44)

Besides, by means of a nested use of the binomial formula we obtain the trinomial power formula ( + + ) h = So, if we start from

h i i=0 j =0

1

h! h i i j j X j ! (h i)! (i j )!

1

(45)

**! = 2 z + z 2¡ Y by using Eq. (45) with = 2, = z and = z !h = 2 h z + z 2¡h =
**

1

(46)

1

we nd (47)

h i i=0 j =0

( )h i h! z i 2j Y 2i j ! (h i)! (i j )!

and substituting in Eq. (44) we get

sn;h =

h i i=0 j =0

2i ! (

j

( )h i h! n+i 2j X h i)! (i j )! ¡ s

(48)

10

Maurizio M. D'Eliseo

**A3 - Newcomb derivatives
**

The formula

pq =

]

p q q

jq =0 u=1

uju Y

(49)

can be easily proved by induction. By a direct computation the expression above is veried for the rst three rows of the matrix A. Let us suppose it true for all the rows until row p of A. If the formula is true in general, then the generic element of the row p + 1, when expressed by means of Eq. (49), must verify the relation

p

+1

; q = p; q 1 +

q pq X

(50)

To prove this, by the induction hypothesis it is seen that we can consecutively write

p; q

1

+ q pq = =

^ p+1 q q 1

jq 1 =0 u=1

H

u

ju +

] q

+

p q q

p+1 q jq 0 f jq d

H

jq =0

0

q

^

jq =0 u=1

uju qjq

^ p+1 q jq q 1

jq 1 =0

I g e I

p+1 q jq =1

jq 1 =0

u=1

u ju

=

f d

^ p+1 q jq

jq =0 jq 1 =0

^ q p+1 q p+1 q jq g ju + e

jq =1 ;q jq 1 =0 u=1

u

=

^ q p+1 q

jq =0 u=1

uju = p

+1

X

(51)

Acknowledgements I would like to thank Prof. K.V.Kholshevnikov, St.Petersburg University, for his useful suggestions.

References

1. 2. 3. 4.

Brouwer, D., Clemence, G.M.: Methods of Celestial Mechanics. Academic Press, New York (1961) Carb-Dorca, R., Girons, X., Mezey, P.G. (eds.): Fundamentals of Molecular o e Similarity. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press, New York (2001) D'Eliseo, M.M.: On the computation of the Laplace coecients. Celest. Mech. Dyn. Astron. 46 159-161 (1989) Sli, A., Erdi, B., Pl, A.: A new method to determine the derivatives of the u a Laplace Coecients. Celest. Mech. Dyn. Astron. 88 259-268 (2004)

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UsefulNot usefulIt is shown how the generalized Laplace coefficients can be employed to deduce explicit formulas for ordinary and Newcomb derivatives of the Laplace coefficients.

It is shown how the generalized Laplace coefficients can be employed to deduce explicit formulas for ordinary and Newcomb derivatives of the Laplace coefficients.

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