Electronic Devices

and Amplifier Circuits

Second Edition
Steven T. Karris

WI T AB H MATL

®

Orchard Publications www.orchardpublications.com

C

OM PUT ING

Electronic Devices
and Amplifier Circuits
with MATLAB® Computing

Second Edition

Students and working professionals will find Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB® Computing, Second Edition, to be a concise and easy-to-learn text. It provides complete, clear, and detailed explanations of the state-of-the-art electronic devices and integrated circuits. All topics are illustrated with many real-world examples.

This text includes the following chapters and appendices: • Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals • Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics - Diodes • Bipolar Junction Transistors • Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices • Operational Amplifiers • Integrated Circuits • Pulse Circuits and Waveforms Generators • Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers • Tuned Amplifiers • Sinusoidal Oscillators • Introduction to MATLAB® • Introduction to Simulink® • PID Controllers • Compensated Attenuators • The Substitution, Reduction, and Miller’s Theorems Each chapter contains numerous practical applications supplemented with detailed instructions for using MATLAB to plot the characteristics of non-linear devices and to obtain quick solutions.

Steven T. Karris is the founder and president of Orchard Publications, has undergraduate and graduate degrees in electrical engineering, and is a registered professional engineer in California and Florida. He has more than 35 years of professional engineering experience and more than 30 years of teaching experience as an adjunct professor, most recently at UC Berkeley, California. products and the publication of MATLAB® and His area of interest is in The MathWorks, Inc. Simulink® based texts.

Orchard Publications Visit us on the Internet www.orchardpublications.com or email us: info@orchardpublications.com

9 1 4 ISBN-10: 1-934404-14-4 19 1 0 ISBN-13: 978-1-934404-14-0 $70.00 U.S.A.

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits
with MATLAB®Computing

Second Edition
Steven T. Karris

Orchard Publications www.orchardpublications.com

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB®Computing, Second Edition Copyright ” 2008 Orchard Publications. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Direct all inquiries to Orchard Publications, info@orchardpublications.com Product and corporate names are trademarks or registered trademarks of The MathWorks, Inc. They are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Library of Congress Control Number (LCCN) 2008934432

TXu1−254-969 ISBN-13: 978−1−934404−14−0 ISBN-10: 1−934404−14−4

Disclaimer
The author has made every effort to make this text as complete and accurate as possible, but no warranty is implied. The author and publisher shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this text.

Preface
This text is an undergraduate level textbook presenting a thorough discussion of state−of−the art electronic devices. It is self−contained; it begins with an introduction to solid state semiconductor devices. The prerequisites for this text are first year calculus and physics, and a two−semester course in circuit analysis including the fundamental theorems and the Laplace transformation. No previous knowledge of MATLAB®is required; the material in Appendix A and the inexpensive MATLAB Student Version is all the reader needs to get going. Our discussions are based on a PC with Windows XP platforms but if you have another platform such as Macintosh, please refer to the appropriate sections of the MATLAB’s User Guide which also contains instructions for installation. Additional information including purchasing may be obtained from The MathWorks, Inc., 3 Apple Hill Drive, Natick, MA 01760-2098. Phone: 508 647−7000, Fax: 508 647−7001, e− mail: info@mathwork.com and web site http://www.mathworks.com.This text can also be used without MATLAB. This is our fourth electrical and computer engineering-based text with MATLAB applications. My associates, contributors, and I have a mission to produce substance and yet inexpensive texts for the average reader. Our first three texts* are very popular with students and working professionals seeking to enhance their knowledge and prepare for the professional engineering examination. The author and contributors make no claim to originality of content or of treatment, but have taken care to present definitions, statements of physical laws, theorems, and problems. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the nature of small signals used in electronic devices, amplifiers, definitions of decibels, bandwidth, poles and zeros, stability, transfer functions, and Bode plots. Chapter 2 is an introduction to solid state electronics beginning with simple explanations of electron and hole movement. This chapter provides a thorough discussion on the junction diode and its volt-ampere characteristics. In most cases, the non-linear characteristics are plotted with simple MATLAB scripts. The discussion concludes with diode applications, the Zener, Schottky, tunnel, and varactor diodes, and optoelectronics devices. Chapters 3 and 4 are devoted to bipolar junction transistors and FETs respectively, and many examples with detailed solutions are provided. Chapter 5 is a long chapter on op amps. Many op amp circuits are presented and their applications are well illustrated. The highlight of this text is Chapter 6 on integrated devices used in logic circuits. The internal construction and operation of the TTL, NMOS, PMOS, CMOS, ECL, and the biCMOS families
* These are Circuit Analysis I, ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0, Circuit Analysis II, ISBN 978−0−9709511−5− 1, and Signals and Systems, 978−1−934404−11−9.

of those devices are fully discussed. Moreover, the interpretation of the most important parameters listed in the manufacturers data sheets are explained in detail. Chapter 7 is an introduction to pulse circuits and waveform generators. There, we discuss the 555 Timer, the astable, monostable, and bistable multivibrators, and the Schmitt trigger. Chapter 8 discusses to the frequency characteristic of single-stage and cascade amplifiers, and Chapter 9 is devoted to tuned amplifiers. Sinusoidal oscillators are introduced in Chapter 10. This is the second edition of this title, and includes several Simulink models. Also, two new appendices have been added. Appendix A, is an introduction to MATLAB. Appendix B is an introduction to Simulink, Appendix C is an introduction to Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers, Appendix D describes uncompensated and compensated networks, and Appendix D discusses the substitution, reduction, and Miller’s theorems. The author wishes to express his gratitude to the staff of The MathWorks™, the developers of MATLAB® and Simulink® for the encouragement and unlimited support they have provided me with during the production of this text. A companion to this text, Digital Circuit Analysis and Design with Simulink® Modeling and Introduction to CPLDs and FPGAs, ISBN 978−1−934404−05−8 is recommended as a companion. This text is devoted strictly on Boolean logic, combinational and sequential circuits as interconnected logic gates and flip−flops, an introduction to static and dynamic memory devices. and other related topics. Although every effort was made to correct possible typographical errors and erroneous references to figures and tables, some may have been overlooked. Our experience is that the best proofreader is the reader. Accordingly, the author will appreciate it very much if any such errors are brought to his attention so that corrections can be made for the next edition. We will be grateful to readers who direct these to our attention at info@orchardpublications.com. Thank you. Orchard Publications Fremont, California 94538−4741 United States of America www.orchardpublications.com info@orchardpublications.com

Table of Contents 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 Signals and Signal Classifications ......................................................................... 1−1 Amplifiers .............................................................................................................. 1−3 Decibels ................................................................................................................. 1−4 Bandwidth and Frequency Response .................................................................... 1−5 Bode Plots............................................................................................................. 1−8 Transfer Function ................................................................................................. 1−9 Poles and Zeros.................................................................................................... 1−11 Stability ............................................................................................................... 1−12 Voltage Amplifier Equivalent Circuit................................................................. 1−17 Current Amplifier Equivalent Circuit................................................................. 1−19 Summary ............................................................................................................. 1−21 Exercises .............................................................................................................. 1−24 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises.............................................................. 1−26

MATLAB Computing Pages 1−7, 1−14, 1−15, 1−19, 1−27, 1−28, 1−31 Simulink Modeling Pages 1−34, 1−35

2

Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 Electrons and Holes ............................................................................................... 2−1 Junction Diode ...................................................................................................... 2−4 Graphical Analysis of Circuits with Non−Linear Devices ..................................... 2−9 Piecewise Linear Approximations....................................................................... 2−13 Low Frequency AC Circuits with Junction Diodes ............................................ 2−15 Junction Diode Applications in AC Circuits...................................................... 2−19 Peak Rectifier Circuits ........................................................................................ 2−30 Clipper Circuits ................................................................................................... 2−32 DC Restorer Circuits........................................................................................... 2−35 Voltage Doubler Circuits .................................................................................... 2−36 Diode Applications in Amplitude Modulation (AM) Detection Circuits ......... 2−37 Diode Applications in Frequency Modulation (FM) Detection Circuits........... 2−37 Zener Diodes ....................................................................................................... 2−38 Schottky Diode ................................................................................................... 2−45 Tunnel Diode ...................................................................................................... 2−45 Varactor .............................................................................................................. 2−48 i

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20

Optoelectronic Devices.......................................................................................2−49 Summary..............................................................................................................2−52 Exercises ..............................................................................................................2−56 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises ..............................................................2−61

MATLAB Computing Pages 2−27, 2−28, 2−29, 2−61, 2−70 Simulink Modeling Pages 2−19, 2−22, 2−25, 2−30

3

Bipolar Junction Transistors 3.1 3.2 3.3 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 3−1 NPN Transistor Operation ................................................................................ 3−3 Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier ...................................................... 3−3 3.3.1 Equivalent Circuit Models − NPN Transistors........................................ 3−6 3.3.2 Equivalent Circuit Models − PNP Transistors ........................................ 3−7 3.3.3 Effect of Temperature on the i C – v BE − Characteristics...................... 3−10 3.3.4 Collector Output Resistance − Early Voltage ....................................... 3−11 Transistor Amplifier Circuit Biasing ................................................................ 3−18 Fixed Bias ......................................................................................................... 3−21 Self−Bias ........................................................................................................... 3−25 Amplifier Classes and Operation ..................................................................... 3−28 3.7.1 Class A Amplifier Operation................................................................. 3−31 3.7.2 Class B Amplifier Operation ................................................................. 3−34 3.7.3 Class AB Amplifier Operation .............................................................. 3−35 3.7.4 Class C Amplifier Operation................................................................. 3−37 Graphical Analysis ........................................................................................... 3−38 Power Relations in the Basic Transistor Amplifier .......................................... 3−42 Piecewise−Linear Analysis of the Transistor Amplifier ................................... 3−44 Incremental Linear Models .............................................................................. 3−49 Transconductance............................................................................................ 3−54 High−Frequency Models for Transistors.......................................................... 3−55 The Darlington Connection ............................................................................ 3−60 Transistor Networks......................................................................................... 3−61 3.15.1 h−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Base Transistor..................... 3−61 3.15.2 T−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Base Transistor .................... 3−64 3.15.3 h−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Emitter Transistor ................ 3−65 3.15.4 T−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Emitter Transistor................ 3−70 3.15.5 h−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Collector Transistor ............. 3−71 3.15.6 T−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Collector Transistor............. 3−76

3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7

3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15

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Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

3.16 Transistor Cutoff and Saturation Regions..................................................... 3−77 3.16.1 Cutoff Region ....................................................................................3−78 3.16.2 Active Region....................................................................................3−78 3.16.3 Saturation Region .............................................................................3−78 3.17 The Ebers−Moll Transistor Model................................................................. 3−81 3.18 Schottky Diode Clamp...................................................................................3−85 3.19 Transistor Specifications................................................................................3−85 3.20 Summary ........................................................................................................3−87 3.21 Exercises.........................................................................................................3−91 3.22 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises ........................................................3−97 MATLAB Computing Pages 3−13, 3−39, 3−113

4

Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices 4.1 Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) ............................................................. 4−1 4.2 Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) ..................... 4−6 4.2.1 N−Channel MOSFET in the Enhancement Mode................................... 4−8 4.2.2 N−Channel MOSFET in the Depletion Mode ...................................... 4−12 4.2.3 P−Channel MOSFET in the Enhancement Mode ................................. 4−14 4.2.4 P−Channel MOSFET in the Depletion Mode ....................................... 4−17 4.2.5 Voltage Gain ......................................................................................... 4−17 4.3 Complementary MOS (CMOS)....................................................................... 4−19 4.3.1 CMOS Common−Source Amplifier ..................................................... 4−20 4.3.2 CMOS Common−Gate Amplifier......................................................... 4−20 4.3.3 CMOS Common−Drain (Source Follower) Amplifier......................... 4−20 4.4 Metal Semiconductor FET (MESFET)............................................................ 4−21 4.5 Unijunction Transistor ..................................................................................... 4−22 4.6 Diac.................................................................................................................. 4−23 4.7 Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR).................................................................. 4−24 4.7.1 SCR as an Electronic Switch ................................................................ 4−27 4.7.2 SCR in the Generation of Sawtooth Waveforms .................................. 4−28 4.8 Triac ............................................................................................................... 4−37 4.9 Shockley Diode.............................................................................................. 4−38 4.10 Other PNPN Devices...................................................................................... 4−40 4.11 The Future of Transistors ............................................................................... 4−41 4.12 Summary ........................................................................................................ 4−42 4.13 Exercises ........................................................................................................ 4−45 4.14 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises ........................................................ 4−47 MATLAB Computing Pages 4−5, 4−10

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5

Operational Amplifiers 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 Operational Amplifier.......................................................................................5−1 An Overview of the Op Amp ...........................................................................5−1 Op Amp in the Inverting Mode........................................................................5−2 Op Amp in the Non−Inverting Mode ..............................................................5−5 Active Filters.....................................................................................................5−8 Analysis of Op Amp Circuits ..........................................................................5−11 Input and Output Resistances ........................................................................5−22 Op Amp Open Loop Gain ..............................................................................5−25 Op Amp Closed Loop Gain ............................................................................5−26 Transresistance Amplifier ...............................................................................5−29 Closed Loop Transfer Function ......................................................................5−30 Op Amp Integrator .........................................................................................5−31 Op Amp Differentiator ...................................................................................5−35 Summing and Averaging Op Amp Circuits ....................................................5−37 Differential Input Op Amp..............................................................................5−39 Instrumentation Amplifiers .............................................................................5−42 Offset Nulling ..................................................................................................5−44 External Frequency Compensation .................................................................5−45 Slew Rate .........................................................................................................5−45 Circuits with Op Amps and Non-Linear Devices ...........................................5−46 Comparators ....................................................................................................5−50 Wien Bridge Oscillator....................................................................................5−50 Digital−to−Analog Converters ........................................................................5−52 Analog−to−Digital Converters ........................................................................5−56 5.24.1 Flash Analog−to−Digital Converter ....................................................5−57 5.24.2 Successive Approximation Analog−to−Digital Converter..................5−58 5.24.3 Dual−Slope Analog−to−Digital Converter..........................................5−59 Quantization, Quantization Error, Accuracy, and Resolution.......................5−61 Op Amps in Analog Computers .....................................................................5−63 Summary .........................................................................................................5−67 Exercises..........................................................................................................5−71 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises .........................................................5−78

5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28 5.29

MATLAB Computing Pages 5−80, 5−89

6
iv

Integrated Circuits 6.1 Basic Logic Gates.............................................................................................. 6−1 6.2 Positive and Negative Logic ..............................................................................6−1

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12

6.13

6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18

Inverter ............................................................................................................. 6−2 AND Gate......................................................................................................... 6−6 OR Gate............................................................................................................ 6−8 NAND Gate ..................................................................................................... 6−9 NOR Gate....................................................................................................... 6−14 Exclusive OR (XOR) and Exclusive NOR (XNOR) Gates ........................... 6−15 Fan-In, Fan-Out, TTL Unit Load, Sourcing Current, and Sinking Current . 6−17 Data Sheets ..................................................................................................... 6−20 Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL)......................................................................... 6−24 NMOS Logic Gates......................................................................................... 6−28 6.12.1 NMOS Inverter................................................................................... 6−31 6.12.2 NMOS NAND Gate ........................................................................... 6−31 6.12.3 NMOS NOR Gate .............................................................................. 6−32 CMOS Logic Gates ........................................................................................ 6−32 6.13.1 CMOS Inverter ................................................................................... 6−33 6.13.2 CMOS NAND Gate ........................................................................... 6−34 6.13.3 The CMOS NOR Gate ....................................................................... 6−35 Buffers, Tri-State Devices, and Data Buses ................................................... 6−35 Present and Future Technologies................................................................... 6−39 Summary......................................................................................................... 6−43 Exercises ......................................................................................................... 6−46 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises ......................................................... 6−49

7

Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Astable (Free-Running) Multivibrators ........................................................... 7−1 555 Timer ......................................................................................................... 7−2 Astable Multivibrator with 555 Timer ............................................................. 7−3 Monostable Multivibrators ............................................................................. 7−14 Bistable Multivibrators (Flip−Flops)............................................................... 7−19 7.5.1 Fixed−Bias Flip-Flop............................................................................ 7−19 7.5.2 Self−Bias Flip−Flop .............................................................................. 7−22 7.5.3 Triggering Signals for Flip−Flops ......................................................... 7−28 7.5.4 Present Technology Bistable Multivibrators ....................................... 7−30 The Schmitt Trigger ....................................................................................... 7−30 Summary......................................................................................................... 7−33 Exercises ......................................................................................................... 7−34 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises ......................................................... 7−37

7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9

MATLAB Computing Pages 7−11, 7−26, 7−38, 7−39

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Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 Properties of Signal Waveforms........................................................................8−1 The Transistor Amplifier at Low Frequencies..................................................8−5 The Transistor Amplifier at High Frequencies.................................................8−9 Combined Low- and High−Frequency Characteristics...................................8−14 Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers ........................................8−15 Overall Characteristics of Multistage Amplifiers ...........................................8−27 Amplification and Power Gain in Three or More Cascaded Amplifiers ........8−32 Summary .........................................................................................................8−34 Exercises..........................................................................................................8−36 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises..........................................................8−39

MATLAB Computing Pages 8−9, 8−25, 8−45

9

Tuned Amplifiers 9.1 Introduction to Tuned Circuits.......................................................................... 9−1 9.2 Single-tuned Transistor Amplifier...................................................................... 9−8 9.3 Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers ............................................................................. 9−14 9.3.1 Synchronously Tuned Amplifiers ........................................................... 9−14 9.3.2 Stagger−Tuned Amplifiers...................................................................... 9−18 9.3.3 Three or More Tuned Amplifiers Connected in Cascade...................... 9−27 9.4 Summary........................................................................................................... 9−28 9.5 Exercises ........................................................................................................... 9−30 9.6 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises ........................................................... 9−31 MATLAB Computing Page 9−18

10

Sinusoidal Oscillators 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 Introduction to Oscillators ...........................................................................10−1 Sinusoidal Oscillators ...................................................................................10−1 RC Oscillator................................................................................................10−4 LC Oscillators...............................................................................................10−5 The Armstrong Oscillator ............................................................................10−6 The Hartley Oscillator .................................................................................10−7 The Colpitts Oscillator.................................................................................10−7 Crystal Oscillators ........................................................................................10−8 The Pierce Oscillator..................................................................................10−10

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Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

10.10 Summary .................................................................................................... 10−12 10.11 Exercises ..................................................................................................... 10−14 10.12 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises..................................................... 10−15

A

Introduction to MATLAB® A.1 A.2 A.3 A.4 A.5 A.6 A.7 A.8 A.9 A.10 A.11 MATLAB® and Simulink®......................................................................... A−1 Command Window....................................................................................... A−1 Roots of Polynomials..................................................................................... A−3 Polynomial Construction from Known Roots............................................... A−4 Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values............................................ A−6 Rational Polynomials..................................................................................... A−8 Using MATLAB to Make Plots .................................................................. A−10 Subplots....................................................................................................... A−18 Multiplication, Division and Exponentiation ............................................. A−18 Script and Function Files ............................................................................ A−26 Display Formats........................................................................................... A−31

MATLAB Computing Pages A−3 through A−8, A−10, A−13, A−14, A−16, A−17, A−21, A−22, A−24, A−27

B

Introduction to Simulink® B.1 Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB..............................................................B−1 B.2 Simulink Demos................................................................................................B−20 MATLAB Computing Page B−4 Simulink Modeling Pages B−7, B−12, B−14, B−18

C

Proportional−Integral−Derivative (PID) Controller C.1 Description and Components of a Typical PID................................................. C−1 C.2 The Simulink PID Blocks .................................................................................. C−2 Simulink Modeling Pages C−2, C−3

D

Compensated Attenuators D.1 Uncompensated Attenuator.............................................................................. D−1 D.2 Compensated Attenuator .................................................................................. D−2

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............E Substitution..............................E−1 E............... Reduction..... Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications ........ and Miller’s Theorems E.1 The Substitution Theorem ...E−6 E...................E−10 References Index R−1 IN−1 viii Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.................................2 The Reduction Theorem ............................................3 Miller’s Theorem ...................................................................................................

Typical waveform of a signal We will now define the average value of a waveform. Because resistors. electronic systems may include resistors. or radar.1 shows a typical signal f ( t ) that varies with time where f ( t ) can be any physical quantity such as voltage. television.1 Signals and Signal Classifications A signal is any waveform that serves as a means of communication.2.1. Electronic devices are primarily non−linear devices such as diodes and transistors and in general integrated circuits (ICs) in which small signals (voltages and currents) are applied to them. ICs are becoming smaller and smaller and thus the modern IC technology is referred to as microelectronics. telephony. Of course. these devices are thought of as electrical devices and the systems that consist of these devices are generally said to be electrical rather than electronic systems.1) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. radio. or any message transmitted or received in telegraphy. The average value of f ( t ) in the interval a ≤ t ≤ b is f ( t ) dt a Area = ---------------. sound. image. electric or magnetic field strength. temperature. current. pressure.= ----------------------Period b–a a b f ( t ) ave ∫ b (1. and so on. It represents a fluctuating electric quantity. As we know. Figure 1.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals lectronics may be defined as the science and technology of electronic devices and systems. f(t) t Figure 1. with today’s technology. such as voltage. capacitors and inductors as well. E 1. current. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−1 . Consider the waveform shown in Figure 1. capacitors and inductors existed long ago before the advent of semiconductor diodes and transistors.

4) and 1 P ave = -T ∫ T 0 1 p ( t ) dt = -T ∫ T Ri 2 dt 0 R = --T ∫ T i 2 dt (1.3. that is. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . t T T t T t Figure 1. Examples of alternating waveforms The effective (or RMS) value of a periodic current waveform i ( t ) denoted as I eff is the current that produces heat in a given resistor R at the same average rate as a direct (constant) current I dc . Average Power = P ave = RI eff = RI dc 2 2 (1. Of course. An alternating waveform is any periodic time function whose average value over a period is zero.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals f(t) f(a ) Area f(b) t a Period b Figure 1. Others are shown in Figure 1.5) 0 1−2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. in a periodic current waveform i ( t ) the instantaneous power p ( t ) is p ( t ) = Ri ( t ) 2 (1.2. Defining the average value of a typical waveform A periodic time function satisfies the expression f ( t ) = f ( t + nT ) (1.2) for all time t and for all integers n . The constant T is the period and it is the smallest value of time which separates recurring values of the waveform.3) Also. all sinusoids are alternating waveforms.3.

Warning 2: In general.4. 1 T 1 T P ave = -.5) we obtain or or I RMS = I eff = 2 R T 2 RI eff = --.i dt = T 0 ∫ (1.707I p (1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. then I RMS = I p ⁄ 2 = 0. V ave = 0 and I ave = 0 .p dt = -.vi dt ≠ 0 T 0 T 0 2 2 2 2 ∫ ∫ In introductory electrical engineering books it is shown* that if the peak (maximum) value of a current of a sinusoidal waveform is I p .4. ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0. On the other hand. The symbol of a typical amplifier is a triangle as shown in Figure 1.6) Ave ( i ) 2 1 T 2 -.3) with (1. the effective value I eff or I RMS value of a current is computed as the square root of the mean (average) of the square of the current. Ave ( i ) implies that the current i must first be squared and the average of the squared value is to be computed.8) applies to sinusoidal values only. it follows that P ave = 0 also. v in v out Figure 1.i dt T 0 ∫ 2 1 T 2 I eff = -. that is. Ave ( i ) ≠ ( i ave ) . However. ( i ave ) implies that the average value of the current must first be found and then the average must be squared. P ave ≠ V ave ⋅ I ave . 1.2 Amplifiers An amplifier is an electronic circuit which increases the magnitude of the input signal.i dt T 0 ∫ (1. Warning 1: In general. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−3 . Symbol for electronic amplifier * Please refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications.8) and we must remember that (1. If v ( t ) = V p cos ωt and i ( t ) = I p cos ( ωt + θ ) for example.Amplifiers Equating (1.7) where RMS stands for Root Mean Squared.

1−4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. 1. Thus. An amplifier can be classified as a voltage. 000 60 dB represents a power ratio of 1. voltage and current when these are expressed in dB terms to avoid misinterpretation of gain or loss. P out dB = 10 log --------P in Therefore. it means that the output is 180° out−of− phase with the input. For instance. For instance. the output is equal to the input.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals An electronic (or electric) circuit which produces an output that is smaller than the input is called an attenuator. current or power amplifier. for a voltage amplifier Output Voltage Voltage Gain = ---------------------------------------Input Voltage or G v = V out ⁄ V in The current gain G i and power gain G p are defined similarly. or a transmission line has a power loss of 7 dB (or gain – 7 dB ). if an op amp has a gain of – 100 (dimensionless number). A resistive voltage divider* is a typical attenuator. If the gain (or loss) is 0 dB . 000. we say that an amplifier has 10 dB power gain. 10 dB represents a power ratio of 10 10n dB represents a power ratio of 10 n (1. By definition. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . The gain of an amplifier is the ratio of the output to the input. voltage or current) can be expressed in decibels (dB). ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0.3 Decibels The ratio of any two values of the same quantity (power. We should remember that a negative voltage or current gain G v or G i indicates that there is a 180° phase difference between the input and the output waveforms. For this reason we use absolute values of power.9) It is useful to remember that 20 dB represents a power ratio of 100 30 dB represents a power ratio of 1. 000 * Please refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications.

that is. for example.Bandwidth and Frequency Response Also.707 and these two points are known as the 3−dB 2 ⁄ 2 = 0.5 . if we let Z = 1 the dB values for voltage and current ratios become V out dB v = 10 log --------V in and I out dB i = 10 log ------I in 2 2 2 2 V out = 20 log --------V in I out = 20 log ------I in (1.4 Bandwidth and Frequency Response Like electric filters. V out = 2 2 2 ⁄ 2 = 0.5. As shown in Figure 1.25 3 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 2 7 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 5 From these. 1 0. the bandwidth is BW = ω 2 – ω 1 where ω 1 and ω 2 are the cutoff frequencies.5.11) 1.707 the power is 1 ⁄ 2 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−5 . Since y = log x = 2 log x and P = V ⁄ Z = I ⋅ Z . it is down or half − power points. Likewise. 4 dB = 3 dB + 1 dB which is equivalent to a power ratio of approximately 2 × 1. for R = 1 and for v or i = “halved”. amplifiers exhibit a band of frequencies over which the output remains nearly constant. 1 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 1. Definition of bandwidth ω2 ω V out Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. 27 dB = 20 dB + 7 dB and this is equivalent to a power ratio of approximately 100 × 5 = 500 .5. we can estimate other values. At these frequencies.10) 2 (1.707 Bandwidth ω1 Figure 1. They derive their name from the fact that since power p = v ⁄ R = i ⋅ R . the magnitude of the output voltage V out of an electric or electronic circuit as a function of radian frequency ω as shown in Figure 1. Consider.25 = 2. For instance.

We may think that low−pass and high−pass filters have also two cutoff frequencies where in the case of the low−pass filter the second cutoff frequency is at ω = 0 while in a high−pass filter it is at ω = ∞.V in R + 1 ⁄ jωC V out 1 ---------. the low−pass and high−pass filters have only one cutoff frequency whereas band−pass and band−elimination (band−stop) filters have two. RC low−pass filter By application of the voltage division expression we obtain 1 ⁄ jωC V out = --------------------------.= -------------------------------. These two responses together constitute the frequency response of a circuit.13) or V out –1 1 1 ---------.6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .∠– tan ( ωRC ) 2 2 V in –1 2 2 1 + ω2R C 1 + ω 2 R C ∠ tan ( ωRC ) V out 1 ---------. We recall from the characteristics of electric filters. v in R C v out Solution: Figure 1.= -------------------------------V in 2 R2 C2 1+ω (1. Example 1.6. the output voltage is expressed as V out ( ω ) = V out ( ω ) e jϕ ( ω ) (1. We also recall also that the output of circuit is dependent upon the frequency when the input is a sinusoidal voltage.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals Alternately. In general form. we can define the bandwidth as the frequency band between half−power points.14) and thus the magnitude is (1.12) where V out ( ω ) is known as the magnitude response and e jϕ ( ω ) is known as the phase response.= ----------------------1 + jωRC V in (1.15) and the phase angle (sometimes called argument and abbreviated as arg) is 1−6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= -------------------------------------------------------------------.1 Derive and sketch the magnitude and phase responses of the RC low−pass filter shown in Figure 1.

Then. RC=1. Vout Vin 1 0. as ω → 0 .mag). subplot(121). we let ω assume the values 0 . V out ⁄ V in = 1 ⁄ ( 2 ) = 0.13) expressed in MATLAB script below and plot the magnitude and phase angle in semilog scale. semilogx(w.7.Bandwidth and Frequency Response ⎛ V out ⎞ –1 ϕ = arg ⎜ ---------.16) To sketch the magnitude. φ ≅ – tan 1 ≅ – 45 as ω → ∞ ../pi. please refer to Appendix A Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. 1 ⁄ RC . semilogx(w.707 and as ω → ∞ . xf=1.⎟ = – tan ( ωRC ) ⎝ V in ⎠ (1.*180. V out ⁄ V in ≅ 0 To sketch the phase response.16). V out ⁄ V in ≅ 1 for ω = 1 ⁄ RC . mag=20. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−7 . phase=angle(xf). Then... Magnitude and phase responses for the low−pass filter of Figure 1./(1+j.*w. φ ≅ – tan ( ∞ ) ≅ – 90 –1 ° –1 ° –1 –1 ° The magnitude and phase responses of the RC low−pass filter are shown in Figure 1. φ ≅ – tan 0 ≅ 0 for ω = 1 ⁄ RC ... we use (1.707 ω −1/RC 0 −45° 1/RC −90° ϕ 90° 45° 1/RC ω Figure 1. and ∞ . subplot(122). φ ≅ – tan ( – ∞ ) ≅ 90 as ω → 0 .phase) * For an introduction to MATLAB. w=1:10:100000.7.*log10(abs(xf)).*RC). as ω → – ∞ .6 We can use MATLAB* to plot the magnitude and phase angle for this low-pass filter using relation (1..

and { G ( ω ) v } intercept at 20 log 1010 C = cons tan t .17) then two common frequency intervals are (1) the octave for which ω 2 = 2ω 1 and (2) the decade for which ω 2 = 10ω 1 .⎞ ⎝ ω1 ⎠ (1.5 Bode Plots The magnitude and phase responses of a circuit are often shown with asymptotic lines as approximations. let us consider a circuit whose gain is given as G ( ω )v = C ⁄ ω k (1. RC=1 10 10 10 10 radian frequency (log scale) 1 2 3 4 10 5 10 10 10 10 radian frequency (log scale) 10 1.8. Thus.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals Magnitude .low-pass filter.18) and multiplying by 20 we obtain 20 log 10 { G ( ω ) v } = 20 log 10 C – 20k log 10 ω dB { G ( ω )v } = 20 log 10 C – 20k log 10 ω (1. 1−8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. RC=1 Phase angle (degrees) -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 0 10 1 2 3 4 5 0 Magnitude (dB) -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 0 10 Phase angle. Now. Consider two frequency intervals expressed as ω2 u 2 – u 1 = log 10 ω2 – log 10 ω1 = log ⎛ ----.low-pass filter. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .18) where C is a constant and k is a non−zero positive integer. if k = 1 .19) represents an equation of a straight line with abscissa log 10 ω . the slope becomes – 20 dB ⁄ decade as illustrated in the plot of Figure 1. Taking the common log of (1. We can choose the slope to be either – 20k dB ⁄ decade or – 6k dB ⁄ octave . slope of – 20k .19) We observe that (1.

dB 0 −10 −45° −20 −30 0.10.1 1 10 100 logω Figure 1.Transfer Function G ( ω )V 0 dB −20 slope = −20 dB/decade −40 1 10 100 Figure 1. Magnitude and phase responses for the low−pass filter of Figure 1. refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications.† and time−invariant‡ system of Figure 1. We observe also that if the exponent k in (1. the slope will be – 40 dB ⁄ decade .1 with asymptotic lines as shown in Figure 1. ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0. any line parallel to this slope will represent a drop of 20 dB ⁄ decade .19) for k = 1 log10ω Then. 1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Plot of relation (1. ‡ A time−invariant system is a linear system in which the parameters do not vary with time.1 1 10 logω 100 −90° −20 dB/decade ϕ(ω) 0.9.6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−9 .* linear. * A continuous−time signal is a function that is defined over a continuous range of time. For details.8.9. We can now approximate the magnitude and phase responses of the low−pass filter of Example 1.18) is changed to 2 . † A linear system consists of linear devices and may include independent and dependent voltage and current sources.6 Transfer Function Let us consider the continuous−time.

m ≥ n and the integer m denotes the order of the system. * The Laplace transform and its applications to electric circuit analysis is discussed in detail in Circuit Analysis II. linear.v out ( t ) + b m – 1 --------------.10.v in ( t ) + a n – 2 -------------. ISBN 978−0−9709511−5−1.v out ( t ) + b m – 2 --------------.V in ( s ) m m–1 m–2 D(s) ( bm s + bm – 1 s + bm – 2 s + … + b0 ) n n–1 n–2 where N ( s ) and D ( s ) are the numerator and denominator polynomials respectively. Taking the Laplace transform* of both sides of (1.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals v in ( t ) Continuous – time .v in ( t ) + a n – 1 -------------.11.2 Derive the transfer function G ( s ) of the network in Figure 1. and timeinvariant system v out ( t ) Figure 1.v in ( t ) + … + a 0 v in ( t ) n n–1 n–2 dt dt dt n n–1 n–2 m m–1 m–2 (1. The input−output relationship can be described by the differential equation of d d d b m -------.v out ( t ) + … + b 0 v out ( t ) = m m–1 m–2 dt dt dt d d d a n -----. 1−10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Input−output block diagram for linear. The transfer function G ( s ) is defined as V out ( s ) N(s) G ( s ) = -----------------.= ----------D(s) V in ( s ) (1.20) we obtain ( bm s + bm – 1 s n m m–1 + bm – 2 s m–2 n–2 + … + b 0 )V out ( s ) = + … + a 0 )V in ( s ) ( an s + an – 1 s n–1 + an – 2s Solving for V out ( s ) we obtain ( an s + an – 1 s + an – 2 s + … + a0 ) N(s) V out ( s ) = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. time−invariant continuous−time system We will assume that initially no energy is stored in the system.20) For practically all electric networks.21) Example 1.V in ( s ) = ----------.

5s + − + 1⁄s 1 V out ( s ) − − Figure 1. we can readily obtain the transfer function with application of the voltage division expression.5s + 1 ⁄ ( s + 1 ) or V out ( s ) 2 G ( s ) = -----------------.= ---------------------2 V in ( s ) s +s+2 1.2 in the s – domain For relatively simple circuits such as that of Figure 1.12. Thus. s = σ + jω . parallel combination of the capacitor and resistor yields 1 1⁄s×1 ----------------. + V in ( s ) 0.5 H C + − 1F + R 1 Ω v out ( t ) − Figure 1. Circuit of Example 1. Network for Example 1.12. i.e. we will denote the time domain as t – domain † Henceforth. the complex frequency.11.7 Poles and Zeros Let F(s) = N(s) ----------D(s) (1.12.V in ( s ) 0..= ---------s+1 1⁄s+1 and by application of the voltage division expression 1 ⁄ (s + 1) V out ( s ) = --------------------------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−11 . will be referred to as the s – domain . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Poles and Zeros L + v in ( t ) − 0.2 Solution: The given circuit is in the t – domain .22) * For brevity.* The transfer function G ( s ) exists only in the s – domain † and thus we redraw the circuit in the s – domain as shown in Figure 1.

a system is said to be stable if a finite input produces a finite output. A system is unstable if the impulse response h ( t ) reaches infinity after a certain time as shown in Figure 1. The roots of the denominator are called the poles* of F ( s ) and are found by letting D ( s ) = 0 . F ( s ) is a proper rational function. we rewrite it as m m–1 m–2 1---. In this case. we have assumed that the highest power of N ( s ) is less than the highest power of D ( s ) .13.= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------D(s) a1 a0 n an – 1 n – 1 an – 2 n – 2 s + ----------. and are found by letting N ( s ) = 0 in (1. We can predict the stability of a system from its impulse response† h ( t ) .24) The roots of the numerator are called the zeros of F ( s ) . Fourth Edition.14. * The zeros and poles can be distinct (different from one another). n are real numbers and. 2. of a combination of these. A system is stable if the impulse response h ( t ) goes to zero after some time as shown in Figure 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . A system is marginally stable if the impulse response h ( t ) reaches a certain non−zero value but never goes to zero as shown in Figure 1. F ( s ) is an improper rational function. …. 1. If m ≥ n . to do this. ISBN 978−0−9709511−5− 1.s + ----------.23) The coefficients a k and b k for k = 0. repeated. 1. In terms of the impulse response.( b m s + b m – 1 s + bm – 2 s + … + b1 s + b0 ) an N(s) F ( s ) = ----------. However. † For a detailed discussion on the impulse response. m < n .8 Stability In general. ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9. For details refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications.s + ---an an an an n (1. for the present discussion.= ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------n n–1 n–2 D(s) + an – 2 s + … + a1 s + a0 an s + an – 1 s m m–1 m–2 (1.e. 3.15. in most engineering applications we are interested in the nature of the poles.24). 2. please refer to Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling.2) unity.. 1.s + … + ---. i.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals where N ( s ) and D ( s ) are polynomials and thus (1. 1−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. complex conjugates.22) can be expressed as bm s + bm – 1 s + bm – 2 s + … + b1 s + b0 N(s) F ( s ) = ----------. It is very convenient to make the coefficient a n of s in (12.

the location of the zeros in the s – plane is Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. However.15.13.14. and unstable when one or more poles lie on the right−hand half−plane. A system is stable only when all poles lie on the left−hand half− plane. Characteristics of a stable system Figure 1.Stability Voltage Time Figure 1. It is marginally stable when one or more poles lie on the jω axis. Characteristics of a marginally stable system Figure 1. Characteristics of an unstable system We can plot the poles and zeros of a transfer function G ( s ) on the complex frequency plane of the complex variable s = σ + jω . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−13 .

Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals immaterial. Let us use the MATLAB solve('eqn1'..3 The transfer function of a system is 3 ( s – 1 ) ( s + 2s + 5 ) G ( s ) = -------------------------------------------------2 ( s + 2 ) ( s + 6s + 25 ) 2 a. With this function. to generate plots for 100 logarithmically evenly spaced points for the frequency interval 10 –1 ≤ ω ≤ 10 r ⁄ s . Example 1. use the MATLAB bode(sys.w) function to plot the magnitude of this transfer function. the freq u e n c y r a n g e a n d n u m b e r o f p o i n t s a r e c h o s e n a u t o m a t i c a l l y. at which the Bode response is to be evaluated. and tf creates a transfer function. that is. syms s.16. 1−14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. To generate logarithmically spaced frequency vectors.'eqn2'. we use the command logspace(first_exponent. Solution: a.2.. MATLAB requires that we express the numerator and denominator of G ( s ) as polynomials of s in descending powers. 2 The bode(sys. in radians/second. T h e f u n c t i o n bode(sys..w) uses the user−supplied vector w of frequencies.w) function displays both magnitude and phase.wmax}) draws the Bode plot for frequencies between wmin and wmax (in radians/second) and the function bode(sys. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . equ2=solve('s^2+6*s+25−0') equ1 = [-1+2*i] equ2 = [-3+4*i] [-1-2*i] [-3-4*i] The zeros and poles of G ( s ) are shown in Figure 1. equ1=solve('s^2+2*s+5−0').100).{wmin. is this system stable? b.w) function.last_exponent. If we want to display the magnitude only. we can use the bodemag(sys. We can use the MATLAB* function bode(sys) to draw the Bode plot of a Linear Time Invariant (LTI) System where sys = tf(num. For example.. number_of_values).'eqnN') function to find the roots of the quadratic factors.den) creates a continuous−time transfer function sys with numerator num and denominator den. * An introduction to MATLAB is included as Appendix A. we use the statement logspace(−1. the nature of the zeros do not determine the stability of the system.

16. Poles and zeros of the transfer function of Example 1. denoted as . We use the MATLAB expand(s) symbolic function to express the numerator and denominator of G ( s ) in polynomial form syms s. is immaterial. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.100).. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−15 . denoted as .3 From Figure 1..17.16 we observe that all poles. den=[1 8 37 50].w). bodemag(sys. b.Stability – 3 + j4 – 1 + j2 –2 –1 –j 2 –3 –j 4 1 Figure 1.den). n=expand((s−1)*(s^2+2*s+5)). lie on the left−hand half−plane and thus the system is stable.. The location of the zeros. sys=tf(num.2. w=logspace(0. grid The magnitude plot is shown in Figure 1. d=expand((s+2)*(s^2+6*s+25)) n = s^3+s^2+3*s-5 d = s^3+8*s^2+37*s+50 and thus 3 ( s + s + 3s – 5 ) G ( s ) = -------------------------------------------------3 2 ( s + 8s + 37s + 50 ) 3 2 For this example we are interested in the magnitude only so we will use the script num=3*[1 1 3 −5].

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . 1 MHz .18 from which we obtain the data shown on the table below. Determine the gain (in dB ) at the frequencies 1 KHz . and 100 MHz . 10 MHz . and the 3 dB cutoff frequency occurs at 10 KHz .4 It is known that a voltage amplifier has a frequency response of a low−pass filter. attenuation of – 20 dB per decade.18. Solution: Using the given data we construct the asymptotic magnitude response shown in Figure 1. 80 60 40 20 0 dB – 20 dB ⁄ decade Hz 4 10 3 10 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 Figure 1. Bode plot for Example 1.17. 100KHz .4 1−16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. a DC gain of 80 dB . 10 KHz .Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals Bode Diagram 10 5 Magnitude (dB) 0 -5 -10 0 10 10 1 10 2 Figure 1. Asymptotic magnitude response for Example 1.3 Example 1.

From the plot.1 nF A voc = 20 Figure 1. The equivalent circuit of a voltage amplifier is shown in Figure 1. are encouraged to review Chapter 4 on equivalent circuits of operational amplifiers. Then. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. find the overall voltage gain A v = v load ⁄ v s .20.21. use MATLAB to plot the magnitude of A v for the range 10 ≤ ω ≤ 10 . Amplifier circuit for Example 1. Circuit model for voltage amplifier where A voc denotes the open circuit voltage gain The ideal characteristics for the circuit of Figure 1. i out v in R out R in A voc v in v out A voc = --------- v out v in i out = 0 Figure 1. this text.5 For the voltage amplifier of Figure 1.19 are R in → ∞ and R out → 0 . * Readers who have a copy of Circuit Analysis I. ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0.Voltage Amplifier Equivalent Circuit Frequency Gain (dB) 1 KHz 80 10 KHz 77 100 KHz 60 1 MHz 40 10 MHz 20 100 MHz 0 1. Refer also to Chapter 5.5 Solution: The s – domain equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−17 . Example 1.19.19.9 Voltage Amplifier Equivalent Circuit Amplifiers are often represented by equivalent circuits* also known as circuit models. Rs vs 1 KΩ R out 3 8 + − 2 cos ωt mV v in R in C + 100 Ω − 10 KΩ + A voc v in − R load 5 KΩ v load 0.20. estimate the 3 dB cutoff frequency.

..V S ( s ) = ----------------------------------------.20V in ( s ) = --------------------.61*10^14].Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals 10 VS ( s ) 3 10 4 2 + − V in ( s ) + − 10 10 10 + ⁄ s 20V in ( s ) − 5 × 10 3 V load ( s ) Figure 1. bodemag(sys.61 × 10 G v ( s ) = -------------------.1 × 10 14 V load ( s ) 19.1 × 10 14 (1.den).1000).1*10^14]. 10 5 × 10 V load ( s ) = ------------------------------.25) Also.25) into (1.21.8.20 The parallel combination of the 10 resistor and 10 ⁄ s capacitor yields 4 10 10 ⁄ s 10 Z ( s ) = 10 || 10 ⁄ s = ----------------------------------.61 × 10 V load ( s ) = ----------------------------------------..26) By substitution of (1.1 × 10 10 + 5 × 10 3 5 (1.= ----------------------------------------7 14 VS ( s ) 10 s + 1.V S ( s ) 3 14 4 10 7 14 10 s + 1. sys=tf(num.59 MHz 7 1−18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.61V in ( s ) 2 3 3 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . den=[10^7 1.26) we obtain 19. w=logspace(3.V S ( s ) 7 14 10 s + 1. The s – domain circuit of Figure 1. grid The plot is shown in Figure 1.V in ( s ) = 19.22 and we observe that the cutoff frequency occurs at about 22 dB where f C ≈ 10 ⁄ 2π ≈ 1.w).= ------------------------------4 10 4 10 10 + 10 ⁄ s 10 s + 10 14 14 4 10 and by the voltage division expression 10 ⁄ ( 10 s + 10 ) 10 V in ( s ) = ------------------------------------------------------------.27) and with MATLAB num=[0 19.1 × 10 10 + 10 ⁄ ( 10 s + 10 ) 14 4 10 14 (1.

i in v in R in i out i out R out v out A isc = ------i in v out = 0 A isc i in Figure 1.5 1.10 Current Amplifier Equivalent Circuit The equivalent circuit of a current amplifier is shown in Figure 1.23.22. Circuit model for current amplifier where A isc denotes the short circuit current gain The ideal characteristics for the circuit of Figure 1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.23 are R in → 0 and R out → ∞ .Current Amplifier Equivalent Circuit Bode Diagram 30 25 Magnitude (dB) 20 15 10 5 3 10 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 Figure 1.23. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−19 . Bode plot for the voltage amplifier of Example 1.

i in Rs R in i out i load R out V load is A isc i in R load Figure 1.29) yields out S i load = ----------------------------.30) or R out RS i load A i = ---------.4 and 1. derive an expression for the overall current gain A i = i load ⁄ i s .29) Substitution of (1.24.9 and 1.A isc -------------------.5 respectively. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .A isc R out + R load R S + R in is In Sections 1.6 For the current amplifier of Figure 1. Current amplifier for Example 1.A isc i in R out + R load R (1. out i load = ----------------------------.6 Solution: Using the current division expression we obtain s i in = ------------------. 1−20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals Example 1.28) into (1.= ----------------------------.i s R out + R load R S + R in R R (1.-------------------.i s R s + R in R (1.28) Also. Two more circuit models are the transresistance and transconductance equivalent circuits and there are introduced in Exercises 1.24.10 we presented the voltage and current amplifier equivalent circuits also known as circuit models.

television. sound. or radar. or any message transmitted or received in telegraphy. image.11 Summary • A signal is any waveform that serves as a means of communication. The constant T is the period and it is the smallest value of time which separates recurring values of the waveform. It represents a fluctuating electric quantity. • An alternating waveform is any periodic time function whose average value over a period is zero. radio. • If the peak (maximum) value of a current of a sinusoidal waveform is I p .i dt = T 0 ∫ Ave ( i ) 2 where RMS stands for Root Mean Squared.Summary 1. • An amplifier can be classified as a voltage. A resistive voltage divider is a typical attenuator.= ----------------------b–a Period a f ( t ) ave ∫ b • A periodic time function satisfies the expression f ( t ) = f ( t + nT ) for all time t and for all integers n . current. telephony. current or power amplifier. that is. • The average value of a waveform f ( t ) in the interval a ≤ t ≤ b is defined as f ( t ) dt b a Area = ---------------. • An electronic (or electric) circuit which produces an output that is smaller than the input is called an attenuator. The gain of an amplifier is the ratio of the output to the input. Thus. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−21 . for a voltage amplifier Voltage Gain = Output Voltage ---------------------------------------Input Voltage or Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. • The effective (or RMS) value of a periodic current waveform i ( t ) denoted as I eff is the current that produces heat in a given resistor R at the same average rate as a direct (constant) current I dc and it is found from the expression I RMS = I eff = 1 T 2 -. then I RMS = I p ⁄ ( 2 ) = 0. the effective value I eff or I RMS value of a current is computed as the square root of the mean (average) of the square of the current. electric or magnetic field strength.707I p • An amplifier is an electronic circuit which increases the magnitude of the input signal. such as voltage.

dB = 10 log P out ⁄ P in The dB values for voltage and current ratios are dB v = 20 log V out ⁄ V in dB i = 20 log I out ⁄ I in • The bandwidth is BW = ω 2 – ω 1 where ω 1 and ω 2 are the cutoff frequencies. • We also recall also that the output of circuit is dependent upon the frequency when the input is a sinusoidal voltage. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . At these frequencies.= ----------D(s) V in ( s ) 1−22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. These two responses together constitute the frequency response of a circuit. • The magnitude and phase responses of a circuit are often shown with asymptotic lines as approximations and these are referred to as Bode plots.707 and these two points are known as the 3−dB down or half− where V out ( ω ) is referred to as the magnitude response and e jϕ ( ω ) is referred to as the phase response. • Two frequencies ω 1 and ω 2 are said to be separated by an octave if ω 2 = 2ω 1 and separated by a decade if ω 2 = 10ω 1 . By definition. • The low−pass and high−pass filters have only one cutoff frequency whereas band−pass and band−stop filters have two. voltage or current) can be expressed in decibels (dB). We may think that low−pass and high−pass filters have also two cutoff frequencies where in the case of the low−pass filter the second cutoff frequency is at ω = 0 while in a high−pass filter it is at ω = ∞ . In general form. the output voltage is expressed as V out ( ω ) = V out ( ω ) e jϕ ( ω ) 2 ⁄ 2 = 0. • The ratio of any two values of the same quantity (power. V out = power points.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals G v = V out ⁄ V in The current gain G i and power gain G p are defined similarly. • The transfer function of a system is defined as V out ( s ) N(s) G ( s ) = -----------------.

If we want to display the magnitude only. and are found by letting N ( s ) = 0 . the current amplifier. the transresistance amplifier. in radians/second. It is marginally stable when one or more poles lie on the jω axis. A system is stable only when all poles lie on the left− hand half−plane. The bode(sys.den) creates a continuous−time transfer function sys with numerator num and denominator den. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.wmax}) draws the Bode plot for frequencies between wmin and wmax (in radians/second) and the function bode(sys.V in ( s ) m m–1 m–2 D(s) ( bm s + bm – 1 s + bm – 2 s + … + b0 ) n n–1 n–2 • In the expression m m–1 m–2 1 ---.w) function displays both magnitude and phase. The common types are the voltage amplifier. • We can use the MATLAB function bode(sys) to draw the Bode plot of a system where sys = tf(num.s + … + ---.s + ----------. We can predict the stability of a system from its impulse response h ( t ) . The function bode(sys.( b s + b m – 1 s + bm – 2 s + … + b1 s + b0 ) an m N(s) F ( s ) = ----------.w) function.V in ( s ) = ----------. The roots of the denominator are called the poles of F ( s ) and are found by letting D(s) = 0 . the location of the zeros in the s – plane is immaterial. and tf creates a transfer function.Summary where the numerator N ( s ) and denominator D ( s ) are as shown in the expression ( an s + an – 1 s + an – 2 s + … + a0 ) N(s) V out ( s ) = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.s + ---an an an an where m < n .w) uses the user−supplied vector w of frequencies. • Amplifiers are often represented by equivalent circuits also known as circuit models. However. However. and unstable when one or more poles lie on the right−hand half−plane.{wmin. in most engineering applications we are interested in the nature of the poles. number_of_values).= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------D(s) a1 a0 n an – 1 n – 1 an – 2 n – 2 s + ----------. we use the command logspace(first_exponent. we can use the bodemag(sys. • The zeros and poles can be real and distinct. the frequency range and number of points are chosen automatically. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−23 . or repeated. or complex conjugates. at which the Bode response is to be evaluated. • A system is said to be stable if a finite input produces a finite output.last_exponent. • Stability can easily be determined from the transfer function G ( s ) on the complex frequency plane of the complex variable s = σ + jω . and the transconductance amplifier. the roots of the numerator are called the zeros of F ( s ) . With this function. To generate logarithmically spaced frequency vectors. or combinations of real and complex conjugates.

Derive the transfer function of this system given that G ( ∞ ) = 10 . The circuit model shown below is known as a transresistance amplifier and the ideal characteristics for this amplifier are R in → 0 and R out → 0 . A system has poles at – 4 . RS vS 1 KΩ i in R out R in C 10 KΩ 0. i in v in R in R out i out v out out R in = --------- v R in i in i in i out = 0 With a voltage source v s in series with resistance R s connected on the input side and a load resistance R load connected to the output. 2.1.12 Exercises 1. Derive the transfer function G ( s ) for the network shown below. estimate the 3 dB cutoff frequency. – 2 + j . the circuit is as shown below. and – 3 – j2 . 4.5 H + v in ( t ) − + C − 1F R + 1 Ω v out ( t ) − 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . 3 8 1−24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. From the plot.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals 1. and zeros at – 1 . use MATLAB to plot the magnitude of A v for the range 10 ≤ ω ≤ 10 . L 0. – 3 + j2 . derive and sketch the magnitude and phase responses for an RC high−pass filter. Then.1 nF 100 Ω + + − 2 cos ωt mV v in − + − Rm im R load 5 KΩ + v load − Find the overall voltage gain A v = v load ⁄ v s if R m = 100 Ω . Following the procedure of Example 1. – 2 – j .

Exercises 5. The circuit shown below is an R-C high-pass filter. For the low-pass filter circuit in Example 1 show that the output across the capacitor at high frequencies. that is. that is. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the voltage across the capacitor is the integral of the input voltage.. i out v in R in R out v out G m = ------- i out v in v out = 0 G m v in With a voltage source v s in series with resistance R s connected on the input side and a load resistance R load connected to the output. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−25 . the circuit is as shown below.. The circuit model shown below is known as a transconductance amplifier and the ideal characteristics for this amplifier are R in → ∞ and R out → ∞. the voltage across the resistor is the derivative of the input voltage. Hint: Use the procedure in Example 1. for ω » 1 ⁄ RC . 7. approximates a differentiator.e. i. i out vS RS v in R in G m v in R out R load v load Derive an expression for the overall voltage gain A v = v load ⁄ v s 6. Use MATLAB to plot the magnitude and phase angle for this high-pass filter. Derive the transfer function b. for ω « 1 ⁄ RC . For the high-pass filter circuit in Exercise 6 above 1 show that the output across the resistor at low frequencies. i.e. 8. approximates an integrator. C R a.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . You should follow this practice with all end−of−chapter exercises in this book. It is recommended that first you go through and solve those you feel that you know. For your solutions that you are uncertain. review the chapter. make an honest effort to solve these exercises without first looking at the solutions that follow. look over your procedures for inconsistencies and computational errors.13 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises Dear Reader: The remaining pages on this chapter contain solutions to all end−of−chapter exercises. 1−26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. You must.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals 1. for your benefit. Refer to the solutions as a last resort and rework those problems at a later date. and try again.

= ---------------------------------------.*RC). and ω → ∞ . and ω → ∞ .^2). As ω → 0 . semilogx(w. w=0:0. θ = arg { G ( j ω ) } versus ω . Thus.02:100. ω → – ∞ .. For ω = – 1 ⁄ RC .Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 1. i. G(jω) ≅ 0 For ω = 1 ⁄ RC . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−27 . as ω → 0 ./sqrt(1+1.= -------------------------------------------.(2) 2 2 2 1 + 1 ⁄ (ω R C ) and the phase angle or argument./(w. R V out = --------------------------. θ ≅ – atan 0 ≅ 0° For ω = 1 ⁄ RC .∠ atan ( 1 ⁄ ( ωRC ) ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 2 2 2 2 2 1+ω R C 1 + 1 ⁄ (ω R C ) (1) The magnitude of (1) is 1 G ( j ω ) = -------------------------------------------.magGs). θ = – atan 1 = – 45° θ = – atan ( – 1 ) = 45° Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. RC=1. ω = 1 ⁄ RC .= -------------------------------------2 2 2 2 2 2 V in 1 + j ωRC 1+ω R C 1+ω R C 2 2 2 1 ) = ωRC 1 + ω R C ∠ atan ( 1 ⁄ ( ωRC ) . grid We can also obtain a quick sketch for the phase angle. and as ω → ∞ . ω = – 1 ⁄ RC .j ωRC + ω R C . ω = 1 ⁄ RC . G ( j ω ) = 1 ⁄ 2 = 0.= ----------------------. by evaluating (3) at ω = 0 . magGs=1. for convenience. is θ = arg { G ( j ω ) } = atan ( 1 ⁄ ωRC ) (3) We can obtain a quick sketch for the magnitude G ( j ω ) versus ω by evaluating (2) at ω = 0 . This is shown on the plot below where.e.V in R + 1 ⁄ j ωC or 2 2 2 V out j ωRC .707 G(jω) ≅ 1 We will use the MATLAB script below to plot G ( jω ) versus radian frequency ω . Thus.ωRC ( j + ωRC ) G ( j ω ) = ---------. we let RC = 1 .

*RC)).9 0.argGs). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . RC=1.7 0.3 0. argGs=atan(1.4 0./pi. This is shown on the plot below where.1 0 -2 10 10 -1 Half-power point 10 10 Frequency in rad/sec (log scale) 0 1 10 2 As ω → – ∞ . θ = – atan ( – ∞ ) = 90° and as ω → ∞ . for convenience. w=−8:0.5 0.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals 1 0.02:8.8 Magnitude of Vout/Vin 0.*180. plot(w. θ = – atan ( ∞ ) = – 90 ° We will use the MATLAB script below to plot the phase angle θ versus radian frequency ω . we let RC = 1 ./(w.2 0. grid 100 Phase angle in degrees 50 0 -50 -100 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 Frequency in rad/sec (linear scale) 6 8 1−28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.6 0.

5s + − 1 + V out ( s ) − 1⁄s Parallel combination of the inductor and capacitor yields s ⁄ 2 ⋅ 1 ⁄ ss -----------------------. w=logspace(0. den=[1 8 21 20]. bode(num.2.grid 3 2 2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. + V in ( s ) − 0.= -------------------------------------------------------3 2 2 s + 8s + 21s + 20 ( s + 4 ) ( s + 4s + 5 ) num=10*[1 7 19 13]. then K = 10 and the final form of the transfer function is 10 ( s + 7s + 19s + 13 ) 10 ( s + 1 ) ( s + 6s + 13 ) G ( s ) = --------------------------------------------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−29 .den.w). It is given that G ( ∞ ) = 10 .V in ( s ) 2 s ⁄ (s + 2) + 1 2 V out ( s ) s +2 G ( s ) = -----------------.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 2. We draw the s – domain equivalent shown below.= ---------------------2 V in ( s ) s +s+2 3.= ------------2 s⁄2+1⁄s s +2 and by application of the voltage division expression we obtain 1 V out ( s ) = --------------------------------. G ( s ) ≈ K . The transfer function has the form K [ s – ( – 1 ) ] [ s – ( – 3 + j2 ) ] [ s – ( – 3 – j2 ) ] G ( s ) = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[ s – ( –4 ) ] [ s – ( – 2 + j ) ] [ s – ( – 2 – j ) ] K ( s + 1 ) ( s + 6s + 13 ) K ( s + 7s + 19s + 13 ) = -----------------------------------------------------.100).= ------------------------------------------------------2 3 2 ( s + 4 ) ( s + 4s + 5 ) s + 8s + 21s + 20 2 3 2 To determine the value of the constant K we divide all terms of G ( s ) by s3 and we obtain ) G ( s ) = K ( 1 + 7 ⁄ s + 19 ⁄ s + 13 ⁄ s --------------------------------------------------------------------2 3 1 + 8 ⁄ s + 21 ⁄ s + 20 ⁄ s 2 3 and as s → ∞ .

V S ( s ) 3 14 4 10 14 7 10 + 10 ⁄ ( 10 s + 10 ) 10 s + 1.I in ( s ) = 98I in ( s ) (1) 2 3 3 10 + 5 × 10 5.= -----------------------------4 10 4 10 10 + 10 ⁄ s 10 s + 10 14 14 4 10 and by the voltage division expression 10 ⁄ ( 10 s + 10 ) 10 V in ( s ) = ------------------------------------------------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . 5 × 10 5 × 10 V load ( s ) = ------------------------------.5 18 15 Phase (deg) 10 5 0 0 10 10 1 10 2 Frequency (rad/sec) 4.100I in ( s ) = --------------------.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals Bode Diagram 20 Magnitude (dB) 19. I in ( s ) 10 2 VS ( s ) + − 10 3 + 10 4 + + − 10 10 V in ( s ) + − ⁄ s 100I in ( s ) − V load ( s ) 5 × 10 3 − The parallel combination of the 10 resistor and 10 ⁄ s capacitor yields Z( s) = 4 10 10 ⁄ s 10 10 || 10 ⁄ s = ---------------------------------.5 19 18. The s – domain equivalent circuit is shown below.1 × 10 14 4 10 14 Also.1 × 10 3 5 where 1−30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.V S ( s ) = ----------------------------------------.

den=[10^11 1. Bode Diagram -440 -460 -480 -500 Magnitude (dB) -520 -540 -560 -580 -600 -620 -640 5 10 6 7 8 9 10 11 10 10 10 10 10 10 Frequency (rad/sec) This plot shows a high attenuation of the source voltage v s and thus the transresistance circuit model should not be used as a voltage amplifier.1 × 10 ) V load ( s ) 98 G v ( s ) = -------------------..1*10^24].w).= --------------------------------------------------------------------------.1000).1 × 10 ) I in ( s ) = --------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−31 ...Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 14 7 14 V in ( s ) VS ( s ) 10 V S ( s ) ⁄ ( 10 s + 1.= ------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 10 7 14 VS ( s ) ( 10 s + 10 ) ( 10 s + 1.2*10^18 1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.11.1 × 10 or and with the MATLAB script below. w=logspace(5.1 × 10 ) 10 ⁄ ( 10 s + 10 ) and by substitution into (1) we obtain 98 V load ( s ) = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------.V S ( s ) 4 10 14 7 ( 10 s + 10 ) ( 10 s + 1. sys=tf(num.den).2 × 10 s + 1. bodemag(sys.1 × 10 ) Then.= ------------------------------------------------------------------------------11 2 18 24 VS ( s ) 10 s + 1.= ------------------------------------------------------------------------------14 4 10 4 10 7 14 Z(s) ( 10 s + 10 ) ( 10 s + 1. V load ( s ) 98 G v ( s ) = -------------------. num=[0 0 98]. grid we obtain the Bode plot below.

*RC). ..*180.*log10(abs(xf)). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications ..v S (1) R S + R in Also.. R out R load v load = -----------------------------.G m -------------------.mag). subplot(121)..phase) 1−32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.v S R out + R load R S + R in v load ⎛ R in ⎞ ⎛ R out R load ⎞ A v = ----------./(1+j.. semilogx(w.= ⎜ -------------------..G m v in (2) R out + R load Substitution of (1) into (2) yields R out R load R in v load = -----------------------------. xf=(j.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals 5. mag=20./pi.⎟ G m vS ⎝ R S + R in ⎠ ⎝ R out + R load ⎠ 6. i out vS RS v in R in G m v in R out R load v load By the voltage division expression R in v in = -------------------.⎟ ⎜ -----------------------------. phase=angle(xf). RC=1.*w. subplot(122).= ----------------------V in 1 + j ωRC w=1:10:100000.V in R + 1 ⁄ j ωC or V out j ωRC G ( j ω ) = ---------.*w.*RC). semilogx(w. C R Application of the voltage division expression yields R V out = --------------------------.

V ( s ) in R + 1 ⁄ sC from which * For an introduction to Simulink.i dt C 0 ∫ 1 t v out ≈ ------.high-pass filter RC=1 0 -0.5 -1 Magnitude (dB) -1.e. please refer to Appendix B Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. 1 ⁄ sC V ( s ) out = ----------------------.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises Magnitude .5 0 10 Phase angle (degrees) 1 2 3 4 5 Phase angle .. v in R i C v out v in i = --------------------------R + 1 ⁄ jωC and for ω » 1 ⁄ RC or R » 1 ⁄ ωC Also. v in i ≈ -----R 1 t v out = v C = --.high-pass filter RC=1 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 10 10 10 10 Radian frequency (log scale) 10 0 0 10 10 10 10 10 Radian frequency (log scale) 1 2 3 4 10 5 7. i.5 -2 -2.5 -3 -3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−33 .v in dt RC 0 ∫ We can illustrate this with a Simulink* model as follows: The transfer function of the low-pass filter above is readily derived from the voltage division expression. Thus.

After the execution command is issued. the Scope block displays the input and output waveforms below.= ------------------V ( s ) in R + 1 ⁄ sC RCs + 1 and for RC = 1 . we create the Simulink model shown below. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals V ( s ) out 1 ⁄ sC 1 G ( s ) = -----------------.= ----------------------. C i R v in i = --------------------------R + 1 ⁄ jωC and for ω « 1 ⁄ RC or R « 1 ⁄ ωC 1−34 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. 1 G ( s ) = ---------s+1 Next. 8.

s G ( s ) = ---------s+1 Next. i. After the execution command is issued.V ( s ) in R + 1 ⁄ sC from which V ( s ) out RCs 1 G ( s ) = -----------------. i v in ≈ ---------------.= ------------------.≈ v C 1 ⁄ jωC dv C dv C v out = iR = C -------. R V ( s ) out = ----------------------.. the Scope block displays the input and output waveforms below. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−35 .= ------------------RCs + 1 RCs + 1 V ( s ) in and for RC = 1 .e. Thus. we create the Simulink model shown below. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises v in i ≈ ---------------1 ⁄ jωC or Also.R = RC -------dt dt dv in v out ≈ RC --------dt We can illustrate this with a Simulink model as follows: The transfer function of the high-pass filter above is readily derived from the voltage division expression.

Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals 1−36 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

Zener diodes. The chapter concludes with the introduction of other types of diodes. i. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The junction diode.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes T his chapter begins with an introduction to semiconductor electronics. tunnel diodes. its characteristics.e. and others. this combination is referred to as covalent bonding. and applications are discussed. The N−type and P−type semiconductors are discussed and majority and minority carriers are defined. Partial silicon crystal structure * Valence electrons are those on the outer orbit.. Silicon has four valence electrons* and Figure 2.1 Electrons and Holes We recall from the Periodic Table of Elements that silicon is classified as a semiconductor and it is widely used in the fabrication of modern technology electronic devices. 2. The electron and hole movement is explained and illustrated in simple terms.1.1 shows a partial silicon crystal structure in a two−dimensional plane where we observe that atoms combine to form an octet of valence electrons by sharing electrons. electron electron sharing Figure 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−1 .

3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Accordingly. Let us now suppose that the bound electron in position 2 is attracted by the hole in position 1.3 shows that a hole exists in position 1. The movement of holes can be best illustrated with the arrangement in Figure 2.2. Free electron and the created hole in a partial silicon crystal When a free electron approaches a hole it is attracted and “captured” by that hole. the hole in position 2−2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. free electron 1 2 hole 3 Figure 2. The other electrons which stay in the valence orbit are called bound electrons. free electron hole Figure 2. in a crystal of pure silicon that has been thermally agitated there is an equal number of free electrons and holes.3. Then. in a silicon crystal that has been thermally agitated we have two types of current movement. Figure 2. Free electron and hole movement at random Figure 2.2 shows a free electron that has escaped from the valence orbit and the hole that has been created. A new hole has now been created in position 2 and thus we say that the hole has moved from position 1 to position 2. that free electron becomes once again a bound electron and this action is called recombination. the dislodged electron becomes a free electron and thus a vacancy (empty) space is created and it is referred to as a hole. the free electron movement and the hole movement.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes Thermal (heat) energy can dislodge (remove) an electron from the valence orbit of the silicon atom and when this occurs. Therefore. Next.

This continued process is called hole movement and it is opposite to the free electron movement. Hole flow. arsenic. Doping is a process where impurity atoms* which are atoms with five valence electrons such as phosphorous. are added to melted silicon. N−type and P−type semiconductors * Atoms with five valence electrons are often referred to as pentavalent atoms and atoms with three valence electrons are referred to as trivalent atoms. The free electron and hole movement is a random process. and antimony. We should also remember that in both N−type and P−type materials. only exists within the material itself. However.Electrons and Holes 2 may attract the bound electron from position 3 and the hole now appears in position 3. and gallium. The newly formed compound then can be either an N−type semiconductor or a P−type semiconductor depending on the impurity atoms that were added as shown in Figure 2. The silicon is first melted to break down its original crystal structure and then impurity atoms are added.4. f ree electron movement hole movement f ree electron hole Figure 2. or atoms with three valence electrons such as boron.4. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Si free electron Si hole Si As Si Si = Silicon As = Arsenic Ga = Gallium Si Ga Si Si N – type semiconductor Si P – type semiconductor Figure 2. Free electron and hole movement when an external voltage is applied We should keep in mind that holes are just vacancies and not positive charges although they move the same way as positive charges. current flow in the external circuit consists of electrons moving out of the negative terminal of the battery and into the positive terminal of the battery. on the other hand. the hole and free electron movement takes place in an orderly fashion.5. if we connect a voltage source as shown in Figure 2.5. aluminum. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−3 .

The depletion region is shown in more detail in Figure 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes An N−type semiconductor has more free electrons than holes and for this reason the free electrons are considered to be the majority carriers and the holes the minority carriers.7. Formation of a junction diode and its symbol Junction Hole Free E lectron Negative Ion Positive Ion Depletion Region Electrostatic Field Figure 2. We should remember that although the N−type material has an excess of free electrons. for every free electron in the N material there is a corresponding positively charged atom to balance it and the N material has a net charge of zero. Therefore.6 where the area between the P−type and N−type materials is referred to as the depletion region. By the same reasoning.2 The Junction Diode A junction diode is formed when a piece of P−type material and a piece of N−type material are joined together as shown in Figure 2. it is still electrically neutral. Instead the electrons in the N material diffuse (move or spread out) across the junction into the P material and fill some 2−4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. all the holes and electrons would pair up. A P N Physical Structure B Depletion Region A P N B Symbol Figure 2. This is because the donor atoms in the N material were left with positive charges (the protons outnumbered the electrons) after the free electrons became available by covalent bonding. This does not happen.7. the P−type material is also electrically neutral because the excess of holes is exactly balanced by the number of free electrons. Conversely. The PN junction barrier formation We would think that if we join the N and P materials together by one of the processes mentioned earlier. a P−type semiconductor has more holes than free electrons and thus the holes are the majority carriers and the free electrons are the minority carriers. 2.6.

a forward−biased PN junction is formed. If we attach a voltage source to a junction diode with the plus (+) side of the voltage source connected to the P−type material and the minus (−) side to the N−type as shown in Figure 2. At the same time. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−5 .9. there is a layer of positively charged ions. is established across the junction between the oppositely charged ions. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Reverse−biased junction diode When a junction diode is reverse−biased.9. the electrostatic field created by the positive and negative ions in the depletion region is called a barrier. while the loss of a hole from the P material created a negative ion in that material. An electrostatic field. Only the carriers in the immediate vicinity of the junction are affected. called junction recombination.The Junction Diode of the holes. there is a layer of negatively charged ions. for all practical purposes. The loss of an electron from the N−type material created a positive ion in the N material. and are repelled by the negative and positive ions respectively. on the P side of the junction. they make up a layer of fixed charges on the two sides of the junction as shown in Figure 2−7. If we reverse the voltage source terminals as shown in Figure 2. represented by a small battery in Figure 2−7. ideally no current will flows through the diode. This process. the holes in the P material diffuse across the junction into the N material and are filled by N material electrons. On the N side of the junction. Because there is a depletion. Forward−biased junction diode When a junction diode is forward−biased. conventional current will flow in the direction of the arrow on the diode symbol. P N Figure 2. a reverse−biased PN junction is formed. or lack of free electrons and holes in this area.8. the movement of carriers across the junction ceases. The carriers throughout the remainder of the N and P material are relatively undisturbed and remain in a balanced condition. Thus. The diffusion of electrons and holes across the junction will continue until the magnitude of the electrostatic field is increased to the point where the electrons and holes no longer have enough energy to overcome it. These ions are fixed in place in the crystal lattice structure and cannot move. The action just described occurs almost instantly when the junction is formed. At this point equilibrium is established and. For this reason. P N Figure 2.8. reduces the number of free electrons and holes in the vicinity of the junction. it is known as the depletion region.

11 shows the ideal i D – v D characteristics of a junction diode. Voltage and current designations for a junction diode Figure 2.10 where the direction of the current I D through the diode is the direction of the conventional* current flow.10. iD vD Figure 2. ISBN 978−0−9709511− 2−0. coulomb . q is charge of an electron. k = Boltzmann's constant . q = 1. the coefficient n varies from 1 to 2 depending on the current level and the nature or the recombination near the junction. These designations and the notations for the voltage V D across the diode and the current I D through the diode are shown in Figure 2. the current which would flow through the diode if the polarity of v D is reversed. Ideal i D – v D characteristics of a junction diode With reference to Figure 2. that is. that is. ideally i D → ∞ .Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes The P−type side of the junction diode is also referred to as the anode and the N−type side as the cathode. I r is the reverse current.11. VD Anode ID Cathode Figure 2.6 × 10 * It is immaterial whether we use the electron current flow or the conventional current flow.11 we see that when v D > 0 . The equations for the voltage− current relationships are the same as proved in Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .10.1) where i D and v D are as shown in Figure 2. that is. – 19 2−6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and when v D < 0 . However. ideally i D → 0 . the actual i D – v D relationship in a forward−biased junction diode is the non- linear relation iD = Ir [ e ( qv D ⁄ nkT ) – 1] (2.

. volts'). for T = 300 °K we obtain VT 300 °K iD = Ir [ e ( v D ⁄ nV T ) (2.005]).2 0.4 0. n=1. vD=0: 0. as shown in Figure 2.8 0..2) – 1] and by substitution into (1).38 × 10 – 23 × 300 ⁄ 1.7 V . When a junction diode is reverse−biased. We also observe that at v D = 0. a very small current will flow Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. iR=10^(−15). plot(vD. ylabel('Diode current iD. title('iD−vD characteristics for a forward−biased junction diode'). that is. conventional current will flow in the direction of the arrow of the diode as long as the voltage drop v D across the diode is about 0. The curve of Figure 2.5 mA . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−7 .4) We will use the MATLAB script below to plot the instantaneous current i D versus the instantaneous voltage v D for the interval 0 ≤ v D ≤ 10 v .12. with n = 1 .38 × 10 – 23 joule ⁄ Kelvin .6 0. amps T=27 deg C 3 2 1 0 0 0.. and temperature at 27 °C ..6 × 10 ≈ 26mV (2. VT=26*10^(−3).. Thus. and T in (2. axis([0 1 0 0. k . Voltage−current characteristics of a forward−biased junction diode.1 0.. and T is the absolute temperature in degrees Kelvin.001: 1...65 volt or greater.13. xlabel('Diode voltage vD. the current through the diode is i D ≈ 0. grid 5 x 10 -3 iD-vD characteristics for a forward-biased junction diode n=1 4 Diode current iD. amps').3) – 19 = kT ⁄ q = 1.12 shows that in a junction diode made with silicon and an impurity.1) into one variable V T known as thermal voltage where V T = kT ⁄ q (2.3 0. o T = 273 + temperature in C .7 Diode voltage vD. volts 0./(n.9 1 Figure 2.*VT))−1).5 0. It is convenient to combine q .iD).The Junction Diode k = 1. iD=iR.*(exp(vD..

and 3 a tetrode which has three junctions).14. The reverse biased region of a junction diode Commercially available diodes are provided with a given rating (volts. If this rating is exceeded. and if these ratings are exceeded. for example. The maximum amount of average current that can be permitted to flow in the forward direction is referred to as the maximum average forward current and it is specified at a special temperature. There are many types of diodes varying in size from the size of a pinhead used in subminiature circuitry. the operating temperature is above that stated for the ratings. The maximum current permitted to flow in the forward direction in the form of nonrecurring pulses is referred to as the maximum surge current. 1N4148 is a semiconductor diode and 2N3904 is a transistor. structure breakdown can occur. The N side of a typical junction diode has a black band as shown in Figure 2. Zener diodes are discussed on the next section. The maximum reverse−bias voltage that may be applied to a diode without causing junction breakdown is referred to as the Peak Reverse Voltage (PRV) and it is the most important rating. Current should not equal this value for more than a few milliseconds. i VZ Avalanche Region 0 v Figure 2. The voltage−current characteristics of a reverse biased junction diode are shown in Figure 2. 2−8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. A typical diode is identified as XNYYYY where X denotes the number of semiconductor junctions (1 for diodes. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and YYYY is an identification number. N identifies the device as a semiconductor. For instance. the ratings must be decreased. to large 250−ampere diodes used in high−power circuits. usually 25 °C .13. The maximum peak current that can be permitted to flow in the forward direction in the form of recurring pulses is referred to as the peak forward current. 2 for transistors.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes and if the applied voltage exceeds a certain value the diode will reach its avalanche or Zener region. If. the diode will burn−out in either the forward−biased or the reverse−biased direction.13 where V Z is referred to as the Zener diode voltage. watts) by the manufacturer. All of the above ratings are subject to change with temperature variations. We will discuss transistors in Chapter 3.

16. Diodes in DC Circuits In the circuit of Figure 2. We wish to find the voltage v D across the diode and the current i D through this diode using a graphical solution. If a circuit contains only one non−linear device. The procedure is illustrated with the following example.5 – V D = 1.Graphical Analysis of Circuits with Non−Linear Devices A Symbol B A Orientation B Figure 2. we can analyze the circuit using a graphical solution. so current flows. we will see later that for small signals (voltages or currents) these circuits can be represented by linear equivalent circuit models. refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications. However.14. Then. Diode symbol and orientation Diodes are used in various applications where it is desired to have electric current flow in one direction but to be blocked in the opposite direction as shown in Figure 2.5 – 0. we can apply Thevenin’s theorem to reduce the circuit to a Thevenin equivalent in series with the non−linear element. 2. VD R 1. Example 2. and thus V out = 1. ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0.15(b) the diode is reverse−biased. and all the other devices are linear.15(a) the diode is forward − biased.8 V . no current flows. and thus V out = 0 . * For a thorough discussion on Thevenin’s equivalent circuits.5 V ID = 0 V out = 0 R ( a ) Forward – biased diode ( b ) Reverse – biased diode Figure 2. the i – v characteristics of the diode D are shown in Figure 2. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. In the circuit of Figure 2.17 where V TH and R TH represent the Thevenin* equivalent voltage and resistance respectively of another circuit that has been reduced to its Thevenin equivalent.3 Graphical Analysis of Circuits with Non−Linear Devices As we’ve seen the junction diode i – v characteristics are non−linear and thus we cannot derive the voltage−current relationships with Ohm’s law. such as a diode.5 V ID V out 1.15. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−9 .15.7 = 0.1 For the circuit of Figure 2.

16.5) We observe that (2. amps T=27 deg C 3 2 1 0 0 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.1 0. Voltage−current characteristics of the diode of Example 2. Circuit for Example 2. by KVL vR + vD = 1 V Ri D = – v D + 1 1 1 i D = – --. We obtain the straight line shown in Figure 2.18 which is plotted on the same graph as the given diode i – v characteristics.5 0.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes R TH V TH + − 1V 1 KΩ + D vD − iD Figure 2.1 5 x 10 -3 iD-vD characteristics for a forward-biased junction diode n=1 4 Diode current iD. This line is referred to as a load line. 2−10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. then i D = 0 .7 Diode voltage vD. Then. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .8 0.5) is an equation of a straight line and two points of this straight line can be obtained by first letting v D = 0 . volts 0.17.v D + --R R (2.9 1 Figure 2.1 Solution: The current i D through the diode is also the current through the resistor.2 0.

32 mA = 0.Graphical Analysis of Circuits with Non−Linear Devices 1 0.3) as iD + Ir = Ir e ( v D ⁄ nV T ) and since i D » I r .6) or iD ( v ⁄ nV ) ---. the above relation reduces to iD = Ir e ( v D ⁄ nV T ) (2.1 0.1 The intersection of the non−linear curve and the load line yields the voltage and the current of the diode where we find that v D ≈ 0. Quite often.9 0.32 + 0. we want to find the voltage when the current is known. To do that we rewrite (2.18.6 0. i R = 0.4 0. Then.= e D T Ir Taking the natural logarithm of both sides we obtain Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.8 0. Therefore.32 mA also.32 mA .32 V .68 = 1 V The relation of (2.6 0.5 0. by KVL v R + v D = 0.7 0. amps 0. volts 0.3 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−11 .68V and i D ≈ 0.2 0.4 0.3) gives us the current when the voltage is known.8 Diode current iD. Check: Since this is a series circuit. the voltage drop v R across the resistor is v R = 1 KΩ × 0.1 0 0 0.3 0. Curves for determining voltage and current in the diode of Example 2.7 Diode voltage vD.5 0.9 1 x 10 -3 iD-vD characteristics for a forward-biased junction diode Figure 2.2 0.

= e D2 D1 V D1 ⁄ nV T I D1 I e r Taking the natural log of both sides we obtain 2−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= -----------------------------.8) Example 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .4343 log 10 e and thus (2.= 2.3) iD = Ir [ e ( v D ⁄ nV T ) – 1] iD + Ir = Ir e ( v D ⁄ nV T ) and since i D » I r iD ≈ Ir e ( v D ⁄ nV T ) Let and By division we obtain I D1 ≈ I r e I D2 ≈ I r e V ⁄ nV V D1 ⁄ nV T V D2 ⁄ nV T D2 T I D2 I r e ( V – V ) ⁄ nV T ------.7) Recalling that we obtain log b x log ax = ------------log ba log 10 ( i D ⁄ I r ) log 10 ( i D ⁄ I r ) ln ( i D ⁄ I r ) = log e( i D ⁄ I r ) = -----------------------------.3nV T log 10 ( i D ⁄ I r ) (2.3 log 10 ( i D ⁄ I r ) 0.7) may also be written as v D = 2.≈ ----------------------. Solution: From (2.2 Derive an expression for the voltage change Δv = V 2 – V 1 corresponding to a current change Δi = I 2 – I 1 .Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes iD v D ⁄ nV T = ln ---Ir v D = nV T ln ( i D ⁄ I r ) (2.

0.002 0.9) Example 2.006 0.( V D2 – V D1 ) nV T I D1 Δv = V D2 – V D1 = nV T ln ( I D2 ⁄ I D1 ) = 2.20. = 10 – 14 = 10 – 14 ( 1 + 0. Straight lines for forward−biased diode characteristics approximations Using the approximation with the straight lines shown in Figure 2.5 0.1 0.19.3nV T log 10 ( I D2 ⁄ I D1 ) (2. amps 0. volts 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−13 .Piecewise Linear Approximations I D2 ( V – V ) ⁄ nV T 1 ln ------.3 × 10 – 13 A This represents about 97% increase in reverse current when the temperature rises from 27 °C to 52 °C .001 0 0 0.4 Piecewise Linear Approximations The analysis of electronic circuits that contain diodes is greatly simplified with the use of diode models where we approximate the diode forward−biased characteristics with two straight lines as shown in Figure 2.004 0.6 0.3 Experiments have shown that the reverse current I r increases by about 15% per 1 °C rise. we can now represent a typical junction diode with the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 2.2 0.7 Diode voltage vD.8 0.9 1 Slope=1/rD iD-vD characteristics for a forward-biased junction diode Figure 2.19.15 ) ( 52 – 27 )°C ( 1.01 0. Compute I r at 52 °C .005 0. 2.15 ) 25 ≈ 3. and it is known that for a certain diode I r = 10 Solution: Ir 52 °C – 14 A at 27 °C .007 0.= ln ( e D2 D1 ) = --------.4 0.009 0.003 0. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.19.008 Diode current iD.3 0.

For convenience.65 V slope = 1 ⁄ r D Figure 2.19 is represented by the resistance r D shown in Figure 2.7 V with the applied voltages.7 V –3 A⁄V v (V) (a) (b) Figure 2. the diode represents an ideal diode whose i – v characteristics are shown in Figure 2. 2−14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.20(b). and the reciprocal of the slope of the line in Figure 2.20(b). the horizontal solid line in Figure 2.22(b). rD VD 0V 0. Also. these representations are also illustrated in Figure 2. Representation of a practical diode by its piecewise linear equivalent In Figure 2. Circuit and piecewise linear i – v characteristics for Example 2.23 we have replaced the diodes by their piecewise linear equivalents and have combined the two parallel resistors. i ( ma ) 2 KΩ 1V 2V 3V 2 KΩ V out slope = 50 × 10 0.21. The components of a practical junction diode Example 2. Find the voltage V out .4 In the circuit of Figure 2.4 Solution: In Figure 2.20.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes VD + − ID ( b ) Piecewise linear equivalent A + rD B ID A B ( a ) Practical diode Figure 2. and r D = 1 ⁄ slope = 50 × 10 –3 A ⁄ V = 20 Ω .20(b).22. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .21.22(a) the diodes are identical and the piecewise linear i – v characteristics are shown in Figure 2. for each branch we have combined the diode voltage V D = 0.21.19 represents the small voltage source V D in Figure 2.

29 ≈ 1.0 are biased to Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.3 V I3 I4 1 KΩ V out Figure 2.3 – 1.3 – 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−15 .3 mA I1 + I2 + I3 ≠ I4 We see that the current I 1 cannot be negative.3 – 1. usually with 1.3 ≈ 1.3 V I2 20 Ω 2.3 – V out 1.4 Let us follow the procedure below to find out if we can arrive to a valid answer. we must conclude that only the diode on the right side conducts and by the voltage division expression V out = ----------------------. diodes.3 – V out -----------------------.+ -----------------------. By Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL) I1 + I2 + I3 = I4 V out 0.23. it cannot flow on the opposite direction of the one shown.3 V I 1 ≈ ( 0.8 ≤ n ≤ 2.+ ----------------------.3 – V out 2.5 Low Frequency AC Circuits with Junction Diodes When used with AC circuits of low frequencies. Therefore.3 ) ⁄ 20 ≈ – 50 mA I 2 ≈ ( 1.3 V 1000 20 + 1000 2.3 ) ⁄ 20 ≈ 50 mA I 4 = 1. Also.= 0 1000 151 V out = 195 Check: V out = 195 ⁄ 151 = 1.3 ⁄ 1000 = 1. that is. the current I 2 is zero.× 1.3 V 20 Ω 1.= ----------20 20 1000 20 15 – 50V out + 65 – 50V out + 115 – 50V out – V out ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Piecewise linear equivalent circuit for Example 2.Low Frequency AC Circuits with Junction Diodes I1 20 Ω 0.3 ) ⁄ 20 ≈ 0 I 3 = ( 2.

24 for a junction diode with n = 2 . Junction diode biased at point Q and changes in i D corresponding to changes in v D Figure 2.65 ≤ v D ≤ 0.24. iD ( t ) Q t vD ( t ) t Figure 2.8 V .Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes operate at some point in the neighborhood of the relatively linear region of the i – v characteristics where 0. The current I D produced by the bias DC voltage V D is ID = Ir e V D ⁄ nV T (2.24 shows how changes in v D ( t ) result in changes in i D ( t ) .11) 2−16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. A bias point denoted as Q whose coordinates are Q ( V D. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . We can derive an expression that relates v D ( t ) and i D ( t ) in a junction diode. I D ) is shown in Figure 2.10) and with an AC voltage v D ( t ) superimposed the sum v T ( t ) of the DC and AC voltages is vT ( t ) = VD + vD ( t ) (2.

25.14) is denoted as g D and is referred to as incremental conductance.12) using the relation f (0) n f ′′ ( 0 ) 2 f ( x ) = f ( 0 ) + f ′ ( 0 )x + ------------. and it is known that n = 2 . * For a detailed discussion on Taylor and Maclaurin’s series refer to Numerical Analysis Using MATLAB and Excel.1 we can use Maclaurin’s series* expansion on (2.5 In the circuit of Figure 2. R 5mV AC 5 KΩ v out 5V DC Figure 2.7 V .x n! 2! (n) (2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−17 .Low Frequency AC Circuits with Junction Diodes The total diode current i T ( t ) = I D + i D ( t ) corresponding to the total voltage in (2.14) We must remember that the approximation in (2.v D ( t ) nV T (2.5 Solution: Replacing the diode with the piecewise linear equivalent we obtain the circuit of Figure 2. The ratio I D ⁄ nV T in (2. ISBN 978−1−934404−03−4. Example 2.11) is iT ( t ) = ID + iD ( t ) = Ir e ( V D + v D ) ⁄ nV T = Ir e V D ⁄ nV T v D ⁄ nV T e and in analogy with (2.14) is a small−signal approximation and should be used only when v D ⁄ nVT ≤ 0. the current through the diode is I D = 1 mA when V D = 0.1 .10) iD ( t ) = ID e v D ⁄ nV T (2.13) and the first two terms of the series yield ID i D ( t ) ≈ I D + --------. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.25.26. Its reciprocal nV T ⁄ I D is denoted as r D is called incremental resistance. Circuit for Example 2. Find the DC voltage V out and the AC voltage v out at 27 °C where V T = 26 mV .x + … + ---------------.12) If v D ⁄ nV T ≤ 0.

that is.86 × 10 Then. V D actual = 0. Then.6 VDC With the AC voltage source acting alone the value of the incremental resistance r D is the reciprocal of (2. V out = 0. we consider the AC voltage source acting alone by suppressing (shorting out) the DC voltage source to find v out . The total output voltage will be the sum of these two. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .86 × 0.5 v T out = V out + v out = 0.5 We apply the superposition principle* for this example.86mA 3 5 × 10 and since we are told that I D v = 0.7V = 1mA .7 = 0.26.= 60 μVAC R + rD 5000 + 60. We fist consider the DC voltage source acting alone. it is also applicable for this example since it is applied to a piecewise linear equivalent circuit.14) and thus –3 nV T 2 × 26 × 10 r D = --------.⋅ 5mV = -----------------------------------. v T out = V out + v out .7 I D = ---------------. by suppressing (shorting out) the AC voltage source to find V out . the superposition principle applies only to linear circuits. by linear interpolation.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes R 5mV AC 5 KΩ 5V DC iD rD v T out Figure 2.= ------------------------------. With the DC voltage source acting alone and with the assumption that r D « 5 KΩ .6 V Therefore.= 0.5 Ω –3 ID 0. Therefore –3 rD 60.5 × 5 × 10 v D peak = -------------. The piecewise linear equivalent of the circuit in Example 2. 2−18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. However.6 VDC + 60 μVAC * Generally. the current I D is 5 – 0.= 60.

28 displays the half−rectification waveform shown in Figure 2. Figure 2.5 π 2π R v in iD v out 1 0 .5 vD 1 .5 1 0.27(c) can be simulated* with the Saturation block in the model in Figure 2. and for a complete coverage refer to Introduction to Simulink with Engineering Applications.5 π 2π (a) (b) (c) Figure 2. The diode is reverse − biased during the negative half− cycle from π to 2π so no current flows.27(b). if the maximum value of v in is 10 V volts.3 V .29. 1.28. * This and other simple Simulink models presented in this text could be parts of a large model. and thus v out = 0 V .Junction Diode Applications in AC Circuits 2.27. the diode is forward−biased during the positive half−cycle from 0 to π of the input voltage v in and so current flows through the diode and resistor where it develops an output voltage drop v out = v in – v D .5 0 ‐0. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Half−wave rectifier circuit In the half−wave rectifier circuit of Figure 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−19 . the maximum value of v out will be v out = 10 – 0. Simulink model for creating half−rectification waveform with a saturation block The Scope block in Figure 2.5 0 ‐0 . For a brief introduction to Simulink please refer to Appendix B in this text.5 ‐1 ‐1. The circuit of Figure 2.7 = 9. Second Edition.27 is a half−wave rectifier. ISBN 978−1−934404−09−6.28.6 Junction Diode Applications in AC Circuits Diodes are also used in AC circuits where it is desired to convert AC voltages to DC voltages. For instance. The waveform in Figure 2.

30. The input is an AC voltage with a value of 63 volts peak−to−peak.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes Figure 2. Typical voltmeter circuit Because the available input voltage is AC and we want to read DC (average) values. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . a voltmeter is a modified milliammeter where an external resistor R V is connected in series with the milliammeter as shown in Figure 2. we insert a junction diode is series as shown in Figure 2. Half−rectification waveform displayed by the Scope block in Figure 2. ISBN 978− 0−9709511−2−0. and we need to find the value of R V so that the * For a detailed discussion on electronic instruments refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications. and an external resistor R whose value must be found.6 Design a DC voltmeter* that will have a 10 volt full−scale using a milliammeter with 1 milliampere full−scale and internal resistance 20 Ω .30 where I = current through circuit R M = internal resis tan ce of milliameter R V = external resistor in series with RM V M = voltmeter full scale reading IM + mA RM VM RV − RV = Voltmeter internal resistance VM= Voltmeter range Figure 2. 2−20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.28 Example 2.29. a junction diode.31. Assume that the diode is ideal. Solution: Typically.

π -----------------I p sin t dt sin t dt π 20 + R V 0 Area .= 10 ( 20 + R V )π 31.= 31.31.= ----------------------------------------.× 10 π R V = 10 KΩ Of course. and Figure 2. we can label our voltmeter for any value such as 50 V .= -----------------20 + R V RM + RV and 31.5 3 20 + R V = --------. and a load resistor. ISBN 978−0− 9709511−5−1.5 --------------------------.5 0 --------------------------------I ave = ---------------Period 2π 2π ( 20 + R V )2π ( 20 + R V )π ∫ 2π ∫ For full−scale reading we want I ave = 1 mA . 100 V . and so on and can use any AC waveform with different peak−to−peak values. * For a detailed discussion on transformers. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.32(a) shows a half−wave rectifier circuit consisting of a transformer.32(b) shown the waveforms of the input voltage v in and the load voltage v load . Therefore. Figure 2. refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications.* a junction diode.= ---------------------------. it follows that Vp – p ⁄ 2 31.5 ( – cos t ) 0 = --------------------------31.Junction Diode Applications in AC Circuits meter will read 1 mA full scale but it is now being labeled as 10 V DC. –3 31. Voltmeter for Example 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−21 . IM mA + RM 20 Ω VM RV = ? 1 mA − Figure 2.6 Since the diode does not conduct during the negative half cycle.5 I peak = I p = --------------------.5 .

2−22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the maximum current that the diode will allow without being damaged. then PIV = V p but in practice we must use diodes whose reverse−biased breakdown voltages 70% or greater than the value of V p . Waveforms for the derivation of conduction angle θ for a half−wave rectifier * These waveforms can be created in a Simulink model with a Sine Wave block.33.32(b).33* as follows. We derive the angle by which the solid curve lags the dotted curve with reference to Figure 2.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes + + v in − (a) vD + vs − − iD + v load − v in v load (b) R load Figure 2. As shown in Figure 2. a Dead Zone block. and displayed in a Scope block. an Abs block. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . If the applied voltage is v S = V p sin ωt . The Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) that the diode can withstand without reaching the reverse− biased breakdown region. Δ v = v in – v out θ Figure 2. Half−wave rectifier circuit and input and output waveforms When using diodes in rectifier circuits we must calculate: a.7 V .32. and b. the diode begins conducting sometime after the input voltage shown by the dotted curve rises to about 0.

– Δv π 2 (2.[ 2V p cos θ – ( π – 2θ )Δv ] 2π 2π Generally.= ----2π Period ∫θ (π – θ) 1 ( V p sin φ – Δv ) dφ = ----.17) Figure 2. v in = V p sin x .[ – V p cos ( π – θ ) – Δv ( π – θ ) + V p cos θ + Δvθ ] = ----.33 we observe that conduction begins at Δ v = v in – v out corresponding to angle θ .36. Full−wave rectifier circuit Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the angle θ is small and thus cos θ ≈ 1 and ( π – 2θ ) ≈ π .-----V out ( ave ) ≈ ----.34 shows a full−wave bridge rectifier circuit with input the sinusoid v in ( t ) = A sin ωt as shown in Figure 2.35.16) ( π – θ ) – θ = ( π – 2θ ) We can also find the average value of the waveform of v out .( – V p cos φ – Δvφ ) 2π π–θ φ=θ 11V out ( ave ) = ----.34. for simplicity. that is. and at x = θ . A + v in ( t ) − D C − R + B + v out ( t ) − Figure 2.15) We also observe that the conduction terminates at the angle ( π – θ ) and therefore the entire conduction angle is (2.Junction Diode Applications in AC Circuits From Figure 2. Therefore. v in = Δ v and thus Δ v = V p sin θ or θ = sin –1Δ v ⁄ V p (2. The input waveform is a sinusoid of the form v in = V p sin ωt or. the last relation above reduces to Vp . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−23 . 1 Area V out ( ave ) = ---------------. We begin with the definition of the average value. and the output of that circuit is v out ( t ) = A sin ωt as shown in Figure 2.

Also. Accordingly. Input waveform for the circuit in Figure 2.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes A v in 0 π 0 2π –A Figure 2. and through Point D returns to the negative terminal of the voltage source. It is to be noted that the difference in amplitude between v in and v out is denoted as 2 Δ v because in a full−wave bridge rectifier circuit there are two diodes in the conduction path instead of one as shown in Figure 2.34 A v out π 2π 0 0 Figure 2.34 FF 2−24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and thus v out is the same for both half−cycles as shown in the output waveform of Figure 2.36.34 we see that during the positive half cycle conventional current flows from the voltage source to Point A. v out lags v in by the angle θ = sin ( 2 Δ v ⁄ v in ) .34 From Figure 2. Input and output waveforms for the full−wave bridge rectifier of Figure 2. then to Point B. We observe that during both the positive and negative half−cycles the current enters the right terminal of the resistor.37. During the negative half cycle the lower terminal of the voltage source becomes the positive terminal.35. 2 Δ v = v in – v out θ 2θ Figure 2.37 shows the input and output waveforms of the full−wave bridge rectifier on the same graph. Figure 2. it goes through the resistor from Point B to Point C. Output waveform for the circuit of Figure 2. and through Point A returns to the upper (now negative) terminal of the voltage source. the output is zero for an angle 2θ = 2 sin ( 2 Δ v ⁄ v in ) centered –1 –1 around the zero crossing points. it goes through the resistor from Point B to Point C.36. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . current flows from Point D to Point B.33 for the half−wave rectifier.

Figure 2.40. Full−rectification waveform displayed by the Scope block in Figure 2.38(b) shows the input and output waveforms.Junction Diode Applications in AC Circuits Figure 2. Full−wave rectifier with centered tapped secondary winding The waveform in Figure 2. vD + + + vin − + − − + − − (b) vS − (a) v load vin v load vin v D + Figure 2.39.39 The output voltages v out from the half and full wave rectifiers are often called pulsating DC voltages.39 displays the half−rectification waveform shown in Figure 2.39. These voltages can be smoothed−out with the use of electric filters as illustrated with the following example.40. Figure 2.38.38(a) shows a full−wave rectifier with a center−tapped transformer secondary winding and Figure 2. Simulink model for creating full−rectification waveform with an Abs block The Scope block in Figure 2.36 can be simulated with the Saturation block in the model in Figure 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−25 . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

7 It is shown* in Fourier Analysis textbooks that the trigonometric Fourier series for the waveform of a full−wave rectifier with even symmetry is given by ⎫ 4A ⎧ cos 2ωt cos 4ωt v R ( t ) = 2A – -----. ISBN 978−1− 934404−11−9 2−26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.42.+ ----------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Phasor equivalent circuit for Example 2.⎨ ----------------.7 Compute and sketch the voltage v load assuming that v in ( t ) = 120 V RMS operating at the fundamental frequency f = 60 Hz . + V in − − R Z1 + + VR − j5ω n 10 ⁄ j ω n 5 + Z2 V load 2 × 10 3 − Figure 2.7 For simplicity.42 where the inductive reactance is X L = jω n L and the capacitive reactance is X C = 1 ⁄ jω n C . + v in ( t ) − − R L + + vR ( t ) − 5H + C R load 10 μF v load 2 KΩ − Figure 2.+ … ⎬ -----π ⎩ 3 π 15 ⎭ (2. we let Z 1 = j5ω n * Please refer to Chapter 7 of Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling. Circuit for Example 2. Solution: We replace the given circuit by its phasor equivalent as shown in Figure 2.41 where the inductor and capacitor form a filter to smooth out the pulsating DC.41.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes Example 2.18) where A is the amplitude and this waveform appears across the resistor R of the full−wave rectifier in Figure 2.

angle(bracket1)*180/pi Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.V R 5 3 8 ( j5ω n ) ( 10 + 2 × 10 × jω n ) + ( 2 × 10 ) 8 8 5 3 (2. 2.+ ----------------.⎨ ----------------.Junction Diode Applications in AC Circuits and 8 2 × 10 × 10 ⁄ j ω n 2 × 10 Z 2 = -------------------------------------------. We were given that ⎫ 2A 4A ⎧ cos 2ωt cos 4ωt v R ( t ) = -----.20) and so for n = 0 .21) For n = 2 .V R 5 3 8 ( j5 × 754 ) ( 10 + 2 × 10 × j754 ) + ( 2 × 10 ) n=2 8 We will use MATLAB to find the magnitude and phase angle of the bracketed expression above. from (2. 2ω = 2 × 2πf = 4 × π × 60 = 754 r ⁄ s and from (2.V R Z1 + Z2 n=2 ( 2 × 10 ) = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. V load n=0 2A = V R = -----π (2.19) V load Z2 = ----------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−27 .. v R ( t ) n = 0 = 2A -----π and since for this DC case the inductor is just a short and the capacitor an open. and 4 and using superposition we will add these three terms.V R 8 5 3 Z1 + Z2 j5ω n + ( 2 × 10 ) ⁄ ( 10 + 2 × 10 × jω n ) ( 2 × 10 ) = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.20) -----v R ( t ) n = 2 = – 4A cos 754t 3π and in the phasor ( jω ) domain VR n=2 4A = – -----.= ---------------------------------------------3 5 5 3 2 × 10 + 10 ⁄ j ω n 10 + 2 × 10 × jω n 3 5 By the voltage division expression Z2 ( 2 × 10 ) ⁄ ( 10 + 2 × 10 × jω n ) V load = ----------------. abs(bracket1)..V R = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. bracket1=(2*10^8)/((j*5*754)*(10^5+2*10^3*j*754)+2*10^8).∠0° 3π Then..+ … ⎬ π ⎩ 3 15 π ⎭ (2.– -----.19) We will now compute the components of V load for n = 0.

V load Z2 = ----------------.19) V load Z2 = ----------------.20) 4A v R ( t ) n = 4 = – -------.0841 Therefore.1° ) (2.V R Z1 + Z2 n=4 4A = ( 0.V R Z1 + Z2 n=4 ( 2 × 10 ) = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.1° ⎝ 3π ⎠ (2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . V load Z2 = ----------------.0364 ans = -176. 508 r ⁄ s and from (2.V R Z1 + Z2 n=2 4A = ( 0.0089 ans = -178.00076A ∠– 178.V R 5 3 8 ( j5 × 1508 ) ( 10 + 2 × 10 × j1508 ) + ( 2 × 10 ) n=4 8 We will again use MATLAB to find the magnitude and phase angle of the bracketed expression above.1° ) × ⎛ – -------. (2.1° ⎝ 15π ⎠ (2. angle(bracket2)*180/pi ans = 0..089 ∠– 178.. 4ω = 4 × 2πf = 8 × π × 60 = 1.∠0°⎞ = – 0.∠0°⎞ = – 0.22) n=2 For n = 4 .24) and in the time domain 2−28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. from (2. bracket2=(2*10^8)/((j*5*1508)*(10^5+2*10^3*j*1508)+2*10^8).0682 Therefore.23) n=4 Combining (2.21).cos 1508t 15π and in the phasor ( jω ) domain VR n=4 4A = – -------.00076 ∠– 178.22).0364 ∠– 176.1° – 0.0154A ∠– 176. and (2. abs(bracket2).∠0° 15π Then..23) we obtain V load = V load + V load + V load n=0 n=2 n=4 = A ( 2 ⁄ π – 0.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes ans = 0.0154 ∠– 176.1° ) × ⎛ – -----.

0154 cos ( 2ωt – 176.*t−178.Junction Diode Applications in AC Circuits v load ( t ) = A ( 2 ⁄ π – 0.*377. axis([0 2000 0 20]).1 ) ) (2.*377. vL=20.0154)).vL). The value A = 20 must be entered at the MATLAB command prompt...*pi..00076 cos ( 4ωt – 178.1.7').5 V about the average (DC) value./180)). hold on.0154. plot(t.*cos(4. title('Filtered output voltage for Example 2. ylabel('Load voltage (vL)')../pi−0. Voltage across the 2 KΩ resistor in Figure 2.43 and we observe that the ripple is approximately ± 0. grid The plot is shown in Figure 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−29 . plot(t.00076. −0.*(2.*pi. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.25) This is the filtered output voltage across the 2 KΩ resistor.44..43 can be simulated with the Simulink model in Figure 2.. Let us plot (2.1° ) – 0.7 Load voltage (vL) 15 10 5 0 0 500 1000 Time (sec) 1500 2000 Figure 2./180).(40/pi−0.25) using MATLAB with A = 20 and ω = 377 .*t−176...43. 20 Filtered output voltage for Example 2.42 The waveform in Figure 2. t=0: 1: 2000.1. xlabel('Time (sec)').*cos(2. axis([0 2000 0 20]).

46(a) is referred to as peak rectifier. Simulink model for the circuit in Figure 2.7 Peak Rectifier Circuits The circuit of Figure 2.46(b) shows the input v in and output v out waveforms and we observe that the value of v out is approximately equal to the peak of the input sinewave v in . We have assumed that the diode is ideal and thus as v in is applied and reaches its positive peak value. However.44 2. the diode becomes reverse−biased and the voltage across the capacitor remains constant since there is no path to discharge. Figure 2.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes Figure 2. when v in starts decreasing.45. 2−30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the voltage v out across the capacitor assumes the same value.42 Figure 2.44. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Full−rectification waveform displayed by the Scope block in Figure 2.

V pp ( ripple ) 2 (2.47(b) se see that peak−to−peak ripple voltage V pp ( ripple ) can be made sufficiently small by choosing the time constant τ = RC much larger that the period T .28) * Please refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications. from Figure 2. Peak rectifier circuit The peak rectifier circuit shown in Figure 2.27) – ( t ⁄ RC ) or v out = V p – V pp ( ripple ) = V p e (2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−31 . the voltage across the resistor−capacitor combination will be as shown in Figure 2. we need to find an expression for V pp ( ripple ) when the diode does not conduct. Then. Also.47(b). RC » T .47(b) we see that the average output voltage V out ( ave ) when the diode conducts is 1 V out ( ave ) = V p – -.26) Next. We recall from basic circuit theory* that in an simple RC circuit the capacitor voltage v C discharges as the decaying exponential v C = v out = V p e – ( t ⁄ RC ) (2.47(a). ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0. V pp ( ripple ) iD + v in (a) − R v out iR iC + C − v in = V p sin ωt t v out T ( period ) (b) Figure 2. Peak rectifier used as an AC to DC converter From the waveforms of Figure 2.46.47. assuming that the diode is ideal and that the time constant τ = RC is much greater than the discharge interval. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Peak Rectifier Circuits + v out v in (b) v in (a) v − out Figure 2. that is.46(a) will behave like an AC to DC converter if we add a resistor across the capacitor as shown in Figure 2.

The input−output characteristics of clipper circuits are typically those of the forward−biased and reverse−biased diode characteristics except that the output is clipped to a a certain level.8 Clipper Circuits Clipper (or limiter) circuits consist of diodes.48 shows a clipper circuit and its input−output characteristics where the diode does not conduct for v in < 0.48.28) by recalling that e –x x x = 1 – x + ---.7 V . Therefore.⎞ ⎞ ⎝ ⎝ RC ⎠ ⎠ = Vp ( 1 – e – ( t ⁄ RC ) or V pp ( ripple ) = V p ------RC T (2.7 V when v in ≥ 0.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes and since we want RC » T . The diode conducts for v in ≥ 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .6 V and so v out = v in .29) and from (2. we can simplify (2. Figure 2.7 V .– ---. resistors.49 shows a clipper circuit and its input−output characteristics where the diode does not conduct for v in > – 0. Circuit where v out = v in when diode does not conduct and v out ≈ 0.6 V but it conducts for v in ≤ 0.7 V and thus v out ≈ 0. we must make RC » T 2.7 V v out R + vin − + v − out vin Figure 2. we can express (2.+ … 2! 3! e –x 2 3 and for small x . Clipper circuits are used in applications where it is necessary to limit the input to another circuit so that the latter would not be damaged.7 V Figure 2.28) as V pp ( ripple ) = V p – V p e – ( t ⁄ RC ) ≈1–x T ) = V p ⎛ 1 – 1 – ⎛ – ------. and sometimes DC sources to clip or limit the output to a certain level.29) we observe that for V pp ( ripple ) to be small.7 V and thus v out ≈ – 0. 0. 2−32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

7 V vin Figure 2.49. all three resistors have the same value.7 V outside this interval Occasionally.52.48 and 2. VA = V B with the polarities shown.50. This circuit is effectively a combination of the clipper circuits shown in Figures 2. VA + 0. Circuit where v out = v in if diode does not conduct and v out ≈ VA + 0.Clipper Circuits R v out + v out − − – 0. This circuit is often referred to as a hard limiter.7 ≤ v in ≤ 0. it is desirable to raise the limit level to a value other than v out ≈ ± 0.7 V VA R v out − − + v in − VA + + − v out − v in Figure 2. Outside this interval. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−33 . one or the other diode conducts.49 and both diodes are not conducting when – 0.8 In the circuit of Figure 2. and r D « R .50 shows a clipper circuit with two diodes in parallel with opposite polarities.7 V if v in ≤ – 0. Derive expressions for and sketch the v out – v in characteristics. the diodes are identical with v D = 0.51. R 0.7 V if it conducts Example 2. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.51.7 V − v out + vin − + v out − − – 0.7 V + vin − vin Figure 2.7 V .7 and v out ≈ ± 0. Circuit where v out = v in when – 0.7 V Figure 2. This can be accomplished by placing a DC source in series with the diode as shown in Figure 2. Circuit where v out = v in if diode does not conduct and v out ≈ – 0.7 .7 ≤ v in ≤ 0.7 and for this interval v out = v in .

Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes
R

+ v in −

+
D1 VA

+
R

D2 VB

− v + out
R

I D1

I D2

Figure 2.52. Circuit for Example 2.8

Solution: Diode D 1 conducts when v in > VA and under this condition diode D 2 does not conduct. Then,
v in – ( VA + v D ) v in – VA – 0.7 I D1 = ------------------------------------ = -------------------------------R+R 2R

(2.30)

and
( v in – VA – 0.7 ) v out1 = 0.7 + VA + RI D1 = 0.7 + VA + R ------------------------------------- = 0.5 ( v in + VA + 0.7 ) 2R

(2.31)

Diode D 2 conducts when v in < – V B and under this condition diode D 1 does not conduct. Then, in accordance with the passive sign convention* we obtain
v in – ( V B – v D ) v in – V B + 0.7 I D2 = – ------------------------------------ = – --------------------------------R+R 2R

(2.32)

and
v in – V B + 0.7 v out2 = – 0.7 – V B – R I D1 = – 0.7 – V B – R ⎛ – --------------------------------- ⎞ = 0.5 ( v in – V B – 0.7 ) ⎝ ⎠ 2R

(2.33)

For range – V B < v in < V A , v out = v in , and the v out – v in characteristics are shown in Figure 2.53.
v out v out1 − v in − – v out2 Figure 2.53. The v out – v in characteristics for the circuit of Example 2.8 * Please refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications, ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0.

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Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

DC Restorer Circuits 2.9 DC Restorer Circuits
A DC restorer (or clamped capacitor) is a circuit that can restore a DC voltage to a desired DC level. The circuit of Figure 2.54 is a DC restorer and its operation can be best illustrated with the following example. Example 2.9 In the circuit of Figure 2.54, the input v in is as shown in Figure 2.55. Compute and sketch the waveform for the output v out .
− + −
C

+ iD

+ v out −

v in

Figure 2.54. DC Restorer circuit
5

v in ( V )
t

–5

Figure 2.55. Input waveform for the circuit of Example 2.9

Solution: From the circuit of Figure 2.54 we observe that the diode conducts only when v in < 0 and thus the capacitor charges to the negative peak of the input which for this example is – 5 V , and the capacitor voltage is v C = 5 V with polarity as shown in Figure 2.54. We observe that there is no path for the capacitor to discharge and therefore v C = 5 V always. Since v out = v in + v C , when
v in = – 5 V , v out = – 5 + 5 = 0 and the output has shifted upwards to zero volts as shown in Figure 2.56. When the input voltage is positive, v in = 5 V , and v out = 5 + 5 = 10 V . The waveform

for the output voltage is as shown in Figure 2.56.

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Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes
10

v out ( V )

t

Figure 2.56. Output waveform for the circuit of Example 2.9

2.10 Voltage Doubler Circuits
The circuit of Figure 2.57 is referred to as a voltage doubler.
+ −
C1 D1

+ + D2 v D1 − C v out = – 2 v in
2

v in = V p sin ωt

Figure 2.57. A voltage doubler circuit

With reference to the circuits of Figures 2.46 and 2.54, we observe that the circuit of Figure 2.57 is a combination of a DC restorer circuit consisting of the capacitor C 1 and diode D 1 and a peak rectifier consisting of C 2 and diode D 2 . During the positive half−cycle of the input waveform diode D 1 conducts, the peak value V p of the input v in appears across the capacitor C 1 of and thus v D1 = 0 . During the negative half−cycle of the input waveform diode D 2 conducts, capacitor C 2 is being charged to a voltage which is the sum of v in and v C1 and thus the output voltage is v out = v in + v C1 = – V p sin ωt – V p sin ωt = – 2 V p sin ωt = – 2v in as shown in Figure 2.58.
v out
0

t

–Vp – 2V p Figure 2.58. Output waveform for the voltage doubler circuit of Figure 2.57

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Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

Diode Applications in Amplitude Modulation (AM) Detection Circuits
Voltage triplers and voltage quadruplers can also be formed by adding more diodes and capacitor to a voltage doubler.

2.11 Diode Applications in Amplitude Modulation (AM) Detection Circuits
Junction diodes are also used in AM radio signals to remove the lower envelope of a modulated signal. A typical AM Envelope Detector circuit is shown in Figure 2.59. It is beyond the scope of this text to describe the operation of this circuit; it is described in electronic communications systems books. Our intent is to show the application of the junction diode in such circuits.
+ v in −
C1 R1

C2 R2

+ v out −

Figure 2.59. Typical AM Envelope Detector circuit

The operation of an AM audio frequency signal is shown in Figure 2.60 where the magnitude of v m ( t ) is always less than V C ; hence the envelope of the modulated wave never drops to zero. The waveform of the envelope of the modulated signal is the same as the waveform of the modulating signal v m ( t ) . Thus if the information in the modulated carrier is to be preserved, the waveform of the envelope must be preserved. The information can be recovered by recovering the waveform of the envelope; the peak rectifier circuit is used for this purpose. The peak rectifier is also known as diode detector, and in this application it is frequently called an envelope detector. v m . The diode removes the lower envelope and the upper envelope. In the circuit of Figure 2.59 capacitor C 2 and resistor R 2 form a high−pass filter that removes the carrier frequency.
vm ( t )
Modulating signal Carrier Envelope

vC ( t )

t

t

Figure 2.60. Input and output signals for the circuit of Figure 2.59

2.12 Diode Applications in Frequency Modulation (FM) Detection Circuits
Figure 2.61 shows how junction diodes can be used in FM circuits. This circuit is known as the

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Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes
Foster−Seely discriminator and it is used to remove the carrier, which varies in accordance with the input audio frequency, and produce the audio frequency at its output.

Audio Frequency Frequency modulated carrier

Figure 2.61. Foster−Seely discriminator circuit

2.13 Zener Diodes
By special manufacturing processes the reverse voltage breakdown of a diode can be made almost vertical as shown on the i – v characteristics curve of Figure 2.62.
i
VZ 0

v

Figure 2.62. Zener diode operating region

These diodes are called Zener diodes and they are designed to operate in the breakdown region. The Zener diode is always connected as a reverse−biased diode and its voltage rating V Z and the maximum power it can absorb are given by the manufacturer. The Zener diode symbol is shown in Figure 2.63.
+ IZ −
VZ

Figure 2.63. Symbol for a Zener diode

Zener diodes from small voltage ratings of 5 volts to large voltage ratings of 250 volts are commercially available and we can calculate the maximum current that a Zener diode can withstand from its voltage and power ratings. For instance, a 2 watt, 25 volt Zener diode can withstand a maximum current of 80 milliamperes.

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Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

Zener Diodes
One important application of the Zener diode is in voltage regulation. A voltage regulator is a circuit or device that holds an output voltage constant during output load variations. Example 2.10 below illustrates how a Zener diode accomplishes this. Example 2.10 For the circuits (a) and (b) in Figure 2.64 it is required that the output voltage v out remains constant at 25 volts regardless of the value variations of the load resistor R L . Calculate the output voltage v out for both circuits and then show how a 25 volt Zener diode can be used with these circuits to keep the output voltage constant at 25 volts.
RS 20 KΩ VS R load1 v out1 − 40 V 20 KΩ − RS VS

+

+

+ −

20 KΩ R load2 40 V

+

(a) Figure 2.64. Circuits for Example 2.10

v out2 − 60 KΩ (b)

Solution: For the circuit of Figure 2.64(a) the output voltage v out1 is found by application of the voltage division expression. Thus,
20 KΩ load1 v out1 = --------------------------- VS = ------------------------------------- 40 V = 20 V 20 KΩ + 20 KΩ RS + R load1 R

Likewise, for the circuit of Figure 2.64(b) the output voltage v out2 is
60 KΩ L v out2 = --------------------------- VS = ------------------------------------- 40 V = 30 V 20 KΩ + 60 KΩ RS + R load2 R

These calculations show that as the load R load varies from 20 KΩ to 60 KΩ the output voltage varies from 20 volts to 30 volts and this variation indicates a poor voltage regulation. To improve the regulation we connect a 25 volt Zener diode in parallel with the load as shown in Figure 2.65 and the output voltages v out1 and v out2 will be the same, that is, 25 volts.

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Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes
RS VS RS

+

20 KΩ R load1 − 40 V 20 KΩ

+
IZ

+
V Z = 25 V VS

20 KΩ R load2 − 40 V 60 KΩ

+
IZ

V Z = 25 V

(a)

(b)

Figure 2.65. Circuits for Example 2.10 with Zener diodes to improve regulation

In Example 2.10 above we did not take into consideration the manufacturer’s specifications. Example 2.11 below is a more realistic example and shows that a Zener diode may or may not conduct depending on the value of the load resistor. The Zener diode model is very similar to the junction diode model and it is shown in Figure 2.66(a). Of course, the Zener diode is operating at a different region where V Z0 and r Z are as shown in Figure 2.66(b).
VZ0

i
0 Slope = 1 ⁄ r Z

v

+
VZ

IZ

rZ

+ − VZ0
VZ = VZ0 + rZ IZ

− (a)

(b)

Figure 2.66. The Zener diode model and the definitions of V Z0 and r Z

Thus, V Z0 is v −axis intercept of the straight line with slope 1 ⁄ r Z and r Z = Δv ⁄ Δi . Like the incremental resistance r D of a junction diode, the incremental resistance r Z of a Zener diode is typically about 20 Ω and it is specified by the manufacturer. Example 2.11 For the circuit of Figure 2.67, the manufacturer’s datasheet for the Zener diode shows that V Z = 10 V when I Z = 6 mA . The datasheet provides also the i – v characteristics but the value of V Z0 is not given. The current I ZBD in Figure 2.68 represents the current where the Zener diode begins entering the breakdown region.

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Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

Zener Diodes
RS VS

+ − 24 V

1 KΩ IZ

+
VZ R load

+ −
V load

Figure 2.67. Circuit for Example 2.11
VZ0 0

i

v

Δi Slope = ------ = 0.04 Δv

I ZBD = 0.3 mA

Figure 2.68. Graph for Example 2.11

Compute: a. The output voltage V load if the load resistor R load is disconnected. b. The output voltage V load if the load resistor R load is connected and adjusted to 1 KΩ . c. The output voltage V load if the load resistor R load is connected and adjusted to 200 Ω . d. The minimum value of the load resistor R load for which the Zener diode will be conducting in the breakdown region. Solution: a. From Figure 2.66(a),
VZ = VZ0 + rZ IZ

(2.34)

and replacing the Zener diode by its equivalent we obtain the circuit shown in Figure 2.69 where the slope is
1 ⁄ r Z = Δi ⁄ Δv = 0.04 r Z = Δv ⁄ Δi = 1 ⁄ 0.04 = 25 Ω

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

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Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes
RS

+
VS

1 KΩ 24 V

+ V − Z0 rZ IZ

+ V load −

Figure 2.69. Zener diode replaced by its equivalent circuit and the load is disconnected

From (2.34), and

VZ0 = VZ – rZ IZ = 10 – 25 × 6 × 10

–3

= 8.5 V

VS – VZ0 24 – 8.5 IZ = ------------------- = ----------------------- = 15.2 mA RS + rZ 1000 + 25

Thus b.

v out = VZ0 + rZ IZ = 8.5 + 25 × 15.2 × 10

–3

= 8.8 V

When the load resistor is connected and adjusted to 1 KΩ the circuit is as shown in Figure 2.70.
RS

+
VS

1 KΩ
VZ0

24 V

IZ

+ I load − R load rZ 1 KΩ

+ V load −

Figure 2.70. Circuit of Example 2.11 with load resistor connected and adjusted to 1 KΩ

We will assume that the Zener diode still operates well within the breakdown region so that the addition of the load resistor does not change the output voltage significantly. Then,
V load 8.8 I load ≈ ------------- = ------- = 8.8 mA 3 R load 10

This means that the Zener diode current I Z will be reduced to
I Z = 15.2 – 8.8 = 6.4mA '

and thus the output voltage will be

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Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

Zener Diodes
V load = VZ0 + rZ I Z = 8.5 + 25 × 6.4 × 10 '
–3

= 8.5 V

The percent change in output voltage is
8.5 – 8.8 % change = -------------------- × 100 = – 3.53 8.5

c. When the load resistor is connected and adjusted to 200 Ω the circuit is as shown in Figure 2.71.
RS

VS

+ −

1 KΩ 24 V

VZ0

+ − rZ

+ I load
R load

V load −

IZ

200 Ω

Figure 2.71. Circuit of Example 2.11 with load resistor connected and adjusted to 200 Ω

We will again assume that the Zener diode still operates well within the breakdown region so that the addition of the load resistor does not change the output voltage significantly. Then,
V load 8.8 I load ≈ ------------ = -------- = 44 mA R load 200

But this is almost three times higher than the current of IZ = 15.2 mA found in (a). Therefore, we conclude that the Zener diode does not conduct and, with the Zener diode branch being an open circuit, by the voltage division expression we obtain
R load 200 V load = ------------------------ V S = -------------------------- × 24 = 4 V 1000 + 200 R S + R load

and since this voltage is less than 10 V the Zener diode does not conduct. d. From the graph of Figure 2.68 it is reasonable to assume that when I ZBD = 0.3 mA , then
V ZBD ≈ 9.7 V . Then, the current I RS through the resistor which would allow the Zener diode

to conduct will be
V S – V ZBD 24 – 9.7 I RS = -------------------------- = ------------------ = 14.3 mA 3 RS 10

This is the total current supplied by the V S source and since I ZBD = 0.3 mA , the current

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

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Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes
through the load resistor, whose value is to be determined, will be
I load = I RS – I ZBD = 14.3 – 0.3 = 14 mA

Therefore,

V ZBD 9.7 R load = ------------- = ---------------------- = 693 Ω –3 I load 14 × 10

Zener diodes can also be used as limiters. Figure 2.72 shows how a single Zener diode can be used to limit one side of a sinusoidal waveform to V Z while limiting the other side to approximately zero.
v in +
VZ

+ v out −
VZ

v out

v in −

– 0.7 V

Figure 2.72. Zener limiter with one Zener diode

Figure 2.73 shows a circuit with two opposing Zener diodes limiting the input waveform to V Z on both polarities.
v in + v in − + v out − v out
– VZ

VZ

Figure 2.73. Zener limiter with two opposing Zener diodes

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Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

The Schottky Diode 2.14 The Schottky Diode
A Schottky diode is a junction of a lightly doped n −type semiconductor with a metal electrode as shown in Figure 2.74(a). Figure 2.74(b) shows the Schottky diode symbol.
metal n – type electrode material

(a)

(b)

Figure 2.74. The components of a Schottky diode and its symbol

The junction of a doped semiconductor − usually n −type − with a special metal electrode can produce a very fast switching diode which is mainly used in high (up to 5 MHz) frequency circuits or high speed digital circuits. When the diode is forward−biased, the electrons move from the n −type material to the metal and give up their energy quickly. Since there are no minority carriers (holes) the conduction stops quickly and changes to reverse−bias. Schottky diodes find wide application as rectifiers for high frequency signals and also are used in the design of galliun arsenide circuits. The forward voltage drop of a conducting Schottky diode is typically 0.3 to 0.5 volt compared to the 0.6 to 0.8 found in silicon junction diodes.

2.15 The Tunnel Diode
The conventional junction diode uses semiconductor materials that are lightly doped with one impurity atom for ten−million semiconductor atoms. This low doping level results in a relatively wide depletion region. Conduction occurs in the normal junction diode only if the voltage applied to it is large enough to overcome the potential barrier of the junction. In 1958, Leo Esaki, a Japanese scientist, discovered that if a semiconductor junction diode is heavily doped with impurities, it will have a region of negative resistance. This type of diode is known as tunnel diode. In a tunnel diode the semiconductor materials used in forming a junction are doped to the extent of one−thousand impurity atoms for ten−million semiconductor atoms. This heavy doping produces an extremely narrow depletion zone similar to that in the Zener diode. Also because of the heavy doping, a tunnel diode exhibits an unusual current−voltage characteristic curve as compared with that of an ordinary junction diode. The characteristic curve for a tunnel diode and its symbol are shown in Figure 2.75. From Figure 2.75 we see that the current increases to a peak value with a small applied forward bias voltage (point 1 to 2), then the current decreases with an increasing forward bias to a minimum current (point 2 to 3), and it starts increasing again with further increases in the bias voltage point 3 to 4.)

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

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Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes
i
2 4

3 1

v Figure 2.75. Tunnel diode characteristics and symbol

The portion of the characteristic curve between points 2 and 3 is the region of negative resistance and an explanation of why a tunnel diode has a region of negative resistance is best understood by using energy levels discussed in semiconductor physics texts. The negative resistance characteristic makes the tunnel diode useful in oscillators and microwave amplifiers. The unijunction transistor, discussed in Chapter 4, has similar oscillator characteristics. A typical tunnel diode oscillator is shown in Figure 2.76.
R1 R2 Tunnel

diode

+
DC bias

+
R3 L C

v out

i DC bias point v

v out −

Figure 2.76. Tunnel diode oscillator circuit

Because the negative resistance region of the tunnel diode is its most important characteristic, it is desirable that the so−called peak−to−valley ratio I P ⁄ V P must be quite high. Typical values of
I P ⁄ V P are 3.5 for silicon, 6 for germanium, and 15 for gallium arsenide (GaAs), and the corre-

sponding values of V P are 65, 55, and 150 mV respectively. For this reason, silicon is not used in the manufacturing of tunnel diodes. The voltage at which the current begins to rise again is denoted as V V and typical values for silicon, germanium, and GaAs are 420, 350, and 500 mV respectively. A variation of the tunnel diode is the backward diode that is used as a rectifier in which “forward” (p side negative) direction occurs without the usual voltage offset of a conventional junction diode. The “reverse” direction corresponds to the conventional forward direction so that the “reverse” breakdown voltage is typically 0.65 V . The backward diode is also used in circuits with small amplitude waveforms.

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Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

3 0.2 0.6 0.4 0. We observe that when V TD ≈ 0.78.The Tunnel Diode Example 2. and a resistor are connected in series as shown in Figure 2. Then.7 Figure 2.6 ⁄ 20 = 30 mA . a tunnel diode whose i – v characteristics are as shown.3 0.5 0. Graphical solution for the determination of the current i for the circuit of Figure 2. and when V TD ≈ 0.12 A DC voltage source.6 and when V TD = 0 .35) reduces to V TD = 0.29 V .2 0. (2. i ≈ 16 mA . i ≈ 25 mA . Circuit and tunnel diode i – v characteristics for Example 2.7 Figure 2. i = 0.78. i ( mA ) 30 20 10 0 v (V) 0. i ≈ 4 mA . Find the current i 40 i 0. V TD + V R = 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.11 V .77 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. when V TD ≈ 0.35) When i = 0 .6 V (2.77.77.6 V or V TD + 20i = 0. and with these values we draw the load line shown in Figure 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−47 .5 0.52 V .6 V 20 Ω 30 20 10 0 v (V) i ( mA ) 0.12 Solution: Let the voltage across the tunnel diode be V TD and the voltage across the resistor be V R .6 0.

79. Typical capacitance values are small.79. Symbol for LED 2−48 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Symbol for varactor A varactor diode uses a PN junction in reverse bias and has a structure such that the capacitance of the diode varies with the reverse voltage. Figure 2.16 The Varactor The varactor. or varicap. A light−emitting diode. the light−emitting diode (LED). the symbol for a varactor is as shown in Figure 2. A voltage controlled capacitance is useful in tuning applications. Figure 2. green.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes 2. depending upon the material used to make the diode. with the PN junction functioning like the dielectric and plates of a common capacitor. varactors are replacing the old variable capacitor tuning circuits as in television tuners. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . The circuit symbols for all optoelectronic devices have arrows pointing either toward them. is a diode that behaves like a variable capacitor. R + + vin − VC L v out − Figure 2. short−life incandescent light bulbs used to indicate on/off conditions on instrument panels. produces visible light.80.81. The first of these.80 shows a typical varactor tuning circuit where the DC control voltage V C changes the capacitance of the varactor to form a resonant circuit. in the order of picofarads. Figure 2. if they use light.17 Optoelectronic Devices Optoelectronic devices either produce light or use light in their operation. if they produce light. For this reason. when forward biased. A varactor tuner circuit 2. The LED is designated by a standard diode symbol with two arrows pointing away from the cathode as shown in Figure 2. Presently.81 where the arrows indicate light leaving the diode. or amber. The light may be red. was developed to replace the fragile. or away from them.

Another optoelectronic device in common use today is the photodiode. frequency counters. when the PN junction is exposed to an external light source. LEDs are used widely as “power on” indicators of digital voltmeters. as shown in Figure 2. the photodiode receives light and converts it to electrical signals.82 the anodes are internally connected.Optoelectronic Devices The LED operating voltage is small. internal resistance decreases and current flow increases. In total darkness.6 volts forward bias and generally about 10 milliamperes. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−49 . a number is formed. The life expectancy of the LED is very long. The photodiode is operated with reverse−bias and conducts current in direct proportion to the intensity of the light Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the manufacturer’s number should be checked. if negative voltage is applied to all cathodes the number 8 is produced. Unlike the LED. LEDs arranged for seven segment display In Figure 2. When replacing LED displays.82. Basically. about 1. When a negative voltage is applied to the proper cathodes. in which all cathodes are at the same potential. over 100. which produces light.82. Since both types look alike. Laser diodes are LEDs specifically designed to produce coherent light with a narrow bandwidth and are suitable for CD players and optical communications. For this reason. one must ensure the replacement display is the same type as the faulty display. and if a negative voltage is changed and applied to all cathodes except LED b and e the number 5 is displayed. a f g e d c b Figure 2. etc. Seven−segment displays are also available in common−cathode form. For example. it has a relatively high resistance and therefore conducts little current.000 hours of operation. the photodiode is a light−controlled variable resistor. and as displays for pocket calculators where they form seven−segment displays. However.

a typical light−to−dark resistance ratio for a photocell is 1: 1000. The symbol for a photodiode is shown in Figure 2. Symbol for photodiode Switching the light source on or off changes the conduction level of the photodiode and varying the light intensity controls the amount of conduction. Photocells are used in various types of control and timing circuits as. Figure 2.83. the automatic street light controllers in most cities. and for this reason are extremely useful in digital applications such as photographic light meters and optical scanning equipment.83 where the arrows pointing toward the diode indicate that light is required for operation of the device.85.45 V volt across its terminals. The device is finding widespread application in communications satellites and solar−powered homes. Figure 2. This means that its resistance could range from 1000 ohms in the light to 1000 kilohms in the dark. the photocell is a light−controlled variable resistor. or photocell. solar cells may be connected in series or parallel to produce higher voltages and currents.84.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes source. shown with its schematic symbol in Figure 2. with current capacity determined by its size. A solar cell acts much like a battery when exposed to light and produces about 0.84.85. The symbol for a solar cell is shown in Figure 2. Symbol for photocell A solar cell is another device that converts light energy into electrical energy. Symbol for solar cell 2−50 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Photodiodes respond quickly to changes in light intensity. for example. As with batteries. or from 2000 ohms in the light to 2000 kilohms in the dark. Of course. Like the photodiode. However. Figure 2. An older device that uses light in a way similar to the photodiode is the photoconductive cell. We will discuss phototransistor in the next chapter. and so forth. The symbol for a photocell is shown in Figure 2. A phototransistor is another optoelectronic device that conducts current when exposed to light.84. other ratios are also available. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

also referred to as an optoisolator. It consists of an LED and a photodiode and each of these devices are isolated from each other. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−51 . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. LED Photodiode Figure 2.86 shows an optical coupler.86. Their most important application is in fiber optic communications links. An optical coupler Isolation between the input and output is desirable because it reduces electromagnetic interference. The latter name is derived from the fact that it provides isolation between the input and output.Optoelectronic Devices Figure 2.

that is. When a junction diode is forward−biased. that is. The area between the P−type and N−type materials is referred to as the depletion region. A free electron is one which has escaped from its valence orbit and the vacancy it has created is called a hole. v D is the voltage drop across the diode. • A junction diode is formed when a piece of P−type material and a piece of N−type material are joined together. or atoms with three valence electrons such as boron. • The electrostatic field created by the positive and negative ions in the depletion region is called a barrier. that is. and gallium. • Doping is a process where impurity atoms which are atoms with five valence electrons such as phosphorous. conventional current will flow in the direction of the arrow on the diode symbol. the coefficient n varies from 1 to 2 depending on the current level and the nature or the recombination near the junction. • The P−type side of the junction diode is also referred to as the anode and the N−type side as the cathode. and antimony. q = 1. • A P−type semiconductor has more holes than free electrons and thus the holes are the majority carriers and the free electrons are the minority carriers. • A forward−biased PN junction is formed if we attach a voltage source to a junction diode with the plus (+) side of the voltage source connected to the P−type material and the minus (−) side to the N−type. q is charge of an electron. I r is the reverse current. arsenic.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes 2. that is. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the current which would flow through the diode if the polarity of v D is reversed. k = Boltzmann's constant .6 × 10 coulomb . T = 273 + temperature in C . • An N−type semiconductor has more free electrons than holes and for this reason the free electrons are considered to be the majority carriers and the holes the minority carriers.38 × 10 – 23 – 19 joule ⁄ Kelvin . are added to melted silicon.18 Summary • In a crystal of pure silicon that has been thermally agitated there is an equal number of free electrons and holes. • The i D – v D relationship in a forward−biased junction diode is the nonlinear relation iD = Ir [ e ( qv D ⁄ nkT ) – 1] where i D is the current through the diode. k = 1. aluminum. It is conve- 2−52 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and T is the o absolute temperature in degrees Kelvin. • A reverse−biased PN junction is formed if we attach a voltage source to a junction diode with the plus (+) side of the voltage source connected to the N−type material and the minus (−) side to the P−type.

diodes.Summary nient to combine q .1 . k . denoted as r D . • When used with AC circuits of low frequencies. • When a junction diode is reverse−biased. conventional current will flow in the direction of the arrow of the diode as long as the voltage drop v D across the diode is about 0. and if these ratings are exceeded. In a typical junction diode at v D = 0. A filter is used at the output to obtain a relatively constant output with a small ripple. • The analysis of electronic circuits containing diodes can be performed by graphical methods but it is greatly simplified with the use of diode models where we approximate the diode forward−biased characteristics with two straight lines representing the piecewise linear equivalent circuit. A bias point. the diode will burn−out in either the forward−biased or the reverse− biased direction.8 V . the current through the diode is i D ≈ 1 mA .v D ( t ) nV T provided that v D ⁄ nVT ≤ 0. V T ≈ 26mV • In a junction diode made with silicon and an impurity. usually with 1. and T into one variable V T known as thermal voltage where V T = kT ⁄ q and thus iD = Ir [ e ( v D ⁄ nV T ) – 1] and at T = 300 °K . is established at the intersection of a load line and the linear region. The current i D ( t ) can be found from the relation ID i D ( t ) ≈ I D + --------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−53 . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. is called incremental resistance.7 V . a very small current will flow and if the applied voltage exceeds a certain value the diode will reach its avalanche or Zener region. • The maximum reverse−bias voltage that may be applied to a diode without causing junction breakdown is referred to as the Peak Reverse Voltage (PRV) and it is the most important rating.8 ≤ n ≤ 2. watts) by the manufacturer. Commercially available diodes are provided with a given rating (volts.0 are biased to operate at some point in the neighborhood of the relatively linear region of the i – v characteristics where 0. denoted as g D . denoted as Q . is referred to as incremental conductance and its reciprocal nV T ⁄ I D .65 volt or greater. • Junction diodes are extensively used in half−wave and full−wave rectifiers to convert AC voltages to pulsating DC voltages. • The ratio I D ⁄ nV T .65 ≤ v D ≤ 0.

• A varactor.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes • A peak rectifier circuit is a simple series circuit with a capacitor. or varicap. Clipper circuits are used in applications where it is necessary to limit the input to another circuit so that the latter would not be damaged. a diode. • The backward diode is a variation of the tunnel diode.5 volt compared to the 0. • Zener diodes are designed to operate in the reverse voltage breakdown (avalanche) region. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . If a resistor R is placed in parallel with the capacitor C and their values are chosen such that the time constant τ = RC is much greater than the discharge interval. The junction of a doped semiconductor − usually n −type − with a special metal electrode can produce a very fast switching diode which is mainly used in high (up to 5 MHz) frequency circuits or high speed digital circuits. Schottky diodes find wide application as rectifiers for high frequency signals and also are used in the design of galliun arsenide (GaAs) circuits. • A tunnel diode is one which is heavily doped with impurities. • A DC restorer (or clamped capacitor) is a circuit that can restore a DC voltage to a desired DC level. Typical 2−54 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. A voltage controlled capacitance is useful in tuning applications. • Clipper (or limiter) circuits consist of diodes. is a diode that behaves like a variable capacitor. Voltage triplers and voltage quadruplers are also possible with additional diodes and capacitors. and an AC voltage source where the output voltage across the capacitor is approximately equal to the peak value of the input AC voltage. In its basic form is a series circuit with a voltage source. the peak rectifier circuit will behave like an AC to DC converter. during the negative half−cycle. a capacitor. Their most important application is in voltage regulation. • A Schottky diode is a junction of a lightly doped n −type semiconductor with a metal electrode. The forward voltage drop of a conducting Schottky diode is typically 0. The negative resistance characteristic makes the tunnel diode useful in oscillators and microwave amplifiers. and sometimes DC sources to clip or limit the output to a certain level. • A voltage doubler circuit is a combination of a DC restorer and a peak rectifier. with the PN junction functioning like the dielectric and plates of a common capacitor. or during both the positive and negative half−cycles of the input voltage. • Zener diodes can also be used as limiters and limiting can occur during the positive half−cycle of the input voltage. and the output is the voltage across the diode. A Zener diode is always connected as a reverse−biased diode and its voltage rating V Z and the maximum power it can absorb are given by the manufacturer. A varactor diode uses a PN junction in reverse bias and has a structure such that the capacitance of the diode varies with the reverse voltage.3 to 0.8 found in silicon junction diodes. it will have a region of negative resistance.6 to 0. and a diode. resistors. It is used as a rectifier and in circuits with small amplitude waveforms.

the automatic street light controllers in most cities. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−55 .Summary capacitance values are small. green. Varactors have now replaced the old variable capacitor tuning circuits as in television tuners. and for this reason are extremely useful in digital applications such as photographic light meters and optical scanning equipment. solar cells may be connected in series or parallel to produce higher voltages and currents. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. • Optoelectronic devices either produce light or use light in their operation. The light may be red. produces visible light. and as displays for pocket calculators where they form seven−segment displays. depending upon the material used to make the diode. in the order of picofarads. • A solar cell is another device that converts light energy into electrical energy. The life expectancy of the LED is very long. A solar cell acts much like a battery when exposed to light and as with batteries. Their most important application is in fiber optic communications links. frequency counters. Photocells are used in various types of control and timing circuits as. over 100. For this reason. or amber. • Laser diodes are LEDs specifically designed to produce coherent light with a narrow bandwidth and are suitable for CD players and optical communications. for example. LEDs are used widely as “power on” indicators of digital voltmeters. Photodiodes respond quickly to changes in light intensity. Isolation between the input and output is desirable because it reduces electromagnetic interference. • An optical coupler. etc. Solar cells find widespread application in communications satellites and solar−powered homes. • A photodiode is another optoelectronic device which receives light and converts it to electrical signals. consists of an LED and a photodiode and each of these devices are isolated from each other. sometimes referred to as an optoisolator. • A Light−Emitting Diode (LED) is an optoelectronic device that. • A photocell is an older device that uses light in a way similar to the photodiode. when forward biased.000 hours of operation.

Compare your answer with that of Example 2. 2−56 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the applied voltage V S is not sufficient to drive the diode into the avalanche region. and it is known that V R = 0. Show that for a decade (factor 10) change in current i D of a forward−biased junction diode the voltage v D changes by a factor of 2. Make any reasonable assumptions. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . 2. V R at 0 °C b. VS Ir 500 KΩ VR Find: a. Also. Hint: Start with the approximate relation iD ≈ Ir e v D ⁄ nV T . the current I r is almost constant. 4. In the circuit below. the reverse current doubles for every 10 °C rise in temperature. 3. form the ratio V D2 ⁄ V D1 corresponding to the ratio I D2 ⁄ I D1 .Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes 2. At what temperature will I r double in value? What A to 10 – 15 A at 27 °C . and the reverse current I r increases by about 15% per 1 °C rise. find the value of V out assuming that all three diodes are ideal. For the circuit below.5 V at 20 °C . a typical value in the reverse− A . Plot the i – v characteristics of a forward−biased junction diode with n = 2 at 27 °C .4. Assuming that v » V T we can show that i D ≈ – I r and for this reason I r is often referred to as the saturation current and whereas in the forward−biased region I r has a typical value of 10 biased region is 10 –9 – 14 – 13 A at 50 °C . V R at 40 °C 6. Suggest an experiment that will enable one to compute the numerical value of n .19 Exercises 1. It is known that for a certain diode I r = 10 conclusion can we draw from the result? 5.3nV T . and plot in semi- log scale. When a junction diode operates at the reverse−bias region v < 0 and before avalanche occurs.

Compute the value of R so that V out = 3 V . b.Exercises 1 KΩ 1V 2V 3V i ( ma ) V out 0 v (V) 7. the diodes are identical and it is known that at V D = 0. I D = 0. The percent change in V out when a load resistor V load = 2 KΩ is connected across the four diodes.5 and T = 27 °C find: a. R = ? V S = 12 V V out = 3 V 8.5 mA . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−57 . It is also known that the voltage across each diode changes by 0.8 V .1 V per decade change of current. For the circuit shown below. V out = 2. The percent change in V out when V S changes by ± 10 % . R = 1 KΩ V S = 12 V ± 10% V out Vs = 12V = 2. It is known that a junction diode with n = 1.92 allows a current I D = 1 mA when V D = 0.7 V at T = 27 °C . Assuming that n = 1.8 V 9. For the circuit shown below.65 . the diodes are identical and when V S = 12 V exactly. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Derive the equation of the straight line tangent at I D = 1 mA and the point where this straight line crosses the v D axis.

the diode peak current I peak b. Find: a. For the half−wave rectifier circuit below. the conduction angle d. v D = 0.7 V and the diode resistance r D « R load . R = 200 Ω . the diode peak current I peak b. the minimum theoretical Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) 2−58 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and the diode resistance r D « R .7 V . the minimum theoretical Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) iD + vs − + v in − + vD − R load 5 KΩ v load + v load − v in conduction angle (a) (b) 11. the transformer is a step−down 10:1 transformer and the primary voltage v s = 120 RMS . the angle θ by which v load lags the transformer secondary voltage v in c. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . The diode voltage v D = 0. the average value of v load c. the average value of v load e.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes 10. For the full−wave bridge rectifier shown below it is given that v in ( peak ) = 17 V . Find: a.

find the value of the capacitor so that the peak−to−peak ripple will be 1 volt . Find V Z if I Z = 20 mA c. Compute and sketch the waveform for the output v out . Find V Z0 of the Zener diode model Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. C + v in + − − iD 5 v in ( V ) t + v out − –5 14. and r Z = 30 Ω . a. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−59 . The nominal value of a Zener diode is V Z = 12 V at I Z = 10 mA . For the peak rectifier shown below. A circuit and its input waveform are shown below. Find V Z if I Z = 5 mA b.Exercises + v in ( t ) − − R v out ( t ) + + v out ( t ) − v in ( t ) 12. R + C v in 20 KΩ v in = 177 sin 377t − v out 13.

Determine the approximate operating point that yields the maximum power. What is the value of the maximum power output? b. A typical solar cell for converting the energy of sunlight into electrical energy in the form of heat is shown in the Figure (a) below. referred to as a tunnel resistor. Tunnel diode R 16. What should the value of the resistor be to absorb maximum power from the solar cell? Light i (mA) 40 v R 20 v (mV) 200 400 2−60 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. V V = 350 mV . the peak current. and V F = 500 mV respectively. placed in parallel with the tunnel diode. the valley voltage. a. I P = 10 mA . The terminal voltage characteristics are shown in Figure (b) below.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes 15. and the peak forward voltage have the values I V = 1 mA . the peak voltage. V P = 50 mV . i ( mA ) IP IV VP VV VF v ( mV ) Shown below is a resistor R . A tunnel diode has the idealized piecewise linear characteristics shown below where the valley current. Determine the value of this resistor so that this parallel circuit will exhibit no negative resistance region. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

*(exp(vD.5 Diode current iD.4 0.^(−3).. the diode begins to conduct at approximately 7.6 Diode voltage vD./(n.01: 1. vD=0: 0.5 1 0. VT=26*10^(−3). ylabel('Diode current iD. amps').5 0 iD-vD characteristics for a forward-biased junction diode.*1. title('iD−vD characteristics for a forward−biased junction diode'). n=2.. y=2.. 2.8 V . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−61 .8 1 We observe that when n = 2 ..3nV T log 10x on semilog scale.. volts 0.y).3nV T log 10( I D2 ⁄ I D1 ) For convenience.*10... semilogx(x..2 0. title('Plot for Exercise 2'). plot(vD.20 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 1. we let V D2 – V D1 = y and I D2 ⁄ I D1 = x and we use the following MATLAB script to plot y = 2. iR=10^(−15)..Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 2. Let I D1 = I r e V D1 ⁄ nV T and I D2 = I r e V D2 ⁄ nV T .iD).*log10(x).. amps 2 1. Then. volts'). xlabel('Diode voltage vD. ylabel('y=VD2−VD1'). xlabel('x=ID2/ID1'). iD=iR...*VT))−1). n=2 at 27 deg C 0 0. grid x 10 -7 2. grid Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. ⁄e V D1 ⁄ nV T I D2 ⁄ I D1 = e V D2 ⁄ nV T = e ( V D2 – V D1 ) ⁄ nV T or V D2 – V D1 = nV T ln ( I D2 ⁄ I D1 ) = 2.*26.3. x=1: 10: 10^6.

= 2 50 ( 1.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes 0. 4.15 ) 1. say I D2.2 0.15 ( x – 50 ) = 2 × 10 – 13 ( x – 50 ) x = 2 ( 1. we can adjust V S to obtain the values of several pairs. However.15 ) = 2 × ( 1. a DC ammeter A and the diode D whose value of n is to be found. plot these on semilog paper and find the best straight line that fits these values. A 1 KΩ D Vs VD ID V We can now adjust the variable power supply V S to obtain two pairs i – v .4 Plot for Exercise 2 0. 1 KΩ resistor.3 y=VD2-VD1 0.1 0 0 10 10 2 10 x=ID2/ID1 4 10 6 3. a DC voltmeter V . 10 – 13 ( 1 + 0. V D2 I D1.3nVT log 10( I D2 ⁄ I D1 ) to find n .15 ) ------------------.15 ) ( 1. V D1 and and use the relation V D2 – V D1 = 2.15 ) x 50 = 2. for bet- ter accuracy.167 × 10 3 2−62 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. connected as shown below. We assume that the voltmeter internal resistance is very high and thus all current produced by V s flows through the diode. This can be done with a variable power supply V S . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

after being connected to the circuit.15 = 54. and b. At 20 °C . are reverse−biased. Then.336 + 3 = 3.125 V 3 6.4.15 ) = x log 10 ( 1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. we can conclude that the reverse current I r doubles for every 5 °C rise in temperature. This is because we’ve assumed ideal diodes. we have: a.167 × 10 ) x log 10( 1. Ir 20 °C 0.= 1 μA 500 KΩ and since the reverse current doubles for every 10 °C rise in temperature.167 ) + 3 log 10 ( 10 ) = 0.5 × 0. We assume that diode D 3 and the resistor are connected first.336 x = 3.15 ) = log 10 ( 2.25 μA –6 0 °C = 0. 5.5 × 1 μA = 0.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises log 10 ( 1. V out = 3 V and stays at this value because diodes D 1 and D 2 .5 V = ------------------. and VR VR Ir Ir 40 °C = 2 × 2 × 1 μA = 4 μA –6 40 °C = 4 × 10 × 500 × 10 = 2V 3 0 °C = 0.15 ) = log 10 ( 2.336 ⁄ log 101. a physical impossibility. D1 1V D2 2V D3 3V 1 KΩ V out i ( ma ) 0 v (V) The value of V out = 3 V is unrealistic when compared with the realistic value which we found in Example 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−63 .96 °C ≈ 55 °C x 3 Therefore.25 × 10 × 500 × 10 = 0.

8 V V s – V out 12 – 2. a n d s i n c e t h e c h a n g e i s ΔV D = 0.75 V .6 % 2.= ------------------.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes 7.= -----------------.5 × 26 × 10 4r D = --------------------------------------------. R = 1 KΩ V s = 12 V ± 10% V out Vs = 12V = 2.2 mA - R 10 3 The incremental resistance r D per diode is found from r D = nV T ⁄ I D with n = 1. Thus. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . for all four diodes 4 × 1.8167 – 2.8 I D = ---------------------.2 × 10 –3 and for ± 10 % or ± 1.8 %ΔV out = ----------------------------. for the output voltage to be V out = 3 V .2 V change we find that 17 Ω ΔV out = ----------------------.0167 V 2. V s – V out 12 – 3 R = ---------------------. and V' out = 2. a.75 – 0.= 17 Ω –3 9.1 V .8 KΩ –3 ID 5 × 10 8.× 100 = ± 59.8 2−64 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5 × 10 = 5 mA . the current is 0.= 1.7mV 1000 + 17 Therefore.65 = 0.= 16.5 .8 ± 0. R = ? V s = 12 V V out = 3 V Since the diodes are identical. Then. the voltage drop a c r o s s e a c h d i o d e m u s t b e 3 V ⁄ 4 = 0.= 9.

7 From analytic geometry.02v D – 0.4 mA × 17 Ω = – 23.7 + b from which b = – 0.= 0.02 r D nV T 1.65 V .= 1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.02v D + b (2) Next.013 (3) Now.7 V .= --------.02vD – 0. The 2 KΩ load when connected across the four diodes will have a voltage of 2. Then.4 mA 2 KΩ Therefore. from (3) above we find that the v D axis intercept is 0 = 0.013 and thus the equation of the straight line becomes i D = 0. i D = 1 mA .8 mV 9. by substitution into (2) we obtain 10 –3 = 0.02 × 0.92 × 26 × 10 –3 and by substitution into (1) above i D = 0. For this exercise the equation of the straight line is i D = mv D + b (1) where –3 ID 10 1 m = ---.4 mA and the decrease in voltage across all four diodes will be ΔV out = – 1.= --------------------------------------. the current through the four diodes decreases by 1.8 V and thus the current through this load will be 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−65 .8 V I load = ------------.013 or v D = 0. i D ( mA ) 1 vD ( V ) 0. the equation of a straight line in an x – y plane is y = mx + b where m is the slope and b is the y intercept. we find the i D intercept using the given data that when v D = 0.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises b.

36° c.7 I peak = -----------------.17) V p Δv 17 0.– -----. From (2.26 mA 3 R load 5 × 10 b.7 V .06 V 2 π 2 π e.7 V load ( ave ) ≈ ----. the secondary voltage is 12 V RMS or v in = 12 2 peak = 17 V peak .= ----. Then. iD + vs − + v in − + vD + R load v load − 5 KΩ v load − v in conduction angle (a) (b) a. therefore.= -----------------.= 3. It is given that the transformer is a step down type with ratio 10:1 .Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes 10.15).– -----. The minimum theoretical Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) is PIV = V p = 17 V but for practical purposes we should choose the value of 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .7 × 17 ≈ 30 V 2−66 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.7 ⁄ 17 = 2. θ = sin –10.= 5. v in – v D I peak = -----------------------r D + R load and since r D « R load v in – v D 17 – 0. The conduction angle is π – 2θ = 180° – 2 × 2.28° d.36° = 175. θ = sin –1Δ v ⁄ V p where Δ v = V p – V out = v D = 0. From (2.7 × PIV = 1. Then.

1 Area V out ( ave ) = ---------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−67 . the angle θ is small and thus cos θ ≈ 1 and ( π – 2θ ) ≈ π . the last relation above reduces to 2V p 2 × 17 V out ( ave ) ≈ --------.= 78 mA R 200 We start with the definition of the average value.[ 2V p cos θ – 2Δv ( π – 2θ ) ] π Generally.7 = 16. Therefore.7 I peak ≈ ---------------------.[ – V p cos ( π – θ ) – 2Δv ( π – θ ) + V p cos θ + 2Δvθ ] π 1 = -.42 V π π c. The minimum theoretical Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) is PIV = V p – v D = 17 – 0. that is.= ---------------------------. v in – 2v D 17 – 2 × 0.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 11. The diode peak current I peak is v in – 2v D I peak = ---------------------rD + R and since r D « R b. + v in ( t ) − − R v out ( t ) + + v out ( t ) − v in ( t ) a. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.( – V p cos φ – 2Δvφ ) π π–θ φ=θ or 1 V out ( ave ) = -.– 2 × 0.= -π Period ∫θ (π – θ) 1 ( V p sin φ – 2Δv ) dφ = -.7 = 9.– 2Δv = -------------.3 V but for practical purposes we should choose the value of about 30 V .

R + C v in 20 KΩ v in = 177 sin 377t − v out Here. and v out = – 5 – 5 = – 10 V .Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes 12. and T = 1 ⁄ f = 1 ⁄ 60 . Then. v out = 5 – 5 = 0 and the output has shifted upwards to zero volts as shown below. The waveform for the output voltage is as shown below. v in = – 5 V .= 148 μF 3 V pp ( ripple ) ⋅ R ⋅ 60 1 × 20 × 10 × 60 13.29). C + v in + − − iD 5 v in ( V ) t + v out − –5 From the circuit above we observe that the diode conducts only when v in > 0 and thus the capacitor charges to the positive peak of the input which for this example is 5 V . we obtain 1 T C = V p ⋅ -----------------------------------------------. When the input voltage is negative. when v in = 5 V . and the capacitor voltage is v C = 5 V with polarity shown. a.= 177 ⋅ ----------------------------------------.85 V 2−68 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. v out ( V ) t – 10 14. Rearranging (2. Since v out = v in – v C . VZ I Z = 5mA –3 = VZ I Z = 10mA – r Z ΔI Z = 12 – 30 × ( 10 – 5 ) × 10 = 11. ω = 377 r ⁄ s or f = ω ⁄ 2π = 377 ⁄ 2π = 60 Hz . By definition r Z = ΔV Z ⁄ ΔI Z or ΔV Z = r Z ΔI Z . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

Then VZ0 = VZ – rZ IZ = 12 – 30 × 10 × 10 –3 = 11.= – 0. From (2.34) VZ = VZ0 + rZ IZ where VZ and IZ are the nominal values.= – 0.7 V 15.= -------------------. VZ I Z = 20mA = VZ I Z = 10mA – r Z ΔI Z = 12 – 30 × ( 10 – 20 ) × 10 –3 = 12. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−69 .3 V c.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises b.03 Δv 350 – 50 and thus di D –1 ------. we must have Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. v i iD iR R To eliminate the negative resistance region.03 Ω (1) dv where i D and v are as shown in the circuit below. i ( mA ) IP IV VP VV VF v ( mV ) Tunnel diode R For the region of negative resistance the slope m is Δi 1 – 10 m = -----.

With this value. 15 i for R=25 Ohms 10 i (mA) i for R=33. Let us plot the total current i versus the voltage v with the values R 1 ≈ 33.id..v..Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes di ----.03 ) R and thus the maximum value of the resistor should be R ≈ 33.33 Ω and R 2 = 25 Ω .i2).v. plot(v. id=m*v+b. For a positive slope greater than zero we should choose a resistor with a smaller value.≥ 0 (2) dv for all values of v .dv dv R di D 1 --.. R1=33.03. grid and upon execution of this script we obtain the plot shown below. i2=id+v/R2.1:349.33 Ohms 5 i without resistor 0 50 100 150 200 v (mV) 250 300 350 2−70 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Since i = iD + iR = iD + v ⁄ R it follows that and (2) above will be satisfied if From (1) and (3) di D 1 di ----.33.≥ – ------.≥ – ( – 0.33 Ω . We will use the following MATLAB script for the plots. m=−0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . i1=id+v/R1.+ --.i1. the slope of the total current i versus the voltage v across the parallel circuit will be zero.= ------.5. b=11. R2=25. v=51:0.(3) R dv 1 --.

The value of R that will receive maximum power is v 400 = -------. the operating point that will yield maximum power is denoted as Q where P max = 400 × 40 = 16 mw b.⎞ ⎝ i ⎠ max 40 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−71 .= 10 Ω R = ⎛ -. Light i (mA) 40 Q v R 20 v (mV) 200 400 a.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 16. By inspection.

Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes NOTES: 2−72 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

are identified as the emitter. and the Ebers−Moll model is discussed in detail. whether it is an NPN or PNP transistor. NPN and PNP transistor construction and symbols As shown in Figure 3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors T his is a long chapter devoted to bipolar junction transistors. The small and large signal equivalent circuits along with the h−parameter and T−equivalent circuits are presented.1.1. N P P N P N N P N P N P N P E Emitter B Base C C Collector E Emitter B Base C C Collector B B E NPN Transistor formation and symbol E PNP Transistor formation and symbol Figure 3. and Figure 3. Can a transistor be used just as a diode? The answer is yes. an NPN transistor is formed with two PN junctions with the P−type material at the center.1.2 shows several possible configurations and most integrated circuits employ transistors to operate as diodes. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The NPN and PNP transistors are defined and their application as amplifiers is well illustrated with numerous examples. 3. whereas a PNP transistor is formed with two PN junctions with the N−type material at the center. and the collector. the base. The three terminals of a transistor.1 Introduction Transistors are three terminal devices that can be formed with the combination of two separate PN junction materials into one block as shown in Figure 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−1 .

GaAs is much more expensive than silicon and it is usually used only in superfast computers. 3−2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and lower power consumption.3 shows an NPN transistor used as an electronic switch to perform the operation of inversion. a typical NPN transistor will act as a closed switch when the voltage V BE between its base and emitter terminals is greater than 0. being a deadly poison. The disadvantages of GaAs over silicon is that arsenic. the transistor inverts (changes) an input of 5 V to an output of 0 V when it behaves like a closed switch as in Figure 3. most transistors are made of silicon. it requires special handling since it is extremely brittle. Transistors configured as diodes Transistors are used either as amplifiers or more commonly as electronic switches.3. requires very special manufacturing processes and. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . that is. V CC RC V in = 5V V CC RC = 5V = V BE = 5 V V in B C V out E = V CE = 0 V Figure 3. in addition.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors N P N P N P E Cathode B Anode E Anode B Cathode N P N P N P B Anode C Cathode B Cathode C Anode Figure 3. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) technology has been under development for several years and its advantage over silicon is its speed. For these reasons. The transistor will act as an open switch when the voltage V BE is less than 0. We will discuss these topics on the next section. and it inverts an input of 0 V to an output of 5 V when it behaves like an open switch as in Figure 3.2. Briefly. about six times faster than silicon. Figure 3.4.7 V but no greater than 5 V to avoid possible damage.6 V .3. NPN transistor as electronic closed switch − inverts 5 V to 0 V Like junction diodes.

there are three currents. NPN transistor as electronic open switch − inverts 0 V to 5 V 3.3 The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier When a transistor is used as an amplifier. denoted as i B . 3. it is said to be operating in the active mode. Typical values for V BB are about 1 V or less.4. IC Collector N Base IB V BB P Emitter N IE NPN Transistor V CC IB V BB Collector P Base N Emitter P IE IC V CC PNP Transistor Figure 3.5. the NPN and PNP transistors must be biased as shown in Figure 3.* the collecElectronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2 NPN Transistor Operation For proper operation. the base current. The difference in these bias voltages is necessary to cause current flow from the collector to the emitter in an NPN transistor and from the emitter to collector in a PNP transistor.NPN Transistor Operation V CC RC V in = 5V V CC RC C = 5V = V BE = 0 V V in B C V out E = V CE = 5 V E Figure 3. Biased NPN and PNP Transistors for proper operation The bias voltage sources are V BB for the base voltage and V CC for the collector voltage. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−3 . Since a transistor is a 3−terminal device. and for V CC about 10 V to 12 V .5.

and (3. NPN or PNP.6. In a transistor.19.6.1) – 1 ] .6) Another important parameter in transistors is the common−base current gain denoted as α and it * It is customary to denote instantaneous voltages and currents with lower case letters and the bias voltages and currents with upper case letters. collector.2) we obtain v BE ⁄ V T i B = ( I r ⁄ β )e From (3. The base current i B is much smaller than the collector current i C and these two currents are related in terms of the constant β as iB = iC ⁄ β and with (3. Please refer to Section 3.I r e BE T β (3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors tor current. Its value is specified by the manufacturer. typically 10 v BE is the base−to−emitter voltage. The base.5) (3. a constant whose value typically ranges from 75 to 300. C C iB B iC E iE iC iE B iB E PNP Transistor NPN Transistor Figure 3. equation (2. and emitter currents in a transistor For any transistor. and the emitter current.3) (3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . where I r is the reverse (saturation) current. denoted as i E .3).2) β + 1 v ⁄V i E = ----------. 3−4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2) A to 10 A as in junction diodes.5 and 3.i C β and with (3. that i D = I r [ e the collector current is iC = Ir e v BE ⁄ V T – 12 – 15 ( v D ⁄ nV T ) (3.1) and (3. A very useful parameter in transistors is the common−emitter gain β . n ≈ 1 . and V T ≈ 26 mV at T = 300 °K . denoted as i C . They are shown in Figures 3.3) we obtain β+1 i E = i B + i C = i C ⁄ β + i C = ----------. the three currents are related as iB + iC = iE We recall from Chapter 2.4) (3.

11) (3.10) Another lesser known ratio is the common−collector current gain ratio denoted as γ and it is defined as the ratio of the change in the emitter current to the change in the base current. di C α = ------di E di C β = ------di B di E γ = ------di B and their relationships are β α = ----------β+1 Example 3.8) (3.14) (3.992 and for α = 0.992 β = ----------. Thus.9) (3. Solution: For α = 0.7) and we can express β in terms of α by rearranging (3.10) yields α 0.6) and (3.7) 1 v ⁄V i E = -. Find the β range corresponding to this α range. α β = ----------1–α γ = β+1 (3.= --------------------.995 .I r e BE T α (3.12) (3.5) and (3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−5 .= 124 1–α 1 – 0.The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier is related to β as β α = ----------β+1 From(3.1 A transistor manufacturer produces transistors whose α values vary from 0.7) i C = αi E Also.13) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Then.7). α β = ----------1–α (3.992 to 0.7) it is obvious that α < 1 and from (3.995. from (3.992 (3.

I r = 2 × 10 – 14 .15). i B = ( I r ⁄ β )e v BE ⁄ V T (3.3).17) If we know I r .= 199 1–α 1 – 0.7.10). i B . The collector bias voltage V CC (not * Dependent sources are discussed in detail in Chapters 1 through 4. let us draw an equivalent circuit using relations (3.17) iB v BE iC ( I r ⁄ β )e v BE ⁄ V T i C = βi B E iE Figure 3. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications. ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0.1 Equivalent Circuit Models − NPN Transistors We can draw various equivalent circuit models with dependent voltage and current sources* for NPN transistors using the relations (3. we can find the other parameters for the circuit model in Figure 3. 3−6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and (3.7. Example 3.16) i C = βi B i E = i B + i C = ( I r ⁄ β )e B v BE ⁄ V T + βi B C (3.4). i B = 5 μA . and T = 27 °C . To illustrate.= --------------------. NPN transistor equivalent circuit model for relations (3. β = 200 .16).2 For a given NPN transistor.1) which are repeated here for convenience. for the range the corresponding β range is 0.15) (3.995 Therefore. β .7. and (3. (3.1) through (3.992 ≤ α ≤ 0. (3.995 124 ≤ β ≤ 199 3.3.995 β = ----------. Find the numerical values of the parameters shown in Figure 3. and the operating temperature.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors α 0.

2 Equivalent Circuit Models − PNP Transistors Relations (3.The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier shown) is 10V . and (3.8..1.= 5 × 10 -----------------– 16 10 10 –6 v BE ⁄ V T = ln ( 5 × 10 ) v BE = V T ( ln 5 + 10 ln 10 ) = 26 × 10 ( 1.17) apply also to PNP transistor equivalent circuits except that v BE needs to be replaced by v EB as shown in Figure 3.61 + 23.= 2 × 10 . Solution: – 14 Ir – 16 -. i B = ( I r ⁄ β )e Then.8.17) For easy reference we summarize the current−voltage relationships for both NPN and PNP transistors in the active mode in Table 3. and (3.16).16).3. 5 × 10 e v BE ⁄ V T –6 v BE ⁄ V T = 10 – 16 v BE ⁄ V T e 10 = 5 × 10 . (3.15).03 ) ≈ 0.e.15). E iE ( I r ⁄ β )e v EB ⁄ V T v EB i C = βi B iC C B iB Figure 3.15). Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= 10 -------------------β 200 We find v BE from (3. –3 3.64 V The collector bias voltage V CC is used for proper transistor operation and its value is not required for the above calculations. (3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−7 . i. PNP transistor equivalent circuit model for relations (3.

Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors TABLE 3.9. and lower case letters for instantaneous values. I C = 1.1 are very useful in establishing voltage and current levels at various points on an NPN or PNP transistor. 3−8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. we use upper case letters for DC (constant) values. we want to keep the collector current I C * at 1. Transistor circuit for Example 3.9.3 An NPN transistor with β = 150 is to operate in the common (grounded) base configuration.= ---iB 1–α iE = iB + iC I r --------V i E = ⎛ -. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . after connecting the resistors and the bias voltages. A DC power supply at V S = ± 12 V is available and with two external resistors.6 mA and the collector voltage V C at 4 V . The circuit operates at T = 27 °C . Find the values of the resistors given that when V BE = 0. our circuit is as shown in Figure 3.⎞ e T i B = ⎛ -.= ---iE β+1 v EB iC α β = ----------. one connected between the collector and V CC and the other between the emitter and V EE .⎞ e T ⎝β ⎠ iB = iC ⁄ β iB = iE ⁄ ( β + 1 ) iB = ( 1 – α ) iE v BE iC = Ir e v BE -------VT I r --------I r --------V V i E = ⎛ -.= ---iB 1–α iE = iB + iC v BE iC β α = ----------.⎞ e T ⎝α⎠ ⎝β⎠ iB = iC ⁄ α iB = iC ⁄ β iC = Ir e v EB -------VT iC = β iB iC = α iE VT iC = β iB iC = α iE VT i E = ( β + 1 )i B i B = i E ⁄ ( β + 1 ) iB = ( 1 – α ) iE = 26 mV at T = 27 ° C = 26 mV at T = 27 ° C v BE = V T [ ln ( β ) – ln ( I r ) + ln ( i B ) ] v BE = V T [ ln ( β ) – ln ( I r ) + ln ( i B ) ] The relations in Table 3.2 mA .3 − Computations for R C * As stated earlier. IC RC V CC 12 V = 1.6 mA C VC E IE RE 12 V V EE = 4V B IB Figure 3.= ---iE β+1 iC α β = ----------.1 NPN and PNP transistor current−voltage characteristics NPN Transistor PNP Transistor iC β α = ----------. Example 3. Solution: Since the transistor is to operate at the common base configuration.7 V .⎞ e T ⎝ α⎠ iB = iC ⁄ α i E = ( β + 1 )i B v EB I r --------V i B = ⎛ -.

7 ) ⁄ V T ⎝ 1.6 mA VC 12 V = 4V IB VE B = – 0.708 V 12 V V EE Figure 3.2 mA Ir e V ⁄V 1.⎞ = ( V BE – 0.2 ⎠ 1.7 + 26 × 10 ln ⎛ -----.7 ) ⁄ V T 1.= ----------------------. I C = 1. by KVL I C = αI E IE = IC ⁄ α α = β ⁄ ( β + 1 ) = 150 ⁄ 151 = 0.6 ln ⎛ -----.10.2 ⎠ Next.993 I E = I C ⁄ α = ( 1.= e BE 0. We find V BE from the ratio BE T ( V – 0. V BE = V B – V E and since the base is grounded.61 mA Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier Application of Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) on the collector side of the circuit with I C = 1.10.6 mA ) ⁄ 0.3 − Computations for R E From Table 3. V B = 0 .⎞ = 0. RC IC V CC C E RE IE = 1.= 5 KΩ –3 IC 1.7 ⁄ V T 1.6 × 10 We are given that for V BE = 0. and Then.6 mA and V C = 4 V yields RC IC RC + V C = V CC V CC – V C 12 – 4 = --------------------.1 or and since β = 150 . and V E = – V BE = – 0.993 = 1. Transistor circuit for Example 3.6 –3 V BE = 0.2 mA and we need to find V BE at I C = 1.6 mA . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−9 .6 mA = I r e ------------------------------------.708 ⎝ 1.7 V .708 as shown in Figure 3.

RC = 5 KΩ C IC VC E RE IE = 10 KΩ V CC 12 V B IB VB VE V EE Figure 3. the base−emitter voltage v BE decreases approximately 2 mV for each 1 °C rise in temperature when the emitter current i E remains constant. 3−10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the change in V E is ΔV E = ( 50 – 27 ) °C × ( – 2 mV ⁄ 1 °C ) = – 46 mV and at T = 50 °C . Find the changes in emitter voltage V E and collector voltage V C if the temperature rises to T = 50 °C .046 = 0.11.654 V There is no change in the collector voltage V C because the emitter current I E is held constant.3 Effect of Temperature on the i C − v BE Characteristics As with diodes.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors – V E + R E I E = V EE V EE + V E – ( – 12 ) – 0. VE = 0.4 Solution: Since the base is grounded. the voltage V C remains unchanged.11.708 R E = --------------------.7 V and the emitter current I E is held constant at all temperature changes.4 For the PNP transistor circuit in Figure 3.= ------------------------------------. at T = 27 °C the emitter to base voltage v BE = 0. and since I C = αI E .61 × 10 3.= 7 KΩ –3 IE 1. Example 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . v EB = V E and since this voltage decreases by 2 mV for each 1 °C temperature rise.7 – 0. Circuit for Example 3.3.

This output resistance looking into the collector is defined as ∂v CE r out = ----------∂i C or (3. Ideally. current−out device. this resistance should be infinite and we can connect any passive load to the current source. most integrated circuits use transistors as loads instead of resistors R C . This voltage drop subtracts from the supply voltage V CC and the smaller the voltage drop.19) where V A is the Early voltage supplied by the manufacturer.18) vBE = cons tan t V IC A r out = ----- (3. We recall also that a resistor serves as a current limiter and it develops a voltage drop when current flows through it. let us illustrate a transistor in the common−emitter mode with the resistive circuit shown in Figure 3. Before we consider the next example. and when active loads (transistors) are used. This resistance is in the order of 100 KΩ or greater. The current into the base of the transistor is in the order of a few microamps while the current at the collector is in the order of a few milElectronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the larger the voltage V C at the collector.4 Collector Output Resistance − Early Voltage From basic circuit analysis theory.3. we recall that a current source has a parallel resistance attached to it and it is referred to as output resistance. Representing a transistor as a resistive circuit with a potentiometer When the potentiometer resistance is decreased (the wiper moves upwards) the current through the collector resistor R C increases and the voltage drop across R C increases. However. and I C is the DC collector current. We supply current to the base of the transistor and current appears at its collector. This voltage drop subtracts from the supply voltage V CC and the larger the voltage drop. we should consider the finite output resistance that is in parallel with the collector. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−11 .12.The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier 3. A transistor is a current−in. the smaller the voltage V C at the collector. V CC RC C B E VC Figure 3.12. Conversely. when the potentiometer resistance is increased (the wiper moves downwards) the current through the collector resistor R C decreases and the voltage drop across R C decreases.

The base to emitter voltage V BE is held constant at 0.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors liamps. Example 3. no current flows into the base. As v S decreases.13.14 indicates that the Early voltage is V A = 80 .19) are applicable here. Thus. and consequently the collector voltage v C increases. but the base current continues to increase causing an increase in the collector current i C .7 V and when V CC is adjusted so that V CE = 1 V .13 will help us understand the transistor operation in the common−emitter mode.= -----.8 mA . The transistor circuit and the waveforms shown in Figure 3. VA 80 r out = -----.7 V .7 V . Transistor operation in the common−emitter mode For the circuit of Figure 3.18) and (3.65 . less current flows into the base and the collector current decreases also causing the voltage drop across the resistor R C to decrease. Find the values of I C as V CE varies from 1 V to 10 V and plot I C versus V CE . and for this reason the output voltage v C appears as 180 ° out−of−phase with the input (supply) voltage v S . This.= 100 KΩ IC 0. the collector current I C = 0.13. But when the base−to−emitter voltage is v BE ≈ 0.5 The datasheet for the NPN transistor in Figure 3.8 3−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. in turn causes the voltage drop across the resistor R C to increase and thus the collector voltage v C decreases. Do you expect a linear relationship between I C and V CE ? Solution: Relations (3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . A further increase in the supply voltage v S has no effect on v BE which remains fairly constant at 0. V CC RC C vC iC EE iB vS vS RB B vC v BE i Figure 3. a small current flows into the base. for the base−to−emitter voltage interval 0 ≤ v BE ≤ 0.

r0=vA/iC1.00e-004 9..2e\n'. fprintf('%2. Table 3. title('iC vs vCE for Example 3.00e-004 Generally.00e-005 8..1)=vCE'.. ylabel('iC (A)').5 Δv CE –5 Δi C = ----------.15.90e-004 10 1.2 shows the three modes of operation in a bipolar transistor and the forward or reverse−biasing of the emitter−base and collector−base junctions.40e-004 5 5.3)=(iC1+vCE.50e-004 6 6.../r0)'. disp('-------------------------').2e \t %2.The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier RC IB VS RB B C IC E V CE V CC V BE and Figure 3./r0)'.00e-005 8. iC=zeros(10. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.10e-004 2 2. iC1=0. It is almost linear when a transistor operates in the active region.3)..iC(:.00e-005 8..iC').. iC(:.. vA=80. iC(:.00e-005 8. iC(:. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−13 ...30e-004 4 4.. and non−linear when it operates in the cutoff and saturation regions..3)).00e-005 8. The MATLAB script below performs all computations and plots I C versus V CE .80e-004 9 9.00e-005 8.. fprintf(' \n'). the i C versus v CE relation is non−linear.14.8*10^(−3). disp('vCE delta iC new iC').2)=(vCE.00e-005 8..60e-004 7 7.00e-005 8.. The plot is shown in Figure 3..00e-005 8.5') vCE delta iC new iC ------------------------1 1.20e-004 3 3. vCE=1: 10.= 10 Δv CE r out This expression shows that there is a linear relationship between I C and V CE .70e-004 8 8. Circuit for Example 3. plot(vCE.. grid.0f \t %2. xlabel('vCE (V)').

3 V and VE 4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Plot for Example 3. 3−14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Solution: From the given circuit. and determine whether this circuit with the indicated values operates in the active. β = 120 and V BE = 0. Find V E .7 .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 9.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 vCE (V) 7 8 9 10 Figure 3.5 × 10 β α = ----------.= --------------------. or cutoff mode.6 8.8 iC (A) 8.2 Region of operation for bipolar transistors Region of Operation Emitter−Base junction Collector−base junction Active Saturation Cutoff Forward Forward Reverse Reverse Forward Reverse Example 3. saturation. I C .= 120 = 0.3 I E = -----. by observation V E = V B – V BE = 5 – 0.5 TABLE 3.6 For the circuit in Figure 3. Then. I E . V C .2 8 x 10 -4 iC vs vCE for Example 3.15.72 mA 3 RE 2.7 = 4.4 8.= 1.2 9 8.992 -------β+1 121 It is given that β = 120 .16.

3 mA 3 RE 5 × 10 –3 3 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and I B . Find V E . V C . Example 3.5 KΩ VE and Then.= ----------------. R E = 5 KΩ . V CC = – 12 V . Figure 3. It is not because V C < V B and thus we conclude that with the given values the transistor is in saturation mode.6 I C = αI E = 0.7 I E = --------------------.= 2. I C . R C = 3 KΩ .17.16 V We observe that the transistor is an NPN type and for the active mode operation the base−collector junction PN must be reverse−biased. With V EE = 12 V it is reasonable to assume that the emitter−base junction is forward−biased and since the base is grounded.7 V and V EE – V E 12 – 0. Is the circuit operating in the active mode? Solution: The circuit is as shown in Figure 3.7 For a PNP transistor circuit with the base grounded. it is given that V EE = 12 V .992 × 1.16.01 mA = 10 μA Finally.72 = 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−15 .72 mA – 1.71 × 10 × 4 × 10 = 3. I E . we find the collector voltage V C as V C = V CC – I C R C = 10 – 1.71 mA = 0.71 mA I B = 1. Circuit for Example 3. we have V E = V EB = 0.The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier 4 KΩ 10 V IC VC E RC RB VS B IB C V CC V BE VB = 5V IE RE 2.and β = 150 .

993 × 2. we apply Thevenin’s theorem at points x and y as shown in Figure 3. Find I B . PNP transistor for Example 3. V C . I C . The base current is I B = I E – I C = 2.28 mA –3 V C = R C I C – V CC = 3 × 10 × 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and Figure 3.19. and V E .12 = 4 V 60 + 30 R1 + R2 –3 –3 = 20 μA 3−16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.3 × 10 – 2. we find that R2 30 V TH = V xy = -----------------.17.7 β α = ----------.28 × 10 – 12 = – 5.16 V With this value of V C .8 For the circuit in Figure 3.V S = ----------------.= 150 = 0. V B .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors RE V EBE B IB 5 KΩ IE V EE VE 12 V IC VC C 3 KΩ V CC 12 V RC With β = 150 Then. I E .28 × 10 Example 3. Is the transistor operating in the active mode? Solution: To simplify the part of the circuit to the left of the base.18. the collector−base junction is reverse−biased and the PNP transistor is in the active mode. and denoting the Thevenin equivalent voltage and resistance as V TH and R TH respectively. it is known that β = 120 .3 × 10 3 –3 = 2.993 -------β+1 151 I C = αI E = 0.

Circuit for Example 3.20.20.18. The circuit in Figure 3.The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier RC 8 KΩ IC VC IE RE 5 KΩ C R1 60 KΩ 30 KΩ 12 V IB B V BE R2 VB E 12 V V CC VS VE Figure 3. RC 8 KΩ IC V CC C R TH I B B V TH 4V 20 KΩ VC V BE I E E VB RE VE 5 KΩ 12 V Figure 3.7 + ( 5 × 10 )I E = 4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.19.8 R1 60 KΩ VS 12 V R2 30 KΩ x V TH R TH 20 KΩ x y 4V y Figure 3.= 20 KΩ R1 + R2 60 + 30 The circuit in Figure 3.8 and R1 × R2 60 × 30 R TH = -----------------. Application of Thevenin’s theorem to the circuit of Example 3.18 is thus reduced to that in Figure 3.= ----------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3 3 3−17 .20 yields R TH I B + V BE + R E I E = V TH ( 20 × 10 )I B + 0.18 after application of Thevenin’s theorem Application of KVL around the left part of the circuit of Figure 3.

for convenience. and –6 –3 –3 A = 5. 3−18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.66 × 10 I B = 5.66 × 10 125I B = 0. some of these biasing methods compensate for slight variations in transistor characteristics and changes in transistor conduction resulting from temperature irregularities.66 × 10 3 5 × 10 From Table 3.2 V V B = V BE + V E = 0.7 + 3.9 V I C = I E – I B = 0.634 mA –3 V C = V CC – R C I C = 12 – 8 × 10 × 0. However. Then.28 × 10 and Next. and Also. it is not practical to use a separate emitter−base bias voltage V BE .1.639 × 10 = 3.639 mA –3 V E = R E I E = 5 × 10 × 0.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors –3 3. the base−collector PN junction is reverse−biased and thus the transistor is in active mode.639 × 10 – 5. 3.3 4I B + I E = ---------------.4 Transistor Amplifier Circuit Biasing In our previous discussion.2 = 3. In addition to eliminating the battery.28 × 10 3 = 0. 4I B + ( β + 1 )I B = 0.7 V .28 μA –6 I E = ( β + 1 )I B = 121 × 5.93 V Since this is an NPN transistor and V C > V B . For this reason we use resistors in the order of kilohms to form voltage dividers with desired values.28 × 10 3 –3 –6 = 0. a separate voltage source V BE has been used to provide the necessary forward−bias voltage and another voltage source V CC to establish a suitable collector voltage V C where V C = V CC – R C I C . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . This is because conventional batteries are not available for 0.= 0. I E = ( β + 1 )I B .634 × 10 = 6.

the voltage across the base−emitter junction becomes more posiElectronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. As the input signal goes positive. The input to the amplifier is a sine wave that varies a few millivolts above and below zero. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−19 . + RB R C V CC− C VC E V CC VC 0V v out + Vp 0 C − B – Vp v in = Vp sin ωt Figure 3. Conventional current flows from V CC through R B to the base then to the grounded emitter. The coupling capacitor also blocks the bias of the transistor from reaching the input signal source. Since the current in the base circuit is very small (a few hundred microamperes) and the forward resistance of the transistor is low.21. the voltage on the collector would always be equal to V CC . only a few tenths of a volt of positive bias will be felt on the base of the transistor. These DC voltages and currents that exist in the circuit before the application of a signal are known as quiescent voltages and currents (the quiescent state of the circuit). this is enough voltage on the base. The collector resistor R C is placed in the circuit to keep the full effect of the collector supply voltage off the collector. The basic NPN transistor amplifier biased with a resistive network With the transistor properly biased. This permits the collector voltage V C to change with an input signal.Transistor Amplifier Circuit Biasing Figure 3. The coupling capacitor C is used to pass the ac input signal and block the dc voltage from the preceding circuit. It is introduced into the circuit by the coupling capacitor and is applied between the base and emitter. We will discuss the Q point in detail in a later section. I B ) . The DC quiescent point is the DC bias point Q with coordinates ( V BE. throughout the entire circuit. it also develops the collector voltage V C as it flows from V CC through resistor R C and. The direct current flowing through the circuit develops more than just base bias. This prevents DC in the circuitry on the left of the coupling capacitor from affecting the bias on the transistor.21 shows the basic NPN transistor amplifier where resistor R B provides the necessary forward bias for the emitter−base junction. with or without an input signal. as we can see on the output graph. Without R C in the circuit. which in turn allows the transistor to amplify voltage. direct current flows continuously. along with ground on the emitter and the large positive voltage on the collector to properly bias the transistor. However. the output signal starts at the V C level and either increases or decreases.

which provides the necessary forward bias condition between the emitter and base. With an increase in collector current. By examining both input and output signals for one complete alternation of the input. This in effect increases forward bias. more voltage is developed across R C . This action decreases base current. the output voltage from the amplifier.22 shows the basic PNP transistor amplifier. which causes base current to increase at the same rate as that of the input sine wave.22. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the primary difference between the NPN and PNP amplifier is the polarity of the source voltage V CC . it opposes the forward bias of the transistor.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors tive. we can see that the output of the amplifier is an exact reproduction of the input except for the reversal in polarity and the increased amplitude (a few millivolts as compared to a few volts). Figure 3. taken at the collector of the transistor with respect to the emitter. but has the same sine wave characteristics. which reduces the current through the transistor. the voltage across R C decreases. Since the voltage across R C and the voltage across the transistor (collector to emitter) must add up to V CC . the input signal opposes the forward bias. The decrease in current through R C decreases its voltage drop and causes the voltage across the transistor to rise along with the output voltage. is a negative alternation of voltage that is larger than the input. RC C VC E V CC RB − + V CC VC 0V v out + Vp 0 C − B – Vp v in = V p sin ωt Figure 3. Therefore. The basic PNP transistor amplifier When the PNP input signal goes positive. Therefore. This action cancels some of the negative voltage across the emitter−base junction. As we already know. the PNP base voltage is slightly negative with respect to ground. During the negative alternation of the input. With a negative V CC . which results in a decrease in both collector and emitter currents. an increase in voltage across R C results in an equal decrease in voltage across the transistor. Therefore. Collector and emitter currents also increase but much more than the base current. and the voltage 3−20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the output for the negative alternation of the input is a positive alternation of voltage that is larger than the input but has the same sine wave characteristics.

the input signals in the preceding circuits were amplified because the small change in base current caused a large change in collector current.8 we can simplify the circuit in Figure 3.Fixed Bias across the transistor increases. some are used as single devices. the output is a negative alternation of voltage that varies at the same rate as the sine wave input. This action results in a positive output voltage. Since V CC is negative. During the negative alternation of the input signal. Thus. voltage amplification was achieved. but it is opposite in polarity and has a much larger amplitude.23.5 Fixed Bias The biasing method used in the transistor circuits in Figures 3. by placing resistor R C in series with the collector. the voltage across the transistor decreases or goes in a positive direction. In summary. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−21 . which has the same characteristics as the input except that it has been amplified and the polarity is reversed.22 is known as fixed bias. one must establish a constant DC current in the emitter so that it will not be very sensitive to temperature variations and large variations in the value of β among transistors of the same type. To bias a transistor properly. the voltage on the collector V C goes in a negative direction toward V CC .23 with the use of Thevenin’s theorem to the circuit in Figure 3. or ICs. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and consequently. Also. the voltage across R C increases. Figure 3.21 and 3. NPN Transistor with fixed bias Following the procedure of Example 3. Even though with modern technology transistors are components (parts) of integrated circuits. Therefore. the Q point must be chosen so that it will allow maximum signal swing from positive to negative values.23 shows another configuration of an NPN transistor with fixed bias. 3. And.24. V CC + − R1 RC C B R2 E RE Figure 3. the transistor current increases because the input voltage aids the forward bias.

Designers recommend that the sum of R 1 and R 2 is 3−22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.23 after application of Thevenin’s theorem With reference to Figures 3. Therefore.23 and 3.22) From expression (3.1 Then. From Figure 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .= ---------------------------------------RE + RB ⁄ ( β + 1 ) RE + RB ⁄ ( β + 1 ) (3.24. or 1 I B = ⎛ ----------. let us now derive an expression for I E .7 and R E » R B ⁄ ( β + 1 ) .20) (3. we should use small resistance values for R 1 and R 2 .24 with application of KVL we obtain R B I B + V BE + R E I E = V BB and from Table 3. R B must be small and since R B = R 1 R 2 ⁄ ( R 1 + R 2 ) .24 we obtain the following relations: R2 V BB = -----------------. The circuit in Figure 3. Accordingly.⎞ I E + V BE + R E I E = V BB ⎝ β + 1⎠ V BB – V BE V BB – 0.21) It was stated earlier that it is imperative to keep variations in temperature and changes in β values to a minimum and this can be achieved by making the emitter current I E fairly constant.22) we see that the emitter current I E will be fairly constant if V BB » 0.V CC R1 + R2 R1 R2 R B = -----------------R1 + R2 (3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors V CC + − RC C IB B V BE RE IE IC + V BB RB − E Figure 3.⎞ I E ⎝β+1⎠ 1 R B ⎛ ----------.7 I E = ---------------------------------------.

And since IC = Ir e V BE ⁄ V T . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−23 .5I E . and assuming that the base current is negligible. this is a contradiction to our original assumption (increase in I E ) and thus we say that the emitter resistor R E provides a negative feedback action.25. let us assume that the emitter current I E increases. Obviously.26 β = 120 . the I E current.9 For the transistor circuit of Figure 3. For convenience. and the product R C I C each be close to one−third of the value of V CC . the voltages R E I E and V E will also increase.Fixed Bias such that the current through them (assuming that the base current is zero) is about half of the emitter current I E . and the product R C I C each be close to one−third of the value of V CC . NPN transistor with fixed bias Circuit designers maintain that if we specify the V CC voltage. Find the values of the four resistors for appropriate fixed biasing. the base − to − emitter voltage V BE will decrease. It is also recommended that V BB . RC C IR IB R2 B RB B IB V BE RE E IE V CC + − RC C V CC + − R1 ≈0 E RE IE + V BB − Figure 3. the current I R through resistors R 1 and R 2 is I R = 0. To understand how this is done. we will denote the sum of R 1 and R 2 as R eq . V CB or V CB .23 which is repeated as Figure 3. Example 3. both the collector current I C and emitter current I E will decrease. Let us consider the transistor circuit in Figure 3. V CB or V CB . In this case. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. we can determine the appropriate values of the four resistors for proper biasing by letting the values of V BB .25 for convenience. and the value of β . It is often said that the emitter resistor R E provides a negative feedback action which stabilizes the bias current. But the base voltage being determined by the voltage division provided by resistors R 1 and R 2 will remain relatively constant and according to KVL.

Transistor circuit for Example 3. Then.9 and its Thevenin equivalent As stated above. 1 1 V BB = -.27. and the product R C I C each be close to one−third of the value of V CC .9 The given circuit and its Thevenin equivalent are shown in Figure 3.15 = 5 V 3 3 and with reference to the Thevenin equivalent circuit above. RC C IR IB R2 B RB B IB V BE RE E IE V CC + − 15 V R1 RC C IC V CC + − V CC ≈0 E RE IE + V BB − Figure 3.V CC = -.5I E .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors V CC + − R1 RC 15 V C B R2 E RE IE Solution: Figure 3.27. The transistor circuit in Example 3. it is suggested that the values of V BB . and assuming that the base current is negligible. V CB or V CB . The Thevenin equivalent is shown just to indicate the value of V BB which will be used in the calculations. since I B ≈ 0 by KVL V BE + R E I E = V BB 3−24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the current I R through resistors R 1 and R 2 is I R = 0.26.

= ----------. This reaction to temperature is undesirable because it affects amplifier gain (the number of times of amplification) and could result in distortion.= ---------------------------------------------------. A better method of biasing. the collector current will increase.15 V = ------------------. that is.7 R E = ------------------------. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= 4.= -----------------------.6 Self−Bias The fixed bias arrangement discussed in the previous section is thermally unstable. as shown in Figure 3.3 KΩ –3 IE 1 × 10 Also.96 KΩ –3 IC αI E ( β ⁄ ( β + 1 ) )I E ( 120 ⁄ 121 ) × 1 × 10 We will find the value of R C from the relation 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−25 .28.15 V R1 + R2 R1 + R2 300 KΩ R2 5 V------------------.5I E 0.Self−Bias V BB – V BE 5 – 0. known as self− bias is obtained by inserting the bias resistor directly between the base and collector. R2 R2 R2 V TH = V BB = 5 V = -----------------.= --------------------------------.= ----------. If the temperature of the transistor rises for any reason (due to a rise in ambient temperature or due to current flow through it). This increase in current also causes the DC quiescent point to move away from its desired position (level).= ----------------------. as we will see later in this chapter.= 4.= 1 -300 KΩ 15 V 3 and thus and R 2 = 100 KΩ R 1 = 300 KΩ – R 2 = 300 KΩ – 100 KΩ = 200 KΩ 1 R C I C = -.= 300 KΩ –3 IR 0.V CC 3 or ( 1 ⁄ 3 )V CC ( 1 ⁄ 3 )V CC ( 1 ⁄ 3 )V CC 5 R C = -----------------------.= -----------------.V CC = -----------------.5 × 10 To find R eq = ( R 1 + R 2 ) we use the Thevenin equivalent voltage expression. R eq I R = ( R 1 + R 2 )I R = V CC V CC V CC 15 R eq = ( R 1 + R 2 ) = --------.

23) we see that to maintain the emitter current I E fairly constant.28. The decrease in base current will oppose the original increase in collector current and tend to stabilize it. feedback voltage can be fed from the collector to the base to develop forward bias. NPN transistor amplifier with self−bias By tying the collector to the base in this manner. Example 3.28. if an increase of temperature causes an increase in collector current. the collector voltage V C will fall because of the increase of voltage produced across the collector resistor R L . From Figure 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . This drop in V C will be fed back to the base and will result in a decrease in the base current.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors V CC IB C RC IB RB B E + IC = IE IC IE Figure 3. The exact opposite effect is produced when the collector current decreases. we should choose the 3−26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.23) From (3.I E + V BE = V CC β+1 V CC – V BE I E = ---------------------------------------RC + RB ⁄ ( β + 1 ) collector and base resistors such that R B ⁄ ( β + 1 ) « R C . (3.29 β = 120 and we want the collector voltage to vary in accordance with V C = 3 sin ωt V + V BE and I E = 1 mA .10 For the transistor circuit in Figure 3. Now. Find the values of R C and R B to meet these specifications. R C I E + R B I B + V BE = V CC 1 R C I E + R B ----------.

10 We assign current directions as shown in Figure 3.⎞ I E + 0.= -----------------. by inspection 3 R B = ---------------------------------------------.= 11.7 R C = ---------------------.30.= 363 KΩ –3 1 × 10 × ( 1 ⁄ 121 ) V C = V CC – R C I E V CC – V C 15 – 3.30.7 ⎝ β + 1⎠ or Also.10 with assigned current directions By inspection. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−27 . 1 V C = R B I B + V BE = R B ⎛ ----------.29. Circuit for Example 3.7 = 3 + 0. RC IB RB B E C IB 15 V V CC + IC = IE IC IE Figure 3.Self−Bias 15 V V CC RC RB B C E Solution: Figure 3.7 = 3 sin ωt + 0.3 KΩ –3 IE 1 × 10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Transistor circuit for Example 3.

31(a) shows a simple amplifier being used to drive output signals into a resistive load. we should remember that every amplifier has some unavoidable limitations on its performance. but this gain cannot normally be infinite so may not be large enough for a given purpose. Let us first discuss the limits to signal size. This is not always the case with all types of amplifiers. A given amplifier cannot output signals above a particular level.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 3. • Limited output voltage. The portion of the input for which there is an output determines the class of operation of the amplifier. 3−28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. We denote this variable resistor. Class B. The actual signal pattern will be altered due non−linearities in the amplifier. hence degrading the SNR (signal to noise ratio). • Finite gain.31(b) and 3. The two extreme values of the variable resistor are R tr = ∞ (open circuit) and R tr = 0 (short circuit). The power supply voltages are +V CC and – V EE and thus the output voltage v out will be limited to the range – V EE < v out < +V CC From our earlier discussion we can think of the transistor as a variable resistor between the collector resistor R C and emitter resistor R E . there is always a finite limit to the output signal size.e. It may be desirable to have the transistor conducting for only a portion of the input signal. They are Class A. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and power levels. • Distortion. This. All electronic devices tend to add some random noise to the signals passing through them. as R tr and its value depends on the input voltage v in .31(c). Figure 3. i. This is why we often use multiple amplifiers or stages to achieve a desired overall gain. These conditions are shown in Figures 3.7 Amplifier Classes and Operation In the previous discussions we assumed that for every portion of the input signal there was an output from the amplifier. the transistor. There are four classes of amplifier operations. Class AB. This also reduces the accuracy of measurements and communications.. • Noise. limits the accuracy of any measurement or communication. For each amplifier there is an upper frequency beyond which it finds it impossible to amplify signals. and Class C. in turn. current. Before discussing the different classes of amplifiers. A given amplifier may have a high gain. The most important that we need to be concerned about when choosing and using them are: • Limited bandwidth.

therefore.25) Obviously.Amplifier Classes and Operation RC C B E RE V EE R load V CC V CC V CC RC C RC C B R tr v out B R tr = ∞ E RE R load v out = 0 E RE R load v out V EE V EE (a) (b) Figure 3.31.31(b) yields the maximum voltage across the load resistor. Simple amplifier with resistive load (c) Application of the voltage division expression for the circuit in Figure 3. R C « R load to maximize the current through the load resistor.32.31(c) where the load resistor is disconnected. we must make the collector resistor R C much smaller than the load resistor R load .32.1 R load (3. that is. From Figure 3. that is. Thevenin equivalent for the circuit in Figure 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−29 .⋅ V CC R R C + R load (3. For convenience.26) Next.31(c). we want the power delivered to the load resistor to be maximum.24) and the corresponding maximum current is V CC i out ( max ) = -----------------------R C + R load (3. R C = 0. R TH RC V CC RE I V EE V TH V TH R load v out Figure 3. we redraw the circuit as shown in Figure 3. that is. load v out ( max ) = -----------------------. we choose R C to be one−tenth of the value of R load .32. by application of Thevenin’s theorem for the circuit of Figure 3. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

27) (3. or R E = 0. the Thevenin resistance R TH shown in (3. RC C V CC v in B E RE R load v out V EE Figure 3.30) Example 3. We already have minimized R C to be R C = 0. the transistor. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .29) should be minimized.11 3−30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Taken into account the recommendations discussed above for sizing the emitter and collector resistors.01R load (3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors V CC + V EE I = -----------------------RC + RE V TH R E V CC – R C V EE = V CC – R C I = -------------------------------------RC + RE RC RE R TH = ------------------RC + RE (3. that is. R E = 0. find the power absorbed by the combination of the collector resistor.28) (3.1R C .1 R load . so let us make R E one−tenth of R C .29) and thus load v out ( min ) = --------------------------.33 is to be used as the output stage of an audio system whose load resistance is R load = 8 Ω and the supply voltages are V CC = +24V and V EE = – 24V .V TH R R TH + R load From (3.29) we see that for v out ( min ) to be close to – V EE .28) and (3. Circuit for Example 3. and the emitter resistor when v out = 0 V and the amplifier is on.33.11 Let us suppose that the circuit of Figure 3.

34.1 Class A Amplifier Operation Class A amplifiers are biased so that variations in input signal polarities occur within the limits of cutoff and saturation. if the base becomes positive with respect to the emitter. Class A amplifiers are used as amplifiers in radio.Amplifier Classes and Operation Solution: With R C = 0. radar. that is. In a PNP transistor.34 during the following discussion. Biasing an amplifier in this manner places the DC operating point between cutoff and saturation and allows collector current to flow during the complete cycle (360 degrees) of the input signal. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.35 is an example of a Class A amplifier.8 = 30 A . please refer to Figure 3. Output signals for Class A.8 Ω and v out = 0 V . this current will flow through the transistor and the emitter resistor and into the negative power supply.44 Kw . thus providing an output which is a replica of the input. holes will be repelled at the PN junction and no current can flow in the collector circuit.1 × 8 = 0. This current is referred to a quiescent current and it is defined as the current in the amplifier when the output voltage is zero. Although the output from this amplifier is 180 degrees out−of−phase with the input. I C = 24 ⁄ 0. The output stages of Class A amplifiers carry a fairly large current. and the emitter resistor R E will be 30 × ( 24 + 24 ) = 1440 w = 1. Thus. This condition is known as cutoff. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−31 . This is indeed a very large amount of power and thus this amplifier is obviously very inefficient. for example. there is no current through the load resistor and since R C I C + v out = 24 V .7. For a comparison of output signals for the different amplifier classes of operation. 3. Class B. the output current still flows for the complete duration of the input. Class A Class B Class AB Class C Figure 3. the transistor. Saturation occurs when the base becomes so negative with respect to the emitter that changes in the signal are not reflected in collector−current flow. and Class C amplifiers We should remember that the circuits presented in our subsequent discussion are only the output stages of an amplifier to provide the necessary drive to the load.1R load = 0. the power absorbed by the combination of the collector resistor R C . Since there is no current through the load. and sound systems. Figure 3. Class AB. the amplifier will be drawing 30 A from the positive power supply.

36. a Class A amplifier can be made more efficient if we employ a push−pull* arrangement as shown in Figure 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .36. RC C VC E VC 0V V CC RB − + V CC v out + Vp 0 C − B – Vp v in = V p sin ωt Figure 3. denoted as I Q . we can adjust the currents i 1 and i 2 to be equal and opposite.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors In Example 3.35. It is convenient to set the quiescent current. * The expression push−pull (or double ended) derives its name from the fact that one of the two transistors pushes (sources) current into the load during the positive cycle while the other pulls (sinks) current from the load during the negative cycle.33 is very inefficient. However.36. Then. to one−half the maximum current drawn by the load. it is evident that we can control the currents i 1 and i 2 by varying the input voltages v in1 and v in2 . 3−32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Typical Class A amplifier R E1 i1 i load v in2 + − V EE v in1 + R load v out − R E2 i2 − + V EE Figure 3. Push−Pull Output stage for a Class A amplifier From the circuit in Figure 3. Then.11 we learned that the arrangement of the circuit in Figure 3.

– V EE = – 24 V .32) The currents i 1 and i 2 in each transistor vary from 0 to 2I Q . Circuit for Example 3.12 Solution: The maximum load current is and the quiescent current is Then. Compute the power absorbed by the circuit if we want to apply up to 24 V to the 8 Ω load.37. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−33 . each transistor will absorb i load ( max ) = 24 V = 3 A ----------8Ω I Q = 3 A = 1. + V EE = 24 V . Example 3. the load current is within the range – 2I Q ≤ i load ≤ 2I Q . therefore. R E1 i1 i load v in2 + 24 V − V EE v in1 R load + 8Ω v out − R E2 24 V i2 − + V EE Figure 3.5 = 36 w and the total power absorbed by the circuit is Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and R load = 8 Ω .31) (3.5 A -------2 P = 24 × 1.37.Amplifier Classes and Operation i load i 1 = I Q + --------2 and i load i 2 = I Q – --------2 (3.12 In the circuit in Figure 3.

but it is much more efficient than the circuit in the previous example. the upper transistor conducts and the lower transistor is cutoff. and since v BE1 = v D1 .7. the upper transistor is cutoff and the lower transistor conducts.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors P total = 2 × 36 = 72 w This is not very efficient. and since v EB2 = v D2 . Then.33) When v in goes negative. The current in the diodes is supplied by two current sources denoted as I bias .38 shows the output stage of a Class B amplifier.38. we find that v 1 = v in for v in > 0 (3. then the input to the base of the lower transistor is v in – v D2 and the voltage at the emitter terminal of the lower transistor is v 2 = v EB2 + v in – v D2 . Output stage in a typical Class B amplifier When v in goes positive. + V − CC I bias R C1 v D1 v in v D2 + v BE1 − v1 R E1 i load R E2 R load + v EB2 + − I bias R C2 v2 i1 − v out − + V CC Figure 3. 3. we find that 3−34 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2 Class B Amplifier Operation The circuit in Figure 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . This consists also of a push−pull arrangement but the bases (inputs) are tied by two diodes. the input to the base of the upper transistor is v in + v D1 and the voltage at the emitter terminal of the upper transistor is v 1 = v in + v D1 – v BE1 .

and the current and the output of both transistors including the quiescent currents I bias will be zero also. Accordingly. they produce crossover distortion.37) (3.39. it appears that this arrangement has perfect efficiency.34) we conclude that v 1 = v 2 = v in (3. is v1 – v2 2v D v D I bias = ----------------------. we have v 1 – v 2 = 2v D and the quiescent current. Crossover distortion v in v out Figure 3.= ----R E1 + R E2 2R E R E (3. This distortion is due to the non−linearities in transistor devices where the output does not vary linearly with the input.Amplifier Classes and Operation v 2 = v in for v in < 0 From (3. 3. and the power absorbed by the circuit will be zero. Crossover distortion in Class B amplifier The efficiency of a typical Class B amplifier varies between 65 to 75 percent.40. and Class B amplifiers although are efficient.34) Therefore. and since v BE1 = v D1 = v D2 .35) (3. Class AB amplifiers combine the advantages of Class A and Class B amplifiers while they minimize the problems associated with them. when v in = 0 . v 1 = 0 . There exists a range where both transistors are cutoff when the input signal changes polarity and this results in crossover distortion as shown in Figure 3. and v 2 = 0 also. we find that v 1 = v in + v D and similarly for the lower transistor v 2 = v in – v D . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−35 . assuming that R E1 = R E2 .36) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.40(a) the voltage v 1 at the upper transistor is v 1 = v in + v D1 + v D2 – v BE1 .39. In Figure 3.33) and (3.= --------. However. this ideal condition is never achieved because no two diodes or two transistors are exactly identical.7. when v in = 0 .3 Class AB Amplifier Operation We’ve seen that Class A amplifiers are very inefficient. Two possible arrangements for the output stage of a typical Class AB amplifier are shown in Figure 3. Then.

5 Ω . 3−36 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.40. Two possible arrangements for the output stage in a typical Class AB amplifier For small output signals that require currents in the range – 2 I bias < i load < 2 I bias both transistors will conduct and will behave as Class A amplifier.38) and the output power will be P load 2v D = -------.5 V . For sinusoidal signals into the load R load . one transistor will conduct and supply the current required by the load. while the other will be cutoff. so let R E = 0. In other words. the RMS voltage will be D v out ( RMS ) = -----------.40(a) acts like a Class B amplifier and hence the name Class AB amplifier. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . But for larger signals.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors V CC I bias + − R C1 I bias V CC + − v in v D1 v D2 v D3 v D4 + v BE1 − v1 A R1 R adj R2 B + + v BE1 − v1 i load R E1 i load + R load v out − R E1 v AB R E2 − v EB2 + − v2 i1 v in R E2 v2 v EB2 + i 1 − R load− v out + I bias R C2 I bias (a) − V + CC − V + CC (b) Figure 3. and let R load = 8 Ω and v D = 0.39) For maximum power. we should make R E as small as possible.⋅ R load 2v RE (3. for large signals the circuit of Figure 3. Then.⋅ R load 2 RE 2 (3.

⋅ R load = --------. However.40(b). A typical Class C output stage is shown in Figure 3. However. Class AB designs are about 50 percent efficient (half of the power supply is power is turned into output to drive speakers) compared to Class A designs at 20 percent efficiency. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications + iL L V CC C 3−37 . current i L flows through the inductor and creates a magnetic field. The adjustable resistor R adj is set to a position to yield the desired value of the quiescent current I bias .41. in frequency modulation (FM). The load can be thought of as an antenna. complete current is not allowed to flow at any one time thus avoiding much of the inefficiency of the Class A amplifier. From the above discussion. the total power absorbed will be P total = 24 × 1 + 20 = 44 w For the circuit in Figure 3.5= -------. During the positive half−cycle the transistor behaves like a closed switch.25 RE 2 If we let V CC = 24 V and I bias = 1 A . and at the same time the capacitor discharges and thus the two currents i C + i L flow through the emitter to the Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.× 8 = 20 w 2 0. the voltage v AB can be adjusted to any desired value by selecting appropriate values for resistors R 1 and R 2 . Output stage in a typical Class C amplifier In Class C amplifier operation.7. we have seen that the Class AB amplifier maintains current flow at all times so that the output devices can begin operation nearly instantly without the crossover distortion in Class B amplifiers. 3. + − − v in Load v BE − iC + iL + iC Figure 3. and phase and pulse amplification.Amplifier Classes and Operation P load 2v D 0. Class C amplifiers cannot be used with amplitude modulation (AM) because of the high distortion.41.4 Class C Amplifier Operation Class C amplifiers have high efficiency and find wide applications in continuous wave (CW) laser and radar applications. Class AB amplifiers are the most commonly used amplifier designs due to their attractive combination of good efficiency and high−quality output (low distortion and high linearity close to but not equal to Class A amplifiers).41 behaves as a open−closed switch. the transistor in Figure 3.

the interested reader may find information on the Internet.40) The equation of (3. These are for special applications and will not be discussed in this text. Class E.43.41) v BE ⁄ nV T (3. and others have been developed by some manufacturers. 3. This equation can be expressed as V BB 1 i B = – -----.42.42 for our graphical analysis. the magnetic field in the inductor collapses and the current i L will flow through the capacitor and the load. During the negative half−cycle the transistor behaves like an open switch. Circuit showing the variables used in the graphs in Figures 3. RC RB iC + − V CC v in V BB i B v BE + − + v CE − − + iE Figure 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors ground. Other classes of amplifiers such as Class D. This equation and the curve of equation (3.42) RB RB We recognize (3. For more information on these.43 and 3.44 We start with a plot of i B versus v BE to determine the point where the curve i B = ( I r ⁄ β )e and the equation of the straight line intersect V BB – v BE i B = -----------------------RB (3.41) was obtained with the AC source v in shorted out. We will use the circuit in Figure 3.8 Graphical Analysis The operation of a simple transistor circuit can also be described graphically.40) are shown in Figure 3. 3−38 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.42) as the equation of a straight line of the form y = mx + b with slope – 1 ⁄ R B .v BE + --------(3.

I B ) IB V BE V BB 0. amps').43. Family of curves for different values of i B Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.4 0./beta).. volts').2 0 0 0.42) We used the following MATLAB script to plot the curve of equation (3.iB).40) and (3. amps V BB ⁄ R B Slope = – 1 ⁄ R B ( V BE. iR=10^(−15).6 0.44.8 1 Base-Emitter voltage vBE.2 0..4 0.43 we obtain the values of V BE and I B on the v BE and i B axes respectively. where the straight line with slope –1 ⁄ R C is derived from the relation (3.. volts Figure 3.*exp(vBE. n=1..Graphical Analysis 1 x 10 -6 iB-vBE characteristics for the circuit of Figure 3.8 Base current iB.*VT)). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−39 . axis([0 1 0 10^(−6)]). we refer to the family of curves of the collector current i C versus collector−emitter voltage v CE for different values of i B as shown in Figure 3. beta = 100. VT=27*10^(−3). Plot showing the intersection of Equations (3.6 0.40). Next.44.42 0. title('iB−vBE characteristics for the circuit of Figure 3.01: 1.. vBE=0: 0.43) v CE = V CC – R C i C V CC -------RC iC Slope = – 1 ⁄ R C i Bn … i B4 i B3 iB = IB i B2 i B1 V CE V CC IC Q v CE Figure 3...42')./(n.. ylabel('Base current iB. plot(vBE. iB=(iR. xlabel('Base−Emitter voltage vBE. grid From Figure 3..

43) for i C we obtain V CC 1 i C = – -----.46. commonly known as load line.45. and the curve i B = I B intersect at point Q whose coordinates are the DC bias values V CE and I C .13 For the circuit in Figure 3. and iC . v CE . Circuit for Example 3. * We observe that (3. Example 3. i B . this straight line. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .47.v CE + --------.* RC RC (3.44. 3−40 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the value of the collector resistor R C must be chosen such that the load line is neither a nearly horizontal nor a nearly vertical line.44) As shown in Figure 3.40) describes an equation of a straight line of the form y = mx + b where the slope is m = – 1 ⁄ RC and the ordinate axis intercept is b = VCC ⁄ RC . the second at v in = V p . the input voltage v i is a sinusoidal waveform. RC RB iC + − V CC v in V BB i B v BE + − + v CE − − + iE Figure 3. Using the i B versus v BE and i C versus v CE curves shown in Figure 3.45. The input voltage v in is superimposed on the DC bias voltage V BB .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors Solving (3. one corresponding to input v in = 0 . We draw three parallel lines with slope – 1 ⁄ R B . sketch the waveforms for v BE .13 Solution: Let v in = V p sin ωt . and the third at v in = – V p as shown in Figure 3. Obviously.

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.48 is the graphical representation of v CE and i C when the input voltage v in is a sinusoid.13 iB V BB -------RB Slope = – 1 ⁄ R B IB Q iB v BE V BE v BE V BB v in Figure 3.46. i B versus v BE and i C versus v CE curves for Example 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−41 .47. Graphical representation of v BE and i B when the input voltage v in is a sinusoid Figure 3.Graphical Analysis iB iC Slope = – 1 ⁄ R B V CC Slope = – 1 ⁄ R C V BB RB -------- -------RC … IB Q v BE V BE V BB IC Q iB = IB V CE V CC v CE Figure 3.

9 Power Relations in the Basic Transistor Amplifier In our subsequent discussion we will denote time−varying quantities with lower case letters and lower case subscripts. We will use lower case letters with upper case subscripts for the sum of the instantaneous and average values. We will represent average (DC) values with upper case letters and upper case subscripts.45) and v CE = V CE + v ce (3.48.49.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors iC V CC Slope = – 1 ⁄ R C -------RC … iC iB = IB IC Q V CE V CC v CE v CE Figure 3. The collector current and the collector−to−emitter voltage can be expressed as iC = IC + ic (3. Let us consider the circuit of Figure 3.46) where I C and V CE are the average values i c and v ce are time−varying components whose average value is zero. 3−42 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Graphical representation of v CE and i C when the input voltage v in is a sinusoid 3.

Power Relations in the Basic Transistor Amplifier RC RB iC + − V CC v in V BB i B v BE + − + v CE − − + iE Figure 3. The power absorbed by the load at each instant is P LOAD = R LOAD i C = R LOAD ( I C + i c ) = R LOAD I C + 2R LOAD I C i c + R LOAD i c 2 2 2 2 (3. the average power drawn from the collector supply is P CC = V CC I C (3. the average power absorbed by the transistor is P C = P CC – P LOAD (3.48) and if there is negligible or no distortion. Circuit for the derivation of power relations The power drawn from the collector supply at each instant is p CC = V CC i C = V CC I C + V CC i c (3. the current I C and power P CC are both independent of the signal amplitude.* Therefore. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−43 .49. T Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.51) * By definition Average = Area ⁄ Period = ⎛ ∫ i dt ⎞ ⁄ T and thus if the value of the integral is zero. the average value of the term V CC i c is zero.52) 2 2 2 2 2 (3. hence the average power absorbed by the load is P LOAD = R LOAD I C + R LOAD ( i c ) ave = R LOAD I C + R LOAD ( i c RMS ) The power absorbed by the transistor at each instant is p C = v CE i C = ( V CC – R LOAD i C )i C = V CC i C – R LOAD i C = p CC – p LOAD Therefore.47) Since V CC is constant and i c has zero average value.50) (3. the average is also ⎝ 0 ⎠ zero.49) The term 2R LOAD I C i c is zero since 2R LOAD I C is constant and the average of i c is zero.

I CO (1 – α) (1 – α) β (3.= 1–α (3.= β + 1 1–α and by substitution into (3. α ----------1–α +1 = β+1 1--------.10 Piecewise−Linear Analysis of the Transistor Amplifier The circuit shown in Figure 3.50 may be redrawn as shown in Figure 3.51.50 is a model to represent the transistor where the two ideal diodes are included to remind us of the two PN junctions in the transistor. i C = αi E + I CO and since i E = i C + i B i C = α ( i C + i B ) + I CO i C – αi C = αi B + I CO ( 1 – α )i C = αi B + I CO or From Table 3.50.53) (3. I CO is the current into the reverse−biased collector with i E = 0 .i B + ---------------.55) i C = βi B + ( β + 1 )I CO Thus.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 3. I CO B iB iC αi E iE C E Figure 3.50. A transistor model In Figure 3.1 α ----------. the equivalent circuit in Figure 3. (3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . By KCL.56) 3−44 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.54) α 1 i C = ---------------.55) Also.

52. for r e are between 10 Ω to 25 Ω .52 is for an NPN transistors.52. ( β + 1 )I CO B rb iB iE E βi B iC C VD Figure 3. An improved transistor model is shown in Figure 3. A more accurate model for the transistor Analogous to the base resistance r b are the emitter diffusion resistance defined as ∂v E r e = -------∂i E and the collector resistance ∂v C r c = -------∂i C (3. voltage polarities. The transistor amplifier in Figure 3.58) i E = cons tan t (3.51 are essentially ideal models. is included to account for the small voltage drop in the base of the transistor. in excess of 1 MΩ . and current directions are reversed. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−45 .50 and 3.Piecewise−Linear Analysis of the Transistor Amplifier ( β + 1 ) I CO B iB βi B iC C iE E Figure 3. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. It applies also to PNP transistors provided that the diodes. referred to as the base spreading resistance. The model in Figure 3.7 V and r b .53 can be analyzed by piece−wise linear methods with the aid of the transistor model in Figure 3. An alternative transistor model.52 where for silicon type of transistors V D ≈ 0.51. and r c is very high. The transistor models shown in Figures 3.57) i C = cons tan t Typical values for r b are between 50 Ω to 250 Ω .

The piece−wise linear model in Figure 3.53 and its current transfer characteristics The current transfer characteristics are constructed by determining the points at which the diodes change from the conducting to the non−conducting state. iC iS RS + CC = ------- B R1 − βi B IB DE E iC DC C RC V CC I CS Emitter diode open circuited iS V RC v CE Collector diode short circuited vS V1 + − iE (a) is = –IB (b) CS i S = ----.53.53 is replaced by the piece−wise linear model in Figure 3. Piecewise linear model for the circuit in figure 3. V D .52 where r b .54. Basic transistor amplifier to be analyzed by piece−wise linear methods For convenience. Let us now suppose that the source current i s reaches a value that causes the reverse voltage across the collector diode D C to become zero and the emitter diode D E is conducting and allows 3−46 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. V D .52 and thus the model is now as shown in Figure 3.55. The current I CS represents the collector saturation current.54.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors iB RS R1 + iS + v BE + v CE − − + RC V CC − vS V1 − Figure 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and ( β + 1 )I CO in Figure 3. and ( β + 1 )I CO are neglected When the transistor in the amplifier in Figure 3. B iB βi B iC C iE E Figure 3.– I B β I Figure 3. we neglect the small effects of r b .54. we obtain the circuit shown in Figure 3.55(a).

r b = 75 Ω . and the power P C absorbed by the transistor. When this occurs. with the base terminal at ground potential and i B = 0 .60) But this equation is true only if β = – 1 . let us now suppose that the source current i S becomes negative and reaches a value that causes the collector diode D C to become reverse−biased and the current in the emitter diode D E to reach a zero value.59) Next. the collect−to−emitter voltage v CE .Piecewise−Linear Analysis of the Transistor Amplifier a current i E to flow through it. (3. and the base terminal is at ground potential.= -----β RC β 1 CS i S = i B – ----. there is no current in either diode. Any change in supply voltage causes a compensating change in the voltage drop across the transistor from collector to emitter and the load voltage v load is thereby held constant in spite of changes in the input voltage or load resistance R load . For β ≠ – 1 .= -----.61) (3.59) reduces to iS = –IB Example 3. (3. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. This condition establishes the right−hand break on the transfer characteristics and its value is determined as follows: The collector current under the conditions stated above is CC i C = -------. and the current in the collector diode D C is zero.7 V and the current I CO into the reverse−biased collector is negligible. CC CS i B = --------. all three terminals of the transistor are at ground potential.= βi B = I CS - V RC or and since the base is grounded. V BE = 0.56. The resistor R 1 provides a suitable current to sustain the breakdown condition of the Zener diode. Find the values of the load voltage v load . The transistor parameters are β = 100 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−47 . this equation is satisfied only if i B = 0 . This condition establishes the left−hand break on the transfer characteristics and its value is determined as follows: i B = – i C = – βi B Therefore. When this occurs.– I B R1 β V I V I (3. there is no voltage drop across either diode.14 A DC power supply with a transistor regulator is shown in Figure 3.

3 i B = ---------------------------------------. DC power supply for Example 3. and the voltage regulation action of the transistor will fail.= 2.14 Solution: We replace the transistor with its piece−wise linear model as shown in Figure 3.57. This occurs because the collector can be represented as an ideal current source βi B . the breakdown state will not be sustained in the Zener diode. when this occurs.55 From Figure 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors R1 + − R load + 100 Ω − v load C VZ VC = 35 V = 25 V Figure 3. The collector current is i C = βi B = 100 × 2.4 × 10 –3 = 24. Also.4mA 75 + 101 × 100 10175 r b + ( β + 1 )R load v load = ( β + 1 )R load i B = 101 × 100 × 2.= ----------------------------------.57. if the supply voltage falls below the Zener voltage of 25 V .= -------------.56. the collector −base junction will no longer be reverse−biased.7 24.7 V β iB + − iE 75 Ω = ( β + 1 ) iB v load R1 VZ rb 35 V − i BR load + − + − = 25 V 100 Ω Figure 3.24V We observe that the load voltage is independent of the supply voltage of 35 V .57. iC + V BE = 0. r b i B + V BE + R load i E = V Z V Z – V BE = r b i B + ( β + 1 )R load i B V Z – V BE 25 – 0. However. The piece−wise linear model for the transistor in Figure 3.4 = 240 mA and the collector−to−emitter voltage is 3−48 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

The base−to−emitter voltage v BE and the collector current i C are functions of the base current i B and collector−to−emitter voltage v CE .65) is expressed as Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.65) The partial derivative in the first term of (3.64) is expressed as v be = r n i b + μv ce (3.63) If i B and v CE are changed in small increments. when calculating increments of current and voltage. However.Incremental Linear Models v CE = Supply Voltage – Load Voltage = 35 – 24. It is also convenient to denote these derivatives in lower case letters with lower case subscripts. it is often necessary to account for the small effects of variations in collector voltage on both the input and output circuits.66) Likewise. v CE ) and i C = f ( i B. For these reasons the incremental model for the transistor provides a better approximation than the piece−wise linear approximation.76 V The power absorbed by the transistor is P C = v CE i C = 10. Also.64) ∂i B ∂v CE and the increment in i C can be written as ∂i C ∂i C Δi C ≈ di C = ------. In other words.64) has the dimensions of resistance and it is denoted as r n .11 Incremental Linear Models In our discussion on piece−wise linear models on the preceding section. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−49 . the small voltage drop between base and emitter is small in comparison with the bias voltage and thus can be neglected.di B + ----------. the base−to−emitter voltage cannot be neglected when only the increments of voltage and currents is considered.dv CE ∂i B ∂v CE (3. (3.58 w 3.76 × 0. and that in the second term is a dimensionless voltage ratio denoted as μ . the partial derivative in the first term of (3.65) is a dimensionless current ratio denoted as β . v CE ) (3.dv CE (3. v BE = f ( i B.24 = 10. Then. and that in the second term has the dimensions of conductance and it is denoted as g o .62) (3. Then.di B + ----------. (3.24 = 2. the resulting increment in v BE can be expressed as ∂v BE ∂v BE Δv BE ≈ dv BE = ----------.

The hybrid incremental model for the transistor with μv ce = 0 3−50 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the voltage source μv ce in Figure 3. ib ic B v be rn μv ce E βi b ie go v ce C Figure 3.59. B v be i b rn βi b E i c v ce go C ie Figure 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Typical values for the parameters of relations (3.67) along with i e = i b + i c suggest the circuit shown in Figure 3. and since the value of μ is a very small number.67).58 known as the hybrid incremental network model for the transistor. β = 100 . The hybrid incremental model for a transistor in the common−emitter configuration The input resistance r n is the slope of the input voltage and current characteristics and it accounts for the voltage drop across the base−emitter junction.67) The relations of (3.66) and (3. the output conductance g o is the slope of the output current and voltage characteristics. It is referred to as hybrid model because of the mixed set of voltages and currents as indicated by the expressions of (3.58. Likewise. and thus the model reduces to that shown in Figure 3. μ = 5 × 10 . and g o = 2 × 10 –5 –4 –1 Ω .58 can be replaced by a short circuit.66) and (3.67) are r n = 2 KΩ .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors i c = βi b + g o v ce (3. and the current amplification factor β is related to the output characteristics caused by a change in i B .66) and (3. The voltage amplification factor μ is related to the input characteristics caused by a change in v CE .59.

and thus the transistor incremental model in Figure 3.53. v ce = – R eq βi b and μv ce = – μR eq βi b (3. the negative resistance – μβR eq can be replaced by a short circuit.60 with the voltage source μv ce replaced by the resistance – μβR eq The negative resistance – μβR eq is always much smaller than r n and thus the net input resistance to the transistor is always positive. and power in devices that are connected externally to the transistor.61.60 can be redrawn as shown in Figure 3. and assuming that the base current i b is unaffected by this assumption.68) (3. * The h−equivalent transistor circuits are discussed in Section 3.61. and from this fact we can replace the voltage source with a resistance – μβR eq . Therefore. B C ib rn is Rs ic R load – μβ R eq E βi b go R eq v ce Figure 3. Transistor incremental model with external devices Now. currents.60. we let R eq represent the parallel combination r o = 1 ⁄ g o and R load . consider the circuit of Figure 3. the voltage of the μv ce is proportional to the current flowing through the source. B C ib rn is Rs ic μv ce E βi b ie go R load v ce Figure 3. the voltages and currents in the collector side of the circuit are not affected. Let us.69) Hence. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Then.Incremental Linear Models The transistor hybrid parameters* provide us with a means to evaluate voltages.15. The circuit in Figure 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−51 .60 which is an incremental model for the transistor amplifier in Figure 3. for example.

β .c ⎝ ⎠ ro R1 + rn s ro ic β ( R1 ⁄ ( R1 + rn ) ) βR 1 r o R1 --.i c = β ---------------. provide a symmetrical form for the relations of (3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors The current amplification A c is defined as Ac = ic ⁄ is where R1 1 i c = g o v ce + βi b = --. y .73) In (3. the sub- * For a detailed discussion of the z . μ = h 12 = h re . 3−52 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.i s ro R1 + rn R1 ⎛ 1 + R load ⎞ i = β ---------------.c ⎝ ⎠ R1 + rn s ro R1 ⎛ r o + R load ⎞ i = β ---------------.72) (3.= --------------------.70) The parameters r n . β = h 21 = h fe . v ce = v 2 . μ . ISBN 978−0−9709511−5-1.= --------------------.67) as follows: v 1 = h 11 i 1 + h 12 v 2 i 2 = h 21 i 1 + h 22 v 2 or v 1 = h ie i 1 + h re v 2 i 2 = h fe i 1 + h oe v 2 (3.i s R1 + rn ro R load R1 i c + ----------. i b = i 1 . and g o are normally denoted by the h (hybrid) parameters* as r n = h 11 = h ie . h .β --------------------------( R 1 + r n ) ( r o + R load ) is ( r o + R load ) ⁄ r o ( R 1 + r n ) ( r o + R load ) and thus the current amplification A c is ro ic R1 A c = --. and g parameters refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications.i ----------.i ---------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . These designations along with the additional notations v be = v 1 . and i c = i 2 .73) the subscript i denotes the input impedance with the output short−circuited.= --------------------------------------.71) (3.β --------------------------( R 1 + r n ) ( r o + R load ) is (3.66)and (3.( – R load i c ) + β ---------------.= -------------------------------------------------. and g o = h 22 = h oe .

i load is Rs R1 2V 10 KΩ + − + –4 –5 Ω .3 h−parameter equations for transistors Common−Base Common−Emitter Common−Collector Parameter h 11 h 12 h 21 h 22 Example 3.63 where Figure 3.Incremental Linear Models script r denotes the reverse transfer voltage ratio with the input terminals open−circuited. μ = h 12 = 5 × 10 . TABLE 3.15 h ib h rb h fb h ob h ie ≈ h 11 ⁄ ( 1 + h 21 ) h re ≈ h 11 h 22 ⁄ ( 1 + h 21 ) – h 12 h fe ≈ – h 21 ⁄ ( 1 + h 21 ) h oe ≈ h 22 ⁄ ( 1 + h 21 ) h ic ≈ h 11 ⁄ ( 1 + h 21 ) h rc ≈ 1 h fc ≈ – 1 ⁄ ( 1 + h 21 ) h oc ≈ h 22 ⁄ ( 1 + h 21 ) For the amplifier circuit in Figure 3. A similar set of symbols with the subscript b replacing the subscript e denotes the hybrid parameters for a transistor operating in the common−base mode.62. and a set with the subscript c replacing the letter e denotes the hybrid parameters for a transistor operating in the common−collector mode.62 it is known that r n = h 11 = 2 KΩ . Values for the hybrid parameters at a typical quiescent operating point for the common−emitter mode are provided by the transistor manufacturers. and the subscript o denotes the output admittance with the input terminals open−circuited. Please refer to the last section in this chapter.3 lists the h−parameter equations for the three bipolar transistor configurations. the subscript f denotes the forward transfer current ratio with the output short circuited. and g o = h 22 = 2 × 10 A c = i load ⁄ i s . Transistor amplifier for Example 3. Table 3. β = h 21 = 100 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−53 . The second subscript e indicates that the parameters apply for the transistor operating in the common−emitter mode.15 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Find the small signal current amplification –1 v CE RC 2 KΩ + − − 16 V V CC vs Solution: The incremental model of this transistor amplifier is shown in Figure 3.

The current gain A c can be found from the relation (3. An approximate value for the transconductance at room temperature is g m ≈ 40I C .12 Transconductance Another useful parameter used in small signal analysis at high frequencies is the transconductance. This relation is derived as follows: From (3.2) 3−54 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.× 100 × ----.= 1. The incremental model for the transistor circuit in Figure 3.65 Ω = 0. and defined as di C g m = ----------dv BE (3.= ------------------------------------------.= --------------------. Then.71).= 80 ( R 1 + r n ) ( r o + R load ) 12 52 is –4 3 3.63.74) iC = IC and as a reminder.923 KΩ 3 1 ⁄ g o + R load 52 × 10 ib B Rs R1 i load rn C R load 10 KΩ is – μβ R eq E βi b go v ce 2 KΩ R eq Figure 3.06465 KΩ and since this is much smaller than r n = h 11 = 2 KΩ . ro i load R1 10 50 A c = --------.β --------------------------.293 × 10 = 64.62 and thus the magnitude of the equivalent resistance reflected into the input part of the circuit is μβR eq = 5 × 10 × 100 × 1.64. denoted as g m .= ----.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 3 3 ( 1 ⁄ g o ) R load 50 × 10 × 2 × 10 R eq = -----------------------------. we denote time−varying quantities with lower case letters and lower case subscripts. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Thus. the transconductance g m is the slope at point Q on the i C versus v BE characteristics at i C = I C as shown in Figure 3. it can be neglected.

Therefore.78) V g m ≈ 40i C and thus we see that the transconductance is proportional to the collector current i C . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−55 .76) we obtain gm = iC ⁄ VT and with V T = 26 × 10 –3 (3.e BE T VT iC IC Q Slope = V BE ic gm v BE v BE Figure 3. 3.76) iC = IC 1.75) (3.64.High−Frequency Models for Transistors iC = Ir e and with (3.v ⁄ V = I r -----.77) (3. a transistor can be viewed as an amplifier with a transconductance of 40 millimhos for each milliampere of collector current. The transconductance g m defined By substitution of (3.74) di C g m = ----------dv BE v BE ⁄ V T (3.65(b) are alternate forms for representing a transistor. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.13 High−Frequency Models for Transistors The incremental models presented in the previous section do not take into consideration the high−frequency effects in the transistor.65(a) and 3. Figures 3.75) into (3.

it follows that ---------r be v ' be = gm v CE = cons tan t v ce = 0 3−56 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.81) and thus the model in Figure 3. accounts for the ohmic base spreading resistance.65(a) the input impedance r n is separated into two parts. the effects of junction capacitances must be taken into account. For higher frequencies.65(a) and thus v' be i b = -------r be ββi b = ----. Thus. r be = ( 25β ) ⁄ i C (3.65(b). one part. denoted as r be . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .83) Thus.v' be = g m v' be * r be (3.76) or g m = β ⁄ r be ββ r be = ----.65.65(a) can also be represented as that in Figure 3.= ---------gm 40i C (3.80) (3. r n = r' b + r be From Figure 3.82) (3. From (3. v ' be i di c = ------------dv ' be c * Since i c = βi b = β ----------. r be = 25β Ω . the other part.79) (3.84) The incremental models we have discussed thus far are valid only for frequencies of about 2 MHz or less. and in general. Alternate forms for the transistor model In Figure 3.66 shows a model for the transistor at high frequencies referred to as hybrid− π model. when i C = 1 ma .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors B ib r' b r be v be v' be βi b E (a) ic ro v ce C B ib v be r' b r be v' be g m v' be E ic ro v ce C ie ie (b) Figure 3. is a nonlinear resistance and accounts for the voltage drop v' be across the emitter junction. Figure 3. when i C is in milliamps. denoted as r' b .

I b r be jω C 1 + 1 and g m r be I c = g m V ' be = --------------------------. the capacitors present a relatively low impedance and thereby reduce the amplitude of the signal voltage v' be . With the output short−circuited. r be Z be = --------------------------r be jω C 1 + 1 and denoting the phasor* quantities with bolded capical letters.85) * Phasors are rotating vectors and are used to represent voltages and currents in complex form. Impedances and admittances are complex quantities but not phasors.I b r be jω C 1 + 1 (3.86) (3. The hybrid− π model for the transistor at high frequencies The capacitor C 1 represents the capacitance that exists across the forward−biased emitter junction while the capacitor C 2 represents a much smaller capacitance that exists across the reverse− biased collector junction. refer to Circuit Analysis I. At low frequencies the capacitors act as open circuits and thus do not affect the transistor performance. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−57 . capacitor C 2 is in parallel with C 1 between Node 1 and ground. We can derive some useful relations by determining the short−circuit collector current i c when a sinusoidal input current is applied between the base and emitter terminals. and the equivalent impedance is r be × 1 ⁄ jω ( C 1 + C 2 ) r be Z be = r be || 1 ⁄ jω ( C 1 + C 2 ) = jω ( C 1 + C 2 ) = -----------------------------------------------.= -------------------------------------------r be + 1 ⁄ jω ( C 1 + C 2 ) r be jω ( C 1 + C 2 ) + 1 However.66. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. we obtain r be V ' be = Z be I b = --------------------------. Then. At high frequencies. ISBN 978-0-9709511-2-0. C 1 is typically 100 times as large as C 2 and it can be neglected.High−Frequency Models for Transistors B ib v be r' b v' be 1 + − C2 ic ro r be C1 + v ce C − g m v' be E ie Figure 3. This reduction in v' be causes in turn a reduction in the strength of the controlled source g m v' be and a reduction in the collector current i c . For a detailed discussion. however.

ω β serves as a useful measure of the band of frequencies over which the short−circuit current amplification remains reasonably constant and nearly equal to its low−frequency value. a typical value for β is 100 .88) into (3. the frequency at which I c = I b . ω β is referred to as the β cutoff frequency.I b 2 ( ω ⁄ ωβ ) + 1 (3. therefore. it is customary to represent C 1 as C e . in (3.91) As we know.90) as β = ( ω ⁄ ωβ ) + 1 2 2 (3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors Using the relation of (3. at the frequency ω = ω β . Thus.I b jω ⁄ ω β + 1 and the magnitute of the collector current is β I c = ---------------------------------. the magnitude of the collector current I c is reduced to 1 ⁄ 2 times its low−frequency value.91) the term ( ω ⁄ ω β ) is much larger than unity and ω » ω β . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . if the amplitude of the input current is held constant as the frequency is increased.88) Therefore. therefore the quantity 1 ⁄ r be C 1 has the dimensions of frequency. Also. For this reason. Letting ω = ω T .92) The relation of (3. and it is helpful to define a new symbol ω β as 1 ω β ≡ -----------r be C e By substitution of (3. The coefficient of I b in (3. that is.87) Thus. is found from (3.82) we obtain β I c = --------------------------. the amplitude of the collector current decreases and approaches zero at very high frequencies.92) is referred to as the current gain−bandwidth product for the transistor and 3−58 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.87) we obtain β I c = ------------------------.89) (3.I b r be jω C 1 + 1 (3. The frequency at which the current amplification is unity. we obtain ω T ≈ βω β f T ≈ βf β (3.86) must be a dimensionless constant.90) (3.

* The figure of merit is useful in comparing different devices for their overall performance. find: a.16 The specifications for a certain transistor state that β = 100 . Using the hybrid− π model of Figure 3.≈ 32 pF C e = ---------. the current gain−bandwidth product is f T = 200 MHz . the β cutoff frequency Solution: a. Also. From (3. and the collector current is i C = 1 mA . From (3.78) g m ≈ 40i C = 40 millimhos b.High−Frequency Models for Transistors it is an important figure of merit* for a transistor. From (3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−59 . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.66. (3. From (3.83) d.93) (3.= ---------------------.= --------------------. and (3.= 2.92) β100 r be = ----. the base−emitter resistance r be d.= 8 2πf T 2π × 2 × 10 c. the transconductance g m b. the base−emitter capacitance C e c.88).94) –3 gm 40 × 10 ----------------------------.92) gm ω T = ----Ce gm f T = -----------2πC e (3.94) or Example 3.82).5 KΩ –3 gm 40 × 10 6 fT 200 × 10 f β = --. from (3.= 2 MHz β 100 and this indicates that at this frequency the current amplification is still large.

101) α 2 i B2 α 1 ( 1 – α 1 )i B2 α 2 i B2 i T = -------------------------------.98) and by substitution into (3.98) (3.97) (3.100) and by substitution into (3.= α 1 i B2 + -------------1 – α1 1 – α2 1 – α2 Also.102) (3.99) (3.103) i B2 = ( 1 – α 2 )i E2 (3. The Darlington connection The combined α T and β T are evaluated as follows: i E1 = i B2 = i C1 + i B1 i C1 = α 1 i E1 = α 1 i B2 i B2 = α 1 i B2 + i B1 i B1 i B2 = -------------1 – α1 Also.104) i B1 = ( 1 – α 1 )i B2 (3.67.+ -------------1 – α1 1 – α2 From (3. i B1 α1 β1 i C1 iT i C2 α2 β2 i E1 = i B2 i E2 Figure 3.96) (3.14 The Darlington Connection Figure 3. The circuit has high input impedance and low output impedance.95) (3. α 1 i B1 α 2 i B2 i T = i C1 + i C2 = α 1 i E1 + α 2 i E2 = α 1 i B2 + α 2 i E2 = -------------.100) 3−60 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.103) (3.+ -------------. i E2 = i C2 + i B2 = α 2 i E2 + i B2 i B2 i E2 = -------------1 – α2 Then.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 3.67 shows two transistors in a common collector configuration known as the Darlington connection. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . from (3.101) (3.

+ -------------.1 The h−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Base Transistor Figure 3.= ------------------. and common collector transistor circuits by their h−equivalent and T−equivalent circuits.15 Transistor Networks In this section we will represent the common−base. α T = i T ⁄ i E2 and dividing (3. iC α β = ----------. and current gain. ie v eb E B ic ib C ie v cb v eb re μv cb (b) ic g0 v cb αi e (a) Figure 3.109) 3. common−emitter. voltage gain.104).------------------. (3. and (3.+ ----------------------------. output resistance.107) 1–α iB (3.15.106) i E2 From Table 3.105) and with (3.= α 1 ( 1 – α 2 )i E2 + -------------------------------1 – α1 1 – α2 1 – α2 = ( α 1 ( 1 – α 2 )i E2 + α 2 i E2 ) Let the overall α value be denoted as α T .+ ------------------. and we will derive the equations for input resistance.------------------. since β 1 « β 1 β 2 βT ≈ β1 + β1 β2 βT ≈ β1 β2 (3.= β 1 + ( β 1 β 2 ) ⁄ α 1 ( 1 – α1 ) ( 1 – α1 ) ( 1 – α2 ) ( 1 – α1 ) ( 1 – α1 ) ⁄ α1 ( 1 – α2 ) and since α ≈ 1 Also.108) (3.= α 1 ( 1 – α 2 ) + α 2 = α 1 + α 2 – α 1 α 2 (3.102).105) by i E2 we obtain iT α T = ----.68 shows the common−base configuration of an NPN transistor.1.= ------------------.Transistor Networks α 1 ( 1 – α 1 )i B2 α 2 i B2 α 2 ( 1 – α 2 )i E2 i T = -------------------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−61 .68. 3. then.= ---(3. (3.= --------------------------------------------------. Common−base transistor circuit and its equivalent Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= --------------------------------------.+ --------------------------------------i B1 ( 1 – α 1 ) ( 1 – α 2 )i E2 ( 1 – α1 ) ( 1 – α2 ) ( 1 – α1 ) ( 1 – α1 ) ( 1 – α2 ) α1 α2 α2 α1 α1 1 = ------------------.105).107) iT α1 α2 α 1 ( 1 – α 2 )i E2 + α 2 i E2 α1 ( 1 – α2 ) + α2 β T = -----.

This can be shown as follows: From (3.112) v BE ⁄ V T by substitution of (3.110) v BE ⁄ V T ( v BE + v be ) ⁄ V T = Ir e ⋅e v be ⁄ V T (3.69. The h−parameter equivalent circuit for common−base transistor From Figures 3. by substitution into (3. the input resistance h ib = r e has a small value.---. se observe that h ib = r e h ob = g o h fb = α h rb = μ Typical values for the h−parameter equivalent circuit for the common−base transistor are: h ib = 30 Ω h rb = 5 × 10 –4 h fb = 0.2) iC = Ir e or iC = IC + ic = Ir e and since IC = Ir e v BE ⁄ V T (3.111) we obtain iC = IC e Normally. typically in the 25 to 35 Ω .114) 3−62 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.68(b) we can draw the h−parameter equivalent circuit shown in Figure 3.111) (3.+ x .⎞ = I C + -----.68 and (3. v be « V T and we recall that x x .69). h ib h rb v cb h fb i e h ob v eb v cb Figure 3.---e = 1 + x + ---.113) we obtain v be IC i C = I C ⎛ 1 + -----.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors From the equivalent circuit in Figure 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .v be ⎝ VT VT ⎠ (3.98 h ob = 6 × 10 –6 Ω –1 As indicated above.+ x .+ … 2! 3! 4! 2 3 4 v be ⁄ V T (3.113) Retaining only the first two terms of this series.112) into (3.69.

v be = -----.115) (3.70 is simplified to that in Figure 3.v be VT ic IC IE i e = --.71. h rb = μ = 5 × 10 and the volt- age source h rb v cb can also be neglected (short circuit).116) For V T = 26 mV and I E = 1 mA . Also.= --------------R s + h ib Rs + re (3. Simplified circuit for the computation of voltage gain in a common base transistor From Figure 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−63 .70.v be αV T VT α v be VT r e = -----. v out = – R C h fb i e = – R C αi e and –vs –vs i e = ----------------. the circuit of Figure 3.118) (3.70.= ---------.117) To find the overall voltage gain.Transistor Networks and the signal component of i C is Also.5 × 10 –6 Ω –1 or r o = 2 MΩ . i in R s vs h ib = r e ie h fb i e = αi e i out RC v out Figure 3. Circuit for the computation of voltage gain in a common base−transistor amplifier The conductance h ob = g o is in the order of 0. and since it is –4 much larger than R C . we connect a voltage source v s with its internal resistance R s at v eb v out Figure 3.= -----ie IE r in = r e = 26 Ω the input. With these observations.71. and a load resistor R C at the output as shown in Figure 3.71. (3. Rs vs h ib h rb v cb ie h fb i e h ob v cb RC (3. it can be neglected (open circuit).119) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and thus IC i c = -----.

15.= α i in –ie R out = R C (3.= ----------------------------------------.118) and division by v s yields the overall voltage gain A v as v out αR C A v = -------.= ---------. i E = 1 mA . R S = 2 KΩ .121) and the output resistance R out is (3.026 ) × 10 A i = α = 0.122) Example 3. Solution: β α = ----------. 3−64 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Figure 3. and input and output resistances.992 -------β+1 121 h ib = r e = V T ⁄ i E = 26 mV ⁄ 1 mA = 26 Ω 3 αR C 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and R C = 5 KΩ .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors Substitution of (3.17 An NPN transistor is connected in a common − base configuration with V T = 26 mV .= --------------vs Rs + re and since α ≈ 1 and r e ≈ 26Ω .= 120 = 0.45 3 Rs + re ( 2 + 0.2 The T−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Base Transistor Transistor equivalent circuits can also be expressed as T−equivalent circuits. The current gain A i is i out – αi e A i = ------.119) into (3. Find the voltage and current gains.120) (3.= 2.992 R i = r e = 26 Ω R o = R C = 5 KΩ 3. β = 120 .992 × 5 × 10 A V = --------------.72 shows the common−base T−equivalent circuit. the voltage gain depends on the values of R s and R C .

125) (3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−65 .72.67 MΩ r e = 12.Transistor Networks ie Rs αi e rb ib rc ic RL re vs Figure 3.126) 3.124) (3.123) (3.73 shows the common−emitter configuration of an NPN transistor. T−equivalent model for the common−base transistor Typical numerical values for the 2N525 transistor are as follows: α = 0.978 r c = 1.3 The h−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Emitter Transistor Figure 3. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.15.5 Ω r b = 840 Ω and since re « rc rb « rc RL < rc and with these assumptions the input and output resistances and voltage and current gains for the T−equivalent model for the common−base transistor are: Input resis tan ce = r in = r e + r b ( 1 – α ) re + rb ( 1 – α ) + RS Output resis tan ce = r out = r e ⋅ -------------------------------------------re + rb + RS α RL Voltage gain = A v = -------------------------------re + rb ( 1 – α ) Current gain = A i = α (3.

73(b) is shown in Figure 3.73(c).75 shows the h−parameter equivalent circuit in Figure 3.74 with a signal source v S and its internal resistance R S connected on the left side.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors B ic ib B v be C v be r n μv ce ib A ic βi b ie (b) C v ce ib rn A ic βi b g0 v ce C E ie v ce re E (a) (c) Figure 3. Common−emitter transistor circuit and its equivalent The equivalent circuit in Figure 3. and a load resistor R L connected on the right side. for simplicity and compactness. we can represent the circuit of Figure 3. and since it is –4 much larger than a typical R C resistance. The h−parameter equivalent circuit for common−emitter transistor Typical values for the h−parameter equivalent circuit for the common−emitter transistor are: h ie = 1. and input and output resistances.4 × 10 and the dependent voltage source μv ce can also be neglected. Therefore.58 with the addition of the emitter resistor re . h re = μ = 3. The conductance g 0 is in the order of 27 × 10 –6 Ω –1 or r 0 = 40 KΩ . Also. it can be neglected.74 where h ie = r n ib v be h ie h re v ce h fe i b h oe h oe = g 0 h fe = β ic v ce h re = μ Figure 3.73(b) as that in Figure 3. The h−parameter equivalent circuit in Figure 3. Using the circuit in Figure 3. 3−66 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.4 × 10 –4 h fe = 80 h oe = 27 × 10 –6 Ω –1 Figure 3. is same as in Figure 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .74.5 KΩ h re = 3.73.73(b).75 we can compute the exact voltage and current gains.

73(c).128) The resistor R E is referred to as the emitter degeneration resistance because it causes negative feedback. if the collector current i c increases. the emitter current i e will also increase since * Typically. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. v be ( r e + R E )i e ( re + RE ) ( ib + ic ) ( r e + R E ) ( i b + βi b ) r in = -----.4 × 10 and the voltage source h re v ce can also be neglected.= -------------------------------------------. we can use the simplified circuit in Figure 3.* B RS ib re ie βi b ic RC C vS v be E RE v ce Figure 3.76. r n « r e + RE .= ( r e + R E ) ( β + 1 ) ib ib ib ib or and since β » 1 r in = ( r e + R E ) ( β + 1 ) r in ≈ β ( r e + R E ) (3.127) (3.= ------------------------. and R' S represents the series combination of R S and r n . –4 and since it is much larger than R C it can be neglected. That is. Also. The simplified common−emitter transistor equivalent circuit From the equivalent circuit in Figure 3. Circuit for exact computation in voltage and current gains and input and output resistances As stated above. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−67 .Transistor Networks RS v be h ie h re v ce h fe i e h oe vS v ce R L v out Figure 3.75. to compute the input and output resistances and overall voltage and current gains to a fairly accurate values.76. and a load resistor R C at the output as shown in Figure 3. we connect a voltage source v S with its internal resistance R S at the input. Therefore.= ----------------------------------------. h re = μ = 3.76 where an additional resistor R E is connected in series with the emitter resistor r e to increase the input resistance. the conductance h oe = g o is in the order of 27 × 10 –6 Ω –1 or r o = 40 KΩ .

131) and (3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors i c = αi e and any increase in the base current i b will be negligible.≈ ------------------------------------( β + 1 ) ( re + RE ) + RS β ( re + RE ) + RS and the minus (−) sign indicates that the output is 180° out−of−phase with the input.76 and v b = ( r e + R E )i e = ( r e + R E ) ( i b + i c ) = ( r e + R E ) ( i b + βi b ) = ( r e + R E ) ( 1 + β )i b From (3. Relation (3.76 we observe that the output resistance is the collector resistance R C .= --------------------------------------vb ( r e + R E ) ( 1 + β )i b ( re + RE ) ( β + 1 ) Also.= --------------------------------------.127) r in v b = ----------------.⋅ ---.A V = -------. that is.= -----------------.128) indicates that the input resistance r in can be controlled by choosing an appropriate value for the external resistor R E .133) and (3.= -------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .130) (3.⋅ ---vb vS vS v out = v ce = – βi b R C (3.⋅ ---------------------------------------------------vb vS ( re + RE ) ( β + 1 ) ( re + RE ) ( β + 1 ) + RS vS –( β + 1 ) RC –β RC A V = ---------------------------------------------------.v S r in + R s r in ( re + RE ) ( β + 1 ) vb ---.133) (3.131) Substitution of (3.132) v out v b v out .134) (3.= ------------------------------------------.129) (3. (3. But a decrease in the voltage drop across the resistor r e means a decrease in the emitter current i e and consequently a decrease in the collector current i c . Then.132) v out – βi b R C – βR C -------.A V = -------. the voltage drop across the resistor R E will rise and the voltage drop across the resistor r e will decrease to maintain the voltage v be relatively constant. r out = R C The overall voltage gain is From Figure 3. and with (3.135) 3−68 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. From Figure 3.130) yields v out v b ( re + RE ) ( β + 1 ) v out – βR C .134) into (3.= -------.= ---------------------------------------------------vS r in + R S ( re + RE ) ( β + 1 ) + RS (3.

136).134) we observe that the introduction of the external resistor R E results in reduction of the overall gain.= – 20.2 βr e + R s 120 × 26 + 2 × 10 3 and the current gain is b. From (3.135) and (3. The current gain is i out – βi b A i = ------. a. Solution: a.6 β ( r e + R E ) + R s 120 ( 26 + 200 ) + 2 × 10 3 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.116) h ie = r e = V T ⁄ i E = 26 mV ⁄ 1 mA = 26 Ω From (3.128) and from (3. and input and output resistances if R E = 0 . Find the maximum value of the applied signal v S so that v be or v b under the conditions of (a) and (b) will not exceed 5 mV . Find the voltage and current gains. A i = – β = – 120 r in ≈ β ( r e + R E ) = 120 ( 26 + 0 ) = 3. β = 120 . and R C = 5 KΩ .129) r out = R C = 5 KΩ The voltage and current gains are found from (3. the voltage gain is 3 –β RC – 120 × 5 × 10 A V ≈ ------------------.= ---------------------------------------------------------.= -------------------------------------------.12 KΩ (3.136) r in ≈ β ( r e + R E ) = 120 ( 26 + 200 ) = 27. and input and output resistances if R E = 200Ω . i E = 1 mA .18 An NPN transistor is connected in a common − emitter configuration with V T = 26 mV .= – 117.Transistor Networks From (3. c. b. Thus.12 KΩ r out = R C = 5 KΩ 3 –β RC – 120 × 5 × 10 A V ≈ ------------------------------------.= – β ib ib Example 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−69 . R S = 2 KΩ .= ---------. with R E = 0 . Find the voltage and current gains.

12 + 2 v S ( max ) = ----------------.77 shows the common−emitter T−equivalent circuit.4% . the maximum value of the applied signal v S decreases by 51.12 We observe that for an increase of 88. c.12 KΩ r in + R s 27. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors A i = – β = – 120 We observe that whereas the addition of R E has increased the input resistance by 88.5% .2 mV 3.v S r in + R s r in + R s 3.12 KΩ r in v be = ----------------.× 5 mV = 5.4 mV r in 27. T−equivalent model for the common−emitter transistor As with the T-equivalent model for the common-base transistor. 3.8% .v be = ---------------------.v be = ------------------.4 The T−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Emitter Transistor Figure 3. and r in ≈ βr e = 120 × 26 = 3.12 r in With R E .5% in input resistance.77.× 5 mV = 8. βi b rc ie ic C RL B RS ib rb re E vS v be Figure 3. we assume that re « rc rb « rc 3−70 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.12 + 2 v S ( max ) = ----------------. Then. Without R E .15. r in ≈ β ( r e + R E ) = 120 ( 26 + 200 ) = 27. the voltage gain has decreased by 82.

78(b) we can draw the h−parameter equivalent circuit shown in Figure 3.Transistor Networks RL < rc and with these assumptions the input and output resistances and voltage and current gains for the T−equivalent model for the common−emitter transistor are: re Input resis tan ce = r in = r b + -----------1–α αr c + R S Output resis tan ce = r out = r c ( 1 – α ) + r e ⋅ -------------------------re + rb + RS –α RL Voltage gain = A v = -------------------------------re + rb ( 1 – α ) Current gain = A i = – β (3.78 shows the common−collector or emitter−follower configuration of an NPN transistor.5 The h−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Collector Transistor Figure 3. V CC RC C B ic ie RL B ib re go E βi b ie RL ic C ib v in = v b vb v out E v ec RE (a) (b) Figure 3.139) (3.15. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−71 . The emitter−follower is useful in applications where a high−resistance source is to be connected to a low−resistance load. Common−collector or emitter−follower transistor circuit and its equivalent From the equivalent circuit in Figure 3.137) (3.79 where h ic = r e h oc = g o h fc = β h rc = μ Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.78.140) 3.138) (3.

we denote the conductance h oc = g o with its reciprocal r o in the circuit in Figure 3.79.78(b).81. 3−72 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.81. RS vS v bc h ic h rc v ec h fc i b v ec h oc RL v out Figure 3.80.5 KΩ h rc = 1 h fc = – 45 h oc = 27 × 10 –6 Ω –1 Figure 3.79 with a signal source v s and its internal resistance R S connected on the left side. we connect a voltage source v s with its internal resistance R s at the input. and the circuit is as shown in Figure 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and a load resistor R L connected on the right side.81. The simplified common−collector transistor amplifier equivalent circuit From the equivalent circuit in Figure 3. Circuit for the computation of voltage gain in a common−collector transistor amplifier To find the input and output resistances and overall voltage and current gains.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors ib v bc h ic h rc v ec h fc i b h oc ic v ec Figure 3. ib B C ic βi b RS re ie E vb i out vS r0 v out R L Figure 3.80 shows the h−parameter equivalent circuit in Figure 3. The h−parameter equivalent circuit for common−collector transistor Typical values for the h−parameter equivalent circuit for the common−collector transistor are: h ic = 1.

Equivalent circuit for the computation of the output resistance From Figure 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−73 . The output resistance r out cannot be determined by inspection.1 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.82.Transistor Networks vb ( r e + r o || R L )i e ( r e + r o || R L ) ( i b + i c ) r in = ---.82 where the current i b is shown as ( 1 – α )i e . therefore we will remove the load resistor R L and the voltage source v S . that is. across the resistor r o and we will find the output resistance from the relation of the equivalent circuit derive it from the relation r out = v x ⁄ i x as shown in Figure 3.142) (3.141) Relation (3.= -------------------------------------------------ib ib ib ( r e + r o || R L ) ( i b + βi b ) = -----------------------------------------------------.= ---------------------------------. – R S ( 1 – α )i e = r e i e + v x v x = – R S ( 1 – α )i e – r e i e * See Table 3. that is.82 we obverse that the voltage drop across R S is equal to the sum of the voltage drops across r e and r 0 .* RS ( 1 – α ) ie B ib re E ie βi b ix vx C r0 Figure 3. and we will connect a test voltage source v x across the emitter to ground terminals.142) indicates that the input resistance r in can be controlled by choosing an appropriate value for the load resistor R L . since r o » R L and r e « R L r in ≈ β R L (3.= ( r e + r o || R L ) ( β + 1 ) ib and since β » 1 r in ≈ ( r e + r o || β R L ) Also.

144) yields vx vx i x = ---.81 and relation (3.= -----------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .= -------.+ --------------------------------r0 RS ( 1 – α ) + re and division of both sides by v x yields ix 11 1 ---. or r0 ( ie + ix ) = vx vx i x = ---.= ------.⋅ ---vb vS vS where from Figure 3.143) into (3. RS RS ro ⋅ RS ⁄ β r out = r o || R S ( 1 – α ) + r e = r o || ----------.A v = -------. Then.⋅ v b r e + r o || R L (3. The voltage gain is v out v b v out .– i e r0 Substitution of (3.v S R S + r in r in β RL vb ---.146) (3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors vx – ---.+ --------------------------------vx r out ro RS ( 1 – α ) + re The last relation above reminds us of the formula for the combination of two parallel resistors.= R S ( 1 – α ) + r e ie –vx i e = --------------------------------RS ( 1 – α ) + re Also.+ r e ≈ r o || ---.144) (3.145) β+1 β ro + RS ⁄ β and obviously the output resistance is quite low.= --. r in v b = -----------------.141).= ----------------------(3.≈ --------------------R S + r in R S + β R L vS r o || R L v out = -------------------------.143) 3−74 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

Transistor Networks r o || R L v out RL -------.148) (3.= vb vS re + RL RS + β RL ( re + RL ) ⋅ ( RS + β RL ) vS (3.= -------------------------.145) 3 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= ----------------------------------------------------.19 Figure 3.149) ib 10 Ω E 30 KΩ C re vb vS βi b i c i out ie RL 2 KΩ r0 v out Figure 3. (3.≈ ---------------ro + RL ro + RL ib Ai ≈ β Example 3.19 Solution: From (3.148) reveals that the voltage gain of the emitter−follower is less than unity.A v = -------.83.142) r in ≈ β R L = 80 × 2 × 10 = 160 KΩ From (3.⋅ --------------------. The current gain is i out A i = ------ib where by the current division expression ro ro i out = ---------------.⋅ ( β + 1 )i b ro + RL ro + RL and thus βr o i out ( β + 1 )r o A i = ------.83 shows the equivalent circuit of a typical emitter−follower and it is given that β = 80 . Find the input and output resistances and voltage and current gains. RS 5 KΩ B Since r o » R L .≈ ---------------r e + r o || R L r e + R L vb and thus v out v b β RL v out RL β R2 L -------.≈ ---------------.⋅ i e = ---------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−75 .147) Relation (3.= --------------------. Emitter−follower transistor amplifier equivalent circuit for Example 3.⋅ ---.

152) v out v b ro β ( re + ro ) v out .151) (3.15. With this resistor disconnected.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors r o ⋅ R S ⁄ β 30 × 10 3 × 5 × 10 3 ⁄ 80 r out ≈ ----------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .153) and since r e « r o this relation reduces to Av With the given values Av and from (3.⋅ ---.= -------------vb re + ro Then.998 3 3 5 × 10 + 80 × 30 × 10 3. the voltage gain with the load resistor disconnected is Av RL → ∞ (3. 3−76 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= -------. the input resistance as given by (3.4 Ω r o + R S ⁄ β 30 × 10 3 + 5 × 10 3 ⁄ 80 From (3. is reduced to r in ≈ β ( r e + r o ) and (3.84 shows the common−collector T−equivalent circuit.⋅ ----------------------------------vb vS re + ro RS + β ( re + ro ) vS (3.149) A i ≈ β ≈ 80 RL → ∞ RL → ∞ βr o = -------------------R S + βr o 3 (3.146) becomes r in β ( re + ro ) vb ---.141) where β » 1 .= 62.= 0.150) (3.= -------.= -------------.= ----------------------------------------------------.147) becomes v out ro -------. (3.= -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.= 0.≈ ----------------------------------R S + r in R S + β ( r e + r o ) vS Also.154) 80 × 30 × 10 = ------------------------------------------------------.965 ( r e + R L ) ⋅ ( R S + β R L ) ( 10 + 2 × 10 3 ) ( 5 × 10 3 + 80 × 2 × 10 3 ) This is the voltage gain with a load resistor connected to the circuit.= -----------------.6 The T−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Collector Transistor Amplifier Figure 3.148) 6 β R2 80 × 4 × 10 L A v ≈ ----------------------------------------------------.

16 Transistor Cutoff and Saturation Regions As mentioned earlier. TABLE 3. and voltage and current gains for transistor amplifiers Common−Base Common−Emitter Common Collector Input/Output Phase 0° 180° 0° Input Resistance r in Output Resistance r out Voltage Gain A v Current Gain A i Low Equal to R C Depends on ratio R C ⁄ R S Close to unity Moderate High High High High Low Close to unity Large 3.158) Output resis tan ce = r out = r e + ( r b + R S ) ( 1 – α ) Voltage gain = Av ≈ 1 Current gain = A i ≈ β Table 3.155) (3.156) (3.4 summarizes the three possible transistor amplifier configurations. T−equivalent model for the common−collector transistor amplifier As with the T-equivalent models for the common-base and common-emitter transistors. active. or saturation region.Transistor Cutoff and Saturation Regions ib RS ie re rc βi b RL rb ic vS v out Figure 3.4 Phase. The conditions Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−77 . input and output resistances. a transistor can be in a cutoff.84. we assume that re « rc rb « rc RL < rc and with these assumptions the input and output resistances and voltage and current gains for the T−equivalent model for the common−collector transistor amplifier are: L Input resis tan ce = r in = ----------1–α R (3.157) (3.

and saturation regions. However.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors are shown in Table 3. Then.1 Cutoff Region If v S is such that v BE < 0.2 Active Region If v S is such that v BE ≥ 0. the emitter−base junction will be forward−biased and since V CC is positive.85. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Thus.2 and are repeated below for convenience. the collector−base junction will also be reverse−biased. iB = 0 iE = 0 iC = 0 v CE = V CC 3. we can find the maximum current the collector can have while in the active mode. the transistor will be in the active mode.16. active.7 V .7 i B = -------------------.7 V . the emitter−base junction will be reverse−biased and since V CC is positive.3 Saturation Region The saturation region is reached by supplying a base current larger than I CM ⁄ β where I CM is the maximum current the collector will deliver while in the active mode. the transistor will be in the saturation mode which is discussed in the next subsection. RC iC v CE + + − V CC iB + vS − RB v BE + − iE − Figure 3. and transistor will be in the active mode. the collector−base junction will be reverse−biased. Then.85. Transistor circuit for defining the regions of operation 3. 3. and the transistor will be in the cutoff mode.7 V . We will refer to it in our subsequent discussion to define the cutoff.7 V . and we can then determine 3−78 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. if v BE = 0. we will have v S – V BE v S – 0.6 V . Region of Operation Active Saturation Cutoff Emitter−Base junction Forward Forward Reverse Collector−base junction Reverse Forward Reverse Let us consider the transistor circuit in Figure 3.= -----------------RB RB i C = βi B v C = V CC – R C i C v CB = v C – v BE and if v CB ≥ 0.16. if v CB < 0.16.

= ---------------------RC RC and if I BM is the base current corresponding to the collector current I CM . v C . and i B . i E .160) (3.85.162) 3−79 . With reference to the circuit in Figure 3. v CE sat ≈ 0. the maximum current I CM the collector can have while in the active mode can be found from the relation R C I CM + v BE = V CC or V CC – v BE V CC – 0. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. we can see that this relation does not hold when the transistor is in the saturation mode. In this case β is referred to as the current gain at saturation and it is denoted as β sat . the collector to emitter voltage is denoted as v CE sat and its value is approximately 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications (3.Transistor Cutoff and Saturation Regions whether the transistor is in the active mode or the saturation mode.2 V . and whereas β = di C ⁄ di B in the active mode.2 V and the corresponding collector current i C sat is found from the relation V CC – v CE sat i C sat = -----------------------------RC Example 3. When a transistor is deeply into saturation.7 I CM = -----------------------. that is. the collector−base junction will become forward−biased and if it reaches a value of 0. any further increase in the base current will result in a very small increase in the collector current. Find v E .161) If we increase the base current above I BM .86 it is known that it is in the active mode and β > 50 .6 V . it follows that I BM = I CM ⁄ β (3.7 (3.20 For the transistor circuit in Figure 3. there will be a corresponding increase in I CM and since v C = V CC – R C I C .163) (3.159) We can also find the maximum value of the applied signal voltage v S that will keep the transistor in the active mode from the relation v S max = R B I BM + 0. i C . v C will decrease and if it falls below the value of v BE .

iC β sat = --. we conclude that the transistor is deeply into saturation.5 V and since this value is much less that v B = 8 V . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .90 = 0. Then.= 0.5 i C = --------------------. We now can find the value of β at saturation.3 = 7.= -----------------.3 V vE 7.59 --------iB 1.= 0. in saturation v C = v CE sat + v E = 0. active.2 + 7.3 mA Then.53 mA and this is indeed a very large base current.53 This value also indicates that the transistor is deeply into saturation. let us assume that i C ≈ 2. 3−80 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. it is safe to assume that it operates either in the active or saturation region.20 We do not know whether the transistor operates in the cutoff.43 mA 3 RE 3 × 10 and since i C ≈ αi E . but since v B = 8 V . in active mode of operation v C = V CC – R C i C = 12 – 5 × 10 × 2.5 V V CC – v C 12 – 7.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors RC 5 KΩ + iB vS + − C B + + iC − 12 V vC vE + + − RB v B v BE − E 8 V RE − 3 KΩ i E − Solution: Figure 3.= 2.= ---------------. Assuming active mode of operation.86. or saturation region.90 = 1.7 = 7.43 – 0. we obtain v E = v B – v BE = 8 – 0.3 × 10 3 –3 = 0.90 mA 3 3 5 × 10 5 × 10 and i B = i E – i C = 2. Circuit for Example 3.3 i E = ----.

87 shows how an NPN and a PNP transistors are biased. Let α F denote the current amplification in the normal operation ( V BE = forward – biased and V CB = reverse – biased ) and α R denote the inverted operation ( V BE = reverse – biased and V CB = forward – biased ) common−base current gains of the bipolar transistor.+ --βF β (3.165) By substituting these relationships into (3.166) If the emitter−base junction is forward biased and the collector−base junction is reverse biased. R (3. IE = IC + IB (3.164). Then. R = ------------------β F. closed−form expression for the collector. the terminal currents are given by IC = IF IF I E = ----αF IF I B = ---βF (3.164) These current gains are related to one another by β F. The Ebers−Moll bipolar transistor model expresses each of the terminal currents in terms of a forward component I F . R β F.The Ebers−Moll Transistor Model 3. In this case. and a reverse component I R . which only depends on the base−to−emitter voltage. R α F. which only depends on the base−to−collector voltage. R + 1 α F. and emitter currents of a bipolar transistor in terms of the terminal voltages. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. that is. then I F » I R and the bipolar transistor is said to be in the forward−active mode of operation. we can show that the Ebers−Moll model satisfies Kirchhoff’s current law. transitioning between them smoothly. R = ------------------1 – α F. and β F and β R denote the normal and inverted operations respectively of the common−emitter gains. It is valid in all regions of operation of the bipolar transistor.167) Figure 3. base. the terminal currents can be expressed as IR I C = I F – ----αR IF I E = ----. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−81 .17 The Ebers−Moll Transistor Model The Ebers−Moll model of the bipolar transistor provides a simple.– I R αR IF I I E = ---.

we should ensure that V BE > 4V T and V C ≥ V B .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors C B VB + − + IC − VC − + C B IB VB IC − + VC IB VE E − + IE IE E + VE − NPN Transistor PNP Transistor Figure 3.170) If both junctions are forward biased simultaneously.168) If the collector−base junction is forward biased.171) Likewise. we can express the terminal currents in terms of one another as IE = –βR IB = αR IC I C = – ( β R + 1 )I B = I E ⁄ α R (3.169) By using (3. we can express the terminal currents in terms of one another as IC = βF IB = αF IE IC I E = ----. we should ensure that V EB > 4V T and V C ≤ V B . the transistor is said to be in saturation. Then for the NPN bipolar transistor biased as shown in Figure 3. I E .= ( β F + 1 )I B αF IC IE I B = ---.166) and (3. and I B are positive and are flowing in the directions indicated. Let I S be the saturation current and V T the thermal voltage. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . is given by IF = IS ( e V BE ⁄ V T ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT – 1 ) = IS ( e – 1) (3. Biased bipolar transistors showing the direction of conventional current flow To bias an NPN bipolar transistor into the forward − active region. To bias a PNP bipolar transistor into the forward−active region.87. then I R » I F and the transistor is said to be in the reverse−active mode of operation in which the collector and emitters effectively reverse their roles.87. In this case. In this case. By using (3.167). the reverse current component I R is IR = IS ( e V BC ⁄ V T – 1 ) = IS ( e ( VB – VC ) ⁄ VT – 1) (3.166) and (3.172) 3−82 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.169). I F . In this case the terminal currents are given by IC = –IR ⁄ αR IE = –IR IB = IR ⁄ βR (3. I C . the forward current component. and the emitter−base junction is reverse biased. I C . and I B are positive and are flowing in the directions indicated. I E .= -------------βF βF + 1 (3.

( e B C T – 1 ) βF βR If V BE > 4V T and V C ≥ V B .( e B C T ) βF βR If V BE < – 4 V T and V BC < – 4 V T .171) and (3.( e B C T ) βR (3.86. the transistor is biased deeply into the forward−active region and (3.( e B C T – 1 ) αR (3.173) can be expressed as IS IS IS IS I E ≈ ---I B ≈ – ---.( e B C T ) αR (3.– ----I C ≈ ----(3.( e B C T ) αR IE ≈ –IS ( e ( VB – VC ) ⁄ VT ) IS ( V – V ) ⁄ V I B ≈ ----. the transistor is biased deeply into the reverse−active region and (3.( e B E T – 1 ) – ----. the transistor is deeply into the cutoff region and (3.174) If V BC > 4V T and V E > V B . the forward current component.177) βR βF βF βR For the PNP transistor shown in Figure 3.173) can be expressed as IC ≈ IS ( e ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT IS (V – V ) ⁄ V ) – ----.172) into (3.( e B E T ) + ----.( e B E T ) βF (3. the transistor is deeply saturated and (3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−83 .( e B E T ) – I S ( e B C T ) αF IS ( V – V ) ⁄ V IS ( V – V ) ⁄ V I B ≈ ---.173) IS ( V – V ) ⁄ V (V – V ) ⁄ V I E = ----.178) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.( e B E T – 1 ) – I S ( e B C T – 1 ) αR IS ( V – V ) ⁄ V IS (V – V ) ⁄ V I B = ---.164) we express the terminal currents in terms of the terminal voltages as IC = IS ( e ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT IS ( V – V ) ⁄ V – 1 ) – ----. is given by IF = IS ( e V EB ⁄ V T – 1 ) = IS ( e ( V E – V EB ) ⁄ V T – 1) (3.176) IS ( V – V ) ⁄ V (V – V ) ⁄ V I E ≈ ----.172) reduces to IC ≈ IS ( e ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT ) IS (V – V ) ⁄ V I E ≈ ----.173) reduces to IS (V – V ) ⁄ V I C ≈ – ----.( e B E T ) αF IS (V – V ) ⁄ V I B ≈ ---.175) If V BE > 4V T and V BC > 4V T .The Ebers−Moll Transistor Model By substitution of (3. I F .

Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors and the reverse current component.( e B E T ) αF (3.174).= ⎝ ⎜ VT βF ⎟ ∂V B ⎠ ∂I B ⎝ ⎠ IB VT r b = -----IB ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (3.( e ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT ) ⎟ r b = --------. we will find the incremental resistance seen looking into the base terminal of an NPN transistor with the emitter voltage held fixed. First.⎠ αF ∂ ( –IE ) T ⎝ ⎠⎠ ⎝ IE or re = VT ⁄ IE (3.184) we can obtain this incremental transconductance gain as 3−84 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.182) we obtain this incremental emitter resistance by differentiating – I E with respect to V E .179) From the Ebers−Moll model equations we can derive relationships for small signal parameters. that is. From (3.⎞ = ⎜ -----. is given by IR = IS ( e V CB ⁄ V T – 1 ) = IS ( e ( VC – VB ) ⁄ VT – 1) (3. IS ( V – V ) ⁄ V I B ≈ ---. that is.( e B E T ) βF (3. From (3. which yields ⎛ ⎞ –1 ∂I B –1 1.174).183) Now.( e ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT ) ⎞ ⎟ r e = --------------. we shall compute the incremental resistance seen looking into the emitter terminal with the base voltage held constant. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . I R .---. which yields ⎛ ⎞ –1 IS ∂I E ⎞ –1 ∂V E 1 ⎞ ⎛ ----. we shall define the incremental transconductance gain of the NPN transistor as the partial derivative of the collector current with respect to the base voltage. From (3.181) or Next.I S ∂V B ⎛ --------.= – ⎛ --------= – ⎜ ⎛ – -----. IS ( V – V ) ⁄ V I E ≈ ----.⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ ∂V E ⎠ ⎜ ⎝ V .174) IC ≈ IS ( e ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT ) ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (3.180) we obtain this incremental base resistance by differentiating I B with respect to V B .

88.g.= ----rb re (3. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. NPN and PNP transistors with Schottky diodes 3.g.= -------------βF βF + 1 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (3. it takes a considerably long time to drive the transistor out of saturation. NPN Silicon Epitaxial Planar Transistor for switching and amplifier applications. Therefore.⋅ I S ( e VT ∂V B IC or Using the relations IC g m = -----VT IC = βF IB = αF IE IC I E = ----.186) (3.= ( β F + 1 )r e gm rb αF r e = ----. Due to the large diffusion capacitance. and packaging options.187) we can also express these small−signal parameters in terms of one another as βF r b = ----. and mechanical data. weight. e.185) (3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−85 . The Schottky diode has the property that it turns on at a lower voltage than the PN junction.18 Schottky Diode Clamp In the saturation region. The specifications usually cover the items listed below.19 Transistor Specifications Transistors are available in a variety of shapes and sizes. and the values given are typical.. when a transistor is in the saturation region. the collector−base diode is forward−biased.= -----. Schottky diode C Schottky diode C B E NPN Transistor B E PNP Transistor Figure 3.88.= ( β F + 1 )I B αF IC IE I B = ---.= -------------gm βF + 1 αF βF g m = ---. e.188) 3. Features. The Schottky diode alleviates this problem if connected between the base and the collector as shown in Figure 3.Schottky Diode Clamp ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT ∂I C 1) g m = --------. 1. case.. the current between the base and the collector is carried by the Schottky diode. each with its own unique characteristics.

breakdown voltages. typical 300 at V CE = 1 V . and storage times. I C = 10 mA . Maximum Ratings and Thermal Characteristics.5 × 10 . f = 1 KHz h oe (Output admittance): min 1 μΩ . cutoff currents.g. thermal resistance.g. at V CE = 10 V . collector−base. e.. etc. delay. saturation voltages. I C = 1 mA . max 8 × 10 f = 100 MHz h fe (Small signal current gain): min 100 . etc. fall. collector current. f = 100 MHz –1 –1 –4 –4 atV CE = 10 V I C = 1 mA . max 400 at V CE = 10 V . noise figure. and emitter base voltages. For example. some of the electrical characteristics for the 2N3904 NPN are listed as follows: h FE (DC current gain): min 100 . 3. I C = 10 mA h ie (Input impedance): min 1 KΩ . max 40 μΩ f = 1 KHz fT (Gain−Bandwidth product): 300 MHz at V CE = 20 V .. Electrical Characteristics. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 2. . power dissipation at room temperature. e. rise. 3−86 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. I C = 1 mA . max 10 KΩ at V CE = 1 V . collector−emitter. I C = 10 mA h re (Voltage feedback ratio): min 0.

and the collector. denoted as i C . • Since a transistor is a 3−terminal device. the base. requires very special manufacturing processes. about six times faster than silicon. the collector current.20 Summary • Transistors are three terminal devices that can be formed with the combination of two separate PN junction materials into one block. • Transistors are used either as amplifiers or as electronic switches. the base current. and lower power consumption. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−87 . • An NPN transistor is formed with two PN junctions with the P−type material at the center. there are three currents. denoted as i B . • Like junction diodes. whereas a PNP transistor is formed with two PN junctions with the N−type material at the center. denoted as i E . • For any transistor. typically 10 – 12 A to 10 – 15 A as in junction diodes. The base current i B is much smaller than the collector current i C and these two currents are related in terms of the constant β as iB = iC ⁄ β • Another important parameter in transistors is the common−base current gain denoted as α and relates the collector and emitter currents as i C = αi E • The parameters α and β are related as Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. whether it is an NPN or PNP transistor. and the emitter current. being a deadly poison. v BE is the base−to−emitter voltage.Summary 3. most transistors are made of silicon. and V T ≈ 26 mV at T = 300 °K . The disadvantages of GaAs over silicon is that arsenic. a constant whose value ranges from 75 to 300. are identified as the emitter. Its value is specified by the manufacturer. the three currents are related as iB + iC = iE • In a transistor the collector current is defined as iC = Ir e v BE ⁄ V T where I r is the reverse (saturation) current. NPN or PNP. • A very useful parameter in transistors is the common−emitter gain β . Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) technology has been under development for several years and its advantage over silicon is its speed. • The three terminals of a transistor.

• Two common methods of biasing a transistor are the fixed bias method and the self−bias method. • Class AB amplifiers are biased so that the collector current is cutoff for a portion of one cycle of the input and so the efficiency is higher than that of a Class A amplifier. • There are four classes of amplifier operations: Class A. and I C is the DC collector current. In a Class A amplifier the efficiency is very low. the efficiency in a Class B amplifier is higher than that of a Class AB amplifier. Class C amplifiers have the highest efficiency and are used for radio frequency amplification in transmitters. • Class C amplifiers are biased so that the collector current flows for less than one−half cycle of the input signal.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors β α = ----------β+1 α β = ----------1–α • As with diodes. • The operation of a simple transistor circuit can also be described graphically using i B versus v BE and i C versus v CE curves. and Class C. Class AB amplifiers are normally used as push−pull amplifiers to alleviate the crossover distortion of Class B amplifiers. Class A amplifiers are used for audio and frequency amplification. Therefore. the base−emitter voltage v BE decreases approximately 2 mV for each 1 °C rise in temperature when the emitter current i E remains constant. Class B amplifiers are used in amplifiers requiring high power output. • Class B amplifiers are biased so that the collector current is cutoff during one−half of the input signal. • In a transistor. • Class A amplifiers operate entirely in the active region and thus the output if a faithful reproduction of the input signal with some amplification. Class B. the output resistance looking into the collector is defined as ∂v CE r out = ----------∂i C VA = -----IC v BE = cons tan t where V A is the Early voltage supplied by the manufacturer. Class AB. • The average power drawn from the collector supply is P CC = V CC I C 3−88 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

Summary • The average power absorbed by the load is P LOAD = R LOAD I C + R LOAD ( i c RMS ) • The average power absorbed by the transistor is P C = P CC – P L • The piecewise−linear analysis is a practical method of analyzing transistor amplifiers. μ = h 12 = h re . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. β = h 21 = h fe . μ . i b = i 1 . currents. and the current amplification factor β is related to the output characteristics caused by a change in i B . the output conductance g o is the slope of the output current and voltage characteristics. provide a symmetrical form for the relations of (3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−89 . and defined as di C g m = ----------dv BE iC = -----VT 2 2 iC = IC An approximate value for the transconductance at room temperature is g m ≈ 40I C . v ce = v 2 . and i c = i 2 . The parameters r n . and power in devices that are connected externally to the transistor. • In the incremental model for the transistor the input resistance r n is the slope of the input voltage and current characteristics and it accounts for the voltage drop across the base−emitter junction.62)and (3. • Transistor hybrid parameters provide us with a means to evaluate voltages. The voltage amplification factor μ is related to the input characteristics caused by a change in v CE . Likewise. β .63) as follows: v 1 = h 11 i 1 + h 12 v 2 i 2 = h 21 i 1 + h 22 v 2 • In the incremental model for the transistor the current amplification A c is defined as i A c = --c is • The transconductance. and g o = h 22 = h oe. • The incremental model for the transistor provides a better approximation than the piece−wise linear approximation. denoted as g m . These designations along with the additional notations v be = v 1 . and g o are normally denoted by the h (hybrid) parameters as r n = h 11 = h ie .

3−90 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The combined α T and β T are αT = α1 + α2 – α1 α2 and βT ≈ β1 + β1 β2 • The common−base. transitioning between them smoothly. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . It is valid in all regions of operation of the bipolar transistor. when a transistor is in the saturation region. denoted as ω β . the current between the base and the collector is carried by the Schottky diode. the effects of junction capacitances must be taken into account. common−emitter. base. For higher frequencies. Therefore. • The Ebers−Moll model of the bipolar transistor provides a simple. the β cutoff frequency. Accordingly.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors • The high−frequency models for transistors take into consideration the nonlinear resistance r be that accounts for the voltage drop across the emitter junction. closed−form expression for the collector. is defined as 1 ω β ≡ ----------r be C e • If i C is in milliamps. is an important figure of merit for a transistor and it can be found from the relations gm ω T ≈ βω β = ----Ce • The Darlington connection consists of two transistors with a common collector point and exhibits a high input impedance and low output impedance. denoted as ω T . and common collector transistor circuits can also be represented by their h−equivalent and T−equivalent circuits. r be = 25β -------iC • The current gain−bandwidth product. and emitter currents of a bipolar transistor in terms of the terminal voltages. • The Schottky diode has the property that it turns on at a lower voltage than the PN junction. and the capacitance C e that exists across the forward−biased emitter junction.

2. β . For the PNP transistor circuit below. I C . α . and Ir . and i B = 12 μA at temperature T = 27 °C . RC = 6 KΩ IC C E RE = 8 KΩ IE V CC VC B 10 V IB VE 10 V V EE 4.7 V . The circuit operates at T = 27 °C .2 mA at temperature T = 27 °C .Exercises 3. The circuit operates at T = 27 °C . 3.21 Exercises 1. when the base−to−emitter voltage v BE = 0.7 V . and V C . I C = 0. RC = 5 KΩ IC C E RE IE = 10 KΩ V CC 12 V VC VB B VE RB IB 12 V V EE 5.7 V .72 V and β = 115 . Find β . It is known that in a NPN transistor. V E = 2 V and V EB = 0. Find α . It is known that in a NPN transistor. Find I E . when the base−to−emitter voltage v BE = 0.1 mA b. I B . Find the output resistance r out for a bipolar junction transistor whose Early voltage is V A = 75 V and the DC collector current is a. I C = 1 mA c. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−91 . the collector current i C = 1. Find the range of changes in v BE at this temperature for the range 0. I C = 5 mA Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the emitter current i E = 1. it is known that V E = – 0. For the NPN transistor circuit below.2 mA . and V C . it is known that R B = 130 KΩ .2 ≤ i C ≤ 5 mA .

and determine whether this circuit with the indicated values operates in the active.7 V . V B = 3. I E . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . R E = 3 KΩ .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 6. RC C RB B IB V BE VB E IC IE RE VC 5 KΩ 12 V V CC VS VE 7. I B . For the circuit below. Hint: The collector −base junction will still be reverse−biased if we make V B = V C . I C . and determine whether this circuit with the indicated values operates in the active. Find the highest voltage to which the base can be set so that the transistor will be in the active mode. or cutoff mode. Find I E . For the circuit below. Find V E . or cutoff mode. saturation. β = 150 . I B . 3−92 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. V E . V C . V C . saturation. I C . and β = 110 . β = 110 . Hint: The base − to − emitter junction of an NPN transistor is considered to be reverse − biased if VB = VE = 0 RC 5 KΩ 10 V V CC IB B V BE VE IC E VC 3 KΩ RE IE 8. For the circuit below.

V CC = 11. and V CB = – 3 V . V B = 0 V . I E = 0. and R E = 3 KΩ . V CC = – 12 V .3 V .Exercises RC C B IB VS RB VB VE V BE E IE RE 3 KΩ IC VC 5 KΩ 12 V V CC 9.8 mA . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−93 . Are both the transistors operating in the active mode? What is the total power absorbed by this circuit? R E2 R C1 R1 60 KΩ C1 8 KΩ I B2 10 μA I C1 V B2 V C2 V C1 5 KΩ I E2 C2 I C2 R C2 8 KΩ 12 V V CC E2 V EB2 B2 V E2 B1 I B1 30 KΩ V BE1 E1 V E1 V B1 R2 I E1 R E1 5 KΩ Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5 V and with the reverse− biased collector − base junction set at V CB = 1.8 mA . V EE = 12 V . V B = 0 V . what should the values of R C and R E be so that the transistor operates at the active mode? 12. For an NPN transistor circuit β = 100 . Find all indicated voltages and currents. V B = 3. For a PNP transistor circuit with β = 120 . For a PNP transistor circuit with β = 150 . For the circuit below. it is known that β = 120 for both transistors.8 V we want the collector current to be I C = 0. What should the values of R C and R E be to achieve this value? 10. V EE = 12 V . V CC = – 12 V . what would the largest value of R C be so that the transistor operates at the active mode? 11.

5. c. For the PNP transistor circuit below. RC 2 KΩ 20 V + V − CC iC iS RS R 1 2 MΩ 5 KΩ vS RE + V BB 10 V − a. − RC 15 V iC iS RS + V CC R1 − vS 15 V + V BB RE a. For the NPN transistor circuit below. b.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 13. β = 70 and the output volt−ampere characteristic curves are approximately horizontal lines. β = 100 and the output volt−ampere characteristic curves are approximately horizontal lines. 14. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Find the quiescent collector current I C and collector−to−emitter voltage V CE .5. and indicate the current and the voltage at which the load line intersects the axes. Determine graphically and plot i C versus i S for – 15 < i S < 15 μA . 5. and 10 μA . Find the values of R 1 and R C required to locate the quiescent operating point Q at i C = 1 mA and v EC = 5 V . Sketch a family of these curves for i B = 2. Construct a load line. 7. 3−94 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.0.

Find the current amplification A c . i c = 1 mA . and indicate the quiescent point on this line. c. and r o = 30 KΩ . Find the values of R B and R C required for a quiescent point Q at i C = 1 mA and v CE = 5 V . For the transistor model shown below.5 KΩ . b. r' b = 50 Ω . Show the current and voltage at which the load line intersects the axes. Sketch the load line on the i C versus v EC coordinates. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. draw an incremental model. and r o = 100 KΩ . Repeat part (a) for β = 60 . β = 100 . μ = 2 × 10 .Exercises b. and r o = 30 KΩ . 16. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−95 . Using the hybrid representation for the transistor. B ib v be r' b r be v' be ro g m v' be E ic v ce C ie a. It is not necessary to draw the collector characteristics. Find the transconductance g m and the base−emitter resistance r be . RC 20 V + − –4 V CC is Rs + RB V BB RE vs 20 V − b. it is known that β = 80 . i c = 5 mA . approximately what is the greatest amplitude that the signal i s can have without waveform distortion at the output? 15. r' b = 50 Ω . For the transistor circuit below. c. If the input signal is a sinusoidal current. a. i C = 1 mA and the hybrid parameters are r n = 2.

i1 + i2 + + − h 11 h 12 v 2 h 22 h 21 i 1 h 11 = 1. Determine whether the PNP transistor shown below is operating in the cutoff. Compute the voltage and current gains for this network if a voltage source of v 1 = cos ωt mV in series with 800 Ω is connected at the input (left side). and a 5 KΩ load is connected at the output (right side). The equations describing the h parameters can be used to represent the network shown below. active. or saturation region RC RB 10 KΩ C B VB E RE 10 V 2 KΩ + − 5 KΩ 10 V − + V CC V EE 18. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .2 KΩ h 12 = 2 × 10 h 21 = 50 –4 v1 − v2 − h 22 = 50 × 10 –6 Ω –1 3−96 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. This network is a transistor equivalent circuit for the common−emitter configuration and the h parameters given are typical values for such a circuit.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 17.

653 V ⎝ 1. From (3.2 × 10 e ln ( i C ) = ln ( 1.2) iC = Ir e v BE ⁄ V T (1) and as we know from Chapter 2 at T = 27 °C .2 × 10 –3 ln ⎛ -----------------------⎞ = 0.2 × 10 –3 With i C = 0.737 V 2.7 ) ⁄ V T –3 –3 ln ( i C ) – ln ( 1. for 0.7 ) ⁄ V T – 3 ( v BE – 0.7 ⎝ 1.22 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 1.792 ) = 0. from (3).7 + 26 × 10 × ( – 1.7 + 26 × 10 and with i C = 5 mA .7 + V T ln ⎛ -----------------------⎞ = 0.737 V ⎝ 1.7 ) ⁄ V T iC ln ⎛ -----------------------⎞ = ( v BE – 0.1) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. V T = 26 mV .2 × 10 –3⎠ BE iC iC –3 = 0.2 × 10 –3⎠ iC V T ln ⎛ -----------------------⎞ = v BE – 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−97 .(3) ⎝ 1.2 × 10 –3⎠ –3 5 × 10 –3 ln ⎛ -----------------------⎞ = 0.7 ) ⁄ V T ) = ln ( 1.2 mA . From (3.2 × 10 e v ⁄V i C = 1.7 + 26 × 10 –3 –3 0.2 × 10 –3⎠ –3 Therefore.2 × 10 ) + ( v BE – 0.2 × 10 ) = ( v BE – 0.7 ⁄ V --------------–3 T 1. the v BE range is 0.7 ) ⁄ V T ⎝ 1.= e 0.7 + 26 × 10 × 1.7 + 26 × 10 ln ⎛ ----------------------.2 × 10 –3⎠ ⎝ 1.2 × 10 Division of (1) by (2) yields –3 = Ir e 0. v BE = 0.2 × 10 e – 3 ( v BE – 0.2 ≤ i C ≤ 5 mA .653 ≤ v BE ≤ 0.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 3. From the given data 1.427 = 0.7 ⁄ V T (2) BE T iC ----------------------. v BE = 0.

15 mA By application of KVL on the collector (left) side of the circuit above.188 × 10 11 = 2.188 mA ⁄ 12 μA = 99 From (3.= 1.15 × 10 –3 = 1. iC = Ir e v BE ⁄ V T –3 –3 = 1.012 × 10 From (3.7).Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors iB + iC = iE i C = i E – i B = 1.15 × 10 3 –3 = 3. α = β ⁄ ( β + 1 ) = 99 ⁄ ( 99 + 1 ) = 0.72 I E = --------------------.= 1.1 V 3−98 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= --------------------. I B = I E ⁄ ( β + 1 ) and with β = 115 we find that –5 I B = 1.16 mA = 10 A = 10 μA --------------------115 + 1 I C = I E – I B = 1.188 mA –3 –3 –3 iC – 15 I r = --------------. RC = 6 KΩ IC C E VE RE = 8 KΩ IE 10 V V EE V CC VC B 10 V IB – 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .= 1.16 mA 3 RE 8 × 10 From Table 3.7 ⁄ ( 26 × 10 ) e 4.16 × 10 – 10 –3 –5 = 1.72 V – V E + R E I E = V EE V EE + V E 10 – 0.1.= 1.911 × 10 e e 3.42 × 10 A ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------v BE ⁄ V T 26.188 × 10 –3 = 1. iB = iC ⁄ β β = i C ⁄ i B = 1.99 From (3. we obtain VC = V CC – R C I C = 10 – 6 × 10 × 1.2 × 10 – 0.2).92 0.188 × 10–3.3).188 × 10 .

I B . and I C . VA r out = -----IC VA r out = -----IC I C = 1 mA c. we need to find I E .Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 4.1 mA b. I C = 5 mA 75 = -----------------.3 V .05 V 5.3 V I B = -----.= ------------------. a.99 × 10 – 12 = – 7.99 = 99 --------IB 0. β = I C ⁄ I B .99 = 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−99 .01 = 0. α = I C ⁄ I E .= 1 mA 10 KΩ VB 1.= 750 KΩ –4 10 75 = --------.01 3 –3 V C = R C I C – 12 = 5 × 10 × 0. Therefore. VA r out = -----IC 75 = --------. RC RE IE V VC VB B E 2V IB 130 R B KΩ 12 V V EE = 5 KΩ IC C E = 10 KΩ V CC 12 V From Table 3.= 75 KΩ –3 10 I C = 0. V C = R C I C – 12 .99 --------IE 1 β IC = ----.= 0. and V B = V E – V BE = 2 – 0. and from the circuit above.99 mA IC α = ----.01 mA RB 130 KΩ I C = I E – I B = 1 – 0.7 = 1.1.= 0.= 5 KΩ –3 5 × 10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= 0. R E I E + V E = 12 V 12 – 2 I E = ---------------.

RC C RB B IB IC IE RE 3 KΩ VC 5 KΩ 12 V V CC VS V BE VB E 3. Since V C > V B .991 mA The collector voltage is V C = V CC – R C I C = 12 – 5 × 10 × 0.7 – 0. Then. the transistor is indeed operating in the active mode and our assumption that the base−emitter junction is forward−biased.7 V VE Since V B = 3.991 × 10 3 –3 = 7.991 = 9 μA 3−100 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. β α = ----------.7 = 3 V and VE 3 I E = -----. Then.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 6.7 V .= 1 mA –3 RE 3 × 10 It is given that β = 110 .991 × 1 = 0.= -----------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Finally. V E = V B – V BE = 3.05V This is an NPN transistor and the collector (N) to base (P) must be reverse−biased for the transistor to operate in the active mode. I B = I E – I C = 1 – 0.= 110 = 0. is correct.7 V it is reasonable to assume that the base−emitter junction is forward− biased and thus V BE = 0.991 -------β+1 111 and I C = αI E = 0.

V B = 0 . the emitter−base junction does not conduct.= 110 = 0. 8. RC 5 KΩ V CC 10 V IB B V BE VE IC E VC 3 KΩ RE IE Since the base is grounded.991 -------β+1 111 and V B = V BE + V E = V BE + R E I E V B – 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−101 .7 V B – V BE I E = ---------------------. β α = ----------.= ------------------3 RE 3 × 10 Then. Since β = 110 . IE = 0 . T h e c o l l e c t o r c u r r e n t IC i s a l s o z e r o b e c a u s e I C = I E – I B = 0 and thus V C = V CC – R C I C = 10V . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. V BE = 0 .7V and for V B ≤ V C .Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 7. IB = 0 . Under those conditions the transistor behaves like an open switch and thus it is operating in the cutoff mode. a n d VE = 0 . RC C B IB VS RB VB VE V BE E IE RE 3 KΩ IC VC 5 KΩ 12 V V CC The transistor will be in the active mode for V B > 0.

3 V (2) 11. V C = V CC – R C I C = 11.84 = 4.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors V B – 0.81 × 10 –3 V B = 10.5 – 0.991 ------------------3 3 3 × 10 = 1.991 ------------------3 3 × 10 V B – 0.7 V B – 0.09 V -----------2.99 = 0.7 ) = 12 2.8 + 3.8 V VE 2.= 3.= 5 × 0.7 ) V B – 0.652 3−102 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.81 mA V E = V B – V BE = 3.= 100 = 0.5 = 5.3 R C = ----------------------.7 I C = αI E = 0.= -------------------------.3 – 0.7 ) ) V B + 1.991 ------------------3 3 3 × 10 = ( 12 – 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .5 KΩ –3 0.7 = 2.991 ------------------.84 or 9.7 3 V B = 12 – 5 × 10 × 0.8 ⁄ 0.652 ( V B – 0.8 R E = -----. then.7 3 V C = V CC – R C I C = V B = 5 × 10 × 0.7 V B – 0.8 × 10 β α = ----------.= 12 – 5 × 0.991 ------------------.8 × 10 R C (1) Also From (1) and (2) With β = 100 .3 – 5.652 ( V B – 0. The emitter voltage is and thus V C = V CB + V B = 1.652 ( V B – 0.99 -------β+1 101 I E = I C ⁄ α = 0.652V B = 10.5 KΩ –3 IE 0.= 7.

21 KΩ –3 αI E 0. For this exercise the base is grounded so V B = 0 and we can let V C ≈ 0 also.(1) αI E β 120 α = ----------. RE IB B VC RC V CC C IC 3 KΩ 12 V V EB E 5 KΩ 12 V V EE IE VE A PNP transistor will still be in the active mode if V C = V B .= 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−103 . Then.= -------.= ---------------------------------------------.= 0.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 10.7 = 3.7 = V EE – R E I E = 12 – R E I E we obtain -----------------I E = 12 – 0.77 mA (3) 3 3 × 10 12 R C = -------.992 × 3.992 (2) β+1 121 By substitution of (2) and (3) into (1) we obtain 12 12 R C = -------. V C = R C I C – V CC = R C αI E – 12 ≈ 0 or where and from V E = V EB = 0.77 × 10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

993 × 0.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 11.= 11.8 × 10 Also. RE V EB E IE 12 V V EE IB B VE VC C RC 12 V IC V CC Since the base is grounded. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .795 × 10 3−104 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. or β I C = αI E = ----------.8 = 0. V C = V CB = – 3 V V E = V EB = 0.3 KΩ –3 0.= 14 KΩ –3 0.7 R E = ----------------------.I E = 0. and Then.795 mA β+1 V C + R C I C = – V CC – ( – 12 ) – 3 R C = ----------------------------. since then.7 V R E I E + V E = V EE = 12 V 12 – 0.

3 4I B1 + I E1 = ---------------.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 12.1. 8 KΩ R C1 C1 R TH V TH 4V 20 KΩ B1 I B1 I' C1 10 μA I C1 V C1 5 KΩ E2 I E2 C2 I C2 R C2 8 KΩ V E2 V CC R E2 V I B2EB2 B2 V C2 12 V V BE1 E1 V B2 V B1 I E1 V E1 R E1 5 KΩ Application of KVL around the left part of the circuit yields R TH I B1 + V BE1 + R E1 I E1 = V TH ( 20 × 10 )I B1 + 0.= 0.8 where we applied Thevenin’s theorem.66 × 10 3 5 × 10 3 3 From Table 3. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Therefore the given circuit is redrawn as shown below. I E = ( β + 1 )I B . Then. R E2 R C1 R1 60 KΩ C1 8 KΩ I B2 10 μA I C1 V B2 V C2 E2 V EB2 B2 5 KΩ I E2 C2 I C2 R C2 8 KΩ 12 V V CC V E2 B1 I B1 30 KΩ V C1 V BE1 E1 I E1 V E1 R E1 5 KΩ V B1 R2 The left part in the circuit above is the same as that in Example 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−105 .7 + ( 5 × 10 )I E1 = 4 –3 3.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .2 V V B1 = V BE1 + V E1 = 0.66 × 10 I B1 = 5.68 = 1.= 0.614 × 10 C1 3 –3 = 7.842 = 0.7 + 7.28 × 10 –3 –6 = 0.2 = 3.09 = 7. and Also.835 mA β+1 and V C2 = R C2 I C2 = 8 × 10 × 0.I E = 0.842 mA 3 R E2 5 × 10 It is given that β = 120 .79 I E2 = -----------------------. the base−collector PN junction is reverse− biased and thus the transistor is in active mode.28 × 10 3 = 0.634 mA I' = I C1 – I B2 = 0.634 mA – 10 μA = 0.79 V and the emitter current I E2 is V CC – V E2 12 – 7. The emitter voltage V E2 of the PNP transistor is V E2 = V EB2 + V C1 = 0.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 4I B1 + ( β + 1 )I B1 = 0. and –6 –3 –3 A = 5.639 mA –3 V E1 = R E1 I E1 = 5 × 10 × 0.9 V I C1 = I E1 – I B1 = 0.66 × 10 125I B1 = 0.28 × 10 and Then. Then.614 mA C1 V C1 = V CC – R C1 I' = 12 – 8 × 10 × 0.11 V Then.09 V Since this is an NPN transistor and V C1 > V B1 . β I C2 = αI E2 = ----------.992 × 0.835 × 10 3 –3 = 6.28 μA –6 I E1 = ( β + 1 )I B1 = 121 × 5. Then.= --------------------.68 V To find V B2 we observe that V EC2 = V E2 – V C2 = 7. 3−106 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.639 × 10 = 3.7 + 3.639 × 10 – 5.79 – 6.

41 + 6. and 10 μA .00 mA and these are shown on the plot below.50 0.25 i C ( mA ) i B = 10 μA i B = 7.11 – 0.5.5 μA 5 10 15 20 v CE ( V ) The load line is obtained from the relation v CE + R C i C = V CC = 20 V Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. 5.25.28 μA + 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−107 .5.00 0. and 1. RC 2 KΩ 20 V + V − CC iC iS RS R 1 2 MΩ 5 KΩ vS RE + V BB 10 V − a.5 μA Q i B = 5.41 V and V B2 = V BC2 + V C2 = 0. this is the same value as that of V C1 as it can be seen from the circuit above. With β = 100 .68 = 7. 1.75 0.50. The total power absorbed by this circuit is P = V CC I T = V CC ( I B1 + I' + I E2 ) = 12 ( 5.75.7 = 0. 7.5 mw C1 13. This is an PNP transistor and since V C2 < V B2 the base−collector junction is reverse−biased and the PNP transistor is also in the active mode.09 V As expected. we obtain i C = 0. 0.0.0 μA i B = 2.842 mA ) = 17. i C = βi B = 100i B and for i B = 2.614 mA + 0. 0.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises V BC2 = V EC2 – V EB2 = 1.

I B = 10 V ⁄ 2 MΩ = 5 μA . the Q point is the intersection of the load line and the line i B = I B . b. The load line then intercepts the v CE axis at 20 V and the i C axis at 1 mA .+ i s = 5 + i s R1 and i C = βi B = β ( 5 + i s ) Then. we obtain the corresponding collector current values as shown on the table below. i s ( μA ) i C ( mA ) −15 0 −10 0 −5 0 0 5 5 10 10 10 15 10 The plot below shows the current transfer characteristics i C ( mA ) 10 5 i s ( μA ) – 15 – 10 –5 5 10 15 3−108 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors When i C = 0 . and when v CE = 0 . and the Q point is as shown above and we observe that I C = 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .5 mA and V CE = 10 V . i C = V CC ⁄ R C = 20 ⁄ 20 KΩ = 1 mA . Thus with reference to the circuit above and i s = 0 . for the range – 15 < i s < 15 μA . V BB i B = I B + i s = --------. v CE = 20 V . c. As shown above.

is found from the straight line equation i C = mv EC + i CQ or i CQ = i C – mv EC Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= – 0.= -------------.= -------------.50 1.05 MΩ ----------------3 IB I C ⁄ 70 10 i C ( mA ) 1.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 14. a.50 5 10 15 Q b. v EC ( V ) The slope of the load line is i C2 – i C1 0 – 1m = --------------------------.= 15 ×–70 = 1.00 0. denoted as i CQ . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−109 .1 v EC2 – v EC1 15 – 5 The i C intercept. RC − 15 V iC iS RS + V CC R1 − vS 15 V + V BB RE v EC + R C i C = V CC 5 + 10 R C = 15 R C = 15 – 35 = 10 KΩ -------------– 10 and with β = 70 R1 –3 V BB 15 = --------.

and since i B = i C ⁄ β = 1. From the plot of part (b) we see that when v EC = 0 (short circuit) the collector current is i C = 1.1 ) × 5 = 1.3 = 7.= 60 = 1.= 400 Ω gm 200 b. g m ≈ 40i c = 40 × 10 and βr be = ----.5 mA .83) β80r be = ----.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors and with i C = 1 mA and v CE = 5 i CQ = 1 – ( – 0.5 ⁄ 70 = 21.= -----------------------.1 μA 15. From (3.78). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .4 μA .4 – 14. g m ≈ 40i c = 40 × 5 × 10 and from (3.+ i s = 14.5 KΩ ----gm 40 –3 = 200 millimhos = 40 millimhos 3−110 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5 mA c.05 × 10 we obtain i s = i B – I B = 21. B ib v be r' b r be v' be ro g m v' be E ic v ce C ie –3 a. and V BB 15 i B = I B + i s = --------.= -------.3 μA + i s 6 R1 1.

5 KΩ iB 100 i B iC R eq C RC 15 KΩ 100 KΩ is Rs – μβ R eq – 26 Ω βi b E ro v CE c. 20 V − R C i C + v CE = V CC V CC – v CE 20 – 5 R C = -----------------------.= 2 MΩ –5 IB 10 b.= --------------------. The incremental model circuit in Figure 3.67) ro ic RB A c = --. RC 20 V + − V CC is Rs + RB V BB RE vs a. From (3.× 100 × -----------------------.15 × 10 6 5 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.β --------------------( RB + rn ) ( ro + RC ) is or 2 × 10 10 A c = -----------------------------.= -------------.63 is applicable here and it is shown below with the given parameters and the values obtained in part (a).= --------. B RB 2 MΩ –3 rn 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−111 .0025 × 10 1.= 15 KΩ –3 iC 10 I B = I C ⁄ β = 10 ⁄ 100 = 10 μA V BB 20 R B = --------.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 16.≈ 87 6 5 2.

(2).7 V IB VB VB = -----. VE IE = 10 – ( 2 KΩ ) I E 10 – V E 10 – ( 0.5V B mA (2) 2 KΩ 2 KΩ where the numerical value of V B in the last expression above is in mA .2 = V B + 0. In this case. and (3). V EB = 0.= 0.7 + V B Also.7 + V B – 0.5 V The collector current is V C – ( – 10 ) V B + 0.2 V . its value should be just a few microamps. Then.7 + V B ) = ----------------. but since we’ve assumed that the transistor is in the active mode.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 17.= -------------------------------. I E ≈ 4.5 + 10 I C sat = -------------------------. V CE sat ≈ 0.1 mA (3) 5 KΩ 5 KΩ and with I E = I B + I C and (1).2V B + 2. RC IB RB 10 KΩ C B VB IE 10 V E 5 KΩ IC VC VE RE 2 KΩ V EE 10 V − + V CC + − Let us assume that the transistor is in the active mode.= ------------------------------------.= ------------.= 4. we obtain 3−112 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.65 mA and this value implies that the transistor operates in the saturation mode. Therefore. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .1V B mA (1) 10 KΩ RB V E = V EB + V B = 0.= 0.65 – 0. and thus V C = V E – V CE sat = 0.

Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 4. I C sat 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−113 .= 1.2V B + 2. fprintf(' \n')..5 0.2e V'. fprintf('v2 = %5.55 V B = --------.= 0.2V B + 2. B=[10^(−3) 0]'.1 ≈ 3.196 mA 10 KΩ I C sat = 0.03β sat = ---------.X(1)).65 – V B = 0..≈ 15.96 V 1. We recall that + v1 1 ∠0° mV –4 i1 i2 + − + 5000 Ω 50 i 1 50 v2 − − 2 × 10 v 2 × 10 –6 Ω –1 The network above is described by the equations ( 800 + 1200 )i 1 + 2 × 10 v 2 = 10 –4 –3 –v2 –6 50i 1 + 50 × 10 v 2 = i 2 = ----------5000 or 2 × 10 i 1 + 2 × 10 v 2 = 10 50i 1 + 250 × 10 v 2 = 0 We write the two equations above in matrix form and use MATLAB for the solution. X=A\B.196 IB v 1 = h 11 i 1 + h 12 v 2 (1) i 2 = h 21 i 1 + h 22 v 2 (2) With the voltage source v 1 = cos ωt mV in series with 800 Ω connected at the input and a 5 KΩ load connected at the output the network is as shown below. fprintf('i1 = %5.1V B + 0.03 mA Also..96 I B = ------------.= -----------. A=[2*10^3 2*10^(−4). 800 Ω 1200 Ω 18. Then 2. 50 250*10^(−6)].2e A \t'.1 Solving for V B .3 1.X(2)) –6 3 –4 –3 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors i1 = 5.10e-007 A Therefore. i 1 = 0.51 μA and the output current is in phase with the input current.4 μA The voltage gain is v2 – 102 mV G V = ---.= -----------------------. The current gain is i2 G I = --.2 × 10 × 0.51 μA (3) v 2 = – 102 mV (4) Next.592 m i 2 = 50 × 0.51 × 10 + 2 × 10 × ( – 102 × 10 ) = 0.51 × 10 × 50 × 10 × ( – 102 × 10 ) = 20.02e-001 V 3−114 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. –6 –6 –3 3 –6 –4 –3 v2 = -1. we use (1) and (2) to find the new values of v 1 and i 2 = 1.4 μA = 40 -------------------i1 0.3 0.592 mV v1 and the minus (−) sign indicates that the output voltage in 180° out−of−phase with the input.= – 172. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .= 20.

Like the old vacuum triode. the four−layer diode. characteristics. Figure 4. If the voltage applied to the gates is changed. A potential barrier exists across the junctions. + N iG iD 15 vD RL V DD Rs vs vG 12 9 6 3 10 (a) 20 i D ( mA ) vG = 0 vG = –1 vG = –2 vG = –3 vG = –4 (b) vD ( V ) + P P − − Figure 4.1. the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR). thus the width of the channel changes. the silicon controlled switch (SCS). 4.1 The Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) The Field−Effect Transistor (FET) is another semiconductor device. Other PNPN devices.1(b). In this section we will discuss the JFET and we will discuss the MOSFET in the next section. which are usually connected together externally. 4. and applications.1(a) shows the basic JFET amplifier configuration and the output volt−ampere characteristics are shown in Fig. are called gates. resulting in a change in the resistance between source and drain. the width of the transition region at the junction changes.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices T his chapter begins with a discussion of Field Effect Transistors (FETs). These characteristics are similar to those for the junction transistor except that the parameter for this family is the input voltage rather than the input current. P−N junctions exist between the P and N materials. and the triac are introduced with some of their applications. the two regions of P material. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−1 . In this way the current in the Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and diacs. The chapter includes also a brief discussion on unijunction transistors. and the upper terminal is called the drain. and in normal operation the voltage applied to the gates biases these junctions in the reverse direction. The Junction FET (JFET) is the earlier type and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET (MOSFET) is now the most popular type. Pictorial representation and output volt−ampere characteristics for a typical JFET The lower terminal in the N material is called the source. the FET is a voltage−controlled device. and the electrons carrying the current i D in the N material are forced to flow through the channel between the two gates.

65 V . and it is known as bipolar transistor. where a voltage source is connected with the plus (+) on the P side and the minus (−) on the N side. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . PN junction and depletion region of a typical PN junction The width of the depletion region depends on the applied bias. in contrast to the ordinary transistor in which both majority and minority carriers participate in the conduction process. can be made very large. A high resistance between the terminals is developed. and the ordinary junction transistor is not suitable for such applications. There are many circuits in which a high input resistance is required. This high input resistance results from the fact that the input voltage v G biases the junctions in the reverse direction and consequently is required to deliver only the small leakage current across the junctions. One of the most attractive features of the JFET is the fact that the input resistance. where a voltage source is connected with the plus (+) on the N side and the minus (−) on the P side. and with the ability to provide a voltage amplification of about 10 at frequencies up to 10 MHz . from 1 to 100 megohms. makes the depletion region narrower by repelling the holes and free electrons toward the junction. the free electrons move towards the right side while the holes move towards the left side causing the depletion region to widen. Forward−biasing. 5 to 10 volts. The current in a JFET is carried only by majority carriers and for this reason the FET is also known as unipolar transistor. 4−2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the forward biasing causes the depletion region to decrease resulting in a low resistance at the junction and a relatively large current across it. with transconductances in the range of 1 to 5 millimhos.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices output circuit is controlled by the gate voltage. and only a small current flows between the terminals. the free electrons will cross the junction and join with the holes. JFETs have been made with input resistances exceeding 1 megohm.2. measured between gate and source. let us review the depletion region which we discussed in Chapter 2. To better understand the JFET operation. is sufficient to reduce the channel width to zero and to cut off the flow of current in the output circuit.2 shows a PN junction and the depletion region when no bias is applied. and if the bias is about 0. Thus. Figure 4. A small potential applied to the gates. Junction P N Hole Free E lectron Negative Ion Positive Ion Depletion Region Figure 4. If a reverse−biasing is applied.

3.Thus.3. This is illustrated in Figure 4. no current flows through the channel. the gate is grounded.01 mA or R DS = 1 MΩ . Next. Now. and set the voltage at the drain to V DD = 10 V . and maintain the voltage at the drain to V DD = 10 V .3. let us adjust the voltage source at the gate so that V GG = 0 . we conclude that the drain−to−source resistance R DS is R DS = V DD ⁄ I DS = 10 V ⁄ 10 mA or R DS = 1 KΩ . Let us assume that under those conditions the drain−to−source current through the channel is I DS = 0.01 mA . we conclude that the drain−to−source resistance R DS is now R DS = 10 V ⁄ 0. The voltage at the gate which causes the drain−to−source resistance R DS to become infinite. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−3 . let us adjust the voltage source at the gate so that V GG = – 2 V . that is. let us adjust the voltage source at the gate so that V GG = – 4 V . we conclude that the drain − to − source resistance R DS is now R DS = 10 V ⁄ 0. when V GG = V P . Drain ( D ) N Gate ( G ) V GG P P + − V DD − + Depletion region Source ( S ) Figure 4. and maintain the voltage at the drain to V DD = 10 V . This reverse−bias condition cause the depletion region to expand and that reduces the effective cross−sectional area of the channel. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Therefore.The Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) The cross−sectional area of a typical JFET channel can be controlled by variations in the voltage applied to the gate.Therefore. Let us assume that under those conditions the drain−to−source current through the channel is I DS = 10 mA .1 mA or R DS = 100 KΩ . JFET operation with adjustable gate bias In Figure 4. This reverse−bias condition cause the depletion region to expand even more and that reduces further the effective cross−sectional area of the channel. is referred to as the pinch−off voltage and it is denoted as V P . we observe that the drain − to− source resistance R DS can be controlled by the voltage applied at the gate. and therefore. and we assume that under those conditions the drain − to − source current through the channel is I DS = 0. In other words.1 mA .

5. ∂i DS g m = ----------∂v GS (4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .1 Figure 4. D N G P P + D D G G P N − D + P G S N – Channel JFET S S S P – Channel JFET Figure 4. RD D G 1 KΩ + 15 V − V DD v in − + v out − i DS S + Figure 4.1 shows several values of the current i DS corresponding to the voltage v GS .5 shows a common−source N−channel JFET amplifier circuit and Table 4.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices In our discussion above.4. one important parameter in FETs is its transconductance g m defined as the ratio of the change in current i DS to the change of voltage v GS which produced it.4 which also shows the symbols for each. In other words. Common−source N−channel JFET amplifier for Example 4.1 4−4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. A P−channel JFET operates similarly except that the voltage polarities are reversed as shown in Figure 4. N−Channel and P−Channel JFETs Like in bipolar transistors. we described the operation of an N−channel JFET.1) v DS = cons tan t Example 4.

Solution: a. Find the output voltage v out if the input signal is v in = – 1.. b.1:0. % Plots the fourth degree polynomial xlabel('vGS (volts)'). Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. let us use the following MATLAB script to plot a suitable curve for this interval. RD D G 1 KΩ 15 V + − V DD v in = v GS − + v out − i DS S + From Figure 4. title('Plot for Example 4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−5 . vGS=[−4 −3 −2 −1 0].0:0.8 V ..polcurve).. grid The generated plot is shown in Figure 4. Figure 4...0.1 curve=polyfit(vGS.6.1').....1 v out = V DD – R D i DS (4..iDS. % Computes the polynomial for vGS axis values plot(vGSaxis...vGSaxis).. Therefore.The Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) TABLE 3..7. iDS=[0 2 8 20 35].1 v GS ( V ) i DS ( mA ) 0 35 –1 20 –2 8 –3 2 –4 0 a. % These are the data in Table 4..4 V .4). Plot i DS versus v GS and indicate how the transconductance can be calculated from this plot. Circuit for the solution of Example 4. Find the transconductance using the results of (a) and (b). Find the output voltage v out if the input signal is v in = – 2. e. % Creates horizontal (vGS) axis polcurve=polyval(curve. Is this an inverting or a non−inverting amplifier? d. % Fits the data to a polynomial of fourth degree vGSaxis=−4.6.2) but we do not know all values of i DS for the interval 0 ≤ i DS ≤ 35 mA . ylabel('iDS (milliamps)'). c.1 Current i DS versus voltage v GS for Example 4.

we conclude that the given JFET circuit is an inverting amplifier. MATLAB generated plot for Example 4. 4−6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.7.2 The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) The most popular type of a FET is the Metal−Oxide−Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor or MOSFET. i DS ≈ 10 mA .4 V . 4. Another less frequently name for the MOSFET is Insulated−Gate FET or IGFET.8 V . e.1 From the plot of Figure 4.3) b.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices 35 30 25 iDS (milliamps) 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -4 -3.5) The plot in Figure 4. Therefore. Therefore.5 -3 -2. The results of (a) and (b) indicate that an increase in the input voltage results in a decrease of the output voltage.7 we see that for v in = v GS = – 1. From the plot of Figure 4.4 – ( – 1.7 we see that for v in = v GS = – 2.5).7 shows the slope of g m and it is calculated as in (4.5 0 Plot for Example 4. v out v GS = – 2.1 Figure 4. i DS ≈ 5 mA .0083 Ω – 2.4) c.4 V = V DD – R D i DS = 15 – 10 × 5 × 10 3 –3 = 10 V (4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . –3 Δi DS –1 ( 5 – 10 ) × 10 g m = -----------.= -----------------------------------. v out v GS = – 1.5 -2 -1.8 V 3 = V DD – R D i DS = 15 – 10 × 10 × 10 –3 = 5V (4.5 vGS (volts) -1 -0.= 0. (4. Therefore.8 ) Δv GS d.

Cross section of an n−channel MOSFET In Figure 4. Conversely. This is termed enhancement−mode operation. D B G S n – channel G S p – channel D D B G D B B G Depletion MOSFET S S p – channel n – channel Enhancement MOSFET Figure 4.8 shows a cross section and the symbol for an n −channel MOSFET or NMOS FET device. MOSFET types and symbols Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. A MOSFET can be constructed that will operate in either mode depending upon what type of bias is applied. increasing the resistance from source to drain.9. The complementary p −channel MOSFET or PMOS FET is similar but opposite in polarity. A negative gate voltage will then drive electrons out of the channel. thus allowing a greater range of input signals. heavily doped N−type regions. if no channel exists with V G = 0 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−7 . The enhancement mode MOSFET has a lightly doped channel and uses forward bias to enhance the current carriers in the channel. Metal Source ( S ) Gate ( G ) w OX Drain ( D ) n+ Channel L p – type substrate n+ Substrate ( B ) Figure 4.The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) Figure 4. indicated by n + . The symbols for the four basic variations of the MOSFET are shown in Figure 4.8. An n conducting channel may be formed and exist with the gate voltage V G = 0 .8. one can be formed by applying positive voltage V G and attracting electrons to a thin surface layer. This is termed depletion−mode operation. The JFET also operates in this manner.9. are diffused into a P−type substrate or base.

1 The N−Channel MOSFET in the Enhancement Mode Figure 4.v DS L 2 for v DS ≤ vGS – V T 2 (4.v DS Lw OX 2 for v DS ≤ v GS – V T (4. Current−voltage characteristics for typical MOSFET The voltage at which the channel is closed is known as the pinch−off voltage V P .Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices 4. ε is its dielectric constant.10 shows the drain−to−source current i DS versus the drain−to−source voltage v DS for different values of gate−to−source voltage v GS .0 0. and μ is the mobility of carriers in the channel.( v GS – V T )v DS – -. and the minimum voltage required to form a conducting channel between the drain and source is referred to as the threshold voltage and it is denoted as V T . Then (4.10. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . The values for the channel length and width depend on the voltage v GS and typical values are 2 μm ≤ L ≤ 10 μm and 100 μm ≤ W ≤ 100 μm .5 2. and 1 to 2 volts for lower voltage devices with thinner gate oxides.6) is expressed as W 1 2 i D = k n ---.8. w OX is the oxide thickness.7) * The subscript n is used here as a reminder that relation (4. W is the width of the structure perpendicular to the paper in Figure 4.( v GS – V T )v DS – -.5 0 5 10 vGS = 5 V vG S = 4 V vG S = 3 V vG S = 2 V vG S = 1 V vD S ( V ) Figure 4. and typical values of k n are around 20 μA ⁄ V . Typical values for V T are 2 to 4 volts for high voltage devices with thicker gate oxides. It is convenient to represent the quantity εμ ⁄ w OX as k n *.8.5 1.2. the drain current i D in a MOSFET can be written approximately as εμW 1 2 i D = ------------.6) where L is the channel length as shown in Figure 4. i D S ( mA ) 2.7) applies to n−channel MOSFETs.0 1. In terms of this. 4−8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

( v GS – V T ) ( 1 + λv DS ) where λ is a small quantity. The saturation region starts where for any further increases in v DS there is no increase in the drain current i D . usually denoted as r DS .( v GS – V T ) 2 L for v DS ≥ v GS – V T † (4. It increases with increasing v DS due to the so−called channel width modulation caused by reduction of the effective channel length. and its value can be found from v DS L r DS ≡ -------.10 and 4.The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) where v DS ≤ v GS – V T defines the so−called quadratic or triode region*. in that range of v DS the MOSFET behaves as a linear resistor. Figures 4. say 0.11. i D increases with v DS and thus (4. Likewise. relation (4. and since i D is inversely proportional to the channel length. typically 0.11.7) can be written as W i D ≈ k n ---. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−9 . The quadratic (triode) and saturation regions are as shown in Figure 4.11.⋅ kn ----.05 ≤ v DS ≤ 0. the triode region starts as a linear function where the drain−to−source resistance r DS is linear but it changes to a curve because the resistance changes with changes in the drain−to−source voltage v DS . i D S ( mA ) Triode region Saturation region v DS ≥ v GS – V T v DS ≤ v GS – V T v DS = v GS – V T 0 vD S ( V ) Figure 4.15 V .= -------------------------------------iD k n W ( v GS – V T ) (4.11 reveal that for small values of v DS . Triode and saturation regions for an enhancement type NMOS where v GS > V T As shown in Figure 4.9) Thus. the MOSFET is said to be in the cutoff region.01 . 2 L Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.10) * This name is carried over from the old days of the vacuum tube triode whose characteristics are as shown in Figure 4. It † is also referred to as the quadratic region.8) where v DS ≥ v GS – V T defines the so−called saturation or pentode region.[ ( v GS – V T )v DS ] L for v DS ≤ v GS – V T (4. the saturation region is sometimes referred to as the pentode region. The drain current i D is not exactly independent of the drain−to−source voltage v DS . When v GS < V T .⋅ k n ---.11. and 1 W 2 i D = -.8) is an approximation to the exact drain current i D 1 W 2 given by i D = -.

vDS./(kn...26 2. plot(vDS. kn=18*10^(−6).. L = 5 μm .2 Compute and plot the values of r DS for an NMOS device where k n = 18 μA ⁄ V .3.5 9.5.0 2. VT=1. W = 60 μm .*(2. iD5=rD5*vDS.*L.rD5) vDS=(0:0.*W. iD4=rD4*vDS.rD2..^(−3).. iD2=rD2*vDS.*L. xlabel('vDS in V').0..iD5).85 The plot is shown in Figure 4..5.iD1.5−VT)).2.*(3. in saturation.11).*(3−VT)). rD1 = 10. grid When this program is executed.^(−3).^(−3)...01:100)*10^(-2).5 3.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices Example 4.0. 1... rD5 = 10. Relation (4. MATLAB displays the following: vGS (Volts) rD (KOhms) ------------------------1.5.5 ≤ v GS ≤ 3. W=60*10^(−6). vDS. % Display vGS and rD values disp('-------------------------').^(−3). fprintf('%6. Solution: The MATLAB script for Example 4.rD3. disp('vGS (Volts) rD (KOhms)').iD4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . rD4 = 10. iD3=rD3*vDS.5 V in steps of 0. the drain current i D is independent of the drain voltage v DS 1 W 2 i D = -.^(−3). represents an n – channel MOSFET and we observe that.rD1.3.5−VT)).2.rD4.09 3. L=5*10^(−6).*W. and W do not change significantly in this interval. we conclude that in the saturation mode the n – channel MOSFET behaves as an ideal current source whose value is as in (4. vDS.*(1.31 3.*(2−VT)). L ./(kn. 2 Assume that k n ..*L.% Kilohm values rD3 = 10.iD2..iD3.11) Therefore.0 4.12..2 is given below. fprintf(' \n').*L.. rD2 = 10.*W. title('Linear region for typical MOSFET')..5 1./(kn.*W.⋅ k n ---.8) which is repeated below for convenience.5−VT)).*W./(kn.63 2.( v GS – V T ) 2 L for v DS ≥ v GS – V T (4. vDS. iD1=rD1*vDS.1f %10./(kn.5 V . ylabel('iD in mA').*L. V T = 1 V as v GS varies in the interval 1...2f \n'. 4−10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

transconductance is defined in terms of the second term of the above expression and thus W i d = k n ---.12) v DS = cons tan t In other words.( V GS – V T )v gs L Letting id i d2 – i d1 ∂i d ---------.5 V V GS = 2.( V GS – V T ) + k n ---.⋅ k n ---.( V GS + v gs – V T ) = -. the MOSFET transconductance is defined as ∂i D g m = ----------∂v GS (4. As indicated in the previous chapter.2 In analogy with the transconductance in bipolar junction transistors. v GS = V GS + v gs and (4.6 vDS in V 0.12) we obtain Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= ------∂v gs v gs v gs2 – v gs1 and substituting the last expression above into (4.5 V 0 0.( V GS – V T )v gs + -. the transconductance is a measure of the sensitivity of drain current to changes in gate−to−source bias.= -------------------------.4 0. and subscripts in lower case represent just the small signal parameters.2 0. Plot for Example 4.v gs L L 2 L 2 For small signals.0 V V GS = 2.⋅ k n ---. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−11 .⋅ k n ---.8 1 2 0 Figure 4. Thus.⋅ k n ---. subscripts in upper case represent the sum of the quiescent and small signal parameters.5 V 8 iD in mA 6 4 V GS = 3.[ ( V GS – V T ) + v gs ] 2 L 2 L 2 W W 1 W 2 1 = -.The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) 10 Linear region for typical MOSFET V GS = 3.0 V V GS = 1.11) can be expressed as 2 2 1 W 1 W i D = -.12.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . However.13(b).v DS L 2 Therefore the output conductance is found by differentiation of the last expression above as ∂i D W g o = ----------.( V GS – V T ) L v gs The output conductance is defined as ∂i D g o = ----------∂v DS (4. Typical values of drain current i D versus the gate−to−source voltage v GS characteristics for an n – channel MOSFET that operates in the enhancement mode only are shown in Figure 4.13) (4.( v GS – V T – v DS ) L ∂v DS (4.15) v GS = cons tan t At saturation the slope of (4. At this threshold negative voltage V T .2. If.= -----------------------------------------------------------v gs v gs (4.7) for the triode region W 1 2 i D = k n ---.17) 4. a MOSFET can also be fabricated with an implanted channel so that drain current i D will flow if we apply a voltage v DS even though the voltage v GS is zero. we can apply a sufficiently negative v GS to deplete the implanted channel.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices k n ( W ⁄ L ) ( V GS – V T )v gs id g m = ------.16) From (4. however we want to decrease the channel conductivity.( v GS – V T )v DS – -.14) or id W g m = ------. 4−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the channel conductivity increases until we reach saturation. the drain current i D is zero although v DS may still be present.= k n ---.13(a) and one that operates in both the depletion and enhancement modes are shown in Figure 4. The negative value of v GS that causes the channel to be entirely depleted is the threshold voltage V T of the n – channel MOSFET and obviously has a negative value.= k n ---.15) is g o ( sat ) = 0 (4.2 The N−Channel MOSFET in the Depletion Mode As we’ve learned. in the enhancement mode we apply a positive voltage v GS and as this value increases. and this mode of operation is referred to as the depletion mode.

The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) i D ( mA ) 30 25 20 15 10 5 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 Enhancement mode ( a ) Enhancement mode only v GS ( V ) Depletion mode Enhancement mode i D ( mA ) 30 25 20 15 I DSS 10 5 –3 0 2 1 –1 –2 ( b ) Depletion – Enhancement mode v GS ( V ) Figure 4. Figure 4.3 It is known that for a depletion−type n – channel MOSFET.13.3 mA ⁄ V . I DSS is the value of the drain current in saturation with v GS = 0 . Typical n – channel MOSFET i D vs v GS characteristics As noted in Figure 4. Example 4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−13 . W = 100 μm . and V T = – 3 V .14 shows typical i D vs vDS characteristics for a depletion−type n – channel MOSFET. At what value should the voltage v DS be set so that this device will be operating in the saturation region when v G S = 2 V ? Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. k n = 0. L = 10 μm . 2 a.13(b).

Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices
i D ( mA ) 27 24 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 1 2 3 4 5 v DS < v G S – V T v DS > v G S – V T vG S = 2 V v DS = v G S – V T vG S = 1 V vG S = 0 V vG S = –1 V vGS = –2 V vG S = –3 V vG S = –4 V 6 vD S ( V )

vG S = –5

Figure 4.14. Typical i D vs v DS characteristics for a depletion−type n – channel MOSFET

b. What would the drain current i D be if the voltage v DS is set to its minimum value to keep the device in the saturation region? Solution: a. The dotted curve of the i D vs vDS characteristics of Figure 4.14 separates the saturation region from the triode region. Therefore, the voltage v DS should be such that
v DS ≥ v GS – V T ≥ 2 – ( – 3 ) ≥ 5 V

b. Relation (4.11) indicates that at saturation the current iD is independent of the voltage v DS . Therefore,
1 W 1 100 2 2 i D = -- ⋅ k n ---- ( v GS – V T ) = -- ⋅ 0.3 ⋅ -------- [ 2 – ( – 3 ) ] = 37.5 mA 2 L 2 10

4.2.3 The P−Channel MOSFET in the Enhancement Mode
For the p – channel MOSFET the threshold voltage V T is negative and the drain−to−source voltage v DS must also be negative or the source−to−drain voltage v SD must be positive. Therefore, to create a channel we must have v GS ≤ V T and v DS < 0 , or v SD > 0 . In a p – channel MOSFET device operating in triode mode the drain current i D is found from

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Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET)
W 1 2 i D = k p ---- ( v GS – V T )v DS – -- v DS L 2 for ( v DS ≥ v GS – V T )

(4.18)

and if the device operates in the saturation mode, the drain current i D is found from
1 W 2 i D = -- ⋅ k p ---- ( v GS – V T ) 2 L for v DS ≤ v GS – V T *

(4.19)

The constant k p in relations (4.18) and (4.19) is analogous to k n for the n – channel MOSFET and typical values of k p are around 10 μA ⁄ V . Example 4.4 I t i s k n o w n t h a t f o r a n e n h a n c e m e n t − t y p e p – channel M O S F E T , k p = 8 mA ⁄ V ,
W = 100 μm , L = 10 μm , and V T = – 1.5 V . If v G = 0 , and v S = 5 V , compute the drain cur2 2

rent i D if: a. v D = 4 V b. v D = 1.5 V c. v D = 0 V d. v D = – 5 V Solution: As stated above, to create a channel v GS must be equal or less than V T , and v DS must be negative and using the conditions specified in (4.18) and (4.19) we will determine whether the device is in the triode or saturation mode. For convenience, we list the following conditions:
v GS = v G – v S v GS < V T v DS = v D – v S
* As with the n−channel MOSFET, the drain current i D is not exactly independent of the drain−to−source voltage v DS . It increases with increasing v DS due to the so−called channel width modulation caused by reduction of the effective channel length, and since i D is inversely proportional to the channel length, i D increases with v DS and thus (4.18) is an approxi1 W 2 mation to the exact drain current i D given by i D = -- ⋅ k n ----- ( v GS – V T ) ( 1 + λv DS ) where vGS , v DS , V T , and λ are all

negative.

2

L

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Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices
v DS > v GS – V T

a.

v GS = v G – v S = 0 – 5 = – 5 V v GS < V T ⇒ – 5 < – 1.5 v DS = v D – v S = 4 – 5 = – 1 V v GS – V T = – 5 – ( – 1.5 ) = – 3.5 V v DS > v GS – V T ⇒ – 1 > – 3.5

and we conclude that the device operates in the triode mode. Then, with (4.17) we obtain
W 1 2 10 2 i D = k p ---- ( v GS – V T )v DS – -- v DS = 8 × ----- × [ ( – 5 – ( – 1.5 ) ) × ( – 1 ) ] – 0.5 × ( – 1 ) = 0.24 mA L 2 1

b.

v DS = v D – v S = 1.5 – 5 = – 3.5 V v GS – V T = – 5 – ( – 1.5 ) = – 3.5 V v DS = v GS – V T = – 3.5 V

and we conclude that the device operates at the point where the triode mode ends and the saturation region begins. Then, with (4.19) we obtain
1 W 2 2 i D = -- ⋅ k p ---- ( v GS – V T ) = 0.5 × 8 × 10 [ – 5 – ( – 1.5 ) ] = 0.49 mA 2 L

c.

v DS = v D – v S = 0 – 5 = – 5 V v GS – V T = – 5 – ( – 1.5 ) = – 3.5 V v DS < v GS – V T ⇒ – 5 < 3.5

and we conclude that the device operates well in the saturation region.Then, with (4.19) we obtain
1 W 2 2 i D = -- ⋅ k p ---- ( v GS – V T ) = 0.5 × 8 × 10 [ – 5 – ( – 1.5 ) ] = 0.49 mA 2 L

d.

v DS = v D – v S = – 5 – 5 = – 10 V v GS – V T = – 5 – ( – 1.5 ) = – 3.5 V

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Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET)
v DS < v GS – V T ⇒ – 10 < 3.5

and we conclude that the device operates deeply in the saturation region.Then, with (4.19) we obtain
1 W 2 2 i D = -- ⋅ k p ---- ( v GS – V T ) = 0.5 × 8 × 10 [ – 5 – ( – 1.5 ) ] = 0.49 mA 2 L

4.2.4 The P−Channel MOSFET in the Depletion Mode
Depletion type p – channel MOSFETs operate similarly to depletion type n – channel MOSFETs except that the polarities of all voltages are reversed and the current i D flows from source to drain. Figure 4. 16 shows typical i D vs vDS characteristics for a depletion−type p – channel MOSFET.

4.2.5 Voltage Gain
The voltage gain in a MOSFET device is defined as the ratio of the small signal quantities v d to
v gs . We will derive it with the aid of the MOSFET in Figure 4.15.

iD

RD

+

D B S

V DD

+
vD −

G

v GS

+

Figure 4.15. Circuit for the derivation of the voltage gain

Figure 4.15 shows that the substrate is connected to the source; this is a common practice with MOSFET devices. From Figure 4.15,
v D = V DD – R D i D iD = ID + id v D = V DD – R D ( I D + i d )

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

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Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices
i D ( mA )
Enhancement mode

30 25 20 15 10 5 v GS ( V )

–3

–2

–1

0

1

2

( a ) Enhancement mode only

Depletion mode

Enhancement mode

i D ( mA ) 30 25 20 15 I DSS 10 5
–3 0 2 1 –1 –2 ( b ) Depletion – Enhancement mode

v GS ( V )

Figure 4.16. Typical i D vs v DS characteristics for a depletion−type n – channel MOSFET V DD = V D + R D i D v D = V DD – R D ( I D + i d ) = V D + R D i D – R D ( I D + i d ) = V D – R D i d

and
vd = –RD id

From relation (4.14)

id g m = ------v gs i d = g m v gs

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Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

Complementary MOS (CMOS)
v d = – R D i d = – R D g m v gs

Then, the voltage gain A v is
A v = v d ⁄ v gs = – R D g m

(4.20)

and the minus (−) sign indicates 180° phase reversal. Relation (4.20) reveals that high gains can be achieved with increased drain resistance R D . However, external resistors are not used in IC MOSFETS because they require large areas and their tolerance may cause some undesirable effects. Instead, constant current sources are used, and the most commonly used current sources are the so−called current mirrors. A typical current mirror is shown in Figure 4.17.
RD D B S G G

V DD

i1
D B S

i2

v GS

Figure 4.17. Typical circuit of a current mirror

A current mirror is essentially an adjustable current regulator. In the circuit of Figure 4.17, both MOSFETs share the same voltage v GS and the ratio of the currents i 1 and i 2 is directly related to the ratio of the geometry of the transistors, that is,
i1 ( W ⁄ L )1 --- = ------------------i2 ( W ⁄ L )2

and if the two MOSFETs have the same geometry, then i 1 = i 2 , and hence the name current mirror. A similar current mirror circuit can be implemented with bipolar transistor. MOSFET devices can be used as amplifiers provided that they operate in the saturation region. However, the CMOS devices, discussed on the next section, are the most common amplifiers in the FET technology.

4.3 Complementary MOS (CMOS)
Complementary MOS or CMOS technology combines one NMOS device and one PMOS device into a single device referred to as CMOS. These devices are used extensively in both analog and digital circuits, and integrated circuits.

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Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices
In CMOS devices only one of its components is on at any given time, that is, either the NMOS device is on and the PMOS device is off, or vice versa. Thus, CMOS chips require less power than chips using just one type of a MOSFET, and unlike bipolar transistors, a CMOS has almost no static power dissipation. This makes CMOS devices particularly attractive for use in battery− powered devices, such as portable computers. Personal computers also contain a small amount of battery−powered CMOS memory to hold the date, time, and system setup parameters. In this section we will briefly discuss the three types of CMOS amplifiers, and in subsequent chapters we will see how CMOS devices are used as logic inverters and gates.

4.3.1 The CMOS Common−Source Amplifier
Figure 4.18 shows how a CMOS device is configured as a common−source amplifier where the upper two MOSFETS serve as a current mirror to perform the function of a resistor.
V SS S B D S B

G

G

i2 i1 v in

D

v out
B S

Figure 4.18. Typical CMOS common−source amplifier

A typical common−source CMOS amplifier can provide gains of 20 to 100 , and the output is 180° out−of−phase with the input. It exhibits both high input and high output resistances.

4.3.2 The CMOS Common−Gate Amplifier
Figure 4.19 shows how a CMOS device is configured as a common−gate amplifier. The DC voltage V DC at the gate provides a bias voltage but the AC signal is zero and this is the reason that the circuit is referred to as CMOS common−gate amplifier. A typical common−source CMOS amplifier can provide gains of 20 to 100 , and the output is in−phase with the input. It exhibits a low input resistance, and a high output resistance.

4.3.3 The CMOS Common−Drain (Source Follower) Amplifier
A typical common−drain (source follower) CMOS amplifier is shown in Figure 4.20. Its voltage

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The Metal Semiconductor FET (MESFET)
gain is less than unity, and the output is in−phase with the input. It exhibits a low output resistance, and thus it can be used as a buffer amplifier. It is referred to as common−drain amplifier because there is no signal at the drain of the upper MOSFET device; the voltage V DD just provides a bias. It is also referred to as source follower because the lower right MOSFET device acts as a load for the upper MOSFET device.
V SS S B D D G S B

G

v out

V DC v in

Figure 4.19. Typical CMOS common−gate amplifier
D B

V DD

v in

i2 S
D

D B S

i1
G G

v out

B S

V SS

Figure 4.20. Typical common−drain (source follower) amplifier

4.4 The Metal Semiconductor FET (MESFET)
The Metal−Semiconductor−Field−Effect−Transistor (MESFET) consists of a conducting channel positioned between a source and drain contact region. The carrier flow from source to drain is controlled by a Schottky metal gate. The control of the channel is obtained by varying the depletion layer width underneath the metal contact which modulates the thickness of the conducting channel and thereby the current. MESFETs use GaAs (gallium arsenide) technology. Only Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

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Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices
n – channel MESFETS are available, because holes have a slower mobility.

The main advantage of the MESFET is the higher mobility − also referred to as surface mobility − of the carriers in the channel as compared to the silicon−type MOSFETs. The higher mobility results in a higher current, transconductance and transit frequency of the device. However, the presence of the Schottky metal gate limits the forward bias voltage on the gate to the turn−on voltage of the Schottky diode. This turn−on voltage is typically 0.7 V for GaAs Schottky diodes. The threshold voltage therefore must be lower than this turn−on voltage. As a result it is more difficult to fabricate circuits containing a large number of enhancement−mode MESFET. The higher transit frequency of the MESFET makes it particularly of interest for microwave circuits. While the advantage of the MESFET provides a superior microwave amplifier or circuit, the limitation by the diode turn−on is easily tolerated. Typically depletion−mode devices are used since they provide a larger current and larger transconductance and the circuits contain only a few transistors, so that threshold control is not a limiting factor. The buried channel also yields a better noise performance as trapping and release of carriers into and from surface states and defects is eliminated. The use of GaAs rather than silicon MESFETs provides two more significant advantages: first of all the room temperature mobility is more than 5 times larger, while the saturation velocity is about twice that in silicon, and second it is possible to fabricate semi−insulating (SI) GaAs substrates which eliminates the problem of absorbing microwave power in the substrate due to free carrier absorption.

4.5 The Unijunction Transistor
The unijunction transistor (UJT) is a three−terminal, single−junction device which exhibits negative resistance and switching characteristics totally unlike those of conventional bipolar transistors. As shown in Figure 4.21, the UJT consists of a bar of n−type silicon having ohmic contacts designated Base 1 ( B 1 ) and Base 2 ( B 2 ) on either side of a single PN junction designated as the emitter.
B2 Emitter Base 1 p n Structure E

iE

i B2
Base 2

E B1 B1 Symbol Equivalent Circuit B2

Figure 4.21. Unijunction transistor structure, symbol, and equivalent circuit

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The Diac
In operation, a positive voltage is applied to B 2 and B 1 is placed at ground potential. The
B 2 – E – B 1 junctions then act like a voltage divider which reverse−biases the emitter junction.

An external voltage having a potential higher than this reverse bias will forward−bias the emitter and inject holes into the silicon bar which move toward B 1 . The emitter− B 1 resistance then decreases, and this, in turn, causes the emitter voltage to decrease as the emitter current increases, and a negative resistance characteristic is obtained as shown in Figure 4.22.

Figure 4.22. UJT emitter characteristics curve with important parameters (Courtesy of General Electric)

On the emitter characteristics curve of Figure 4.22, the points of interest are the peak point, and the valley point. The region to the left of the peak point is called the cutoff region, and in this region the emitter is reverse biased and only a small leakage current flows. The region between the peak point and the valley point is referred to as the negative resistance region. The region to the right of the valley point is the saturation region and as we can see, the resistance in this region is positive. Device 2N2646 is a popular UJT and can be used for the design of pulse and sawtooth generators, analog−to−digital converters, relay time delay circuits, and frequency dividers. Other UJT devices, referred to as programmable UJTs, can have their parameters set by external components such as resistors and capacitors. Device 2N6027 is known as a programmable UJT.

4.6 The Diac
The diac is a two−terminal, transistor−like component which exhibits bistable switching for either polarity of a suitably high applied voltage. As shown in Figure 4.23, the diac closely resembles a PNP transistor without an external base terminal.

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Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices
i 21
1

i 12 N P
2

1

i i 21
IS VS IS VS

P

v

i 12
Structure 2 Symbol Characteristics

Figure 4.23. Diac structure, symbol, and characteristics

Normally, the diac does not conduct (except for a small leakage current) until the breakover voltage V S is reached, typically 20 to 40 volts. At that point the diac goes into avalanche conduction also at that point the device exhibits a negative resistance characteristic, and the voltage drop across the diac snaps back, typically about 5 volts, creating a breakover current I S in the order of 50 to 200 μA sufficient to trigger a triac or SCR. The negative−resistance characteristic of the diac makes it useful for very simple relaxation oscillators* and pulse generators, but its major application is in conjunction with a triac, to be discussed in Section 4.8, to produce ac phase−control circuits useful for motor−speed control, light dimming, and other AC power−control functions.

4.7 The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)
The silicon controlled rectifier, usually referred to as an SCR, is one of the family of semiconductors that includes transistors and diodes. Another name for the SCR is thyristor†. It is similar to a diode with an additional terminal that is used to turn it on. Once turned on, the SCR will remain on as long as current flows through it. If the current falls to zero, the SCR behaves like an open switch. This device is much larger in size than a transistor or a MOSFET and it is designed to operate at higher voltages and currents, typically 1, 000 V or higher, and 100 A or higher The SCR is a four−layer semiconducting device, with each layer consisting of an alternately N or P−type material, for example N−P−N−P. The main terminals, labelled anode and cathode, are across the full four layers, and the control terminal, called the gate, is attached to one of the middle layers as shown in Figure 4.24.

* Relaxation oscillators. are circuits that generate non−sinusoidal waveforms such as pulse and sawtooth generators. † An earlier gas filled tube device called a Thyratron provided a similar electronic switching capability, where a small control voltage could switch a large current.

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The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)
Anode Anode Anode Anode

P N
Gate

P N
Gate

N P N
Gate Cathode

Gate Cathode

P N

P

Cathode

Cathode

Figure 4.24. Parts of an SCR, the two−transistor equivalent circuit, and its symbol

SCRs are mainly used where high currents and voltages are involved, and are often used to control alternating currents, where the change of sign of the current causes the device to automatically switch off. Like a diode, an SCR conducts only in one direction. A similar 5−layer device, called a triac, to be discussed on the next section, conducts current in both directions. Modern SCRs can switch large amounts of power (up to megawatts). In the realm of very high power applications, they are still the primary choice. However, in low and medium power (from few tens of watts to few tens of kilowatts) they have almost been replaced by other devices with superior switching characteristics like MOSFETs. While an SCR is that is it not a fully controllable switch in the sense that triggering current direction need to be reversed to switch it off, a newer device, the gate turn−off SCR (GTO) can be turned on and off with a signal applied to the gate. The turn−on signal is a small positive voltage and the turn−off is a negative small signal. GTOs are used for the output stages of medium−voltage, high horsepower, variable frequency drives. In high−frequency applications, SCRs are poor candidates due to large switching times arising out of bipolar conduction. MOSFETs, on the other hand, has much faster switching capability because of its unipolar conduction (only majority carriers carry the current). Figure 4.25 shows the volt−ampere characteristics of a typical SCR.
+I i

PIV

+V

v

Figure 4.25. The voltage−current characteristics of a typical SCR

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

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Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices
As shown in Figure 4.25, when the forward bias voltage from anode to cathode reaches a value indicated as + V , and a positive signal is applied to the gate, the device reverts to a low impedance and current flows from the anode to cathode. The dotted line shows the interval of the voltages from anode to cathode in which the SCR will be conducting after the trigger signal has been removed. The current must be limited by the load to the value + I , or the SCR will be damaged. When the forward bias from anode to cathode is reduced to zero or becomes negative, the SCR becomes a non−conductive device and the signal at the gate, even if present, will not change the non−conductive state of the device. If the negative bias exceeds the peak−inverse voltage indicated as PIV , the SCR will be damaged. It is recommended that the PIV value should be at least three times the RMS value of the applied voltage. Figure 4.26 shows sinusoidal waveform applied to the gate of an SCR where during the positive half cycle the SCR is triggered at 45° after the sinewave starts from zero and increases in the positive direction.
θ = 45 °

θ Conduction angle
Firing angle

Figure 4.26. SCR gate control

As shown in Figure 4.26, the number of degrees from the beginning of the cycle until the SCR is gated to the on condition is referred to as the firing angle, and the number of degrees that the SCR remains conducting is known as the conduction angle. For accurate SCR gating, the firing circuit must be synchronized with the AC line voltage being applied anode−to−cathode across the device. Without synchronization, the SCR firing would be random in nature and the system response will be erratic. Also, when the firing angle is greater than zero, the voltage applied to the load is no longer sinusoidal. This presents no problem in the case of motor loads, but for radio and television an interference is created and usually the manufacturer of the SCR equipment will include an electromagnetic interference (EMI) filter to rectify the problem. In closed−loop systems, such as motor control, an Error Detector Circuit computes the required firing angle based on the system setpoint and the actual system output. The firing circuit is able to sense the start of the cycle, and, based on an input from the Error Detector, delay the firing pulse until the proper time in the cycle to provide the desired output voltage. An analogy of a firing circuit would be an automobile distributor which advances or retards the spark plug firing based on the action of the vacuum advance mechanism. In analog control systems the error detector circuit is usually an integrated circuit operational

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Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

The SCR. Current limiting fuses are designed to sense a fault in a quarter−cycle and clear the fault in one−half of a cycle. Since the capacitor voltage cannot change instantly. we observe that the positive side of the capacitor is connected to the ground. current−limiting. firing circuit to sense the AC line zero−crossing. many new control systems now use a microprocessor based.27. are also a serious concern with semiconductor devices.7. It is extremely important that the proper high− speed. R3 R4 S VS C vC R1 v in R2 Figure 4. 4. there is there is a very small voltage drop from anode to cathode. such as the GE Metal−Oxide−Varistor (MOV). rectifier fuses recommended by the manufacturer be employed. are extremely effective in absorbing these short−term transients. measure feedback and compare it with the setpoint. The Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and when this occurs. thereby protecting the SCR from damage due to short circuits. like a conventional diode. A switching circuit using an SCR The SCR in the circuit of Figure 4.1 The SCR as an Electronic Switch The SCR circuit of Figure 4. We recall that to switch the SCR to the off position. which may exceed the device PIV rating. has a very high one−cycle surge rating. the anode to cathode voltage must be zero or negative. High voltage capacitors are also often employed as a means of absorbing these destructive spikes and provide a degree of electrical noise suppression as well. Another consideration is SCR protection. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−27 . Switching spikes and transients. the anode of the SCR becomes negative with respect to the cathode. the device will carry from eight to ten time its continuous current rating for a period of one electrical cycle. Surge suppressors.The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) amplifier which takes reference and system feedback inputs and computes the amount of error (difference) between the actual output voltage and the desired setpoint value.27 is switched to the on (conducting) state by applying a positive triggering pulse at v in and with the SCR on. The SCR will be turned off by closing the switch S . The capacitor then charges to voltage v C and this voltage is approximately equal to V S .27 shows a possible arrangement for switching the SCR to the off position. one should never substitute with another type fuse. Typically. Even though the SCR is an analog device. digital. and generate the required firing angle to hold the system in a balanced state.

with the aid of the capacitor this action turns the SCR on the right Off. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and the SCR is turned Off. SCR circuit for repetitive operation at fast rates If a train of positive pulses is applied simultaneously at v in1 and v in2 they have no effect on the rectifier that is conducting.29.27. As with the circuit of Figure 4.28. Sawtooth generators have many important engineering applications. but they turn the nonconducting SCR on. Figure 4. for repetitive operation at fast rates the switch S in Figure 4. Then a subsequent positive pulse applied at v in2 turns the SCR on the right On. + C I v out + vC S v out T t Figure 4. They are used in oscilloscopes to provide the sweep voltage for horizontal deflection. Again.28 a positive triggering pulse applied at v in1 turns the SCR on the left On. with the aid of the capacitor this action turns the conducting SCR off.27 can be replaced by another controlled rectifier as shown in Figure 4. and another positive pulse applied at v in1 turns the SCR on the left On.27. in Figure 4.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices anode current no longer flows. and it switches the SCR on the left off. Obviously. 4.29 shows an ideal sawtooth generator. this action is equivalent to closing the switch in Figure 4.28.2 The SCR in the Generation of Sawtooth Waveforms Another important application for SCRs is in circuits for the generation of sawtooth waveforms. and they are used in circuits for the measurement of the time interval between the occurrence of two events. An ideal sawtooth generator and its output waveform 4−28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.7. The capacitor now charges with the opposite polarity. + VS R3 C R4 vC R1 R2 + R5 R6 v in1 v in2 Figure 4. Thus a train of positive pulses applied simultaneously to the gates of the SCRs causes them to switch on and off alternately.

29. Waveforms for the circuit of Figure 4. If the closing of the switch is periodic. the amplitude of each peak is directly proportional to the duration of that particular switching interval.29. VS Vf Vx v out V = Vf – V x t I C max Tc Td iC Figure 4.The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) When the switch S is open. * We recall that v C = ∫ I dt = It ( ramp ) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and R 3 is a resistance that limits the rectifier current to a safe value when the capacitor is discharging. Resistor R 4 is a large resistor in the order of 1 MΩ and this with the voltage source VS approximate the current source in the ideal sawtooth generator.31 is not exactly linear. A practical sawtooth generator is shown in Figure 4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−29 .31. a periodic sawtooth waveform of voltage appears at v out . the current source delivers a constant current to the capacitor. i + R3 R1 vC R2 iC C R4 VS + + v out v in Figure 4.30 The voltage v in is the control voltage for the rectifier.30. the output voltage shown in Figure 4. and the capacitor begins to charge again. and the capacitor discharges through the switch. If the switching is not periodic. and as a result the voltage across the capacitor increases linearly with time as shown in Figure 4. A practical sawtooth generator using an SCR as a switch In the circuit of Figure 4. The switch is reopened immediately. since a true current source is not used. the successive peaks in the waveform are not of the same amplitude.30 the SCR performs the function of the switch in the ideal generator of Figure 4. however.30.* At a certain instant the switch is closed momentarily.

and the circuit is a simple series connection of R 4 .21) A = Vx – VS ( –t ⁄ R4 C ) v out = V S – ( V S – V x )e (4. the capacitor current i C . The duration of the discharging interval T d depends on the amplitude of the sawtooth voltage. choosing t = 0 at the beginning of the charging interval. The duration of the charging interval T c is determined by the firing voltage Vf .Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices When the SCR is switched off. For a practical circuit triggering pulses of voltage can be applied at v in to control the firing of the SCR and thereby synchronize the sawtooth with an external signal. refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications.31. The waveforms of voltage and current are shown in Figure 4.31. the SCR fires and discharges the capacitor rapidly. which is highly desired. of the sawtooth wave can be adjusted by adjusting v in . the extinction voltage V x . Thus. the current must be limited to a value that is safe for the SCR. and the capacitor voltage rises exponentially with time. These two quantities can be related in a very simple way to the important parameters of the circuit. ISBN 978−0− 9709511−2−0. When the capacitor is discharged to the critical voltage V x . the discharging current should be as large as possible. the SCR switches off. and the capacitance C . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . For rapid discharging. hence letting t = 0 in (4. and V S . and the cycle repeats itself. however. v out has its minimum value V x as shown in Figure 4. During the charging interval T c . C . When the capacitor voltage reaches the critical value Vf . the SCR is switched off. for good performance the SCR should have a high current rating and short switching times. Since the firing voltage depends on the control voltage v in . the equation for the output voltage v out during that interval has the form v out = V S + Ae ( –t ⁄ R 4 C ) * (4.22) * For an introduction to transient analysis. the discharging current. the capacitor charges with a current from the DC supply voltage V S that is almost constant. All applications for the sawtooth generator require a highly linear sawtooth waveform and a short discharge time. known as firing voltage. the amplitude and frequency. referred to as the extinction voltage.21) When t = 0 . Thus. 4−30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.21) we obtain v out = V S + A = V x or and by substitution into (4. and the capacitance C .

22) defines the output voltage v out during the charging interval T c .V' S ⎛ ---------.The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) Relation (4.28) At the end of the charging interval t = T c the output voltage is Tc v out = V f = V x + V' S ⋅ ---------R C 4 (4.30). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−31 . Thus.22) V S = V' S + V x v out = V' S + V x – V' S e ( –t ⁄ R4 C ) (4.31) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the magnitude of the error at any instant is smaller than 1 t 2 Δv out = -.30) and the error at the end of the charging interval.25) can now be expanded in a power series to obtain the following more useful expression: 2 2 1 1 t t t t .26) Since we want the output voltage v out to be a linear function of time.26) is a converging alternating series.V' S ⎛ ---------.24) Then and by substitution into (4..⎞ + … ⎝ R 4C ⎠ R 4C 2 R 4C 2⎝ R 4C ⎠ (4.⎞ ⎝ R 4C ⎠ 2 (4.25) The exponential factor in (4.26) should be sufficiently small.30 that the amplitude of the sawtooth wave is Tc V = V f – V x = V' S ⋅ ---------R C 4 (4. Then.⎞ – … = V x + V' S ⋅ ---------.V' S ⎛ ---------.29) It now follows from (4. hence the error in truncating the series at any point is smaller than the first term in the part out off. our sawtooth generator must be designed so that the second term on the right side of (4.⎞ ⎝ R 4C ⎠ 2 (4.⎛ ---------.23) (4.27) The right−band side of (4. which is the amount by which the actual amplitude is less than the amplitude given by (4. is smaller than Tc 2 1 Δv out = -.– -.29) and Figure 4. we let ( V S – V x ) = V' S (4. Next.+ -.v out = V' S + V x – V' S 1 – ---------. t v out = V x + V' S ⋅ ---------R 4C (4.

30).5 at the end of this section.33) reveals that the fractional error depends only on the relative sizes of the sawtooth amplitude and the effective DC supply voltage. To simplify the 4−32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. When the capacitor is charged from an ideal current source. Good linearity is often obtained by the direct expedient of using a large supply voltage or by generating a sawtooth wave of small amplitude.30) and (4.= ------------2V' S V 2R 4 C Relation (4. in order to have good linearity it is necessary to have an effective supply voltage much larger than the required amplitude of the sawtooth. From Equation (4. the firing voltage V f and the sawtooth amplitude V are also constant. V is a measure of the time interval T c .Δv out = -. With the control voltage v in in Figure 4. V T c = R 4 C ------V' S (4. and the slope of the sawtooth determines the length of the charging period. The time constant R 4 C can then be chosen to produce the desired slope to the sawtooth. often thousands of volts. is simulated by the use of additional circuitry in which amplifiers are frequently used.31) we obtain 1V .Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices Solving (4. At the end of the charging interval the SCR switches on. With a fixed slope. the effective supply voltage is the open−circuit voltage of the source.33) From (4. V S and V' S must be chosen so that the fractional error given by (4. T c is determined by the interval between the pulses. and the slope of the sawtooth determines the amplitude V . In more sophisticated designs the effect of a very large supply voltage. and the capacitor discharges exponentially through the SCR at a rate determined by the resistance R 3 in Figure 4.29 held constant. In designing a sawtooth generator.32) (4.------2 V' S 2 (4.35) The duration of the discharging interval T d can be determined from this relation.34) and when a train of triggering pulses is applied at v in .33) is sufficiently small.30) for T c ⁄ ( R 4 C ) and substituting the result into (4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .32) Tc Δv out V ------------.28. this voltage is infinite. During the discharging interval the voltage across the capacitor changes by the amount Qf – Q x V = Vf – V x = -----------------C (4. One method of simulating a large supply voltage is illustrated in Example 4. as in Figure 4.= ----------.29. giving zero error.

40) where I C is the charging current for the capacitor. To provide a relatively short discharge time.36) as T d I max V ≈ -----------------2C (4.= ----------Tc I max (4. with a pulse that decreases linearly with time from the peak value I C max to zero. the peak SCR current must be much greater than the capacitor charging current.39) or Division of (4.38) by (4. and the charge removed from the capacitor during this interval is T d I C max ⁄ 2 . With this approximation the average value of the current during the discharging interval is I C max ⁄ 2 .= -----------------Tc R 4 I max For good linearity we must have V « V' S . shown in Figure 4. and V' S ⁄ R 4 is very nearly the charging current I C for the capacitor. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−33 .37) (4. since the capacitor current I C max is approximately equal to the current I max through the SCR.The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) calculation we will approximate the discharging current pulse.32(a) shows a sawtooth generator with a load resistor R L connected across the output terminals. and any leakage resistance that develops across the capacitor has a similar effect.37) can be expressed as Td 2I C ----. Any load that is connected across the output terminals of the sawtooth generator in Figure 4.36) Also. we can express (4.38) (4.34) yields 2CV T d = ----------I max Td 2V' S ----.30.33) can be written as T d I C max V ≈ ---------------------2C (4. and since the voltage drop across R 4 during the charging interval is approximately V' S . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Figure 4. (4. and I max is the peak discharging current through the SCR. Thus (4.30 will affect the operation of the circuit.

⋅ VS R 4 + RL (4.41) and R 4 RL R TH = ------------------R 4 + RL (4.32. A sawtooth generator with resistive load and its Thevenin equivalent To simplify the circuit of Figure 4. and hence on the linearity.42) It is then evident that the addition of the load resistor R L affects both the slope and the linearity of the sawtooth waveform.32(b) where RL V TH = ------------------. is especially severe. it becomes necessary to make R L greater than 1 MΩ . but a very special circuit configuration must be used to provide the required high input resistance. It is quite possible in such cases for the effective voltage V TH to be less than the firing voltage V f . The output can also be delivered to a bipolar junction transistor. A load resistor of about 100 KΩ would reduce the effective supply voltage and will increase the fractional error by a factor of more than 10 . Therefore. and no sawtooth wave is generated. then the rectifier never fires. 4−34 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. we apply Thevenin’s theorem at points x – y and we obtain the circuit of Figure 4. for the SCR.32(a). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices i R3 SCR Circuit x iC R4 + C vC + VS RL y + v out (a) i R3 SCR Circuit + iC C + vC R TH + V TH (b) Figure 4. Accordingly. the output from the sawtooth generator must be connected to a very high impedance device such as a MOSFET. The presence of R L affects the effective DC supply voltage.

33(b) shows how an SCR can be used as the discharge switch for the capacitor. Figure 4. Solution: With the capacitor in Figure 4. thus the rectifier is switched off. At this point the gate. During the charging interval the SCR conducts no current. The potential at the gate terminal of the rectifier is fixed by R 2 and R 3 .33. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−35 . and it can be omitted from the circuit. provided the current drawn by the collector of the transistor is less than the holding current for the SCR. the potential at the cathode of the SCR drops.33(b) discharged there is no voltage across the SCR. and the SCR switches off. the transisElectronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The capacitor is charged through a transistor in order to approximate a current source supply.33 in more detail. thus a reverse bias is applied to the gate. and it is less than 20 volts .to−cathode voltage becomes positive and the SCR switches on. 20 V 1 mA VS R1 C S v out (a) 20 V 1 mA VS R1 C R4 R2 R3 v out (b) Figure 4. Circuits for Example 4. The capacitor then discharges almost to zero volts.5 In order to examine the circuits of Figure 4. but the SCR remains switched off until the cathode potential drops below the gate potential. it is helpful first to simplify and rearrange the circuit. As the capacitor charges through the transistor from the 20 −volt supply. The cycle then repeats itself periodically. and its cathode is at a potential of 20 volts . We want to design the circuit to produce a 1 KHz sawtooth wave having a fractional error smaller than 1 per cent.The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) Example 4.33(a). The SCR can be assumed ideal with a maximum permissible current rating of 100 mA . If V S is much larger than the small emitter−to−base voltage drop.5 A sawtooth generator is shown in Figure 4.

The resistance rC in this model is the collector resistance of the transistor.34(a) where E .34.23). however.34(a). the current source and its shunt resistance can be converted to an equivalent voltage source with a series resistance.43) (4. And finally. is a negligible fraction of a volt. and the collector resistance has an important effect. The extinction voltage V x . the emitter circuit affects the collector circuit only through the action of the controlled source αi E . 20 V C C vC vC v out rC 20 V rC v out αi E r C i E = 1 mA VS R1 E αi E B (a) (b) Figure 4. As the next step in the simplification of the circuit. C .33 In most circuits the collector resistance is in parallel with a much smaller load resistance and it can be neglected.45) is obtained.44) and for our example. and the emitter current i E is 1 ma.46) 4−36 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .45) yields V' S = 20 + 980 = 1000 V (4. Piecewise−linear and equivalent circuits for the sawtooth generator of Figure 4. Thus when i E is known. relation (4. Thus taking typical values of α = 0. it is noted that because of the short circuit between base and ground. V S = 20 + αi E r C The equivalent circuit of Figure 4. The resulting equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 4.34(b) shows that by charging the capacitor through the transistor an effective supply voltage of V' S = 20 + αi E r C – V x (4.98 and r C = 1 MΩ .Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices tor can be represented to a very good approximation by the model shown in Figure 4. From relation (4. and B are the transistor terminals. the emitter circuit can be ignored.34(b). the effective supply voltage is V' S = V S – V x (4. this is not the case in the circuit of Figure 4.

33) yields Δv out V ------------. the value of resistor R 4 should be V15 R 4 = ---------.C = ----.= 0.001 ⎝ 100 ⎠ (4. Accordingly.53) and thus Finally.= 150 Ω I max 0. however.0655 μF 6 R4 V 15 10 (4. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.00098 sec V T c = R 4 C ------V' S T c V' S 0.34) or T c = 0.50) and (4.51) With I C ≈ αi E = 1 mA .------.= ----------Tc I max (4.34(b). to avoid possible non linearities in the transistor characteristics at low voltages and to allow for possible variations in the supply voltage.00098 1000 .49) For a sawtooth frequency of 1 KHz . in principle the amplitude of the sawtooth output can be as large as the DC supply voltage. relation (4.01 = ----------V 2V' S (4. from (4.54) where R 4 = r C = 1 MΩ is as shown in Figure 4.47) (4. I max = 100 mA and using (4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−37 .50) From (4. the values of resistors R 2 and R 3 should be chosen to make the gate−terminal potential about 5 volts when the SCR is switched off.52) (4.⎟ = -.The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) For a fractional error of 1 per cent in the amplitude of the sawtooth. a value of 15 volts might be chosen for V .40) Td 2I C ----.= -----.= 0.= -----------------.1 (4.02T c = 0. To limit the SCR current to the maximum safe value of 100 ma.⋅ ----------.= 0.48) and thus V = 20 V Thus.001 sec f Tc ⎠ ⎝ (4.51) we obtain 1 T c ⎛ 1 + 2 -------. Td ⎞ ⎛ 1 T c + T d = T c ⎜ 1 + ----.⎞ = 1.

35.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices 4.8 The Triac The triac is a device capable of switching on for either polarity of an applied voltage. and output of these two devices.36 shows an SCR circuit and a triac circuit for comparison.35. The diode D in the SCR circuit ensures a positive trigger voltage. the triac has a single gate lead and is therefore the AC equivalent of the SCR. 1 i 21 i 12 2 Figure 4. As can be seen in Figure 4. Figure 4. Comparison of SCR and Triac circuits 4−38 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. A triac is essentially two SCRs connected back to back with a common gate and common terminals where each terminal is the anode of one SCR and the cathode of another. gate. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .37 shows a comparison of the waveforms at the input. Triac symbol Figure 4.36. Triac R1 RL R2 SCR R1 AC Power Supply D R2 RL v out AC Power Supply v out Figure 4.

37. AC light dimmers.38. the two−transistor equivalent circuit. and general AC power−control applications. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−39 . Anode Anode Anode P N P N Cathode P N P N P N Cathode Cathode Figure 4. Comparison of SCR and Triac waveforms The triac exhibits voltage−current characteristics similar to those of the SCR. or PNPN diode. the two−layer metal−semiconductor device known for its high switching speed. * The Shockley diode should not be confused with the Schottky diode. This voltage will cause one of the transistors to turn on.The Shockley Diode SCR Input voltage Triac Gate trigger level Gate voltage Output voltage Figure 4. and its symbol A Shockley diode can be to turned on by applying sufficient voltage between anode and cathode. Applications for triacs include AC motor−speed control. which then turns the other transistor on. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. is a four−layer sandwich of P−N−P−N semiconductor material very similar to the SCR but without a gate as shown in Figure 4.38. 4.9 The Shockley Diode* The Shockley diode or four−layer diode. Parts of a Shockley diode. We discussed the Schottky diode in Chapter 2.

The LASCR is a conventional SCR installed in a housing having a transparent window or collection lens. The SUS is an SCR with an anode gate instead of the usual cathode gate and a self−contained low−voltage avalanche diode between the gate and cathode. silicon unilateral switch (SUS). The light−activated silicon controlled switch (LASCS) is an LASCR with both anode and cathode gate terminals. as are all thyristors. This is able to cause latching (turning on) of the diode due to inherent junction capacitances within the transistors. and stay off once it's turned off. turning them both on. those tiny capacitances will draw enough current during that time to activate the transistor pair. or dv ⁄ dt . 4. and light−emitting four−layer diodes. Usually. The word latch is reminiscent of a door lock mechanism. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . sealing both transistors in the off state as they were before any voltage was applied at all. oppose changes in voltage by drawing or supplying current. and can be minimized by filtering high−frequency (fast voltage rises) from the diode with series inductors and/or parallel resistor−capacitor networks. this form of latching is undesirable. The two transistors can be turned off again by reducing the applied voltage to a much lower point where there is too small current to maintain transistor bias. It should be noted that Shockley diodes may be fired in a way other than breakover: excessive voltage rise. In other words. the applied voltage must be increased until breakover is attained. The voltage rise limit of a Shockley diode is referred to as the critical rate of voltage rise and it is provided by the manufacturer. LASCRs exhibit very−high gain and permit relatively large amounts of current to be controlled by a relatively weak optical signal. Capacitors. A latched Shockley diode is reset back into its nonconducting state by reducing current through it until low−current dropout occurs. which tends to keep the door closed once it has been pushed shut. This is when the applied voltage across the diode increases at a high rate of change. There are a few special terms applied to Shockley diodes and all other thyristor devices built upon the Shockley diode foundation. 4−40 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. First is the term used to describe its on state: latched. Operation of the LASCR is similar to that of a conventional SCR except an optical signal replaces the gate electrical signal. The SBS is two SUS devices arranged in inverse−parallel to permit bidirectional switching.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices ultimately latching both transistors on where they will tend to remain. the term breakover is used instead because the end result is a pair of transistors in mutual saturation rather than destruction as would be the case with a normal transistor. If the applied voltage across a Shockley diode rises at too fast a rate. Despite the fact that this action is best described in terms of transistor breakdown.10 Other PNPN Devices Other PNPN devices include the light−activated SCR (LASCR). The term firing refers to the initiation of a latched state. In order to obtain a Shockley diode to latch. at which point one of the transistors will cutoff. which then halts base current through the other transistor. silicon bilateral switch (SBS). the Shockley diode tends to stay on once it's turned on. There is no in−between or active mode in its operation: it is a purely on or off device. as we recall.

and it is reproduced from the Journal of Applied Physics. because both gate regions are accessible. But transistors are extensively as switching devices also known as latches. the basic construction of the SCS is the same as for the SCR. an anode gate. Hewlett−Packard announced a successful simulation of a latch that may eventually replace the transistor in digital circuits. First. The silicon controlled switch (SCS) is very similar to the SCR but all four regions are accessible to the external circuit. they can be biased so as to completely cancel the rate effect we described with the four−layer diode. a logic 1 is placed on the line by closing Switch S 1 . Anode Anode Anode Gate 1 G1 P N Gate 2 Gate 1 P N P N P Gate 2 P N Cathode G2 Cathode Cathode N Figure 4. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the two−transistor equivalent circuit. with the addition of a second gate lead. and its symbol As shown in Figure 4. a cathode. These devices are unique in that exceptionally simple optical pulse sources can be fabricated since the source is also the switching element.40(a).The Future of Transistors Light−emitting four−layer diodes are gallium−arsenide devices which emit recombination radiation when they are switched on. a transistor is barely used as an amplifier. since we can now control both end junctions.11 The Future of Transistors Presently. 4. and a cathode gate. as shown in Figure 4. we can actively turn the SCS off without the need to reduce the applied voltage or current.39. As shown in Figure 4. we can place a logic 0 on the line by closing Switch S 0 as shown in Figure 4. A simplified latch is shown in Figure 4. Parts of an SCS. as op amps are the most versatile amplifier devices.39.40. Thus the SCS has an anode.39. 2005. The SCS has two advantages over the SCR and the Shockley diode. A particularly interesting device of this kind is the PNPN injection laser. Likewise.40(b). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−41 . Second. The switches represent bistable two−terminal switches and hopefully their sizes can be made much smaller than the three−terminal transistor. Recently.

Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices V1 S1 Line S0 (a) V0 (b) V0 Logic 1 Line S0 V1 S1 Logic 0 Figure 4.40. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . A simplified arrangement of a latch as a possible replacement for the transistor 4−42 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

and the minimum voltage required to form a conducting channel between the drain and source is referred to as the threshold voltage and it is denoted as V T . can be made very large.( v GS – V T )v DS – -. • N−channel FETs are the most common. • In a MOSFET. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−43 . ∂i DS g m = ----------∂v GS v DS = cons tan t In other words. A MOSFET is said to operate in the enhancement mode if a positive voltage is applied at the gate. source. In other words. gate and substrate. The substrate is normally connected to the source and thus a FET is essentially a three−terminal device. The FET is a voltage− controlled device.The Junction FET (JFET) is the earlier type and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET (MOSFET) is now the most popular type. drain. A MOSFET can be constructed that will operate in either mode depending upon what type of bias is applied. In the quadratic region the drain current is determined from the expression W 1 2 i D = k n ---. • In a MOSFET. from 1 to 100 megohms. the quadratic or triode. the voltage at which the channel is closed is known as the pinch−off voltage V P . thus allowing a greater range of input signals. Typical values for V T are 2 to 4 volts for high voltage devices with thicker gate oxides.12 Summary • The Field−Effect Transistor (FET) is another semiconductor device. • One of the most attractive features of the FET is the fact that the input resistance. • A MOSFET is said to operate in the depletion mode when a negative voltage is applied at the gate. In the cutoff mode. measured between gate and source. • One important parameter in FETs is its transconductance g m defined as the ratio of the change in current i DS to the change of voltage v GS which produced it.Summary 4. and the saturation or pentode. the transconductance is a measure of the sensitivity of drain current to changes in gate−to−source bias. P−channel FETs operate similarly except that the voltage polarities are reversed. and 1 to 2 volts for lower voltage devices with thinner gate oxides. The JFET also operates in this manner. A FET has four terminals.v DS L 2 for v DS ≤ v GS – V T and in the saturation region from the expression Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. v GS < V T and no drain current flows. the three regions of operation are the cutoff.

• Complementary MOS or CMOS technology combines one NMOS device and one PMOS device into a single device referred to as CMOS. • For small signals. and unlike bipolar transistors.( V GS – V T ) L v gs 2 2 • The output conductance is defined as ∂i D g o = ----------∂v DS v GS = cons tan t • The voltage gain A v in a MOSFET device is defined as vd A v = ------. common−gate amplifier. and for W ⁄ L about 10 . CMOS devices are the most common amplifiers in the FET technology. either the NMOS device is on and the PMOS device is off. The control of the channel is obtained by varying the depletion layer width underneath the metal contact which modulates the thick- 4−44 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. around 10 μA ⁄ V . current mirrors are normally used in lieu of resistors. for k p . For p−channel MOSFETs this parameter is denoted as k p .= k n ---. • A CMOS device can be configured as a common−source amplifier. and integrated circuits. transconductance is defined as id W g m = ------.⋅ k n ---. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices 1 W 2 i D = -. and common−drain or source follower. Also. • In high density integrated circuits.= – R D g m v gs and the minus (−) sign indicates 180° phase reversal. The carrier flow from source to drain is controlled by a Schottky metal gate. These devices are used extensively in both analog and digital circuits. Typical values of k n are around 20 μA ⁄ V . • The Metal−Semiconductor−Field−Effect−Transistor (MESFET) consists of a conducting channel positioned between a source and drain contact region. or vice versa. The ratio W ⁄ L denotes the ratio of the channel width W to channel length L . and capacitance for n−channel MOSFETs.( v GS – V T ) 2 L for v DS ≥ v GS – V T where k n is a constant depending on electron mobility. Thus. and oxide thickness. permittivity. a CMOS has almost no static power dissipation. • In CMOS devices only one of its components is on at any given time. that is. CMOS chips require less power than chips using just one type of a MOSFET.

• The Shockley diode. The diac closely resembles a PNP transistor without an external base terminal. If the current falls to zero. referred to as programmable UJTs. Its major application is in conjunction with a triac to produce AC phase−control circuits useful for motor−speed control. • The silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) is a four−layer semiconducting device. • The triac is a device capable of switching on for either polarity of an applied voltage. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−45 . Other UJT devices. for example N−P−N−P. • The silicon controlled switch (SCS) is very similar to the SCR but all four regions are accessible to the external circuit. It is the AC equivalent of the SCR. Once turned on. and other ac power−control functions. single−junction device which exhibits negative resistance and switching characteristics totally unlike those of conventional bipolar transistors. with each layer consisting of an alternately N or P−type material. light dimming. the SCR behaves like an open switch. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. can have their parameters set by external components such as resistors and capacitors. called the gate. are across the full four layers. It is similar to a diode with an additional terminal that is used to turn it on. is attached to one of the middle layers. transistor−like component which exhibits bistable switching for either polarity of a suitably high applied voltage. Another name for the SCR is thyristor. analog−to−digital converters. relay time delay circuits. • The unijunction transistor (UJT) is a three−terminal. and the control terminal. The main terminals. or PNPN diode. and frequency dividers. or four−layer diode. • The diac is a two−terminal. labelled anode and cathode. Only n – channel MESFETS are available because holes have a slower mobility. the SCR will remain on as long as current flows through it. (not to be confused with the Schottky diode).Summary ness of the conducting channel and thereby the current MESFETs use GaAs (gallium arsenide) technology. is a four−layer sandwich of P−N−P−N semiconductor material very similar to the SCR but without a gate. UJTs can be used for the design of pulse and sawtooth generators.

As shown. Over what range may the load DC current be continuously varied if the frequency is 60 Hz ? 4−46 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. An n – channel MOSFET with k n = 50 × 10 . V T = 2 V . For the JFET amplifier circuit below. L = 5 μm . Draw an equivalent circuit that represents the n – channel MOSFET in the saturation mode. Compute the value of r DS for an NMOS device where k = 18 μA ⁄ V . Compute the transconductance g m c. W = 10 μm . show that A V = – g m R D . + D G V DD v out + v+ in S 2. What is the highest voltage of v D that will keep the device in saturation? 6. W = 10 μm . that is. a. the SCR is used to control the power delivered to the 50 Ω load by the sinusoidal source. Compute the output conductance g o if V DS = 2 V d. In the circuit below. prove that the voltage gain A V depends only on the transconductance g m and the value of the drain resistor R D . and v GS = 4 V . and V T = 1 V . is biased with v G = 0 V and v S = 5 V . L = 1 μm . Compute the drain current i D b. is biased with v GS = 3 V and v DS = 5 V . the gate supply V GG is adjustable. L = 1 μm .Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices 4. Compute the output conductance g o if V DS = 0 V 5.13 Exercises 1. W = 60 μm . Over what range may the conduction angle of the SCR be continuously varied? b. a. 2 3. 4. An enhancement−type p – channel –6 –6 MOSFET with k p = 10 × 10 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and V T = – 2 V .

and it is assumed that the SCR switches instantly to the non−conducting state and remains non−conducting thereafter. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−47 . The circuit below is in steady state with the switch open and the SCR is in the conducting state.Exercises R load 50 Ω RG V GG 100 sin ωt 7. The switch is then closed at t = 0 . If the anode potential of the SCR must remain negative for 10 μs to ensure that the SCR switches to the non−conducting state. a. what is the minimum value of the capacitor C that should be used? V DC R3 1 KΩ R1 10 KΩ R2 100 sin ωt 20 KΩ C S 50 V R4 50 KΩ Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. What are the initial and final values of the voltage across the capacitor with the polarities shown? b. The voltage drop across the SCR is 1 V while it is conducting.

Thus.( 3 – 1 ) = 1 mA 2 L 2 1 b. the device is in saturation and the drain current i D is found from (4.13).( v GS – V T ) 2 v DS = cons tan t 2 L 4. a. – 6 10 –1 W g m = k n ---.= ----------------------------------. The output conductance g m is found from (4.14 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 1. Then. G iD D v GS S 1 W -. the voltage gain is 2. v out = V DD – R D i DS dvout = – R D di DS dv out = – g m R D dv in dv out A v = -----------. 4−48 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. In the saturation mode the n – channel MOSFET behaves as an ideal current source whose value is as in (4. From (4.( 3 – 1 ) = 1 mΩ L 1 c.16).⋅ k n ---.⋅ 50 × 10 ⋅ ----.( v GS – V T ) = 50 × 10 ⋅ ----. The transconductance g m is found from (4.= --------------------------------------------------------------------.⋅ k n ---.11).( v GS – V T ) = -.= 2. – 6 10 1 W 1 2 2 i D = -. By definition g m = di DS ⁄ dv GS = di DS ⁄ dv in (1) and since it follows that and with (1) Thus. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Since v DS > v GS – V T ⇒ 5 > 3 – 1 .11) and it can be represented by the equivalent circuit shown below. Then.3 KΩ –6 –6 iD kW ( v GS – V T ) 18 × 10 × 60 × 10 ( 4 – 2 ) 3.10).= – g m R D dv in –6 v DS 5 × 10 L r DS ≡ -------.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices 4.

– 6 10 –1 W g o = k n ---. If V DS = 0 V . the device is in the triode region since v DS < v GS – V T ⇒ 0 < 3 – 1 .318 A If SCR never fires. Then.( 3 – 1 – 0 ) = 1 mΩ 1 L 5.5 0 -0. d. I DC = 1 ⁄ π = 0. The SCR will fire for the interval 0 ≤ ωt ≤ π ⁄ 2 or not at all depending on the value of V GG .---------------------. b.( – cos ωt ) = 50 2π α π α ∫ If α = 0 .14 we observe that for v DS ≥ v GS – V T the slope is zero. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−49 .5 α firing angle 0 1 2 3 π 2π ωt -1 4 5 6 7 a. The load DC current I DC is the average value for the interval 0 ≤ α ≤ π ⁄ 2 and its value is determined by the integral I DC π 1 π 100 sin ωt 1 ----. I DC = 0 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. With reference to Figure 4. 1 100 sin ω t V GG 0.( v GS – V T – v DS ) = 50 × 10 ⋅ ----. v GS = v G – v S = 0 – ( – 5 ) = 5 V v DS = v D – v S = v D – ( – 5 ) = v D + 5 v D + 5 = v GS – V T = 5 – ( – 2 ) = 7 vD = 2 V 6.( 3 – 1 – 2 ) = 0 1 L This result is not surprising. I DC = 2 ⁄ π = 0.d( ωt ) = -.637 A If α = π ⁄ 2 . The device will be in saturation as long as v DS ≤ v GS – V T .( vGS – V T – v DS ) = 50 × 10 ⋅ ----.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises – 6 10 W g o = k n ---. For this exercise.

The capacitor voltage cannot change instantaneously so immediately after the switch is closed.= 14. the voltage drop across the SCR is 1 V and the voltage drop across the capacitor is 49 V with the polarity as shown.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices 7. and the SCR will be Off. b. we must have or v C ( t ) = V ∞ – ( V ∞ – V initial )e 0 = 50 – [ 50 – ( – 49 ) ]e e – t ⁄ ( RC ) – t ⁄ ( RC ) – t ⁄ ( RC ) = 50 ⁄ 99 – t ⁄ ( R 3 C ) = ln ( 50 ⁄ 99 ) –6 3 –t ⁄ R3 ( – 10 × 10 ) ⁄ 10 C = ------------------------. Just before the switch closes. Using the general formula for the capacitor voltage. the capacitor voltage will be – 49 V as shown in the figure below. V DC 50 V R3 1 KΩ R1 10 KΩ R2 100 sin ωt 20 KΩ R4 C S 50 KΩ a. R3 50 V 1 KΩ R4 C V DC 50 KΩ The capacitor voltage will eventually charge to 50 V with respect to the ground and thus it will undergo a change from – 49 V (initial value) to +50 V (final value). that is.683 ln ( 50 ⁄ 99 ) 4−50 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .= ------------------------------------------.64 nF – 0. We want the SCR anode to remain negative for 10 μs . until the voltage across the capacitor reaches the value of 0 V .

We will discuss the ideal op amp. Symbol and pinouts for operational amplifier As shown above the op amp has two inputs but only one output. Capable of producing a very large gain that can be set to any value by connection of external resistors of appropriate values Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. It is also the basic block in analog computer design. single ended output amplifier. These terminals are not shown in op amp circuits since they just provide power. and analog−to−digital conversion or vice versa.2 shows the internal construction of the popular 741 op amp. These are the voltage sources required to power up the op amp. and analog computers. analysis of circuits in the inverting and non−inverting configurations.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers T his chapter begins with an introduction to operational amplifiers (op amps). and applications. − V+ 7 6 4 V− 2 3 + Figure 5. integration. 5. Typically. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−1 . We will also introduce some circuits consisting of op amps and non−linear devices. It derives it name from the fact that it is capable of performing many mathematical operations such as addition.1 The Operational Amplifier The operational amplifier or simply op amp. is the most versatile electronic amplifier. V + is +15 volts and V − is −15 volts. Its symbol and pinouts are shown in Figure 5. characteristics. 5. For this reason it is referred to as differential input. differentiation. and do not reveal any other useful information for the op amp’s circuit analysis.2 An Overview of the Op Amp The op amp has the following important characteristics: 1.1.1. Very high input impedance (resistance) 2. multiplication. Very low output impedance (resistance) 3. Figure 5. It can also be used as a comparator and electronic filter. This figure also shows terminals V + and V − . and gain and bandwidth on circuit performance.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . addition.3 The Op Amp in the Inverting Mode An op amp is said to be connected in the inverting mode when an input signal is connected to the inverting (−) input through an external resistor R in whose value along with the feedback resistor R f determine the op amp’s gain. The 741 op amp (Courtesy National Semiconductor) 5.e.3. Very good stability 6. the voltage gain G v is v out Rf G v = --------.. capacitors. Operation to be performed.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 4. is done externally with proper selection of passive devices such as resistors. Frequency response from DC to frequencies in the MHz range 5. Figure 5. diodes. and so on. The non−inverting (+) input is grounded through an external resistor R as shown in Figure 5. integration etc.3.1) 5−2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. i. For the circuit of Figure 5.= – ------v in R in (5.2.

1 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Therefore. Circuit for Example 5. the resistor R connected between the non−inverting (+) input and ground serves only as a current limiting device. Thus. these designations imply that an input voltage of any waveform may be applied at the input terminals and the corresponding output voltage appears at the output terminals. when the input signal is positive (+) the output will be negative (−) and vice versa. So its presence or absence in an op amp circuit is immaterial.4. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes. the gain for this op amp configuration is the ratio – R f ⁄ R in where R f is the feedback resistor which allows portion of the output to be fed back to the input.3. The minus (−) sign in the gain ratio – R f ⁄ R in implies that the output signal has opposite polarity from that of the input signal.1). the output will be −100 volts DC. the output will be 180° out−of−phase with the input. As shown in the relation of (5. should not be interpreted as open circuits. Circuit of inverting op amp Note 1: In the inverting mode. For example. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−3 . and thus it does not influence the op amp’s gain. if the input is 1 volt AC and the op amp gain is 5. given that v in = 1 mV .The Op Amp in the Inverting Mode R in + v in − R − + Rf + v out − Figure 5. the output will be −5 volts AC or 5 volts AC with 180° out−of−phase with the input. hence the name inverting amplifier. R in R f 120 KΩ + v in 20 KΩ − − + + v out − Figure 5. For AC (sinusoidal) signals. Note 2: The input voltage v in and the output voltage v out as indicated in the circuit of Figure 5.1 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 5. Example 5.4. if the input is +1 volt DC and the op amp gain is 100.3.

6. Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 5. given that v in = sin t mV .5.6.2 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers Solution: This is an inverting amplifier and thus the voltage gain G v is Rf G v = – ------. Circuit for Example 5.2 5−4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .1 Example 5. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes.= – 120 KΩ = – 6 -------------------R in 20 KΩ and since the output voltage is or G v = v out ⁄ v in v out = G v v in = – 6 × 1 v out = – 6 mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 5.5. R in 20 KΩ R f 120 KΩ + v in − − + + v out − Figure 5. 1 0 t v in = 1 mV mV v out = – 6 mV -6 Figure 5.

2 5.4 The Op Amp in the Non−Inverting Mode An op amp is said to be connected in the non−inverting mode when an input signal is connected to the non−inverting (+) input through an external resistor R which serves as a current limiter.The Op Amp in the Non−Inverting Mode Solution: This is the same circuit as that of the previous example except that the input is a sine wave with unity amplitude and the voltage gain G v is the same as before.= – 6 20 KΩ R in and the output voltage is v out = G v v in = – 6 × sin t = – 6 sin t mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−5 .7. Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 5. In our subsequent discussion. v in = sin t v out = – 6 sin t mV 0 t Figure 5. Circuit of non−inverting op amp For the circuit of Figure 5.8. and the inverting (−) input is grounded through an external resistor R in as shown in Figure 5. R in Rf − + R + v in − + v out − Figure 5. that is. the resistor R will represent the internal resistance of the applied voltage v in when this voltage is applied at the non−inverting input. Rf 120 KΩ G v = – ------.= – ------------------.8.8. the voltage gain G v is Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.7.

Example 5.10. if the input is +1 mV DC and the op amp gain is 75 . in the non−inverting mode the op amp output signal has the same polarity as the input signal.9. given that v in = 1 mV . 5−6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. if the input is 0. the gain for the non−inverting op amp configuration is 1 + R f ⁄ R in and therefore. when the input signal is positive (+) the output will be also positive and if the input is negative. the name non−inverting amplifier. For AC signals the output will be in−phase with the input. Thus. the output will be 10 V AC and in−phase with the input.3 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the non−inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 5. the output will be +75 mV DC .2) As indicated by the relation of (5. For example. the output will be also negative.9.= 1 + ------.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers Rf v out G v = --------. hence.= 1 + 120 KΩ = 1 + 6 = 7 -------------------v in R in 20 KΩ and thus v out = G v v in = 7 × 1 mV = 7 mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 5. Circuit for Example 5.5 V AC and the op amp gain is G v = 1 + 19 KΩ ⁄ 1 KΩ = 20 . R in 20 KΩ Rf 120 KΩ − + + v out − + v in − R Figure 5.2). Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .3 Solution: The voltage gain G v is Rf v out G v = --------. For example.= 1 + ------v in R in (5.

= 1 + ------. Circuit for Example 5. Therefore. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes.The Op Amp in the Non−Inverting Mode 7 mV v out = 7 mV v in = 1 mV 1 0 t Figure 5. given that v in = sin t mV . v out Rf G v = --------. that is. the voltage gain G v is the same as before. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−7 .10. R in 20 KΩ Rf 120 KΩ − + + v out − + v in − R Figure 5.11.12.11.4 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the non−inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 5. Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 5.4 Solution: This is the same circuit as in the previous example except that the input is a sinusoid.= 1 + 120 KΩ = 1 + 6 = 7 -------------------v in R in 20 KΩ and the output voltage is v out = G v v in = 7 × sin t = 7 sin t mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 5.3 Example 5. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

− v in − + R + v+ out − Figure 5.13 it is called unity gain amplifier. An op amp low−pass filter 5−8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= 1 v in and thus v out = v in For this reason. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and attenuates (blocks) all frequencies above this cutoff frequency.12.5 Active Filters An active filter is an electronic circuit consisting of an amplifier and other devices such as resistors and capacitors. The unity gain op amp is used to provide a very high resistance between a voltage source and the load connected to it.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 8 mV 4 2 0 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 0 6 v out = 7 sin t t v in = sin4t 2 6 8 10 12 14 Figure 5. A low−pass filter transmits (passes) all frequencies below a critical (cutoff) frequency denoted as ω C . if the input voltage is 5 mV DC the output will also be 5 mV DC .13.4 Quite often an op amp is connected as shown in Figure 5. Operational amplifiers are used extensively as active filters. the op amp circuit of Figure 5. a passive filter is a circuit which consists of passive devices such as resistors.13.13. In contrast. the output will also be 2 mV AC .8. and if the input voltage is 2 mV AC . 5. Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 5. For example. capacitors and inductors. Circuit of unity gain op amp For the circuit of Figure 5. the voltage gain G v is v out G v = --------. An application is presented in Example 5.

14(b).15.15(b). and as mentioned before. that is. High – pass filter frequency response 1 3⁄2 Half – power point Ideal Realizable vin R1 C3 vout v out ⁄ v in C1 C2 R2 (a) 0 Radian frequency (log scale) ωC ω (b) Figure 5. The vertical scale represents the magnitude of the ratio of output−to−input voltage v out ⁄ v in . 1 R2 R1 Low – pass filter frequency response Ideal R in C2 3⁄2 vin C1 vout (a) v out ⁄ v in Half – power point Realizable 0 ωC Radian frequency (log scale) ω (b) Figure 5.14(b). the gain G v . this is the half−power or the – 3 dB point. falls to 0. The cutoff frequency ω c is the frequency at which the maximum value of v out ⁄ v in which is unity.15(a) and its frequency response in Figure 5.14.14(a) and its amplitude frequency response in Figure 5. the straight vertical and horizontal lines represent the ideal (unrealizable) and Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.15(b). A high−pass filter transmits (passes) all frequencies above a critical (cutoff) frequency ω c . An active low−pass filter and its amplitude frequency response In Figure 5.Active Filters is shown in Figure 5. An active high−pass filter and its amplitude frequency response In Figure 5. An op amp high−pass filter is shown in Figure 5. and attenuates (blocks) all frequencies below the cutoff frequency.707 × Gv . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−9 . the straight vertical and horizontal lines represent the ideal (unrealizable) and the smooth curve represents the practical (realizable) low−pass filter characteristics.

17(b). An active band−pass filter and its amplitude frequency response 5−10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The cutoff frequency ω c is the frequency at which the maximum value of v out ⁄ v in which is unity. while it attenuates (blocks) all frequencies outside this band. the gain G v . An op amp band−pass filter is shown in Figure 5. i. where the maximum value of G v which is unity. An op amp band−pass filter and its frequency response are shown below. that is. while it transmits (passes) all frequencies outside this band. falls to 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .17(a) and its frequency response in Figure 5. where the maximum value of G v which is unity.16(b). An op amp band−stop filter is shown in Figure 5. The vertical scale represents the magnitude of the ratio of output−to−input voltage v out ⁄ v in .16(a) and its frequency response in Figure 5.707 × G v . C1 C2 R2 R3 vin R1 vout (a) 11 0 3⁄2 8 Half – power points v out ⁄ v in 6 4 2 Realizable Ideal 0 0 1 0 2 ω 10 ω 2 1 3 1 0 4 ω Radian frequency (log scale) (b) Figure 5. falls to 0..16.707 × G v . the half−power or the – 3 dB point. A band−elimination or band−stop or band−rejection filter attenuates (rejects) the band (range) of frequencies between the critical (cutoff) frequencies denoted as ω 1 and ω 2 . falls to 0. A band−pass filter transmits (passes) the band (range) of frequencies between the critical (cutoff) frequencies denoted as ω 1 and ω 2 .e.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers the smooth curve represents the practical (realizable) high−pass filter characteristics.707 × Gv .

this will be discussed in a later section. Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems. in any op−amp: a. superposition. When analyzing an op amp circuit. In this section we will provide several examples to illustrate the analysis of op amp circuits without being concerned about its internal operation. KCL and KVL.17. The voltage difference between the input terminals of an op amp is zero c. the terminals of the power supplies will not be shown.6 Analysis of Op Amp Circuits The procedure for analyzing an op amp circuit (finding voltages. For simplicity. we can apply Ohm’s law. currents and power) is the same as for the other circuits which we have studied thus far. For circuits containing op amps.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits R3 C1 C2 vin vout R1 R2 C3 (a) 1 3⁄2 Ideal Half – power points Realizable v out ⁄ v in 0 ω1 ω2 Radian frequency (log scale) ω (b) Figure 5. we will assume that the reference (ground) is the common terminal of the two power supplies. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−11 . An active band−elimination filter and its amplitude frequency response 5. That is. we must remember that. for all practical purposes. The currents into both input terminals are zero b.

19 with the virtual ground being the same as the circuit ground. From the circuit of Figure 5.= – ------v in R in (5. since the (+) input terminal is grounded and there is no voltage drop between the (−) and (+) terminals.3) below.= – ------v in R in The input and output parts of the circuit are shown in Figure 5. therefore the current i which flows through resistor R in flows also through resistor R f .v in R in R Rf v out G v = --------. Prove that the voltage gain G v is as given in (5.3) Proof: No current flows through the (−) input terminal of the op amp.5 The op amp circuit shown in Figure 5. Circuit for deriving the gain of an inverting op amp Rf v out G v = --------.18 is called inverting op amp.18. 5−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers Example 5. R in i i R Rf + v in − − + v out − + Figure 5. the (−) input is said to be at virtual ground. and draw its equivalent circuit showing the output as a dependent source. v out = – R f i where and thus or v in i = ------R in f v out = – ------.18. Also. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−13 . Input and output parts for the inverting op amp These two circuits are normally drawn with the output as a dependent source as shown in Figure 5.4) Proof: Let the voltages at the (−) and (+) terminals be denoted as v 1 and v 2 respectively as shown in Figure 5.22.= 1 + ------v in R in (5.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits + v in − R in + − i i − Rf + v out − + Figure 5.20. ISBN 978−0− 9709511−2−0. * For a definition of dependent sources please refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.21 is called non−inverting op amp.21.v in out R in Rf + − Figure 5. Prove that the voltage gain G v is as given in (5.19. Circuit of non−inverting op amp Rf v out G v = --------.20. R in Rf − v in − + + v out − + Figure 5.6 The op amp circuit shown in Figure 5.* + v in − R in − v + ------. Equivalent circuit for the inverting op amp Example 5. and draw its equivalent circuit showing the output as a dependent source. This is the equivalent circuit of the inverting op amp and the dependent source is a Voltage Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS).4) below.

The dependent source of this equivalent circuit is also a VCVS.22.22.⎞ v ⎝ ⎠ in − R in Rf v out − Figure 5. Equivalent circuit for the non−inverting op amp 5−14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= 1 + ------v in R in (5.23.= 0 Rf R in 1 1 ⎛ ------.4) By application of KCL at v 1 i1 + i2 = 0 or v 1 v 1 – v out ------. v 1 – v 2 = 0 or v 1 = v 2 = v in . we obtain Rf v out G v = --------.+ ---------------------.= 0 Rf R in (5.5) then can be written as v in v in – v out ------.+ -------------------.⎞ v = v out --------⎝R ⎠ in Rf in R f Rearranging. Non−inverting op amp circuit for derivation of (5. Relation (5. therefore.5) There is no potential difference between the (−) and (+) terminals. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers + R in − Rf i2 v1 v in v 2 − − i1 + + v out − + Figure 5.+ ----.6) Figure 5. + + v in − + ⎛ 1 + ------.23 shows the equivalent circuit of Figure 5.

the non−inverting amplifier of the previous example reduces to the circuit of Figure 5. the gain reduces to G v = 1 and for this reason this circuit is called unity gain amplifier or voltage follower.25: a. prove that the voltage gain G v is v out G v = --------.22 with R in open and R f shorted The voltage difference between the (+) and (−) terminals is zero. It is also called buffer amplifier because it can be used to “buffer” (isolate) one circuit from another when one “loads” the other as we will see on the next example.6. letting R f → 0 . − + v in − + v out − + Figure 5. in the non−inverting op amp circuit of Example 5. Example 5. With the load connected. compute the open circuit voltage v ab b. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−15 . With the load R load disconnected.= 1 + ------v in R in Then.24.7) and thus Proof: v out = v in With R in open and R f shorted. we replace R in with an open circuit ( R in → ∞ ) and R f with a short circuit ( R f → 0 ).24. We will obtain the same result if we consider the non−inverting op amp gain Rf v out G v = --------.7 If. then v out = v in .= 1 v in (5. compute the voltage v load across the load R load Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits Example 5.8 For the circuit of Figure 5. Circuit of Figure 5.

7 KΩ a × b × v in − 12 V + 5 KΩ R load 5 KΩ Figure 5. Circuit for Example 5.27. With the load R load disconnected the circuit is as shown in Figure 5. Circuit for Example 5. Circuit for Example 5.× 12 = 3.× 12 = 5 V 7 KΩ + 5 KΩ b. Insert a buffer amplifier between a and b and compute the new voltage v load across the same load R load 7 KΩ a × b × v in − 12 V + R load 5 KΩ 5 KΩ Solution: Figure 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .28.27.8 with the load reconnected c. Then. With the load R load reconnected the circuit is as shown in Figure 5.16 V 7 KΩ + 5 KΩ || 5 KΩ Here.26.26. we observe that the load R load “loads down” the load voltage from 5 V to 3. 5 KΩ || 5 KΩ v load = ------------------------------------------------------. 7 KΩ a × b × v in − 12 V + R load 5 KΩ 5 KΩ Figure 5. 5−16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.25.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers c.16 V and this voltage may not be sufficient for proper operation of the load. With the insertion of the buffer amplifier between points a and b and the load.8 a. the circuit now is as shown in Figure 5.8 with the load disconnected The voltage across terminals a and b is 5 KΩ v ab = ---------------------------------.

9 The op amp circuit shown in Figure 5. by application of KCL at the (−) terminal.9) and solving for v out we obtain (5.28.+ --------. we obtain v in 1 v in 2 v out --------.8) R in 1 R in 2 − Rf + v in 1 − + + R v out + − v in 2 − Proof: Figure 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−17 .29 is called summing circuit or summer because the output is the summation of the weighted inputs.8). we can apply the principle of superposition to derive this relation.+ --------. Two−input summing op amp circuit We recall that the voltage across the (−) and (+) terminals is zero. Prove that for this circuit.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits − 7 KΩ a × 5V + R load 5 KΩ + v load = v ab = 5 V − v in − 12 V + 5 KΩ × b Figure 5.8 with the insertion of a buffer op amp From the circuit of Figure 5.28. we observe that the voltage across the load is 5 V as desired. We also observe that the (+) input is grounded.29. and thus the voltage at the (−) terminal is at “virtual ground”. Example 5. Alternately.⎞ ⎠ R R in 1 in 2 (5.= 0 R in 1 R in 2 Rf (5. Circuit for Example 5. v out = – R f ⎛ ⎝ v in 1 v in 2 --------. Then. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.+ --------.

31. 5−18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Circuit for Example 5.10 Let v out 1 be the output due to v in 1 acting alone.30. and v out 3 be the output due to v in 3 acting alone. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 5. with v in 2 acting alone and v in 1 and v in 3 shorted. v out 2 be the output due to v in 2 acting alone.30. Then by superposition. with v in 1 acting alone and v in 2 and v in 3 shorted.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers Example 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Circuit for Example 5. v out = v out 1 + v out 2 + v out 3 (5.31.10) First.11) Next. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 5.10 with v in 1 acting alone We recognize this as an inverting amplifier whose voltage gain G v is G v = 1 MΩ ⁄ 10 KΩ = 100 and thus v out 1 = ( 100 ) ( – 1 mV ) = – 100 mV (5. R in 1 Rf 1 MΩ − v in 1 + − 10 KΩ 1 mV R in 2 20 KΩ R in 3 + 30 KΩ v out 1 − + Figure 5.32. R in 1 Rf 1 MΩ − v in 1 − 1 mV R in 2 + 10 KΩ + R 20 KΩ in 3 30 KΩ v out − + v in 2 − 4 mV v in 3 − 10 mV + + Solution: Figure 5.10 Compute the output voltage v out for the amplifier circuit shown in Figure 5.

× 4 mV = 2.33.4 mV (5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−19 . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. R in 3 30 KΩ v ( + ) = --------------------------. R in 2 20 KΩ + R in 3 30 KΩ − To v ( + ) v in 2 − 4 mV + Figure 5.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits R in 1 10 KΩ R in 2 Rf 1 MΩ − R in 3 20 KΩ + 30 KΩ v out 2 − + v in 2 − 4 mV Figure 5.33.32 as a non−inverting op amp whose voltage gain G v is G v = 1 + 1 MΩ ⁄ 10 KΩ = 101 and the voltage at the plus (+) input is computed from the voltage divider circuit shown in Figure 5.4 mV = 242.32. with v in 3 acting alone and v in 1 and v in 2 shorted. The circuit of Figure 5.34 is also a non−inverting op amp whose voltage gain G v is G v = 1 + 1 MΩ ⁄ 10 KΩ = 101 and the voltage at the plus (+) input is computed from the voltage divider circuit shown in Figure 5.10 with v in 2 acting alone + The circuit of Figure 5.34.12) Finally. Voltage divider circuit for the computation of v ( + ) with v in 2 acting alone Then.35.× v in 2 = ---------------. Circuit for Example 5. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 5.4 mV R in 2 + R in 3 50 KΩ and thus v out 2 = 101 × 2.

12) and (5. Circuit for Example 5. and thus R in 2 20 KΩ v ( + ) = --------------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . R1 Rf v in − + − R2 R3 + + v out − Figure 5. R 2 .11 5−20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Circuit for Example 5. and R f .4 mV Example 5.10 with v in 3 acting alone R in 2 20 KΩ R in 3 + + 30 KΩ To v ( + ) v in 3 − + − 10 mV Figure 5.34. v out = v out 1 + v out 2 + v out 3 = – 100 + 242.× 10 mV = 4 mV 50 KΩ R in 2 + R in 3 v out 3 = 101 × 4 mV = 404 mV Therefore.36.× v in 2 = ---------------.35.13).11). R 3 .35. from (5.4 + 404 = 546. derive an expression for the voltage gain G v in terms of the external resistors R 1 .11 For the circuit shown in Figure 5. Voltage divider circuit for the computation of v ( + ) with v in 3 acting alone From Figure 5. (5.36.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers R in 1 10 KΩ Rf 1 MΩ − R in 2 20 KΩ + R in 3 30 KΩ v out 3 − + v in 3 − 10 mV Figure 5.

37.37.= -----------------R2 + R3 R1 + Rf or in R f v in + R 1 v out = -----------------.⎞ v = v in + -------------1 ⎝R Rf ⎠ Rf R1 1 R1 + Rf ⎛ ----------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−21 .= 0 R3 R2 R 3 v in v 2 = -----------------R2 + R3 R 3 v in v 1 = -----------------R2 + R3 (5.13) and (5. we rewrite (5. Application of KCL for the circuit of Example 5.+ ----.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits Solution: We apply KCL at nodes v 1 and v 2 as shown in Figure 5.( R 1 + R f ) R3 v R2 + R3 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.15) we obtain R f v in + R 1 v out R 3 v in ----------------------------------.13) At node v 2 : or v 2 – v in v 2 ----------------. R1 v1 v2 R3 v in − + − Rf R2 + + v out − Figure 5.15) Equating the right sides of (5.⎞ v = R f v in + R 1 v out ----------------------------------⎝ R1 R ⎠ 1 R1 Rf f or R f v in + R 1 v out v 1 = -----------------------------------R1 + Rf (5.14) as (5.11 At node v 1 : v 1 – v in v 1 – v out ----------------.+ -------------------.14) and since v 2 = v 1 .= 0 Rf R1 v out 1 1 ⎛ ----.+ ---.

12 Solution: By definition.– ----v in R 1 ( R 2 + R 3 ) R 1 and after simplification R1 R3 – R2 R v out G v = --------.38 in terms of R 1 and R f .= -----------------------------. vs R in = ---is (5. that is. in an op amp circuit the input resistance provides a measure of the current i s which the amplifier draws from the voltage source v s . Circuit for Example 5. R in = v s ⁄ i s and since no current flows into the minus (−) terminal of the op amp and this terminal is at virtual ground. Of course.16) 5. R1 Rf + vs − is − + v out − + Figure 5.12 Compute the input resistance R in of the inverting op amp amplifier shown in Figure 5. The input resistance R in of a circuit is defined as the ratio of the applied voltage v S to the current i S drawn by the circuit. accordingly. we must make the input resistance R in as high as possible.7 Input and Output Resistances The input and output resistances are very important parameters in amplifier circuits. we obtain v out R 3 ( R 1 + R f ) R f --------.= ------------------------------f R1 ( R2 + R3 ) v in (5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers Dividing both sides of the above relation by R 1 v in and rearranging.38.17) Therefore. it follows that is = vs ⁄ R1 5−22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Example 5. we want i s to be as small as possible. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

Circuit for Example 5.39. a large gain can be achieved with the circuit of Exercise 8 at the end of this chapter.Input and Output Resistances From the above relations we observe that R in = R 1 (5. this is an impractical value. the output resistance R out is the ratio of the open circuit voltage to the short circuit current.= 0 ix ix By definition. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Therefore. Obvi- ously. not the source voltage v S . However. v in is the voltage at the minus (−) terminal. and we treat v in as the source voltage.18) It is therefore. desirable to make R 1 as high as possible.40. Example 5.13 In the circuit of Figure 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−23 . Fortunately. Therefore.39. for a large gain. v in Rf 100 KΩ iX − + + v out − Figure 5. say 100 . the value of the feedback resistor R f should be 1 GΩ .13 with a test current source We observe that v in is zero (virtual ground). Circuit for Example 5. if we make R 1 very high such as 10 MΩ . v in 0 R in = -----. there is no current i S drawn by the op amp.= --.39.13 Compute the input resistance R in of the op amp circuit shown in Figure 5. In this case.40. we apply a test (hypothet- ical) current i X as shown in Figure 5. that is. Rf 100 KΩ + v in − − + v out − + Solution: Figure 5.

41.20).21) and from (5. Compute the output resistance R out .9 = ------------------------------v OC R out + 5 KΩ R out = 555 Ω (5.22) From (5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .× G v v in R out + R load v load 5 KΩ ----------.21) Therefore. − R out + v out − + Figure 5. Example 5. 5−24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.41.= 0.20) and (5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers v oc R out = ------i sc (5.14 The output voltage of an op amp decreases by 10% when a 5 KΩ load is connected at the output terminals.× v out R out + R load (5.19) The output resistance R out is not the same as the load resistance. the load voltage v load is R load v load = -----------------------------.20) With a load R load connected at the output terminals. v load = G v v in and with (5. Solution: Consider the output portion of the op amp shown in Figure 5. we observe that v out = v oc = G v v in (5. Partial circuit for Example 5. The output resistance provides a measure of the change in output voltage when a load which is connected at the output terminals draws current from the circuit.22) we observe that as R out → 0 . and solving for R out we obtain R load v load = -----------------------------. v load = v OC . It is desirable to have an op amp with very low output resistance as illustrated by the following example.14 With no load connected at the output terminals.

Negative feedback has the tendency to oppose (subtract from) the input signal.8 Op Amp Open Loop Gain Operational amplifiers can operate either a closed−loop or an open−loop configuration. and creates poor stability. Operational amplifiers are used with negative (degenerative) feedback. Although the negative feedback reduces the gain of the operational amplifier.42 shows that the bandwidth is only 10 Hz with this configuration. with feedback. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−25 . The gain of any amplifier varies with frequency.42 where both frequency and gain are in logarithmic scales. that is.Op Amp Open Loop Gain 5. the open−loop configuration is not practical because the very high gain amplifies also electrical noise and other unwanted signals. The unity gain frequency is the frequency at which the gain is unity. closed−loop or open−loop. it greatly increases the stability of the circuit. Gain 3 dB point 10 5 10 10 4 3 Unity Gain frequency 10 2 10 1 1 f ( Hz ) 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 Figure 5. The operation. All circuits that we considered in the previous sections of this chapter operate in the closed loop configuration.46 the unity gain frequency is 1 MHz . Accordingly. is determined by whether or not feedback is used. operational amplifiers operate in the closed−loop configurations. the negative feedback causes the inverting and non−inverting inputs to the operational amplifier will be kept at the same potential. The specification sheets for operational amplifiers state the open−loop at DC or 0 Hz . Without feedback the operational amplifier has an open−loop configuration. In Figure 5. the gain is much lower and decreases quite rapidly as frequency increases as shown in Figure 5. We observe that the frequency response curve shows that the Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Typical op amp open−loop frequency response curve (log scales) The frequency−response curve of Figure 5. As an amplifier. This open−loop configuration is practical only when the operational amplifier is used as a comparator − a circuit which compares two input signals or compares an input signal to some fixed level of voltage. Also. At higher frequencies.42.

Figure 5. An exact equivalent of the ideal op amp is referred to an a nullor consists of two new elements − the nullator for the input. an ideal op amp does not exist but the outstanding characteristics of the op amp allow us to treat it as an ideal device. and this product is equal to 1 MHz . for any op amp Gain × Bandwidth = Unity Gain Frequency (5.24) The use of negative feedback increases the bandwidth of an operational amplifier circuit but decreases the gain so that the gain times bandwidth product is always equal to the unity gain frequency of the op amp. We observe that the half−power point of this curve is slightly above 10 KHz .9 Op Amp Closed Loop Gain An ideal op amp is shown in Figure 5.43. Gain 3 dB point ( open loop ) 10 5 10 10 4 3 dB point ( closed loop ) Unity Gain frequency 3 10 2 10 1 1 10 100 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 f ( Hz ) Figure 5. Of course. i. 5−26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the unity gain frequency. that is. i. no voltage or current. and the norator for the output.. we can express (5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the 3 dB bandwidth as BW 3 dB .e.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers gain falls off with frequency at the rate of – 20 dB ⁄ decade . Thus.23) Denoting the open−loop gain as A ol . any voltage or current..23) as A ol ⋅ BW 3 dB = f ug (5. The frequency−response curve shown in Figure 5.43 is for a circuit in which negative feedback has been used to decrease the circuit gain to 100 (from 100.000 for the operational amplifier without feedback).e. Closed−loop frequency response for a gain of 100 5.42 reveals also the gain− bandwidth product is constant at any point of the curve. and the unity gain frequency as f ug .44.

Example 5. v1 v in = v 2 – v 1 v2 R in R out Ideal Conditions v out R in = ∞ R out = 0 Ao l ( v2 – v1 ) v out = A ol v in Figure 5. the output voltage v out is positive and when v 1 > v 2 . The ideal op amp From Figure 5. Assume that the input impedance is infinite and the output impedance is zero. if v 2 = v 1 . The external devices.45.44 v out = A o l ( v 2 – v 1 ) (5. R − v in − + + C1 C2 R1 Rf v out + − Solution: Figure 5.Op Amp Closed Loop Gain The open−loop gain A o l of an op amp is very high. A o l = 200. This will ensure that the op amp will operate in a stable condition and without distortion. Accordingly. the coefficients on the denominator of the transfer function must all be positive.. i.45 shows a circuit that can be used as a high−pass filter. resistors and capacitors should be chosen for a closed−loop gain of about one− tenth to one−twentieth of the open loop gain at a given frequency.15 Figure 5.15 For stability. v out = 0 and we call this condition common−mode rejection. 000 .e.44.25) We observe that when v 2 > v 1 . We want to find the range of the open−loop gain A o l for which the system is stable. In other words. Circuit for Example 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−27 . v out is negative. the op amp rejects any signals at its inputs that are exactly the same. To Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. we call the lower terminal v 2 the non−inverting input and the upper terminal v 1 the inverting input. for the popular 741 device. However.

32) Solving (5. we transform the given circuit into its s – domain equivalent as shown in Figure 5.33) must be positive.= ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 V in [ R 1 R f C 1 C 2 ]s + [ R 1 C 2 ( 1 – A ol ) + R f C 1 + R f C 2 ]s + 1 V out 2 (5.+ s C 2 ( V 1 – V out ⁄ A o l ) = 0 Rf V out ⁄ A o s C 2 ( V out ⁄ A o l – V 1 ) + ----------------------l R1 (5.30) Also.30) into (5. V3 = 0 (5. or V out = A o l ( V 2 – V 3 ) = A o l ( V 2 – 0 ) = A o l V 2 V 2 = V out ⁄ A o l Substitution of (5. the coefficient of s in the denominator of (5. we obtain the transfer function A o l [ R 1 R f C 1 C 2 ]s G ( s ) = ---------.46. 5−28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.33) For stability. R V1 V3 V2 R1 Rf − v in − + + 1 ⁄ s C1 1 ⁄ s C2 v out − + Figure 5.26) At Node V 2 .27) and since there is no voltage drop across resistor R .Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers derive the transfer function.27) yields V 1 – V out s C 1 ( V 1 – V in ) + ---------------------.+ s C 2 ( V 1 – V 2 ) = 0 Rf (5. The s – domain equivalent circuit of Figure 5. and rearranging.31) and (5.29) (5.31) (5.46.28) (5.49 Application of KCL at Node V 1 yields V 1 – V out s C 1 ( V 1 – V in ) + ---------------------. 2 s C 2 ( V 2 – V 1 ) + ----- V R1 (5. that is. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .32) for V 1 .26) and (5. equating right sides.

R 1 = 1 KΩ . a test current i x at the inverting input produces an output voltage v out whose value is v out = v in – R f i x .= – R f i i in x (5. Transresistance amplifier The circuit of Figure 5. Figure 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−29 .35) or Rf Rf C1 A o l < 1 + ----.39.10 Transresistance Amplifier In our previous chapters we introduced voltage gain v out ⁄ v in . the circuit for Example 5.47 is the same as that of Figure 5. 101 5. and transconductance i out ⁄ v in . Another term used with amplifiers is the transresistance gain R m = v out ⁄ i in .Transresistance Amplifier R1 C2 ( 1 – Ao l ) + Rf C1 + Rf C2 > 0 (5. The simple op amp circuit shown in Figure 5.47 is v out v out R m = --------.13.01 μF . and C 2 = 0.34) becomes 10 10 × 10 A o l < 1 + ------. With these values (5. As in Example 5.+ -----------R1 R1 C2 Let R f = 100 KΩ . Rf + v in − − + v out − + Figure 5. and since v in = 0 .47 is known as a transresistance amplifier. the transresistance R m of the circuit of Figure 5.13.34) (5.+ -----------------------3 3 –8 10 × 10 10 5 5 –6 or A ol < 10.36) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= --------. where we found that R in = 0 .48 shows the circuit model of the transresistance amplifier which was introduced in Exercise 4 in Chapter 1.47. C 1 = 1 μF . current gain i out ⁄ i in .

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .49. The circuit then is as shown in Figure 5. 5−30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.50. The s – domain inverting amplifier Example 5.37) where Z f ( s ) and Z 1 ( s ) are as shown in Figure 5. I(s) V in ( s ) Z 1 ( s ) − Zf ( s ) + − + V out ( s ) − + Figure 5.= – -----------V in ( s ) Z1 ( s ) (5. 5. for the inverting input mode.11 Closed Loop Transfer Function In all of the previous sections of this chapter.51. the external devices in the op amp circuits were resistors. and for convenience we denote the series devices as Z 1 ( s ) and the parallel devices as Y f ( s ) . Thus. we first convert the given circuit to its s – domain equivalent.48.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers i in R out i out v out R m = --------- v out i in i out = 0 v in R in R m i in Figure 5. it is also convenient to denote devices in parallel as Y ( s ) or Y ( jω ) . Transresistance circuit model and the minus (−) sign indicates that them output voltage v out and the test current i x are 180° out−of−phase with each other. differentiators. the closed loop transfer function G ( s ) is V out ( s ) Zf ( s ) G ( s ) = ----------------.49. However. several other circuits such as integrators. In this case it is convenient to denote devices in series as an impedance in the s – domain as Z ( s ) . Solution: To derive the transfer function. and active filters contain capacitors in addition to resistors. and in the jω – domain as Z ( jω ) . Likewise.16 Derive the closed−loop transfer function for the circuit of Figure 5.

16 Yf ( s ) Z1 ( s ) Rf + V in ( s ) − R1 1 ⁄ s C1 1 ⁄ s Cf − + V out ( s ) − + Figure 5.50.= ----------------------Yf ( s ) 1 + s Cf Rf (5.The Op Amp Integrator Rf Cf + v in − R1 − C1 + + v out − Figure 5. and (5.12 The Op Amp Integrator The op amp circuit of Figure 5.= ---.+ s C f = ( 1 + s C f R f ) ⁄ R f Rf 1 ⁄ s Cf Rf Rf 1 Z f ( s ) = -----------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−31 .40) From (5.39) (5.51.50 From Figure 5.41) 5. the voltage across the capacitor is 1 v C = --C ∫–∞iC dt t (5. For the integrator circuit of Figure 5. The s – domain equivalent circuit of Figure 5.= – ------------.+ -------------.40) s C1 Rf Rf ⁄ ( 1 + s Cf Rf ) V out ( s ) Zf ( s ) G ( s ) = -----------------.= – --------------------------------------------------------( s C1 R1 + 1 ) ⁄ s C1 ( s C1 R1 + 1 ) ( s Cf Rf + 1 ) Z1 ( s ) V in ( s ) (5. Z1 ( s ) = R1 + 1 ⁄ s C1 = ( s C1 R1 + 1 ) ⁄ s C1 1 1 1 Y f ( s ) = ---.38). Circuit for Example 5.51.= – ----------------------------------------.52 is known as the Miller integrator.42) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. (5.37).38) (5.52.

and thus 1 v out = – --C Also.46) v in i C = i = -----1 v out = – --------R1 C ∫0 vin dt – V0 t Example 5.42) as 1 v C = --C ∫0 i C d t + V 0 t (5.44) (5.17 The input voltage to the amplifier in Figure 5. v out = – v C .53. the voltage across the capacitor is V 0 .45) (5. that is.43) Since the inverting input is at virtual ground. Circuit and input waveform for Example 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .53(b). that is. Find and sketch the output voltage assuming that the initial condition is zero. the output voltage v out is the negative of the capacitor voltage v C . V 0 = 0 . The Miller integrator and assuming the initial condition that at t = 0 . we can express (5.53(a) is as shown in Figure 5. since we rewrite (5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers i v in R1 iC = i C v out Figure 5. C 1 μF 2 v in ( V ) R1 v in 1 MΩ v out (b) (a) 3 t (s) Figure 5.44) as ∫0 i C d t – V 0 R1 t (5.17 5−32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.52.

54.53 when the input is the unit step function * For a detailed discussion on the unit step function refer to Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling. Output waveform for the integrator circuit in Figure 5.55(b). The output voltage of the circuit in Figure 5. Fourth Edition.57(a) is the unit step function u 0 ( t ) * as shown in Figure 5. Now.The Op Amp Integrator Solution: From (5. ISBN 978−1−9734404−11−9.55(a).55.54. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−33 .53 The output voltage waveform in Figure 5. ideally the output would be a negative ramp towards minus infinity as shown in Figure 5. v in ( V ) u0 ( t ) v out ( V ) t (s) (a) t (s) (b) Figure 5. v out ( V ) 3 t (s) –6 Figure 5. let us suppose that the input to the op amp integrator circuit of Figure 5. it behaves like an open circuit and effectively the negative feedback is an open circuit. Then. the integral above reduces to v out = – ∫0 vin dt t = – This result shows that the output voltage v out decreases linearly from zero to – 6 V in the time interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 3 s and remains constant at – 6 V for t > 3 s thereafter as shown in Figure 5.46) 1 v out = – --------R1 C ∫0 vin dt – V0 ∫ 0 2 dt = – 2 t 0 = – 6 3 3 t and with R 1 C = 10 × 10 6 –6 = 1 and V 0 = 0 . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.54 indicates that after the capacitor charges to 6 V .

Find and sketch the output voltage for the interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 10 s assuming that the initial condition is zero.95 ) = – 9. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .05 ) = – 10 ( 0. Example 5. Rf R1 C i 5 MΩ 0. the output voltage saturates at the power supply voltage of the op amp.R f = ------------.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers In reality.18 The input voltage to the amplifier in Figure 5.18 Solution: This is the same circuit and input voltage waveform as in Example 5. The output voltage for this time interval is v out = – v C = – 10 ( 1 – e –( 1 ⁄ R f C ) t ) and at t = 3 s v out t=3 s = – 10 ( 1 – e –3 ⁄ 1 ) = – 10 ( 1 – 0.× 5 MΩ = – 10V 1 MΩ R1 for 0 ≤ t ≤ 3 s . the capacitor charges in accordance with the relation vC = V∞ ( 1 – e – ( 1 ⁄ R f C )t ) (5.2 μF 2 v in ( V ) v in 1 MΩ v out (a) (b) 3 t (s) Figure 5.5 V 5−34 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Circuit and input waveform for Example 5. V 0 = 0 . This problem can be rectified if we place a feedback resistor R f in parallel with the capacitor.56(a) is as shown in Figure 5. that is.56(b). typically ± 15 V depending on the polarity of the input DC signal.47) where v in –2 V ∞ = – i R f = – -----.2 μF to simplify the computations. and in this case the circuit behaves like a low− pass filter as shown in Exercise 13 at the end of this chapter. This feedback resistor should be at least as large as the input resistance R 1 .56.17 except that a 5 MΩ feedback resistor has been added and the capacitor value was changed to 0. Since it is stated that the initial condition is zero.

57. 5.= C --------dt dt Also.5 Figure 5.56 somewhat less than an ideal integrator. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−35 .48) and we observe that the output voltage v out is the derivative of the input voltage v in . Output waveform for the circuit of Example 5. Basic differentiator circuit We observe that the right side of the capacitor is virtually grounded and therefore the current through the capacitor is dv in dv C i C = C -------.The Op Amp Differentiator At t = 10 s v out t = 10 s = v out t=3 s ×e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t = – 10e – 10 ⁄ 1 = – 10 × 4.18 As we can see from Figure 5. v out = – R f i C dv in v out = – R f C --------dt (5.58. C iC − Rf + v in − iC + v out + − Figure 5. the addition of the feedback resistor makes the circuit of Figure 5.57. v out ( V ) 3 10 t (s) – 9.13 The Op Amp Differentiator The op amp can also be configured to perform differentiation.57. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The basic differentiator circuit is shown in Figure 5.4 μV The output waveform is shown in Figure 5.54 × 10 –5 = – 45.58.

Derive the transfer function V out ( s ) ⁄ V in ( s ) c. Differentiation in the time domain corresponds to multiplication by s in the complex frequency domain. and v C ( 0 ) = 0 a. refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications. If a resistor is added in series with the capacitor to limit the high frequency gain to 100 . minus the initial value of f ( t ) at t = 0 − . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Find the value of the feedback resistor R f b.59.19 –3 τ = R f C = 10 τ C 10 –3 –9 s R f = --. dv C -------.59 is τ = 1 ms . Differentiator circuit for Example 5. and with C = 10 –9 Figure 5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers The circuit of Figure 5. the capacitive reactance X C decreases and the ratio of the feedback resistance R f to the capacitive reactance increases causing a gain increase without bounds. ISBN 978−0−9709511− 5−1. 5−36 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. what should the value of that resistor be? t = 0 C 1 nF Rf − + v in − + − vC ( t ) − + + v out − Solution: a. Find the magnitude and phase at f = 1 KHz d.58 is not a practical differentiator because as the frequency increases.= --------.19 The time constant τ of the differentiator circuit of Figure 5.* Thus.⇔ sV C ( s ) – v C ( 0 − ) dt * For all Laplace transform properties. Example 5.= 1 MΩ 10 b. We could connect a resistor is series with the capacitor but the circuit then becomes a non−ideal differentiator.

= – jωR f C V in ( jω ) V out ---------. the closed loop voltage gain G v is Gv = –Rf ⁄ R1 and with R f = 1 MΩ .Summing and Averaging Op Amp Circuits and since v C ( 0 ) = 0 .60 shows the basic inverting summing and averaging op amp circuit. the transfer function can be expressed in magnitude and phase form as V out ( jω ) --------------------.= ωR f C V in θ = – 90° V out ---------V in = 2π × 10 × 10 × 10 f = 1 KHz 3 6 –9 = 2π × 10 × 10 3 –3 = 2π and the phase angle is – 90° at all frequencies. d. v in 1 + − R1 i1 R2 i i v in 2 + − i2 RN − Rf + − + v in N iN v out + − Figure 5.= – sR f C V in ( s ) c.48) V out ( s ) = – sR f CV in ( s ) − or V out ( s ) -----------------. As f → ∞ . the capacitor behaves as a short circuit and so with the addition of a resistor R 1 in series with the capacitor. Basic inverting summing and averaging op amp circuit Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. 5.14 Summing and Averaging Op Amp Circuits The circuit of Figure 5. With s = jω .60. from (5. R 1 = 10 KΩ . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−37 . for a gain of 100 .

In Figure 5. v in N ⁄ R N and their parallel resistances R 1.61 can now be represented as in Figure 5.v in 1 + ----. …. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . The circuit of Figure 5. R 2.( v in 1 + v in 2 + … + v in N ) R Rf (5. The circuit of Figure 5. * For voltage source with series resistance to current source with parallel resistance transformation please refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications. relation (5.60.51) and this indicates that the circuit of Figure 5. v in 1 i 1 = --------R1 v in 2 i 2 = --------R2 … v in N i N = ---------RN v out = – R f i = – R f ( i 1 + i 2 + … + i N ) f f f v out = – R f i = – R f ( i 1 + i 2 + … + i N ) = – ⎛ ----.49) If all input resistances are equal.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers In the circuit of 5. if R1 = R2 = … = RN = R the relation of (5. v in 2 ⁄ R 2.50) If R f = R . the total current is i = i1 + i2 + … + iN where Also Then.60 can also be used to find the average value of all input voltages. ….62.61 shows the basic non−inverting summing and non−inverting averaging op amp circuit. ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0 5−38 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. that is.v in N⎞ ⎝ R1 ⎠ R2 RN R R R (5.v in 2 + … + -----.* The circuit of Figure 5. …. R 2. R N can be replaced by current sources whose values are v in 1 ⁄ R 1.60 can be used to find the negative sum of any number of input voltages. …. R N . v in N and their series resistances R 1. v in 2.49) reduces to v out = – ---. The ratio R f ⁄ R is selected such that the sum of the input voltages is divided by the number of input voltages applied at the inverting input of the op amp.49) reduces further to v out = – ( v in 1 + v in 2 + … + v in N ) (5.61 the voltage sources v in 1.

63 is a differential input op amp.62. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−39 .61 In the circuit of Figure 5.52) 5.63.Differential Input Op Amp Rf R v in 1 + R1 R2 RN − + v in 2 v out + − − + − v in N + − Figure 5.62. Differential input op amp Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.15 Differential Input Op Amp The circuit of Figure 5. the voltage V 2 at the non−inverting input is V 2 = R eq I eq and thus the output voltage is R R v out = ⎛ ----f + 1 ⎞ V 2 = ⎛ ----f + 1 ⎞ ( R eq I eq ) ⎝R ⎠ ⎝ R ⎠ (5.61. Equivalent circuit for the circuit of Figure 5. Rf v in 1 + R1 R2 − − v in 2 + + R3 v out + − − Figure 5. Basic non−inverting summing and averaging op amp circuit R V2 Rf − + R eq v out + − Figure 5.

63 reduces to that of Figure 5.v in 1 R1 Rf (5. The circuit of Figure 5. R1 Rf v in 1 + − − + R2 R3 v out 1 + − Figure 5. Differential input op amps are used in instrumentation circuits.63 with v in 1 acting alone The circuit of Figure 5. the circuit of Figure 5. R1 Rf − v2 R3 + v in 2 R2 + v out 2 + − − Figure 5. R3 v 2 = -----------------.67 with v in 2 acting alone Then.64.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers The differential input configuration allows input signals to be applied simultaneously to both input terminals and produce an output of the difference between the input signals as shown in Figure 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . by the voltage division expression. The circuit of Figure 5.64. With the input voltage v in 1 acting alone and v in 2 grounded. we denote the voltage at the non−inverting input as v 2 .63 reduces to that of Figure 5. the circuit of Figure 5.54) The circuit of Figure 5. We will apply the superposition principle to derive an expression for the output voltage v out .v in 2 R2 + R3 (5.65.53) Next.65 and as indicated.63.65 is a non−inverting amplifier and thus 5−40 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.64 is an inverting amplifier and thus v out 1 = – ----. with the input voltage v in 1 grounded and v in 2 acting alone.

+ 1⎞ R = ⎛ R 2 + 1 ⎞ R ----⎝ R1 ⎠ 1 ⎝R ⎠ f 3 R f + R 1 = R f + ----. from (5.= ------------------------R1 R2 ⁄ R3 + 1 Rf ⎛ ----. CMR ( dB ) = 20 log ( A v ⁄ Acm ) = 20 log CMRR . It is highly desirable that the differential input op amp of Figure 5. If the common−mode rejection condition is achieved. A cm is zero but in reality is finite and much smaller than unity.Differential Input Op Amp Rf v out 2 = ⎛ ----.v in 1 + ⎛ ------------------------.* Common mode gain A cm (5.56). a differential input amplifier must have a high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) defined as Ad Differential gain CMRR = ----------------------------------------------------.⎞ v in 2 ⎠ ⎝ R1 R2 + R1 R3 ⎠ ⎝ R1 ⎠ ⎝ R2 + R3 R1 R1 or Rf Rf ⁄ R1 + 1 v out = – ----. We also want a non−zero output when v in 2 ≠ v in 1 .57) above reduces to Rf Rf ⁄ R1 + 1 ----. (5. this is referred to as common−mode rejection. relation (5. Ideally.v in 2 ⎞ = – ----. and common mode gain is the ratio of the output common−mode voltage V cm out to the input common−mode voltage V cm in .v in 1 + ⎛ ----. that is.56) To be useful. and as we now know.v in 1 + ⎛ ------------------------------. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.R f R 3 2 R 1 = ----.+ 1 ⎞ ⎛ -----------------.⎞ v in 2 ⎝ R2 ⁄ R3 + 1 ⎠ R1 (5.57) where the differential gain A d is the gain with the input signals applied differentially.= ---------. Rf Rf Rf Rf R3 + R1 R3 R3 v out = v out 1 + v out 2 = – ----. that is.= ----R1 R2 (5. that is.54).63 produces an output voltage v out = 0 when v in 2 = v in 1 .55). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−41 . when v in 2 = v in 1 and v out = 0 .55) Then.+ 1 ⎞ v 2 ⎝ R1 ⎠ (5. and (5. A cm = V cm out ⁄ V cm in .58) * The common mode rejection is normally expressed in dB.R f R 3 R2 R and thus for optimum CMMR Rf R3 ----.

5.( v in 2 – v in 1 ) R R1 (5.61) v in 2 – v in 1 R in = ------------------------i R in = 2R 1 Relation (5. Then R 3 = R f and with these simplifications the circuit of Figure 5. we must make the feedback resistor R f as large as possible and the resistance R 1 as small as possible.60) (5.59) reveals that for a large differential gain.66.58) into (5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Differential input op amp for derivation of the input resistance Application of KVL around the input circuit starting at the minus (−) input terminal and going counterclockwise.59) Next.67. we obtain R 1 i + R 1 i – ( v in 2 – v in 1 ) = 0 v in 2 – v in 1 = 2R 1 i (5.66. we will derive the input resistance for the differential input op amp circuit of Figure 5.58) we let R 2 = R 1 .62) Also.56) we obtain f v out = ----.62).61) (5. by definition and from (5. But with small R 1 the input impedance will also become small as we can see from (5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers By substitution of (5.63 is as shown in Figure 5. Rf v in 2 – v in 1 i + R1 − − + R1 Rf v out + − Figure 5. and observing that there is a virtual short between the inverting and non− inverting inputs. For convenience in (5.60 and (5.16 Instrumentation Amplifiers High input resistance differential input amplifiers are suitable for use in differential measurement applications and the associated circuits are referred to as instrumentation amplifiers such as that shown in Figure 5.63. 5−42 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

67. Thus.= ---------------. vo 1 – v1 v1 – v2 v2 – v1 I = -----------------. High input resistance differential input op amp for use with instrumentation circuits In the circuit of Figure 5.⎞ ( v 1 – v 2 ) + v o 2 ⎝ R1 ⎠ ⎝ R ⎠ 1 2R 2 v o 1 – v o 2 = ⎛ 1 + -------.⎞ ( v 1 – v 2 ) ⎝ R ⎠ 1 (5.⎞ ( v 2 – v 1 ) ⎝ R ⎠ 1 To find the output v out of amplifier A 3 we express (5.63) the above relation can be expressed as v1 – v2 2R 2 v o 1 = ( R 1 + 2R 2 ) ⎛ ----------------⎞ + v o 2 = ⎛ 1 + -------.63) We also have made the assumption that there is no voltage difference between the amplifiers A 1 and A 2 input terminals. The output voltage v o 1 of amplifier A 1 is v o 1 = R 2 I + R 1 I + R 2 I + v o 2 = ( R 1 + 2R 2 )I + v o 2 and with the second term on the right side of (5.59) as Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.65) 2R 2 v o 2 – v o 1 = ⎛ 1 + -------.64) (5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−43 .Instrumentation Amplifiers + − v1 + − A1 vo 1 R2 R3 R4 v1 – v2 I R1 − + R2 R3 A3 v out + − − + − v2 + A2 R4 vo 2 Figure 5.67 we have made the assumption that there is no current flowing at the inputs of amplifiers A 1 and A 2 and thus the same current flows through the resistive R 2 – R 1 – R 2 network.= ---------------R1 R2 R2 (5.

To adjust for zero offset. while the variable resistor (a potentiometer) can be adjusted for different gains.6 V and this value can be either positive or negative even though the input signal is zero volts. the differential gain is R4 2 R2 v out A d = -------------------.⎛ -------.+ 1⎞ ⎠ R3 ⎝ R1 ( v2 – v1 ) (5.2.17 Offset Nulling Figure 5. we must set the input voltage to zero and use the offset null potentiometer to set the output voltage precisely to zero. shows that pins 1 and 5 in the 741 op amp are identified as offset null. as shown in Figure 5. It is used simply by connecting a trimmer potentiometer between pins 1 and 5. the maximum input offset voltage is ± 6 mv and assuming that the closed loop gain is 100.( v o 2 – v o 1 ) R R3 and with (5.= ----.66) Therefore. The interested reader may refer to Exercise 16 at the end of this chapter. 2 3 5 1 − V Figure 5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 4 v out = ----. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . 5−44 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.⎛ -------. Offset nulling terminals of the 741 op amp 6 According to the 741 op amp specifications. Page 5−2. The fixed resistor will ensure that the maximum gain is limited. 5. the output voltage with respect to ground can be 100 × ± 6 × 10 –3 = ± 0.68.+ 1⎞ ( v 2 – v 1 ) ⎠ R3 ⎝ R1 (5. op amp manufacturers recommend that the resistor R 1 be replaced with a fixed value resistor in series with a variable resistor. As shown. the slider on the potentiometer is connected to the negative power supply.67 variable while maintaining CMRR capability.68. The offset null connections (pins 1 and 5) provide a simple way to balance out the internal variations and zero out the output offset which might be apparent with zero input voltage.65) R4 2 R2 v out = ----.67) To make the overall gain of the circuit of Figure 5.

we can alter the frequency response as shown in Figure 5. Figure 5.18 External Frequency Compensation General purpose op amps like the 741 op amp.External Frequency Compensation 5. are normally internally frequency compensated so that they will be stable with all values of resistive feedback. Figure 5.69 shows a typical op−amp with external frequency compensation where 3 external capacitors can be used as frequency compensating components. the compensating components alter the open loop gain characteristics so that the roll−off is about 20 dB ⁄ decade over a wide range of frequencies. are without internal frequency compensation and require external connection of frequency compensating components to the op amp. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the slew rate (SR) is the maximum rate of change of an output voltage produced in response to a large input step function and it is normally expressed in volts per microsecond. Other types of op amps like the 748 op amp. Therefore. With the appropriate selection of capacitors C 1 .69. C 2 . By definition. that is.19 Slew Rate There is a limit to the rate at which the output voltage of an op amp can change. manufacturers specify a new parameter referred to as the slew rate. Typically. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−45 . and C 3 . Typical op amp with externally connected capacitors for frequency compensation 100 90 80 Open-loop gain (dB) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 3 10 10 4 No compensation With compensation 10 10 Frequency (Hz) 5 6 10 7 10 8 Figure 5.70. Frequency responses with and without external frequency compensation 5.70.

In this case. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .24). zener diodes. i. ω ug = 2πf ug . There are many circuits that can be formed with op amps and non−linear devices such as junction diodes. and most internally compensated op amps have slew rates in the order of 1 V ⁄ μs . v in ( V ) 10 − v out ( V ) Slew rate = Slope +v − in t + R v out − + 10 t Figure 5.68) Of course.68) is the slope of the output voltage under maximum rate of change conditions. bipolar tran- 5−46 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.71.20 Circuits with Op Amps and Non−Linear Devices Op amps are often used in circuits with non−linear devices.72.e. Figure 5.69) where V f is the final value of the output voltage as shown in Figure 5.1 V ⁄ μs to 100 V ⁄ μs .. Vf v out t Δt = 1 ⁄ ω ug Figure 5.71. relation (5. The resultant slew rate when a step function is applied to a unity gain op amp The linearly rising slew rate shown in Figure 5. and f ug is the unity gain frequency as defined in (5. and the waveform at the output of this op amp. the slew rate will be a rising exponential such as the rising voltage across a capacitor.71 shows a step function of amplitude 10 V applied to the input of a unity gain op amp. Typical slew rates range from 0. Plot for expression v out = V f ( 1 – e – ω ug t ) 5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers dv out Slew Rate = SR = -----------dt max (5.71 will not be produced if the input voltage is smaller than that specified by the manufacturer. A ol ⋅ BW 3 dB = f ug . In most op amps the slew rate is set by the charging rate of the frequency compensating capacitor and the output voltage is v out = V f ( 1 – e – ω ug t ) (5.

2 D1 D2 VZ + VF 1 v out + − R1 v in Rf − + v out + Slope = – R f ⁄ R 1 v in – ( V Z2 + V F ) − Figure 5.7 V . the frequencies and phase angles are immaterial for this example. and MOSFETs. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. 1 2 Describe the output waveforms when a. the output peaks on positive half−cycles are limited to V Z + V F = 6. v in = 3 cos ( 1000 t + π ⁄ 6 ) Solution: Since this is an inverting amplifier. and R f = 100 KΩ . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−47 .3 V . Likewise. Thus.7 = 7 V 1 and the output peaks on negative half−cycles are limited to * The gain is always expressed as a positive quantity. In this section we will introduce just a few. V F = 0.20 In the circuit of Figure 5.Circuits with Op Amps and Non−Linear Devices sistors.7 V . its gain is R f ⁄ R 1 = 100 ⁄ 5 = 20 * and since we are interested in peak values.73 shows a positive and negative voltage limiter circuit and its transfer characteristics. In the voltage limiting circuit of Figure 5. when the output voltage is positive.73.6 cos 100 t c.73. Figure 5. With the given values. v in = 0. its value is limited to the value –( VZ + VF ) . The minus sign simply implies inversion.3 + 0. v in = 0.73 the Zener diodes D 1 and D 2 limit the peak−to−peak value of the output voltage. R 1 = 5 KΩ . when the output voltage is positive. A positive and negative voltage limiter circuit and its transfer characteristics Example 5. V Z = V Z = 6. its value is limited to the value V Z + V F where V F is the voltage drop across the forward−biased Zener diode and it is typically 1 about 0.3 sin 10 t b.

74 shows a positive voltage limiter and its transfer characteristics where both the Zener diode and the junction diode limit the positive half−cycle of the output voltage. v out cannot rise above the voltage level V Z + V F because the Zener 1 diode enters the Zener (avalanche) region and the output is clipped. v out ( peak ) = ( – R f ⁄ R 1 )v in = – 20 × ( ± 0. the op amp would saturate. However.75 shows a negative voltage limiter and its transfer characteristics.7 ) = – 7 V 2 a.3 ) = − 6 V + This value is lower than ± 7 V and neither Zener diode conducts. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the output peak voltage is clipped to v out ( peak ) = − 7 V .3 V peak. the output voltage is an unclipped sinusoid. Therefore. With v in = ± 3 V peak. D1 D2 v out VZ + VF 1 v in + − R1 − Rf + v out + − Slope = – R f ⁄ R 1 v in Figure 5. As shown by the transfer characteristics. With v in = ± 0. v out ( peak ) = ( – R f ⁄ R 1 )v in = – 20 × ( ± 0.3 + 0. Since they are. the negative half− cycles are not clipped unless the op amp is driven into negative saturation. But with the Zener diodes present. + Figure 5.6 ) = − 12 V + and this would be the output peak voltage if the Zener diodes were not present. 5−48 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.74. + c. − v out ( peak ) = ( – R f ⁄ R 1 )v in = – 20 × ( ± 3 ) = + 60 V This is indeed a very large voltage for the output of an op amp and even without the Zener diodes.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers – ( V Z + V F ) = – ( 6.6 V peak. A positive voltage limiter circuit and its transfer characteristics Figure 5. With v in = ± 0. b. v out ( peak ) = − 7 V .

76. A half−wave rectifier with limited positive output and its transfer characteristics In the circuit of Figure 5.76 shows a limiter where only a single Zener diode is used. Figure 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−49 . D v out VF v out + v in R1 − Rf + − –VZ Slope = – R f ⁄ R 1 − + v in Figure 5. A half−wave rectifier with limited negative output and its transfer characteristics Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.77 shows another limiter where only a single Zener diode is used. A negative voltage limiter circuit and its transfer characteristics Figure 5. D v out R1 Rf + v in − VZ v out 1 − + + − Slope = – R f ⁄ R 1 v in –VF Figure 5.76.75.Circuits with Op Amps and Non−Linear Devices D1 D2 v out + v in R1 − Rf − + v out + − v in Slope = – R f ⁄ R 1 –( VZ2 + VF ) Figure 5. the output is limited by the Zener diode during the positive half− cycles of the output voltage. This circuit is often referred to as a half−wave rectifier with limited positive output. and during the negative half−cycles of the output voltage is limited by the Zener diode forward voltage drop V F .77.

and during the positive half−cycles of the output voltage is limited by the Zener diode forward voltage drop V F . v out = +V CC if v ref > v in . and multivibrators. +V CC v out +V CC 6 v ref > v in + v in 2 7 4 – V CC − + v ref 3 v out + − v ref < v in v ref − – V CC Figure 5. Schmitt trigger. 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .77. Wien bridge oscillators. triangular−wave generators.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers The circuit of Figure 5.78. 5−50 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. A differential input op amp without feedback used as a comparator As shown in Figure 5. As a comparator. In the circuit of Figure 5. sawtooth−wave generators. variable frequency signal generators. This circuit produces a sinusoidal output. square−wave generators. * We will revisit the Wien bridge oscillator in Chapter 8. Op amp applications are limitless.79 is known as Wien bridge oscillator. and the Schmitt trigger and multivibrators in Chapter 7. the output is limited by the Zener diode during the negative half−cycles of the output voltage. The switching time from – V CC to +V CC is limited by the slew rate of the op amp. the op amp is used in the open loop configuration. Comparators are used extensively in analog−to−digital conversion as we will see in a subsequent section. Twin−T oscillators.77is often referred to as a half−wave rectifier with limited negative output. sample and hold circuits. It will suffice to say that other applications include zero−crossing detectors also known as sine−wave to square− wave converters. that is.78 shows a differential input amplifier without feedback used as a comparator. Figure 5. and the analog−to−digital converter in the next sections. and v out = – V CC if v ref < v in . the digital−to− analog converter. an op amp is used without feedback.78.21 Comparators A comparator is a circuit that senses changes in a varying signal and produces an output when a threshold value is reached.22 Wien Bridge Oscillator The circuit shown in Figure 5. It is beyond the scope of this text to describe all. We will discuss the Wien bridge oscillator*. 5.

21 For the oscillator circuit in Figure 5. Example 5.Wien Bridge Oscillator V R1 C1 C2 R2 10 KΩ D1 D2 V out 50 KΩ Figure 5. The amount of negative feedback to the inverting input of the op amp and amplitude can be adjusted with the 50 KΩ potentiometer. The input signal to the non−inverting input is in phase with the output V of the op amp at the particular frequency 1 f 0 = -------------2πRC (5.79 shows that the Wien bridge oscillator uses two RC networks connected to the non− inverting input of the op amp to form a frequency selective feedback circuit and this causes oscillations to occur.79 R 1 = 100 KΩ . It also amplifies the signal with two negative feedback resistors. The values of capacitors C 1 . 1 1 f 0 = 1 KHz = -------------. C 1 . From (5. What values of R 2 .70). The Wien bridge oscillator Figure 5. and C 2 are required to obtain a frequency of approximately 1 KHz ? Solution: The value of resistor R 2 must be 100 KΩ . The feedback signal at the non−inverting input of the op amp leads the output V of the op amp at frequencies below f 0 and lags V at frequencies above f 0 .70) provided that and R = R1 = R2 C = C1 = C2 The Wien bridge oscillator requires precision resistors and capacitors for reliable operation. and C 2 must also be equal.= -----------------------------5 2πRC 2π × 10 × C Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The diodes prevent excessive feedback amplitude.79. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−51 .

1 C = C 1 = C 2 = ----------------------------------. Digital circuit represented by SPDT switches In Figure 5.23 Digital−to−Analog Converters As we will see in Chapter 6. V C = 1 .9 μF 10 KΩ D1 D2 V out 50 KΩ Figure 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .9 μF 100 KΩ 15. that is.81 V D = 0 .80.9 μF 5 3 2π × 10 × 10 and the circuit is as shown in Figure 5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers Also.81.1. V 100 KΩ 15. The first 16 binary numbers representing all possible combinations of the four switches with voltage settings V A (least significant position) through V D (most significant position).80.81. Circuit for Example 5. This two−level scheme works well with the binary number system.21 5. switches A and C are HIGH (5 volts) and switches B and D are LOW (0 volts). digital systems* recognize only two levels of voltage referred to as HIGH and LOW signals or as logical 1 and logical 0. VN VD VC VB VA 5V 5V 5V 5V 5V Figure 5. V B = 0 . ISBN 978−1−934404−05−8.= 15. and V A = 1 . 5−52 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and their decimal equivalents are shown in Table 5. It is customary to indicate the HIGH (logical 1)and LOW (logical 0) by Single−Pole−Double−Throw (SPDT) switches that can be set to a positive non−zero voltage like 5 volts for HIGH and zero volts or ground for LOW as shown in Figure 5. * Refer also to Digital Circuit Analysis and Design with Simulink Modeling and Introduction to CPLDs and FPGAs.

The DAC with binary−weighted resistors shown in Figure 5. Digital−to−analog converter using binary−weighted resistors We can prove that the equivalent analog voltage V analog shown in Figure 5.82 shows a DAC with binary−weighted resistors.81 and binary and decimal equivalents Voltage Level VD LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH VC LOW LOW LOW LOW HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH LOW LOW LOW LOW HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH VB LOW LOW HIGH HIGH LOW LOW HIGH HIGH LOW LOW HIGH HIGH LOW LOW HIGH HIGH VA LOW HIGH LOW HIGH LOW HIGH LOW HIGH LOW HIGH LOW HIGH LOW HIGH LOW HIGH A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Binary Equivalent B C D 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Decimal Equivalent 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A digital−to−analog (D/A or DAC) converter is used to convert a binary output from a digital system to an equivalent analog voltage. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−53 .1 Voltage levels for the circuit of Figure 5.82 is obtained from the relation V A + 2V B + 4VC + 8V D + … V analog = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------1+2+4+8+… (5. Figure 5. R----R --8 VD VC R --4 VB R --2 VA V analog R 2 VN n Figure 5.82.71) The proof is left as an exercise at the end of this chapter. the analog device should have 16 possible values.82 has the disadvantage that it Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. an analog equivalent voltage of 1010 must be double the analog voltage representing 0101. since the binary number 1010 (decimal 10) is twice the value of the binary number 0101 (decimal 5). If there are 16 combinations of the voltages V D through V A . For example.Digital−to−Analog Converters TABLE 5.

83 is obtained from the relation V A + 2V B + 4VC + 8V D + … V analog = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------n 2 (5.22 Figure 5. a non−inverting op amp could be used with a positive value of V ref . Fill−in the right−most column with your answers. Figure 5. The op amp shown is an inverting amplifier and in this case the reference voltage V ref should be negative so that the amplifier output will be positive. Rf 2R V analog 2R 2R R 2R R 2R R V ref Figure 5.84.2. 2R 2R VA VB R 2R VC R 2R R 2R VD V analog Figure 5. Digital−to−analog converter using the R−2R ladder network We can prove that the equivalent analog voltage V analog shown in Figure 5.85 shows a four−bit DAC where all four switches are set at the ground level. 5−54 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Alternately.72) where n is the number of digital inputs. The proof is left as an exercise at the end of this chapter.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers requires a large number of precision resistors. but only two sets of precision resistance values. R and 2R. requires more resistors. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .84 shows a four−bit R−2R ladder network and an op−amp connected to form a DAC.83. known as R−2R ladder network.83. Typical R−2R DAC circuit Example 5. The DAC of Figure 5. Find the analog voltage value at the output of the unity gain amplifier for each of the sets of the switch positions shown in Table 5.

22 (a) (b) (c) (d) A2 1 1 1 0 0 B2 1 0 0 1 1 C2 1 0 1 0 2 D2 1 1 0 0 3 Solution: This is a 4−bit DAC and thus we have 2 = 16 distinct binary values from 0000 to 1111 corresponding to decimals 0 through 15 respectively.0 V ------------------------------------------------------------------n 2 2 4 Based on these results.85.5 V ------------------------------------------------------------------n 2 2 V A + 2V B + 4V C + 8V D V analog = ----------------------------------------------------------------.= 1 × 0 + 2 × 8 +4 4 × 0 + 8 × 0 = 1. From (5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−55 .5 V ------------------------------------------------------------------n 2 2 V A + 2V B + 4VC + 8V D V analog = ----------------------------------------------------------------.22 TABLE 5.72): a. d. and Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5 V ------------------------------------------------------------------n 2 2 V A + 2V B + 4VC + 8V D V analog = ----------------------------------------------------------------. b.= 1 × 8 + 2 × 8 +4 4 × 8 + 8 × 8 = 7. DAC circuit for Example 5. we can now fill−in the right−most column with the values we obtained.= 1 × 8 + 2 × 0 +4 4 × 8 + 8 × 0 = 2.Digital−to−Analog Converters 20 KΩ 10 KΩ 20 KΩ D ( lsb ) 10 KΩ 20 KΩ C 10 KΩ 20 KΩ B 20 KΩ A ( msb ) 0 1 0 V analog 1 0 1 0 1 8 VDC Figure 5.= 1 × 8 + 2 × 0 +4 4 × 0 + 8 × 8 = 4.2 Switch positions for Example 5. V A + 2V B + 4VC + 8V D V analog = ----------------------------------------------------------------. c.

86. Op amp placed between the resistive network and output for buffering and gain 5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers we can plot the output versus inputs of the R−2R network for the voltage levels 0 V and 4 V as shown in Figure 5. There are different types of analog−to−digital converters.24 Analog−to−Digital Converters Often an analog voltage must be converted to a digital equivalent. the successive approximation converter. and the Delta−Sigma algorithmic 5−56 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.86. usually referred to as ADC. In such cases. such as the flash converter. Placing an impedance−matching device (the op amp in this case) at the output of the resistive network is called buffering the output of the network.0 0.87. V out ( V ) 4. Figure 5. such as in a digital voltmeter. inputs for an R−2R network with levels 0 to 4 volts A typical DAC must include an op amp to match the resistive network to a low−resistance load and to provide gain also.5 1.5 3. the principle of the previously discussed digital−to−analog or D/A converter or simply DAC can be reversed to perform analog−to−digital A/D conversion.5 2.0 2.87 shows an R−2R type DAC with buffered output and gain. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .0 1.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 V in ( V ) Figure 5. R1 Rf V analog 2R VD 2R 2R VA R 2R VB R 2R VC R Figure 5.0 3. the dual−slope converter. Output vs.

5 V 3V 1. a practical ADC would require a circuit with many more comparators and a suitable line encoder.html. 5. the interested reader may refer to http://www. 12 VDC Supply 12 V A8 A7 Overflow 10.5 V A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 B2 8 – to – 3 Line Encoder Vx Vy Ai 6V Inputs Output B1 B0 4.88.24.5 V Comparator 9V 7. if Analog Input = 5.5 V V x = V y Previous Value Vx > Vy Ai = 0 Vx < Vy Ai = 1 For Example. We begin our discussion with the flash converter because of its simplicity.1 The Flash Analog−to−Digital Converter Figure 5. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Obviously. ISBN 978−1−934404−05−8. A typical circuit for a flash type ADC The truth table of the 8−to−3 line encoder is shown in Table 5.* The flash ADC is so named because of its high conversion speed.3.2 V.Analog−to−Digital Converters converter. then A0 = A1 = A2 = A3 = 1 and A4 = A5 = A6 = A7 = A8 = 0 0 V Analog Input Figure 5.com/vol_4/chpt_13/9.allaboutcircuits. and an 8− to−3 line encoder. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−57 .88 shows a typical flash type ADC consists of a resistive network. We will not discuss the latter. comparators. * For a detailed discussion of line encoders please refer to Digital Circuit Analysis and Design with Simulink Modeling and Introduction to CPLDs and FPGAs.

0 V 3.5 V 4.88 Analog Input Less than 0 V 0 to less than 1.0 V 9.5 to less than 9.0 V 6.2 The Successive Approximation Analog−to−Digital Converter Figure 5.24. 5−58 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. A1 X V analog Count – up command Up – Down Counter Inverter Line amplifier Clock Count – down command A2 Figure 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Op amp A 2 is a compar* For a detailed discussion on up−down counters.5 to less than 3.5 V 1.0 to less than 10. ISBN 978−1−934404−05−8.0 to less than 7.5 to 12 V Greater than 12 V † Underflow ‡ Overflow A8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 A7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 A6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 A5 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 A4 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 A3 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 A2 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 B2 x 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 x B1 x 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 x B0 x† 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 x‡ 5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers TABLE 5. Conversely. A typical circuit for a successive approximation ADC The up−down counter* has a digital output that increases with each clock pulse when the count− up line is HIGH and the count−down line is LOW.89.3 Truth table for the 8−to−3 line encoder of Figure 7. it counts down with each clock pulse when its count−up line is LOW and its count−down line is HIGH.5 V 7. refer to Digital Circuit Analysis and Design with Simulink Modeling and Introduction to CPLDs and FPGAs.5 to less than 6.5 V 10.89 shows a typical successive approximation type ADC.0 to less than 4.

In this way the output of the up−down counter is always a digital equivalent of the analog input V analog . Op amp A 1 is a Miller integrator and we recall that charging a capacitor with a constant current produces a linear voltage across it.3 The Dual−Slope Analog−to−Digital Converter The dual−slope ADC is designed with an integrating dual−slope architecture. In a typical ADC of this type. bringing the resistive network’s output voltage up.It has the advantage of providing a straightforward approach to converting a low bandwidth analog signal into its digital representation. the output of the counter is fed to a circuit to provide a digital readout. in steps. But if V analog is less than the resistive network’s output voltage the output of A 2 goes LOW. Thus.Analog−to−Digital Converters ator and its output goes HIGH when its inverting input becomes slightly more negative than its non−inverting input. the time it takes for the integrator to cause the comparator to change state is proportional to the input voltage v in . an upward staircase voltage appears at point X. depending on whether the output of A 2 is HIGH or LOW.24. this ADC is also known as the feedback−type ADC. and the Zener diodes are selected to clip the comparator’s output to levels compatible with the up−down counter.90(a) where an unknown input DC voltage v in is integrated and the value is compared with a known reference value v ref . the count−up line is LOW also. The line amplifiers are required just in case the maximum value of V analog exceeds the level of output voltages of the up−down counter. If V analog exceeds the voltage of the resistive network.90(b). bringing the voltages at the input of the comparator in line with each other. Op amp A 1 serves as a voltage follower and it buffers the DAC resistive network. to the analog input V analog . when the output of A 2 is LOW (negatively saturated). a downward staircase is present at point X. When the up−down counter is counting up. As shown in Figure 5. 5. the up−down counter counts digitally up or down.The output voltage of the resistive network is applied to the non −inverting input of A 1 and subsequently to inverting input of A 2 and it is compared with the analog input voltage V analog which is the voltage to be digitized. When its output is HIGH (positively saturated). The junction diodes prevent excessive differential inputs to the comparator. and the up−down counter counts up. Because this system has feedback which keeps the voltage output of the resistive network approximately equal to the analog input voltage V analog . Likewise. and the up−down counter counts down. When the counter is counting downward. respectively. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The simplest form of an integrating ADC uses a single − slope architecture as shown in Figure 5. Conversely. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−59 . the output of A 2 goes HIGH. the count−up line is also HIGH. its output goes LOW when its inverting input I becomes slightly more positive than its non−inverting input.

The binary counter counts the pulses from a fixed clock frequency f C and the counting is proportional to time T 1 . The single−slope converter of Figure 5. Figure 5. At the end of time T 1 the binary counter is reset to zero and Switch S 2 is placed to the v ref position where v ref has a negative value. The current into the integrator reverses direction and its value is 5−60 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. An ADC with single−slope architecture v out t int t v int C v in R (b) The output voltage v out is fed to a logic circuit which initiates counting in a binary counter. S1 v max v in v ref R S2 C v int v out (a) Figure 5. The conversion cycle begins with opening Switch S 1 and placing Switch S 2 to the v in position.91(a) Switch S 1 is used to discharge the capacitor before the start of the conversion cycle and thus v int = 0 .90. A constant current whose value is I N = v in ⁄ R charges the capacitor for a reference time T 1 as shown in Figure 5.91(b). the circuitry of the this ADC translates a voltage level into a time measurement which can be counted with the binary counter.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers v ref v int v ref (a) Figure 5. temperature.91 shows a typical dual−slope ADC.90(a) is not practical because it is subject to errors caused by variation of the timing components R and C. and aging. The output voltage v out is fed to a logic circuit which initiates counting in a binary counter. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . To overcome these sensitivities. An ADC with dual−slope architecture T1 T2 t (b) In the circuit of Figure 5. the dual−slope integrating architecture is used. Thus. These errors will change the conversion results and make measurement repeatability difficult to attain.91.

v = 2. 5. Figure 5.5 4. Quantization Error. Let n 1 be the counter reading at the end of T 1 and n 2 be the counter reading at the end of T 2 . The intervals on the time and voltage axes are equally spaced but need not be the same. and Resolution In the previous section we’ve learned how to convert an analog signal to its digital equivalent.5 mv .6 μs . for instance.0 t ( μs ) 0 v ( mV ) (a) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t ( μs ) (b) Figure 5. and n 1 ⁄ T 1 = n 2 ⁄ T 2 . Of course. it follows that ⎛ v in ⎞ n 2 = n 1 ⎜ -------.73) and this expression indicates that the content of the counter at the end of the conversion procedure is directly proportional to the voltage v in to be digitized.0 mv . and Resolution I REF = v ref ⁄ R . we could quantize the time axis in smaller intervals but no matter how small the intervals are.91(b) and when this voltage reaches zero volts. The subdivision is referred to as quantization. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−61 . there will always be a small number that will fall between the time intervals. Subdividing the time axis into a finite number of intervals is known as sampling. The major advantage of the dual− slope architecture ADC over the single−slope architecture ADC is that the entire cycle of the conversion is insensitive to errors since any error introduced by the components R and C during time T 1 will be cancelled out during time T 2 . v ( mV ) 4. Accuracy. the comparator initiates a signal to stop the binary counter. But with the quantization we chose. The voltage v int at the output of the integrator decreases linearly during time T 2 as shown in Figure 5.92(b) we see that at t = 1 μs .5 2.Quantization. v = 1. and so on. Quantization Error. Since v max ⁄ T 1 = v in ⁄ ( RC ) .5 1. v max ⁄ T 2 = v ref ⁄ ( RC ) . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.0 3. at t = 2 μs .92 shows how an analog voltage is quantized in both time and amplitude. we do not know what the amplitude of the voltage at t = 1. we do not know intermediate values.92.25 Quantization. Accuracy. An analog voltage quantized in time and amplitude From Figure 5. To express this signal to a digital form we must subdivide both time and amplitude (for instance volts) into a number of equally spaced intervals. We assumed that the analog signal is continuous in both time and amplitude.⎟ ⎝ v ref ⎠ (5.

Accuracy is the degree with which an instrument measures a variable in terms of an accepted standard value or true value. or at most twelve bits of digital output provides adequate resolution. The answer to this question is provided by the well known sampling theorem which states that to faithfully reproduce an analog signal from it digital equivalent.92(b). This minimum frequency is known as the Nyquist rate. the Nyquist rate is not sufficient. usually measured in terms of inaccuracy but expressed as accuracy. ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9. this theoretical value cannot be achieved. the analog signal. Fourth Edition. before conversion to a digital. we must sample it at least at 20 KHz rate and in this case the Nyquist rate is 20 KHz. an eight. With an accuracy of ± 1 ⁄ 2 of the LSD. every ADC suffers from a quantization error no matter how small. to reproduce exactly a 10 KHz sinusoid. Resolution is the smallest change in the parameter being measured that causes a detectable change in the output of the instrument. this ADC produces a digital output that represents the analog input within ± 1 ⁄ 32 = 31. 8 5−62 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. it is a theoretical value and because of electronic equipment limitations and component imperfections. theoretically.23 What is the accuracy of an 8−bit ADC if the converter encodes an analog voltage between 0 and +15 volts. The difference between an exact analog value and the closest discrete value after sampling is known as quantization error. * For a thorough discussion on Fourier series and the Fourier transform. Example 5. Obviously. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Thus. please refer to Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling.3 mV . And how do we know the highest frequency component of a signal? The answer is from Fourier* series. A general rule is to sample at five to ten times the highest frequency of the analog signal. In practice.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers We may wonder what sampling rate one must choose to faithfully (exactly) reproduce an analog signal such as that of Figure 5. often expressed as a percentage of full−scale range. Solution: The LSD represents increments of 16 ⁄ 2 = 16 ⁄ 256 = 1 ⁄ 16 so the LSD is 1 ⁄ 16 . The linearity of an ADC or DAC is a measure of accuracy and it is an indication of how close the converter’s output is to the ideal input−output transfer characteristics. Accuracy and resolution have different meaning.92(a) from its digital equivalent of Figure 5. Typically. Another term used in ADCs and DACs is resolution. must be sampled at least twice the frequency of the highest frequency component of the signal. The output of an ADC is accurate to within ± 1 ⁄ 2 of the least significant bit (LSD). ten.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−63 . Example 5. it is the value with only one decimal place which can be measured and possibly recorded against other voltage records as the voltmeter is not able to detect any smaller step size in voltage changes. b 1 .Op Amps in Analog Computers For example.1 mV . Solution: We observe that the arithmetic operations involved in (5. Example 5. This means that this value is the step size of the voltmeter’s measuring capability.24 How many clock cycles would we need to obtain a 10−bit resolution with a dual−slope ADC? Solution: The integration time T 1 would require 2 10 = 1024 clock cycles and also another 2 10 10 = 1024 clock cycles for integration time T 2 for a maximum conversion of 2 × 2 = 2048 clock cycles. By comparison. In other words.– ---. It is convenient to express the given equations as c1 b1 x = ---. b 2 . We will simply present two simple examples to illustrate how op amps are used in analog computation. c 1 .75) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.x b2 b2 (5. a voltmeter is said to have a resolution may be 0. and if the coefficient is less than unity. and c 2 are constant coefficients.– ---. We will not discuss analog computers in this section.2 mV refers to the degree to which this value may differ from the true value.74) are addition and multiplication by constant coefficients. The two additions can be performed by summing op amps. a 2 . the accuracy of. 5.25 Using two op amps and resistors. we can use a voltage divider.26 Op Amps in Analog Computers Present day analog computers are build with op amps. say 0.74) where a 1 .y a1 a1 c2 a2 y = ---. design an analog computer that will solve the equations a1 x + b1 y = c1 a2 x + b2 y = c2 (5. In an analog computer the numbers representing the variables are voltages. Multiplication by a coefficient greater than unity can be performed with an op amp with feedback.

94(a). the integrator sets the initial condition with the switches as shown in Figure 5. and denoting the initial condition as V 0 . the output of op amp A 1 is a voltage representing the unknown x and the output of op amp A 2 is a voltage representing the unknown y . As shown in Figure 5.93 the scaling factors chosen must ensure that the voltages representing the unknowns do not exceed the output capability of the op amps. we need to discuss a practical integrator circuit that provides some means of setting a desired initial value at the beginning of the integration cycle.93. A similar summation is obtained by amplifier A 2 .93.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers and these equations can be solved using two summing amplifiers as shown in Figure 5. Analog computer for the solution of two simultaneous equations with two unknowns In Figure 5. Before we consider the next example for a circuit to solve a simple differential equation. and thus 5−64 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.94.93. This procedure can be extended to the solution of simultaneous equations with more than two unknowns. Initially. The voltage across the capacitor cannot change instantaneously. It is also necessary to provide means to stop the integrator at any time. V S1 R adj1 R 1 R2 R f1 A1 –c1 ⁄ a1 x R adj3 ( a 2 ⁄ b 2 )x R3 V S2 R adj2 R f2 A2 –c2 ⁄ b2 R4 y R adj4 ( b 1 ⁄ a 1 )y Figure 5. and for the integrator output to remain constant at the value it has reached at that time. The fraction b 1 ⁄ a 1 of y is obtained from the potentiometer R adj4 and this is summed in op amp A 1 with the fraction – c 1 ⁄ a 1 obtained from potentiometer R adj1 and voltage source V S1 . An integrator circuit that provides these means is shown in Figure 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

Integrator circuit mode control When switched to the compute mode. and switches design an analog computer that will solve the simple differential equation dv C 1 -------.i C C dt (5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−65 .V 0 R1 R1 R2 R1 R2 (5.77) The integrator is then switched to the hold mode and remains constant at the value reached at the end of the compute mode. We observe that the switches in the hold mode are positioned as in the set initial condition mode.26 Using one op amp.78) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Op Amps in Analog Computers R2 v out ( t = 0 ) = – ----.= --. resistors. capacitors. the circuit integrates the input voltage and the value of the output voltage is 1 v out = v out ( t = 0 ) – ----------R C in ∫0 vin dt t (5.76) VS VS S1 C S1 C v in R in S2 ( a ) Set Initial Condition Mode v out v in R in S2 ( b ) Compute Mode v out VS R1 R2 S1 C v in R in S2 ( c ) Hold Mode v out Figure 5.94. Example 5.

95. dv C is the voltage across the capacitor and i C is the current through the capacitor and the initial condition is v C ( t ) = V 0 . Integrator circuit for Example 5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers where C is a constant representing the value of a capacitor. the output is multiplied by 1 ⁄ C and fed back to the input. Solution: The given differential equation can be solved with the circuit of Figure 5. 5−66 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.26 Initially.i C C Figure 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . a voltage representing the value of dv C ⁄ dt is applied to the integrator and the output of the integrator will be a voltage representing i C . VS V0 S1 R in S2 C R1 R2 –0 iC 1 --. Then.95.

R in = v S ⁄ i S . • The gain of an inverting op amp is the ratio – R f ⁄ R in where R f is the feedback resistor which allows portion of the output to be fed back to the minus (−) input. integration etc. and so on. • The unity gain frequency.e. with feedback. Frequency response from DC to frequencies in the MHz range 5. • The input resistance R in is defined as the ratio of the applied voltage v S to the current i S drawn by the circuit. is done externally with proper selection of passive devices such as resistors. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−67 . • Op amps are also used as active filters. • In a unity gain op amp the output is the same as the input. • Operational amplifiers can operate either a closed−loop or an open−loop configuration. Very high input impedance (resistance) 2. is the frequency at which the gain is unity.. At higher frequencies. is determined by whether or not feedback is used. The operation. • The gain of an non−inverting op amp is 1 + R f ⁄ R in where R f is the feedback resistor which allows portion of the output to be fed back to the minus (−) input which is grounded through the R in resistor. The specification sheets for operational amplifiers state the open−loop at DC or 0 Hz . Most operational amplifiers operate in the closed−loop configurations. • The gain−bandwidth product is an important op amp parameter and is related to the unity gain Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. i. Very low output impedance (resistance) 3.Summary 5. • The output resistance R out is the ratio of the open circuit voltage to the short circuit current. Very good stability 6.27 Summary • The operational amplifier (op amp) is the most versatile amplifier and its main features are: 1. that is. addition. R out = v OC ⁄ i SC . that is. that is. • The gain of any amplifier varies with frequency. closed−loop or open−loop. capacitors. The output signal has the same polarity from that of the input signal. Operation to be performed. A unity gain op amp is used to pro- vide a very high resistance between a voltage source and the load connected to it. The minus (−) sign implies that the output signal has opposite polarity from that of the input signal. Capable of producing a very large gain that can be set to any value by connection of external resistors of appropriate values 4. diodes. the gain is much lower and decreases as frequency increases at the rate of – 20 dB ⁄ decade .

• General purpose op amps are normally internally frequency compensated so that they will be stable with all values of resistive feedback. Likewise. if v in2 = v in1 .= --------Common mode gain A cm where the differential gain A v is the gain with the input signals applied differentially. A cm = V cm out ⁄ V cm in . • Common−mode rejection refers to the condition that if the inputs to the op amp are exactly the same. • The slew rate (SR) is defined as the maximum rate of change of an output voltage produced in 5−68 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Typically. Other types of op amps are without internal frequency compensation and require external connection of frequency compensating components to the op amp.. the compensating components alter the open loop gain characteristics so that the roll−off is about 20 dB ⁄ decade over a wide range of frequencies. A cm is zero but in reality is finite and much smaller than unity. • The output voltage of an op amp differentiator is the first derivative of the input voltage. i. • The output voltage of an op amp integrator is the integral of the input voltage. • A differential input op amp allows input signals to be applied simultaneously to both input ter- minals and produce an output of the difference between the input signals. Ideally. and common mode gain is the ratio of the output common−mode voltage V cm out to the input common−mode voltage V cm in . that is. a summing amplifier in the non−inverting mode produces the positive sum of any number of input voltages.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers frequency as Gain × Bandwidth = Unity Gain Frequency . • The use of negative feedback increases the bandwidth of an operational amplifier circuit but decreases the gain so that the gain times bandwidth product is always equal to the unity gain frequency of the op amp.e. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . then v out = 0 . • A summing amplifier in the inverting mode produces the negative sum of any number of input voltages. In other words. • The closed loop transfer function G ( s ) is defined as G ( s ) = V out ( s ) ⁄ V in ( s ) and in the invert- ing input mode G ( s ) = – Z f ( s ) ⁄ Z 1 ( s ) . • The transresistance gain is defined as the ratio v out ⁄ i in . A differential input amplifier must have a high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) defined as Ad Differential gain CMRR = ----------------------------------------------------. • High input resistance differential input amplifiers are suitable for use in differential measure- ment applications and the associated circuits are referred to as instrumentation amplifiers. the op amp rejects any signals at its inputs that are the same.

that is. It also amplifies the signal with two negative feedback resistors. the successive approximation. • A DAC with binary−weighted resistors has the disadvantage that it requires a large number of precision resistors. • A digital−to−analog converter (D/A converter or DAC) is used to convert a binary output from a digital system to an equivalent analog voltage. R and 2R. and the dual−slope. • A Wien bridge oscillator produces a sinusoidal output. this theoretical value cannot be achieved. alent. that is. dv out SlewRate = SR = -----------dt max • Op amps can also be used in circuits with non−linear devices. If there are 16 combinations of the voltages V D through V A . Popular types of ADCs are the flash converter. We have introduced the positive and negative voltage limiters. A general rule is to sample at five to ten times the highest frequency of the analog signal. • Quantization is the process where an analog signal is subdivided into small discrete time and amplitude intervals. because of electronic equipment limitations and component imperfections. must be sampled at least twice the frequency of the highest frequency component of the signal. • An analog−to−digital converter (A/D converter or ADC) converts an analog signal to its binary equivalent. but only two sets of pre- cision resistance values. This minimum frequency is known as the Nyquist rate. the analog signal. As a comparator.Summary response to a large input step function and it is normally expressed in volts per microsecond. • The sampling theorem states that to faithfully reproduce an analog signal from it digital equiv- Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Subdividing the time axis into a finite number of intervals is known as sampling. • A DAC formed with an R−2R ladder network. before conversion to a digital. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−69 . The Nyquist rate is not sufficient. an op amp is used without feedback. • A DAC must include an op amp to match the resistive network to a low−resistance load and to provide gain also. This oscillator uses two RC networks connected to the non−inverting input of the op amp to form a frequency selective feedback cir- cuit and this causes oscillations to occur. • A comparator is a circuit that senses changes in a varying signal and produces an output when a threshold value is reached. the analog device should have 16 possible values. requires more resistors. The difference between an exact analog value and the closest discrete value after sampling is known as quantization error. the op amp is used in the open loop configuration. Placing an impedance−matching device (the op amp in this case) at the out- put of the resistive network is called buffering the output of the network. half−wave rectifier with limited positive or negative output.

an eight.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers • The linearity of an ADC or DAC is a measure of accuracy and it is an indication of how close the converter’s output is to the ideal input−output transfer characteristics. • Resolution is the smallest change in the parameter being measured that causes a detectable change in the output of the instrument. Typically. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . 5−70 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. ten. or at most twelve bits of digital output provides adequate resolution. The output of an ADC is accurate to within ± 1 ⁄ 2 of the least significant bit (LSD). • Present day analog computers are build with op amps. • Accuracy is the degree with which an instrument measures a variable in terms of an accepted standard value or true value. In an analog computer the numbers representing the variables are voltages.

and v in 3 respectively.Exercises 5. For the circuit below. R in 2 . R in 1 R in 2 R in 3 Rf − + v in 1 + − + v out − + v in 2 − v in 3 + − Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−71 . and R in 3 represent the internal resistances of the input voltages v in 1 . and the feedback resistance R f . − 4 KΩ + + − 3 KΩ 6 KΩ 5 KΩ i 5KΩ 60 mV 3. Derive an expression for v out in terms of the input voltage sources. For the circuit below compute i 5KΩ . v in 2 .28 Exercises 1. For the circuit below compute v out 2 . R in 1 . v in 1 3 KΩ + − 27 KΩ 10 KΩ + v ou t1 90 KΩ − + − 10 mV + − v out 2 − + 2. their internal resistances.

50 KΩ 10 KΩ − + + − 40 mV 20 KΩ 40 KΩ v out − + 5. R1 Rf + v in − − v in v out − + + R1 + + (a) − (b) + − ----.v in v out R1 Rf − + 2 KΩ 20 KΩ v − in − 5 KΩ + (c) + 15 KΩ R load v out − 6. compute the value of R load so that it will receive maximum power. The op−amp circuit (a) below can be represented by its equivalent circuit (b). For the circuit below compute v 5KΩ using Thevenin’s theorem. For the circuit below compute v out . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . 84 KΩ 100 KΩ 12 KΩ 4 KΩ 5 KΩ 72 mV − + v 5KΩ − + + − 20 KΩ v out − + 5−72 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. For the circuit (c).Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 4.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−73 . Find v in 1 if v in 2 = 3 mV and v out = 5 V b. For the op amp shown below the open−loop gain is 100. v in 1 v in 2 v out a.R 4 + R 2 ⎛ ----. Find v in 2 if v in 1 = 2 mV and v out = – 5 V c. 000 . Plot the frequency response for open−loop gain versus frequency curve and the closed−loop frequency response for a gain of 10 . 000 and the unity gain frequency is 1 MHz .Exercises 7. The specifications for the popular 741 op amp state that the open−loop gain is 200. For the circuit below compute the gain G v = v out ⁄ v in . For the circuit below show that the gain is given by v out R4 1G v = --------. 10. R2 40 KΩ + v in − R1 200 KΩ R5 40 KΩ R4 50 KΩ 50 KΩ R3 + + v out − 8. Find v out if v in 1 = 2 mV and v in 2 = – 3 mV Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= – ----.+ 1 ⎞ ⎝R ⎠ v in R1 3 R3 R2 + v in R1 R4 − + + v out 9.

Assume infinite input impedance and zero output impedance. For the op amp circuit below: Rf R1 + v in − − + Cf + v out − a. compute the values of R f and C f such that the circuit will have a DC gain of 40 dB and 1 KHz 3 dB frequency e.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 11. the output voltage v out i in 10 KΩ + v in 1 mA − − + + v out − 13. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . find: a. If R 1 = 1 KΩ . For the op amp circuit below. The phase angle at the frequency where the gain is 0 dB 5−74 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Compute the frequency at which the gain is 0 dB f. Derive the closed−loop transfer function b. Determine whether the op amp circuit below is stable or unstable. Derive an expression for the DC gain c. Derive an expression for the 3 dB frequency d. the transresistance R m b. + v in 1 + v out v in 2 + + Rf 100 KΩ 10 μF C 12.

Select appropriate values for resistors R f . As stated earlier in Section 5. − v in 1 + R1 R2 if Rf − + − v in 2 + v out + − 16. it is required that the current i f should not exceed 1 mA . to make the overall gain of the circuit of Figure 5. For the circuit below. and the output voltage should be such that v out = – ( 4v in 1 + 3v in 2 ) ≤ 12 V . Find the value of the capacitor C f b.67 variable. an inverting mode op amp b. and R 2 to meet these specifications. Find the magnitude and phase angle of the gain at f = 1 KHz c.16. a non−inverting mode op amp Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Suggest a nulling circuit other than that in Exercise 16 for: a. R1 R fix R var Choose appropriate values for the fixed value resistor R fix and the variable resistor R var so that the overall voltage gain can vary from 10 to 100 . we replace resistor R 1 with a fixed value resistor R fix in series with a variable resistor R var as shown below. Cf R1 v in 10 KΩ v out a. R 1 . Find the frequency at which the magnitude of the gain is unity 15. For the op amp integrator circuit below the time constant is τ = 100 μs .Exercises 14. 17. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−75 .

R ----R --8 VD VC R --4 VB R --2 VA V analog R 2 VN n Prove that V A + 2V B + 4VC + 8V D + … V analog = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------1+2+4+8+… 5−76 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. R1 Rf v in 1 + − − v in 2 + + R2 R3 v out + − − 19.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 18. The figure below shows a digital−to−analog converter with binary−weighted resistors. For the circuit below. R1 Rf v in + − − + C R2 v out + − 20. Find appropriate values for all external resistors so that the differential input op amp circuit below will have an input resistance R in = 50 KΩ and voltage gain G v = 40 . Derive an expression for V out ( s ) in terms of the input voltages and the circuit constants. R V in 1 ( s ) + − V in 2 ( s ) + R C − C V out ( s ) + + − − 21. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . The resistors and capacitors are of equal value. derive the transfer function G v ( s ) = V out ( s ) ⁄ V in ( s ) and the magnitude and phase of G v ( jω ) = V out ( jω ) ⁄ V in ( jω ) at unity gain. The circuit below is referred to as a differential input integrator.

2R 2R VA VB R 2R VC R 2R VD R 2R V analog Prove that VA + 2V B + 4V C + 8V D + … Vanalog = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------n 2 where n is the number of digital inputs.Exercises 22. v out = – ∫0 ( vin 1 + 2vin 2 + 10vin 3 ) dt t Assume ideal op amp action and that the integrating capacitor has a value of 1 μF . derive an expression for the output voltage v out in terms of the input voltage v in . C R2 L v in R1 v out 26. derive an expression for the output voltage v out in terms of the input voltage v in and the circuit constants. Design an analog computer circuit to perform the following integration. For the op amp circuit shown below. 23. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−77 . 1 MΩ 0. Design an op amp circuit with input v in and output v out = – 5v in – 3dv in ⁄ dt 25.5 μF 1 MΩ v in v out Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The figure below shows a digital−to−analog converter with known as R−2R ladder network. 24. For the op amp circuit shown below.

v load .× 60 mV = 20 mV 4 KΩ + 2 KΩ and since this is a unity gain amplifier.= 4 × 10 A = 4 μA 3 5 KΩ R load 5 × 10 5−78 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. we obtain v load = v 1 = 20 mV Then –3 v load –6 20 × 10 20 mV i 5KΩ = -----------. and R load as shown below.9 V ⎝ 10 ⎠ 2. 10 KΩ + v ou t1 − + v in 1 3 KΩ + − 27 KΩ 90 KΩ − + − 10 mV v in 2 + − v out 2 − + v out1 = – ( 27 ⁄ 3 ) × 10 = – 90 mV and thus v in2 = v out1 = – 90 mV Then ----v out2 = ⎛ 1 + 90 ⎞ × ( – 90 ) = – 0. We assign v 1 . − 4 KΩ + + − + 3 KΩ 6 KΩ − v1 v load + − R load 5 KΩ i 5KΩ 60 mV 3 KΩ || 6 KΩ = 2 KΩ and by the voltage division expression 2 KΩ v 1 = ---------------------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .= ---------------.= ---------------------.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 5.29 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 1.

Also.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 3.v in 1 R in1 We observe that the minus (−) input is a virtual ground and thus there is no current flow in R in1 and R in2 .– ---------. ⎛ v in 3 v in 2 v in 1 ⎞ v out = R f ⎜ ---------.= 0 10 KΩ 50 KΩ 1 6 ------------------. At the minus (−) terminal v 1 – 40 mV v 1 – v out ---------------------------.v out = 4 × 10 –6 3 3 50 × 10 50 × 10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−79 .⎟ ⎝ R in 3 R in 2 R in 1 ⎠ 4. We assign voltages v 1 and v 2 as shown below.– ---------.( – v in 3 ) R in 3 Then.+ -------------------. R in 1 R in 2 R in 3 − + Rf v in 1 + − + v out − + v in 2 − v in 3 + − By superposition v out = v out 1 + v out 2 + v out 3 where v out 1 v in2 = 0 v in3 = 0 Rf = – --------. v out 2 v in1 = 0 v in3 = 0 Rf = – ---------.v in 2 R in 2 and v out 3 v in1 = 0 v in2 = 0 Rf = – ---------.v 1 – ------------------.

0400 5. Page 5-22. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . 15 KΩ v TH = v OC = v ab = ------------------------------------.v 2 = 2 × 10 –6 3 40 × 10 80 × 10 v 2 = ---------------------3 –3 Since v 2 = v 1 we equate the nodal equations and we obtain 1 6 80 × 10 ------------------.⎞ – ------------------.16). Rf=50000. R2=20000.⎛ ---------------------.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 50 KΩ 10 KΩ v1 v2 − + + − 40 mV 20 KΩ 40 KΩ v out − + At the plus (+) terminal v 2 – 40 mV v2 ---------------------------. and R load resistors to the equivalent circuit as shown below.+ ---------------.= 0 20 KΩ 40 KΩ 3 -------------------. By Thevenin’s theorem.– v out = 4 × 10 × 50 × 10 3 50 × 10 –3 3 3 v out = – 40 mV Check with (5.( – 10v in ) 5 KΩ + 15 KΩ 5−80 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. 15 KΩ . We attach the 5 KΩ . Vin=40*10^(−3). R3=40000. using MATLAB: R1=10000.v out = 4 × 10 –6 3⎝ 3 ⎠ 3 50 × 10 50 × 10 –3 Multiplication by 50 × 10 yields –6 3 2 × 80 × 10 × 50 × 10 ---------------------------------------------------------. Vout=(R1*R3−R2*Rf)*Vin/(R1*(R2+R3)) Vout = -0.

we must compute the Thevenin resistance using the relation R TH = v TH ⁄ i SC where i SC is found from the circuit below.5v in R TH = -----------------------------.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 5 KΩ 15 KΩ v in − + 2 KΩ + 10v in − × a b × R load or v TH = – 7.75 KΩ –3 – 2 × 10 v in and the Thevenin equivalent circuit is shown below.75 KΩ Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. 5 KΩ + − 10v in × a b × i SC 15 KΩ We observe that the short circuit shorts out the 15 KΩ and thus – 10v in –3 i SC = ---------------.5v in Because the circuit contains a dependent source. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−81 .= 3.75 KΩ R load + Therefore. R TH − v TH 3.= –2 × 10 v in 5 KΩ Then – 7. for maximum power transfer we must have R load = R TH = 3.

Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .⎞ v ⎝ R ⎠ in in v out − For this circuit v in = v 5KΩ and the output is Rf ⎞ ⎛ 100 v out = ⎜ 1 + ------.⎞ ⎝ ⎠ 96 KΩ 3 v TH = 72 mV – 9 mV + -. 12 KΩ 72 mV − × a+ 84 KΩ + i v ab b − × + − 6v 5KΩ By KVL or Also ( 12 KΩ + 84 KΩ )i + 6v 5KΩ = 72 mV 72 mV – 6v 5KΩ i = --------------------------------------------( 12 KΩ + 84 KΩ ) 72 mV – 6v 5KΩ v TH = v ab = v 5KΩ = 72 mV – ( 12 KΩ )i = 72 mV – 12 KΩ ⎛ -------------------------------------. The given circuit is a non−inverting op amp whose equivalent circuit is shown below.v 5KΩ 4 or 5−82 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. 12 KΩ 84 KΩ 4 KΩ 72 mV a× 5 KΩ + − + b× v 5KΩ − 6v 5KΩ − + To find the Thevenin equivalent at points a and b we disconnect the 5 KΩ resistor.⎟ v 5KΩ = ⎛ 1 + -------.⎞ v 5KΩ = 6v 5KΩ ⎝ 20 ⎠ R in ⎠ ⎝ Attaching the external resistors to the equivalent circuit above we obtain the circuit below. When this is done there is no current in the 4 KΩ resistor and the circuit simplifies to the one shown below. + v in − + + − Rf ⎛ 1 + ------.

Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 3 v 5KΩ – -.5 KΩ i SC = i ab = -----------------------------------------.= -----------------.× 252 = 20 mV 58 + 5 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.μA 29 10. and by the current division expression 126 10. We also perform voltage−source to current−source transformation and we obtain the circuit shown in Figure (b) below.= 58 KΩ 126 ⁄ 29 i SC and the Thevenin equivalent circuit with the 5 KΩ resistor is shown below.5 KΩ + 4 KΩ Therefore. R TH 12 KΩ a + v 5KΩ − v TH 252 mV + − 5 KΩ b Finally. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−83 . v OC 252 R TH = -------.5 KΩ Now. by the voltage division expression 5 v 5KΩ = -------------.v 5KΩ = 63 mV 4 and thus v TH = v ab = v 5KΩ = 252 mV The Thevenin resistance is found from R TH = v OC ⁄ i SC where i SC is computed with the terminals a and b shorted making v 5KΩ = 0 and the circuit is as shown in Figure (a) below. 12 KΩ 4 KΩ 12 KΩ 4 KΩ + − 72 mV a i SC (a) 84 KΩ b 6 μA 84 KΩ a i SC b (b) 12 KΩ || 84 KΩ = 10.× 6 μA = -------.

+ ---------------.+ -----------------.v out = – ----.+ ---------------.( v in + 5v out ) (1) 14 Node 2 at v 2 : or Equating the right sides we obtain 0 – v 1 0 – v out ---------------.⎞ v = ------------------. We assign node voltages v 1 and v 2 as shown below and we write node equations observing that v 2 = 0 (virtual ground).Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 7.( v in + 5v out ) = – 5 v out -14 4 or 37 1----.= 0 200 KΩ 40 KΩ 50 KΩ 50 KΩ v out v in 1 1 1 1 ⎛ ------------------.v in 28 14 Simplifying and dividing both sides by v in we obtain v out 2 G v = --------.v out (2) 4 1----. R2 40 KΩ + v in − R1 v1 40 KΩ R4 50 KΩ 50 KΩ R3 v2 + + v out − 200 KΩ R5 Node 1 at v 1 : or v 1 – v in v 1 – v out v 1 – 0 v1 ------------------.+ ---------------.+ ---------------.+ ---------------.+ ---------------.+ -------------------.= 0 50 KΩ 40 KΩ 5 v 1 = – -.1 ⎝ 200 KΩ 40 KΩ 50 KΩ 50 KΩ ⎠ 200 KΩ 40 KΩ Multiplication of each term by 200 KΩ and simplification yields 1 v 1 = ----. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .= – ----37 v in 5−84 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 8.v out (2) R4 ⁄ R2 + R4 ⁄ R3 + 1 Solving for v 2 we obtain Node 2 at v 2 : Equating the right sides we obtain R3 1 -----------------------------------------------.= 0 R3 R2 R4 1 1 1 ⎛ ----.+ 1⎞ ⎝R ⎠ R1 v in 3 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.⎞ v = v out --------⎝R R3 R4 ⎠ 2 R4 2 1 v 2 = -----------------------------------------------.= 0 R2 R1 R2 v 2 = – ----. We assign node voltages v 1 and v 2 as shown below and we write node equations observing that v 1 = 0 (virtual ground).v in (1) R1 v 2 – 0 v 2 v 2 – v out ------------.v in R1 R5 ⁄ R3 + R5 ⁄ R4 + 1 Simplifying and dividing both sides by v in we obtain v out R4 1 G v = --------.R 4 + R 2 ⎛ ----.+ -------------------.+ ------------.= – ----.+ ----.+ ----. v2 R2 R3 R4 + v in R1 v1 − + + v out Node 1 at v 1 : 0 – v in 0 – v 2 --------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−85 .v out = – ----.+ ----.

v in 1 v in 2 v out From (5.95 mV 5 Ao l 10 v out –3 –5 v in 2 = v in 1 + --------.= 3 × 10 – ------.95 mV 5 Aol 10 v out = A o l ( v in 2 – v in 1 ) = 10 ( – 30 – 20 ) × 10 5 –6 b. a. v out = A o l ( v in 2 – v in 1 ) .25). and we are given that A o l = 100. Page 5−27. c. Gain 3 dB point ( open loop ) 10 5 10 4 3 dB point ( closed loop ) 10 3 Unity Gain frequency 10 2 10 1 f ( Hz ) 1 10 100 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10.= 2. Then. = –1 V 5−86 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 9.= 1.= 2 × 10 + ------. 000 . v out –3 5 v in 1 = v in 2 – --------.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−87 .47. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Page 5-29. The s – domain equivalent circuit is shown below.25). i in 10 KΩ + v in 1 mA − − + + v out − This circuit is the same as that of Figure 5.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 11. Therefore.= 0 5 5 10 10 V out = ( s + 1 )V in 2 V out V in 2 = ---------s+1 and by substitution into (1) V out V out = A o l ⎛ ---------.⎞ V = – A o l V in 1 ⎝ s + 1 ⎠ out –Ao l ( s + 1 ) V out G ( s ) = ---------.= --------------------------s + 1 – Ao l V in 1 The pole of G ( s ) is located at s = – ( 1 – A ol ) = A ol – 1 and it is positive for A o l > 1 . the circuit is unstable since the pole is located on the right half−plane. where we found that R m = – R f .+ --------------------------. Page 5−27. By KCL v out = A o l ( v in 2 – v in 1 ) (1) sV in 2 V in 2 – V out ------------.– V in 1 ⎞ ⎝s+1 ⎠ Aol ⎛ 1 – ---------. + v in 1 + v out v in 2 + + Rf 100 KΩ 5 10 ⁄ s C From (5. 12.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .⋅ --------------------------R1 s + 1 ⁄ Cf Rf and we recognize this as the transfer function of a low−pass filter whose cutoff 3 dB fre- 5−88 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= – ----R1 V in c. Then.= – 10 KΩ i in v out = R m i in = ( – 10 KΩ ) ( 1 mA ) = – 10 V Z1 ( s ) + V in ( s ) − R1 1 ⁄ s Cf − + V out ( s ) + − a. The DC gain is defined at the point where the frequency is zero. or 13. The s – domain circuit is shown below. Z1 ( s ) = R1 1 1 1 Y f ( s ) = ---.= ----------------------Yf ( s ) 1 + s Cf Rf V out ( s ) Rf ⁄ ( 1 + s Cf Rf ) Rf Zf ( s ) G ( s ) = ----------------.= – ----------------------------------. (1) above reduces to Rf V out Gain DC = ---------. b. We rewrite the transfer function of (1) above as Rf 1 G ( s ) = – ----.= ---. Yf ( s ) Rf R m = – 10 KΩ v out R m = --------.(1) R1 V in ( s ) R1 ( 1 + s Cf Rf ) Z1 ( s ) b.= – -----------.= – -------------------------------------.+ s C f = ( 1 + s C f R f ) ⁄ R f Rf 1 ⁄ s Cf Rf Rf 1 Z f ( s ) = ------------.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers Then. s = 0 .+ -------------. a. that is.

the 3 dB frequency can be determined by proper selection of the feedback resistor and feedback capacitor. the normalized phase angle can be expressed as θ n = – atan ( f ⁄ f 3 dB ) . Then.= ----------------------------------------------------------------------./f3dB). f 40 dB = 1 KHz .= ----------------------. The sketch above shows that the gain drops at the rate of 20 dB ⁄ decade and thus the drop of the gain from 40 dB to 0 dB represents two decades.∠– atan ( ωRC ) 2 2 2 1 + jωRC V in 2 2 2 1+ω R C ( 1 + ω R C ) ∠ atan ( ωRC ) The MATLAB script below plots the phase angle θ = – atan ( ωRC ) as a function of frequency ω with RC = 1 . 40 dB represents a ratio of 100 . Therefore. theta=−atan(f. Also.= -------------------------------. And since at 40 dB . grid * Please refer to Chapter 7 in Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises quency is f 3 dB = 1 ⁄ 2π C f R f and falls of at the rate of 20 dB ⁄ decade as shown below. The script expresses the frequency normalized to the 3 dB frequency where f 3 dB = 1 KHz .*180. we find that 1 1 C f = -----------------------. f 0 dB = 100 × f 40 dB = 100 × 1000 = 100 KHz f.= 1./pi. semilogx(f.59 nF 5 3 2πR f f 3 dB 2π × 10 × 10 e. V out 1 1 1 G ( jω ) = ---------. f=(0.01:10). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−89 . Therefore. ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. V out ---------V in dB scale 1 f 3 dB = -----------------2πR f C f log scale – 20 dB ⁄ decade Pass band Stop band d.1:0. since 1 f 3 dB = -----------------2πR f C f for f 3 dB = 1 KHz and R f = 100 KΩ .theta). R f ⁄ R 1 = 100 and with R 1 = 1 KΩ .= ----------------------------------. f3dB=1. It is shown in Circuit Analysis texts* that for an RC low−pass filter. we find that R f = 100 KΩ .

we must add – 180° so the total phase shift is – 270° or +90° .I ( s ) = – ------. The s−domain equivalent circuit is shown below. IC ( s ) 1 ⁄ s C f I(s) V in ( s ) R 1 = 10 KΩ V out ( s ) a. and thus ⁄ 10 = 0.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -1 10 Degrees 10 Normalized frequency f/f3dB (log scale) 0 10 1 The plot above shows that the f 3 dB = 1 KHz frequency occurs at θ = – 45° and the asymptotic (straight) line indicates that it drops at the rate of 45° ⁄ ( decade ) . τ = R 1 C f = 10 C f = τ ⁄ R 1 = 10 –4 –4 s . 14. that is. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Therefore.--------------s Cf R1 s Cf s Cf V out ( s ) 1 -----------------.01 μF 4 b.I C ( s ) = – ------. the phase at 100 KHz is – 90° and because this is an inverting amplifier.= – -------------V in ( s ) sR 1 C f 5−90 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. 1 V in ( s ) 1 1 V out ( s ) = – ------. The time constant is the product of R 1 and C f .

Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 8 4 V out ( jω ) 1 10 10 --------------------.49).59 3 2π × 10 4 f = 1 KHz θ = 90° c.v in 1 + ----.≈ 1. − v in 1 + R1 R2 if i Rf − + − From (5.= – -------------. From (1) above we observe that the gain will be unity when ω = 10 r ⁄ s or 10 f = ------.v in 1 + ----. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−91 .= – ------4 jωR 1 C f V in ( jω ) jω jω10 4 V out 10 ---------.v in N ⎞ ⎝ R1 ⎠ R2 RN R R R and with only two inputs it reduces to f f v out = – ⎛ ----.= 12 KΩ - v 12 if 10 –3 and with this value (1) above becomes Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= ------.6 KHz 2π 4 4 15.≈ 1. Page 5−38. there must be out R f = -----------.v in 2 ⎞ (1) ⎝ R1 ⎠ R2 R R Since the magnitude of v out must 12 V or less and the feedback current i f must be limited to 1 mA . v in 2 + v out + − f f f v out = – ⎛ ----.= --------.(1) ω V in θ = 180° – 90° = 90° V out ---------V in 10 = -------------------.= – -----------------.v in 2 + … + -----.

2 R2 A d max = --------.+ 1 = 100 (1) R fix For minimum gain. the potentiometer must be set for full resistance. Then.⎛ -------. that is. R var = 0 . R var = 100 KΩ . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Page 5−44. we obtain R 2 – 49. For convenience.5 R fix = 4. 16.v in 1 + ---------------.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 12 KΩ 12 KΩ v out = – ⎛ ---------------. Then. the potentiometer must be set for zero resistance. R4 2 R2 v out A d = ----------------------------. 2R2 A d min = ----------------------. in other words. 100 for our case.5 R fix = 0 R 2 – 4. we can make R 4 = R 3 and the above relation reduces to 2 R2 A d = -------------------------.v in 2⎞ (2) ⎝ R1 ⎠ R2 Then.+ 1 = 10 (2) 5 R fix + 10 Rearranging (1) and (2) for simultaneous solution. the condition v out = – ( 4v in 1 + 3v in 2 ) can be satisfied if we choose R 1 = 3 KΩ and R 4 = 4 KΩ .= ----.+ 1 R fix + R var Let us choose a 100 KΩ potentiometer for R var .67). R1 R fix R var The overall voltage gain can be found from relation (5. 10 for our case.5 × 10 5 and the solution yields R 2 = 495 KΩ ≈ 500 KΩ and R fix = 10 KΩ 5−92 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.+ 1⎞ ⎠ R3 ⎝ R1 ( v in 2 – v in 1 ) so we need to replace R 1 with R fix + R var . For maximum gain. in other words.

= ----- R R R1 R2 and if we make R 2 = R 1 .Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 17. then R 3 = R f . Since for the circuit above we want R in = 50 KΩ . 18. v in 1 + R1 − Rf − v in 2 + + R2 R3 v out + − − From (5. and for R 1 = R 2 = 25 KΩ and G v = 40 . R1 v in R2 –V 10 KΩ Pot +V Rf v out b. the potentiometer can be adjusted to provide the value and polarity of the DC input voltage required to null the output to zero volts. R in = 2R 1 but this relation holds only if R 2 = R 1 . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. we must make R 1 + R 2 = 50 KΩ .62). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−93 . The circuit above will perform as a differential input op amp if f 3 ----. we must make R 3 = R f = 1 MΩ . 10 KΩ Pot +V R1 R2 –V v in Rf v out In both circuits of (a) and (b) above. then R 1 = R 2 = 25 KΩ . and if R 2 = R 1 . Page 5−42. a.

⎛ ------------------------.V in ( s ) – R f --------------.= ------------------------.⎛ ------------------------.⎛ -------------------------⎞ R 1 ⎝ 1 ⁄ sC + R 2⎠ 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 Rf R 1 R 2 – R f ⁄ sC V out ( s ) R2 1 ⁄ sC G v ( s ) = -----------------. R1 I(s) 1 ⁄ sC V1 V2 R2 I(s) R f + V in ( s ) − − + V out ( s ) + − By the voltage division expression 2 V 2 = ------------------------. The s – domain circuit is shown below.V in ( s )⎞ = --------------.⎞ R 1 ⎝ 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 ⎠ R 1 ⎝ 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 ⎠ Next. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .⎛ ------------------------.= --------------------------------.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 19.⎛ V in ( s ) – ------------------------.= --------------------------------.⎞ ⎠ R1 ⎝ R1 ⎝ 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 1 ⁄ sC + R ⎠ 2 V in ( s ) 1 ⁄ sC + R V in ( s ) R2 1 ⁄ sC 2 I ( s ) = --------------.= ---------------------------------V in ( s ) R 2 + 1 ⁄ sC s + 1 ⁄ C R2 sC R 2 + 1 5−94 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.⎛ 1 – ------------------------.⎞ = --------------.⎞ = -----------------------------------V in ( s ) 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 R 1 ⎝ 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 ⎠ R 1 ( 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 ) sC R 2 – R f ⁄ R 1 R 2 – R f ⁄ sC R 1 s – Rf ⁄ C R1 R2 V out ( s ) G v ( s ) = -----------------. V out ( s ) = V 1 – R f I ( s ) V in ( s ) R2 1 ⁄ sC V out ( s ) = ------------------------.V in ( s ) 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 R This is a differential input amplifier and the current I ( s ) is V in ( s ) – V 1 I ( s ) = --------------------------R1 V in ( s ) R2 R2 1I ( s ) = ----.V in ( s ) 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 R and since it follows that V1 = V2 2 V 1 = ------------------------.– ----.– ------------------------.

this circuit is also referred to as a phase shifter. and in Exercise 14 we found that Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Page 5−32. this circuit is referred to as first order all−pass filter.= 1 ∠–2 tan ( ωC R 2 ) V in ( jω ) jω + 1 ⁄ C R 2 2 2 2 ω + 1 ⁄ C R 2 ∠ tan ( ωC R 2 ) Therefore.= --------------------------------------------------------------------------. letting s = jω . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−95 . V out ( jω ) --------------------.= ------------------------------------jω + 1 ⁄ C R 2 V in ( jω ) and for unity gain there must be R f = R 1 . 2 2 2 V out ( jω ) jω – 1 ⁄ C R 2 ω + 1 ⁄ C R 2 ∠ tan ( – ωC R 2 ) –1 G v ( jω ) = --------------------.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises Now. With V in 1 ( s ) acting alone and V in 2 ( s ) = 0 . the circuit reduces to that shown below. The phase angle is θ = 180° – ∠– 2 tan ( ωC R 2 ) –1 where the angle of 180° is due to the fact that the feedback resistor is connected to the inverting input.= ----------------------------. Then. Because of this phase shift. R V in 1 ( s ) + − C V out 1 ( s ) − + R + C − The circuit above is essentially a Miller integrator like that shown in Figure 5.= 1 V in ( jω ) and because the magnitude is independent of frequency. 20. R V in 1 ( s ) + − V in 2 ( s ) + R C − C V out ( s ) + + − − We will apply the superposition principle.52. we obtain jω – R f ⁄ C R 1 R 2 V out ( jω ) G v ( jω ) = --------------------.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .⎞ V in 2 ( s ) ⎝ sC R ⎠ ⎝ sC R + 1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ sC R + 1 ⎠ sC R 1 V out 2 ( s ) = --------.⎞ V in 2 ( s ) = ⎛ ------------------. R V in 2 ( s ) + R C VC − C V out 2 ( s ) + + − − By the voltage division expression 1 ⁄ sC V C = ---------------------.V in 1 ( s ) (1) Next.⎞ V C = ⎛ 1 + -----------. the given circuit reduces to that shown below.+ ---------.( V A + 2V B + 4V C + 8V D + … ) R R R⁄2 R⁄4 R⁄8 5−96 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.⎞ ⎛ ------------------. with V in 2 ( s ) acting alone and V in 1 ( s ) = 0 .V in 2 ( s ) (2) sC R From (1) and (2) 1 V out ( s ) = V out 1 ( s ) + V out 2 ( s ) = --------. for the circuit above V out 1 ( s ) = – ---------.+ ---------.= – -----------sR 1 C V in ( s ) 1 sRC Therefore.( V in 2 ( s ) – V in 1 ( s ) ) sC R 21.+ ---------. 1 ⁄ sC 1 ⁄ sC 1 ⁄ sC V out 2 ( s ) = ⎛ 1 + -----------.⎞ ⎛ ---------------------.V in 2 ( s ) R + 1 ⁄ sC and since this is a non−inverting amplifier.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers V out ( s ) 1 ----------------.⎞ ⎛ ------------------. R ----- 2 VN n R --8 VD VC R --4 VB R --2 VA V analog R VC VD VA VB 1 I T = -----.+ … = --.⎞ V in 2 ( s ) ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ R + 1 ⁄ sC ⎠ R R 1 1 sC R + 1 1 V out 2 ( s ) = ⎛ 1 + --------.

1 2R V1 2R VA VB R V2 2R VC 2 R V3 3 R 2R VD 2R V analog We write nodal equations at Nodes 1. V1 V1 – VA V1 – V2 -----.+ … R R⁄2 R⁄4 R⁄8 R eq or R R eq = -----------------------------------------1+2+4+8+… R .+ -----------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−97 . ISBN 978−1− 934404−03−4.⋅ --. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= 0 2R R 2R V2 – V1 V2 – VB V2 – V3 -----------------.+ ------------------. 2.+ ---------.= 0 R 2R R + 2R Simplifying and collecting like terms we obtain 4V 1 – 2V 2 = V A – 2 V 1 + 5V 2 – 2V 3 = V B – 6 V 2 + 11V 3 = 3V C + 2V D By Cramer’s rule* * For a review of matrices and determinants please refer to Numerical Analysis Using MATLAB and Excel.+ ------------------.1 V analog = R eq I T = -----------------------------------------.+ ---------.+ ------------------.+ -----------------.+ ------------------. and 3.= --.= 0 R 2R R V3 – V2 V3 – VC V3 – VD -----------------.+ ---------.( V A + 2V B + 4V C + 8V D + … ) 1+2+4+8+… R VA + 2V B + 4V C + 8V D + … Vanalog = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------1+2+4+8+… 22.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 1 1 1 1 1 -------.

( V A + 2V B + 4V C + 8V D ) 16 where 16 = 2 = 2 .V D 3 32 3 1 = ----.⋅ 2R + V D = -.V 3 + -. v in 2 .V D 3 3 R + 2R and 2 11 V analog = -.( 12V A + 24V B + 48V C + 32V D ) 128 4 –2 0 –2 5 –2 0 – 6 11 or 1V 3 = ----.( 3V A + 6V B + 12V C + 8V D ) + -.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 4 –2 –2 5 VA VB 0 – 6 ( 3V C + 2V D ) 1 V 3 = ---------------------------------------------------------. V3 – VD 1 2 V analog = ------------------. Reset v in 1 v in 2 v in 3 1 MΩ 500 KΩ 100 KΩ 1 μF v out 5−98 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. 23. and v in 3 in the given expression. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .⋅ ----. v out = – 4 n ∫0 ( vin 1 + 2vin 2 + 10vin 3 ) dt t This integration can be performed by a summing integrator such as that shown below where the factor 1 ⁄ RC was chosen to form the coefficients of v in 1 .= -------.( 3V A + 6V B + 12V C + 8V D ) 32 By the voltage division expression.

we choose R f = 5R 1 and R f C = 3 25.v in – R f C --------dt R1 Since we want v out = – 5v in – 3dv in ⁄ dt . (2). C R2 L i v in R1 i v out dv in v in i = -----.--------.(1) dt R1 v out = – R f i (2) Substitution of (1) into (2) yields dv in Rf v out = – ----.+ C --------.dv in di = ----.v in + R 2 C --------.(1) dt R1 di v out = – R 2 i – L ---.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 24.(3) ---2 R 1 dt dt dt 2 and from (1).+ LC ------------⎟ 2 dt R 1 dt ⎝ R1 dt ⎠ 2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.--------. and (3) d v in⎞ dv in L dv in ⎛ R2 v out = – ⎜ ----. C i v in R1 i Rf v out dv in v in i = -----.+ C -----------.+ C --------.(2) dt Differentiating (1) with respect to t we obtain d v in 1.+ ----. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−99 .

5 μF C i i Rf v in 1 MΩ v out v in i = -----.v in – --------.= – ⎛ --------. dv in dv out -----------.v in dt = – v in – 2 v in dt R1 C R1 ∫ ∫ Alternately.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 26.i dt (2) C ∫ Substitution of (1) into (2) yields Rf 1 v out = – ----. 1 MΩ R1 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .+ 2v in ⎞ ⎝ dt ⎠ dt 5−100 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.(1) R1 1 v out = – R f i – --.

an uncomplemented variable represents a logical 1 . it represents a logical 0 . it follows that A = 0 (false). if A = 1 (true).2. and hexadecimal number systems.1. and the OR gate. also referred to as the false condition. Thus. and the transistor−transistor logic (TTL). it is strongly recommended that a good book like our Digital Circuit Analysis and Design. and ORing operations respectively. Typical voltage signal for a digital computer * For this and the remaining chapters it is assumed that the reader has prior knowledge of the binary. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. CMOS. If not. and truth tables. ISBN 0−9744239−6−3 is reviewed. The symbols for these gates are shown in Figure 6. the fundamentals of Boolean algebra. and these perform the complementation. complements of numbers. digital computers do not understand logical 1 . 5 volt level 0 volt ( ground ) level Figure 6. the AND gate. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−1 . Exclusive OR (XOR). they only understand voltage signals such as that shown in Figure 6. known as NAND. are derivatives of the basic AND and OR gates and will be discussed later in this chapter.2 Positive and Negative Logic Generally. 6. true. The three basic logic gates Four other logic gates.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits T his chapter begins with an introduction to electronic logic gates and their function in terms of Boolean expressions and truth tables. Of course. 6.1 The Basic Logic Gates* Electronic logic gates are used extensively in digital systems and are manufactured as integrated circuits (IC’s). and Exclusive NOR (XNOR).2.1. ANDing. The basic logic gates are the inverter or NOT gate. NOR. emitter−coupled logic (ECL). or false. logical 0 . Inverter AND gate OR gate Figure 6. binary codes. Earlier logic families are presented in the exercises section. and when that variable is complemented. also referred to as the true condition. Positive and negative logic are defined. and BiCMOS logic families are discussed. the octal.

4(b) represents negative logic. Emitter−Coupled Logic ( ECL ).1.5. Positive and negative logic defined We will discuss the three common IC logic families in subsequent sections.3 The Inverter The symbol for the inverter (NOT gate) is shown in Figure 6. H L Figure 6.9 5. The former convention is known as positive logic. and Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor ( CMOS ) logic.3.2 −1. Figure 6. For our present discussion it will suffice to list the High and Low voltage levels for the Transistor−Transistor Logic ( TTL or T 2 L ).75 0 6. log ical 1 L positive log ic (a) log ical 0 H L log ical 0 log ical 1 negative log ic (b) H Figure 6.3.3. TABLE 6. Typical values are shown in Table 6.4.0 −0. High (H) and Low (L) assignments in a voltage waveform With the H and L assignments as shown in Figure 6. Symbol for the inverter 6−2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits With reference to the voltage waveform of Figure 6. or logical 0 to H and logical 1 to L. and the latter as negative logic.0 Low voltage (Volts DC) 0. integrated circuit manufacturers assign the letter H (High) to the 5 volt level and the letter L (Low) to the ground level as shown in Figure 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the logic circuitry designer has the option of assigning a logical 1 to H and logical 0 to L.4(a) represents positive logic and Figure 6.5.1 Typical values of High and Low voltage levels for three IC families IC Family TTL ECL CMOS High voltage (Volts DC) 5. A A Figure 6.2.0 to 15. and the truth table is shown in Table 6.2. Thus.

To insure that this value is not exceeded. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−3 . may be represented as an ideal diode in series with a 0. diode D 1 is included to clamp the input voltage to less than – 1. Vcc A6 Y6 A5 12 11 Y5 A4 10 9 Y4 8 1A 1Y 2A 2Y 3A 3Y GND 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 Vcc 6A 6Y 5A 5Y 4A 4Y 14 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A1 Y1 A2 Y2 A3 Y3 GND Figure 6.2 V with respect to the ground.6 shows the TTL SN7404 Hex Inverter IC where SN identifies the packaging and Hex implies that there are 6 inverters within the IC.3. when forward−biased. The SN7404 Hex Inverter IC One important parameter is the input clamp voltage denoted as V IK and this refers to the maximum negative voltage that may be applied at the input terminals without damaging the IC.7 V source and a small resistance as shown in Figure 6.7. We recall from Chapter 2 that a practical diode.3 The truth table for the inverter when positive logic is assumed Input 0 1 Output 1 0 With negative logic.6.2 The truth table for the inverter Input L H Output H L With positive logic. TABLE 6. the truth table for the inverter is written as shown in Table 6.4 The truth table for the inverter when negative logic is assumed Input 1 0 Output 0 1 Figure 6. A typical value for this parameter is – 1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.4. the truth table for the inverter is written as shown in Table 6.The Inverter TABLE 6. TABLE 6.2 V .

9.2 V with respect to the ground as shown in Figure 6. Figure 6. Circuit of the SN7404 Inverter Note: Unless otherwise noted.8. transistor T 1 is ON and the voltage V 1 at the collector of transistor T 1 is V 1 = V CE sat + V in = 0. +Vcc 4 ΚΩ 1 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . With this input.8 functions as follows: We assume that the input voltage is the output of a previous stage and it is Low at V in = 0. henceforth Low will mean a nominal 0 V input or output signal and High will mean a nominal 5 V input or output signal. This is because if transistors T 2 and T 3 were 6−4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.7 V R Figure 6. transistors T 2 and T 3 are both OFF.4 V and under this condition.2 = 0.8 shows the internal details of the TTL IC 7404 inverter.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits i D ( mA ) slope = R 0.7 Practical diode vD ( V ) Ideal diode vD 0.7.6 Κ Ω 130 Ω T4 T1 Input A D2 Output Y T2 D1 T3 1 ΚΩ + - Figure 6. Practical and ideal diode representation The data sheets provided by the manufacturer list several parameters and we will discuss the most important later in this chapter. The inverter circuit of Figure 6.2 + 0.

6 V . and thus the output is Low and the inversion operation has been performed. we accept the fact that with the input Low. However. transistors T 2 and T 3 are both OFF. the base−emitter junction of transistor T 1 is reverse− biased. current flows from V CC through the 4 KΩ resistor and thus the base−collector junction is forward−biased.1 V and thus the output is High and the inversion operation has been performed. However. is sufficient to turn it ON. with the input High the circuit is as shown in Figure 6. Under these conditions.2 V Input A T1 I OFF V1 T2 T4 ON V CE sat 0. V out = 0.0 – 0.2 – 0.0 V with respect to the ground. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.6 KΩ resistor and then into the base of transistor T 4 . Then.7 + 0. Therefore. the current I that flows through the 1. this voltage is not sufficient to turn transistor T 4 ON because for transistor T 4 to be ON there should be V 2 = V BE T4 + V D2 + V out = 0.10 and the circuit functions as follows: We assume that the input voltage is the output of a previous stage and it is High at V in = 5.4 V .7 + 0.6 Κ Ω 130 Ω ON V in = 0. we conclude that transistor T 4 is OFF. The voltage V 2 at the collector of transistor T 2 is V 2 = V CE T2 + V BE T3 = 0.7 + 0.7 = 4. V out = V CC – V CE T4 – V D2 = 5.2 V D2 Output Y D1 OFF T3 1 ΚΩ + V out = 4.9 V . Accordingly.2 V .2 + 0. The current that flows through the base collector junction of transistor T 1 is sufficient to turn transistor T 2 ON and this causes transistor T 3 to turn ON also. With this input.7 = 1. Circuit of the SN7404 Inverter for Low−to−High inversion Next.1 V - Figure 6.9. +Vcc 4 ΚΩ 1 .7 = 0.2 = 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−5 . transistor T 1 is said to be operating at the inverse active mode.The Inverter both ON. the voltage V 1 would have to be V 1 = V BE T2 + V BE T3 = 0.

the truth table for a 3−input AND gate is written as shown in Table 6.2 V D2 Output Y D1 ON T3 1 ΚΩ + V out = 0.12 shows the TTL SN7408 Quad 2−input AND gate where Quad implies that there are 4 AND gates within the IC.6 Κ Ω 130 Ω V2 V in = 5.5.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits +Vcc 4 ΚΩ 1 .6. 6. 6−6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.0 V Input A T1 T4 OFF ON T2 Acts as diode 0. T 4 would be also ON since there would be V BE T4 = 0.7 V - Figure 6. 3−input AND gate symbol With positive logic.9 – 0.4 The AND Gate The symbol for a 3−input AND gate is shown in Figure 6. if D 2 were not being there. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .11.2 V 0. Circuit of the SN7404 Inverter for High−to−Low inversion It should be noted that it is the diode D 2 that prevents transistor T 4 from being ON. Table 6. Figure 6. and the truth table is shown in Table 6. A B C D Figure 6.2 = 0.10.7 V which is just sufficient to turn T 4 ON.6 shows that the output of an AND gate is logical 1 (true) only when all inputs are logical 1 .11.

13 shows the internal details of a two−input TTL AND gate. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The SN7408 Quad 2−input AND gate Figure 6. We will defer the analysis of this circuit and the reason for deferring the discussion after we introduce the NAND gate. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−7 .12.5 Truth table for 3−input AND gate A L L L L H H H H Inputs B L L H H L L H H C L H L H L H L H Output D L L L L L L L H TABLE 6.The AND Gate TABLE 6.6 Truth table of 3−input AND gate when positive logic is used A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Inputs B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Output D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1A 1A 1B 1Y 2A 2B 2Y GND 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 Vcc 4B 4A 4Y 3B 3A 3Y 1B 2A 2B 3A 3B 4A 4B 1Y 2Y 3Y 4Y Figure 6.

7 Truth table for 3−input OR gate with positive logic A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Inputs B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Output D 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Table 6.14. 6−8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Circuit for the SN7408 Quad 2−input AND gate (Courtesy Texas Instruments) 6.7.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits Figure 6.13. Symbol for 3−input OR gate TABLE 6. A B C D Figure 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .14.5 The OR Gate The symbol for a 3−input OR gate is shown in Figure 6.7 shows that the output of an OR gate is logical 1 (true) whenever one or more of its inputs are logical 1 . and the truth table with positive logic is shown in Table 6.

6 The NAND Gate The symbol for a 3−input NAND gate is shown in Figure 6. The SN7432 Quad 2−input OR gate Figure 6.16. and the truth table with positive logic is shown in Table 6.15 shows the TTL SN7432 Quad 2−input OR gate where Quad implies that there are 4 OR gates within the IC.15. Figure 6. 1A 1A 1B 1Y 2A 2B 2Y GND 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 Vcc 4B 4A 4Y 3B 3A 3Y 1B 2A 2B 3A 3B 4A 4B 1Y 2Y 3Y 4Y Figure 6. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−9 . We will not describe the functioning of the SN7432 Quad 2−input OR gate at this time.8.The NAND Gate Figure 6. Circuit for the SN7432 Quad 2−input OR gate (Courtesy Texas Instruments) 6.16 shows the internal details of the TTL SN7432 Quad 2−input OR gate.17. We will defer the circuit operation until we first describe the NOR gate operation in a subsequent section.

8 Truth table for 3−input NAND gate with positive logic A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Inputs B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Output D 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 Table 6.18 shows the TTL SN7400 Quad 2−input NAND gate where Quad implies that there are 4 NAND gates within the IC.17.18. they are fabricated as a single device with 2 emitters but only one collector and one base as shown in Figure 6. Figure 6.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits A B C D Figure 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . 6−10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Symbol for 3−input NAND gate TABLE 6.8 shows that the output of an NAND gate is logical 0 (false) only when all inputs are logical 1 .19.19 shows the internal details of the IC SN7400 NAND gate where transistor T 1 is equivalent to two identical NPN transistors with their bases and collectors tied together. therefore. 1A 1A 1B 1Y 2A 2B 2Y GND 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 Vcc 4B 4A 4Y 3B 3A 3Y 1B 2A 2B 3A 3B 4A 4B 1Y 2Y 3Y 4Y Figure 6. The SN7400 Quad 2−input NAND gate Figure 6.

we accept the fact that under any of these three conditions. The 2− input TTL NAND gate circuit of Figure 6.0 – 0.The NAND Gate +Vcc 4 ΚΩ 1. Accordingly.7 = 1.20.4 V .7 + 0.19 functions as follows: Let us assume that either Input A or B or both are Low at V in = 0. transistors T 2 and T 3 are both OFF. when transistor T 3 is ON transistor T 4 is OFF and vice versa.6 KΩ resistor and then into the base of transistor T 4 is sufficient to turn it ON. The current I that flows through the 1. However.8 where transistor T 4 is stacked on top of transistor T 3 and the operation is complementary. Then. V out = V CC – V CE T4 – V D2 = 5. Circuit for the TTL SN7400 Quad 2−input NAND gate We observe that. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. with the exception of two inputs for the 2−input NAND gate.2 = 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−11 . the voltage V 1 would have to be V 1 = V BE T2 + V BE T3 = 0. Under any of these three conditions. This is because if transistors T 2 and T 3 were both ON. this circuit is practically the same as that of the inverter circuit of Figure 6. that is.2 – 0.2 + 0. This arrangement is referred to as totem−pole configuration.4 V and thus transistors T 2 and T 3 are both OFF.6 Κ Ω 130 Ω T4 T1 T2 Input A Input B D3 D2 D1 1 ΚΩ T3 + Output Y - Figure 6.7 = 4.2 V with respect to the ground as shown in Figure 6.1 V and thus the output is High and this satisfies the 2−input NAND gate operation.19. transistor T 1 is ON and the voltage V 1 at the collector of transistor T 1 is V 1 = V CE sat + V in = 0.

Circuit of the SN7400 2−input NAND gate when either Input A of B or both are Low Next.7 V which is 6−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2 V T2 D3 D2 D1 1 ΚΩ T3 OFF + Output Y V out = 4.0 V at both inputs.9 V .2 V .7 + 0.2 = 0. However. with both inputs High the circuit is as shown in Figure 6. current flows from V CC through the 4 KΩ resistor and thus the base−collector junction is forward−biased.2 + 0. The voltage V 2 at the collector of transistor T 2 is V 2 = V CE T2 + V BE T3 = 0. this voltage is not sufficient to turn transistor T 4 ON because for transistor T 4 to be ON the voltage V 2 should have the value V 2 = V BE T4 + V D2 + V out = 0. if D 3 were not being there. t r a n s i s t o r T 4 i s O F F .6 V .7 + 0. In other words.1 V - Figure 6. T 4 would be also ON since there would be V BE T4 = 0. It should be noted that it is the diode D 3 that prevents transistor T 4 from being ON. T h e r e f o r e .6 Κ Ω 130 Ω T4 ON ON T 1 V in = 0.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits +Vcc 4 ΚΩ 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .21 and the circuit functions as follows: With V in = 5. and this satisfies the 2−input NAND gate operation. the base−emitter junction of transistor T 1 is reverse−biased.9 – 0. The current that flows through the base collector junction of transistor T 1 is sufficient to turn transistor T 2 ON and this causes transistor T 3 to turn ON also.2 = 1.20. transistor T 1 is operating at the inverse active mode.7 = 0. V OUT = 0.2 V Input A Input B I OFF V1 V CE sat 0.

22. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−13 .0 V Input A Input B 0. we observe that this circuit essentially consists of a NAND gate followed by an inverter as shown in Figure 6.7 V OFF Figure 6. The components of a 2−input AND gate We mentioned earlier that one of the parameters specified by the manufacturer is the input clamp voltage denoted as V IK and this refers to the maximum negative voltage that may be applied at the input terminals without damaging the IC.2 V 0. diodes D 1 and D 2 are included in the circuit of the 2−input NAND gate to clamp the input voltage to less than – 1. referring back to the AND gate circuit of Figure 6.21.6 Κ Ω 130 Ω T4 T1 V2 ON T2 V in = 5. To insure that this value is not exceeded.2 V .2 V Acts as diode D3 D2 D1 1 ΚΩ T3 ON + Output Y V out = 0.22.The NAND Gate just sufficient to turn T 4 ON. Circuit of the SN7400 2−input NAND gate when both inputs are High Now. A typical value for this parameter is – 1.2 V with respect to the ground. A B AB AB Y Figure 6. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.13. +Vcc 4 ΚΩ 1.

A B C D Figure 6. Symbol for 3−input NOR gate TABLE 6.24 shows the TTL SN7402 Quad 2−input NOR gate where Quad implies that there are 4 NOR gates within the IC.7 The NOR Gate The symbol for a 3−input NOR gate is shown in Figure 6.9. Figure 6.9 Truth table for 3−input NOR gate with positive logic A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Inputs B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Output D 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Table 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .25 shows the internal details of the TTL IC SN7402 NOR gate. 1A 1Y 1A 1B 2Y 2A 2B GND 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 Vcc 4Y 4B 4A 3Y 3B 3A 1B 2A 2B 3A 3B 4A 4B 1Y 2Y 3Y 4Y Figure 6. 6−14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.23.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits 6. and the truth table with positive logic is shown in Table 6. The TTL SN7402 Quad 2−input NOR gate Figure 6.9 shows that the output of an NOR gate is logical 1 (true) only when all inputs are logical 0 (false).23.24.

is logical 1 .10. and thus V out = 0. 6.2 V also. but not both. V out = V CC – V CE T5 – V D5 = 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−15 . The voltages at the base of transistors T 3 and T 4 are the same as the collector voltages of transistors s T 1 and T 2 .25. and a voltage drop across the 1 KΩ resistor will be developed and it will be sufficient to turn transistor T 6 ON.25 functions as follows: When both inputs are Low at 0.2 V with respect to the ground.1 V . However.2 V . transistor T 5 is ON and therefore. But transistor T 2 will behave as a junction diode turning transistor T 4 ON.8 The Exclusive OR (XOR) and Exclusive NOR (XNOR) Gates The exclusive−OR (XOR) logic gate has two inputs and one output. Circuit for the TTL SN7402 Quad 2−input NOR gate The TTL 2−input NOR gate circuit of Figure 6. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. transistor T 1 will be ON and transistor T 3 will be OFF.6 Κ Ω 130 Ω T5 T2 T4 D1 D2 1 ΚΩ T6 Input B + Output Y - Figure 6. 0. and thus transistors T 3 and T 4 are OFF.2 – 0.The Exclusive OR (XOR) and Exclusive NOR (XNOR) Gates +Vcc 4 ΚΩ 4 ΚΩ T1 Input A T3 D3 1 . and the truth table with positive logic is shown in Table 6. If Input A is Low and Input B is High.7 = 4. transistors T 1 and T 2 are both ON.2 V . we find that V out = 0. that is. The symbol for the XOR gate is shown in Figure 6.0 – 0. If Input A is High and Input B is Low or both inputs are High.26. We observe that the output of an XOR gate is logical 1 (true) when only one of the inputs.

Symbol for the XOR gate with positive logic TABLE 6.11 shows that the output of a XNOR gate is logical 1 (true) only when the inputs are the same. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .27. The TTL SN7486 Quad XOR gate Figure 6. There is no IC XNOR gate in the TTL family but one can be formed with an XOR gate (SN7486) followed by an inverter (SN7404). 6−16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.27 shows the TTL SN7486 Quad XOR gate where Quad implies that there are 4 XOR gates within the IC. The exclusive−NOR (XNOR) logic gate has two inputs and one output.10 Truth table for 2−input XOR gate Inputs A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Output C 0 1 1 0 Figure 6.26.11. the XNOR gate is also known as equivalence gate. The symbol for the XNOR gate is shown in Figure 6.29. Table 6. and the truth table with positive logic is shown in Table 6. For this reason. We can also implement the XNOR function using the TTL SN7486 IC with negative logic. 1A 1A 1B 1Y 2A 2B 2Y GND 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 Vcc 4B 4A 4Y 3B 3A 3Y 1B 2A 2B 3A 3B 4A 4B 1Y 2Y 3Y 4Y Figure 6.28 shows the internal details of the TTL IC SN7486 XOR gate. that is. both logical 0 or both logical 1 .Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits A B C Figure 6.

Generally. it is necessary for a single TTL logic gate to drive more than 10 other gates or devices.28. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. a 3−input NAND gate has a fan−in of 3. and Sinking Current Typical of all outputs VCC Equivalent of each input VCC 4 KΩ 130 Ω Input Output Figure 6. Fan−out is a term that defines the maximum number of digital inputs that the output of a single logic gate can feed. and Sinking Current The fan−in of a gate is the number of its inputs. TTL gates can feed up to 10 other digital gates or devices. In some digital systems. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−17 . Fan−Out.11 Truth table for 2−input XNOR gate with positive logic Inputs A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Output C 1 0 0 1 6. Fan−Out. a device called a buffer can be used between the TTL gate and the multiple devices it must drive. An inverter (NOT gate) can serve this function in most digital circuits if complementation is also required. a typical TTL gate has a fan−out of 10. Thus. TTL Unit Load. TTL Unit Load. Thus.Fan−In.29. Symbol for 2−input XNOR gate TABLE 6. Sourcing Current. Sourcing Current. A buffer of this type has a fan−out of 25 to 30. Circuit for the SN7486 XOR gate A B C Figure 6.9 Fan−In. When this is the case.

like all other transistors. * A driver gate is a gate whose output serves as an input to another gate referred to as a unit load. 6−18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. is an active device.31(a). A passive pull−up circuit. We often hear the expressions “passive pull−up” and “active pull−up”. for a fan−out of 10 which is typical for TTL gates. and the word “passive” is used to indicate that the pull−up device used is passive.31(b).30. +Vcc R OFF T Figure 6. The arrangement in Figure 6. and when the output in Low state there is a current of 0 × 1.1) Thus. Figure 6. Sourcing and sinking currents refer to the current flow in TTL circuits.e. a resistor. The passive pull−up arrangement is often used with open collector TTL devices such as the one shown in Figure 6. i. A driver gate* is said to be sourcing current when it’s output is a logic 1 as shown in Figure 6.4 mA . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .31(a) is often referred to as active pull−up since when transistor T 1 is ON.33.30 is an example of passive pull−up where the resistor pulls−up the output voltage towards V CC .. there is a current of 10 × 40 μA = 0.6 mA when output is in Low state (6.6 mA = 16 mA . The word “active” is used here to indicate that transistor T 1 .Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits A unit load for TTL logic gates is defined as 1 Unit Load = ⎨ ⎧ 40 μA when output is in High state ⎩ 1. it pulls the output up towards V CC . when the output is in High state. A driver gate is sinking current when it’s output is a logic 0 as shown in Figure 6.32. The advantage of the open−collector configuration over the totem−pole configuration is that the outputs of two or more open−collector TTL gates can be tied together to realize the AND function as shown in Figure 6.

and Sinking Current +Vcc +Vcc T1 T1 D I source = 0. TTL Unit Load.4 V I sin k (b) Figure 6.6 Κ Ω D1 D2 T3 1 ΚΩ + Output Y - Figure 6. Fan−Out.4 V V OL = 0.32. Current sourcing and current sinking (a) +Vcc 4 ΚΩ T1 T2 Input A Input B X (open collector point) 1. Sourcing Current. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−19 . Open−collector TTL configuration Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.31.4 mA ( 10 unit loads ) D I sin k = 16 mA ( 10 unit loads ) T2 T2 V OH = 2.Fan−In.

With the collectors of transistors T 2 and T 4 as shown. the current I can be as high as 55 mA which most likely will damage transistors T 1 and T 4 . Item 1 in the table is self−explanatory. Therefore.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits Wired AND X Y Figure 6.12 lists some important parameters listed in the data sheets provided by the manufacturer with typical values for a TTL 2−input NAND gate. Wired AND connection To see why the outputs of two or more totem pole TTL gates should not be tied together for wired AND operation.33. 6−20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. For actual values. SN7400. Improper wired AND connection 6. we will continue with Items 3 through 13.34. and we have already discussed Item 2. because per manufacturer’s specifications these transistors can sink only 16 mA . The reader is cautioned that these values are provided just for instructional purposes. let us consider the arrangement shown in Figure 6. the manufacturer’s latest data sheet should always be used since the values change from time to time. +Vcc 130 Ω T1 ON +Vcc 130 Ω T3 OFF T2 OFF T4 ON I Figure 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .10 Data Sheets Table 6.34.

35. R L = 400 Ω Time − High to Low C L = 15 pF Level t PHL 13 Propagation Delay V CC = 5. T A = 25°C .Data Sheets TABLE 6. V IN = 5. The high level input voltage V IH . I OL = 16 mA V CC = Max .4 mA V CC = Min .4 V V CC = Max .8 V . also referred to as logical 1 input voltage is the minimum input voltage level that the IC device will recognize as a valid logical 1 input as shown in Figure 6.00 5. I OH = – 0. I IN = – 12 mA Conditions Min Typical Max 4. R L = 400 Ω Time − Low to High C L = 15 pF Level t PLH 11 22 ns 3.4 0.5 Units V V V V IK High Level Input Voltage V IH Low Level Input Voltage V IL High Level Output Voltage V OH Low Level Output Voltage V OL High Level Input Current I IH Low Level Input Current I IL V CC = Min V CC = Min V CC = Min .0 V .5 V V CC = Max .35. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.4 V 2.5 V V CC = Max .4 0.4 3.4 1.6 – 18 2.6 15 V V 6 7 V μA mA mA mA mA mA ns 8 9 Output Short Circuit V CC = Max . V IN = 0 V .0 V . V OUT = 0 Current I OS 10 Low Level Supply Current I CCL 11 High Level Supply Current I CCH V CC = Max . The low level input voltage V IL .2 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−21 . V IN = 0. V IN = 4. V IN = 0 12 Propagation Delay V CC = 5. V IL = 0.25 – 1. T A = 25°C . V IH = 2.0 0. T A = 25°C .75 5. V IN = 2.0 V .12 Typical parameters for TTL logic circuits provided by IC manufacturers Parameter 1 2 3 4 5 Supply voltage V CC T A = 25°C Input clamp voltage V CC = Min .8 2. 4.8 7 – 55 4.4 40 1 – 1. also referred to as logical 0 input voltage is the maximum input voltage level that the IC device will recognize as a valid logical 0 input as shown in Figure 6.

Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits V CC = 5. Part of a typical NAND gate showing current sinking 6−22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.0 V Logical 1 input region 2.0 V Excluded region Neither log ical 1 nor log ical 0 0. The high level output voltage V OH . representing a fan−out of 10 .4 V T2 I sin k = 16 mA Figure 6.8 V Logical 0 input region 0. is sinked by transistor T 2 as indicated in Figure 6. The low level output voltage V OL . also referred to as logical 0 output voltage is the maximum output voltage level that the IC device will recognize as a valid logical 0 output when a current of 16 mA .35.0 V V IH Minimum log ical 1 input 5.0 V V IL Maximum log ical 0 input Figure 6.36. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . +Vcc 130 Ω T1 Output = 0. 6.36. also referred to as logical 1 output voltage is the minimum output voltage level that the IC device will recognize as a valid logical 1 output. Valid logical 1 and valid logical 0 input regions for a typical IC gate 5.

6 mA ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ 10gates ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ Figure 6. When transistor T 1 is ON. 8. that is. The output short−circuit current I OS is the output current when the output is shorted to ground as shown in Figure 6. When the input voltage is low at 0.5 V .Data Sheets 7. VCC 16 mA 1.4 V . when the input voltage is 2. The Low Level Supply Current I CCL is the current that the voltage supply V CC must furnish when only one of the four TTL 2−input NAND gates within the IC SN7400 has its output at logical 0 .37. V CC must furnish twice the amount of current specified in the data sheet.6 mA each. 10. For a 2−input NAND gate. and the single gate on the left “sinks” (accepts) – 1. The data sheet specifies an output short circuit current of 55 mA maximum.4 V .8 mA . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−23 . An illustration of the input current I IL for a 2−input NAND gate 9.a.6 mA where the minus sign indicates the direction of the current flow as shown in Figure 6.6 × 10 = – 16 mA .6 mA 1. and the output voltage is grounded. If two outputs are at logical 0 . the resistor provides short circuit protection. the maximum value of the sum of the currents I IH furnished by the input lines should not be greater than 40 μA for ten unit loads.38.4 = 8.37 where for a logical 0 input voltage the ten gates at the right side “source” (supply) – 1. transistor T 2 is OFF. the maximum value of the sum of the currents I IH furnished by the input lines should not be greater than 1 mA for ten unit loads. 7. 2 × 4. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. when the input voltage is 5. Thus. For a 2−input NAND gate. the maximum value of the current I IL should not exceed – 1. the resistor will act as a current limiter to limit the current in the range 18 mA to 55 mA .b.6 mA 1.

The definition of the output short−circuit current 11. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .38. a.6 = 3. 6. 2 × 1.11 Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL) Let us consider the differential circuit shown in Figure 6. A typical value is 7 ns . c. If V B2 < V B1 . If V B2 = V B1 . V out2 < V out1 and thus the differential output is positive. V out2 = V out1 and thus the differential output is zero. If V B2 > V B1 . R C2 I C2 = R C1 I C1 . 13. Then. then I C2 = I C1 .Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits +Vcc 130 Ω T1 I short circuit T2 Figure 6. V CC must furnish twice the amount of current specified in the data sheet. 6−24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The propagation delay time t PLH is the time required for a logical 0 Input A or logical 0 Input B to appear as logical 1 at Output Y. R C2 I C2 > R C1 I C1 . b. A typical value is 11 ns . then I C2 < I C1 . R C2 I C2 < R C1 I C1 . and that R C1 = R C2 . assume that transistors T 1 and T 2 are identical.2 mA .39. 12. then I C2 > I C1 . V out2 > V out1 and thus the differential output is negative. that is. If two outputs are at logical 1 . The propagation delay time t PHL is the time required for a logical 1 Input A or logical 1 Input B to appear as logical 0 at Output Y. The High Level Supply Current I CCH is the current that the voltage supply V CC must furnish when only one of the four 2−input NAND gates within the IC SN7400 has its output at logical 1 .

39. +Vcc RC1 1 KΩ IC1 RC2 1 KΩ IC2 VOUT1 VOUT2 T1 VB1 T2 VB2 Differential Output RE = 8 KΩ IE − + VEE = 13.6 I E ≈ -----------------------.Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL) +Vcc RC1 RC2 IC1 IC2 VOUT1 VOUT2 Differential Output T1 VB1=v s T2 VB2=− v s IE RE − + VEE Figure 6.= ----------------------.40.6 mA RE 8 KΩ Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= 1.1 Solution: The base−to−emitter resistance is small compared to the external resistor R E and thus V EE – V BE 13.4 – 0.40. Differential circuit for Example 6.4 V Figure 6. Basic differential circuit Example 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−25 .1 Find the differential voltage gain for the circuit in Figure 6.

Basic ECL circuit In contrast to TTL where the transistors are either cut off or saturated. in ECL the transistors always operate in the active region so they can change state 6−26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.032 and from Chapter 3.= R C1 g m = 10 × 0. I C2 = I C1 = I E ⁄ 2 = 1. relation (3. relation (3.75 V (Low) − + VEE = 5.41.032 = 32 v BE The differential circuit of Figure 6.8 mA From Chapter 3.9 V (High) or VIN = − 1. The basic ECL circuit is shown in Figure 6. g m = 40 × 0. depending on the state of the circuit.74) di C g m = ---------dv BE iC = IC or and thus The small signal voltage gain is i C = g m v BE v out1 = R C1 I C1 = R C1 g m v BE v out 1 3 A v = ----------. Thus.6 ⁄ 2 = 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .32 V T1 VIN VBE2 = 0 . at room temperature g m = 40I C where I C is in milliamps.41.6 V VE RE = 800 Ω IE VIN = − 0.39 forms the basis for the emitter−coupled logic (ECL) electronic gates.78).2 V Figure 6. RC1 250 Ω RC2 IC1 250 Ω VOUT1 IC2 VOUT2 T2 VREF = − 1. Then.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits and this current divides equally between transistors T 1 and T 2 assuming that they are identical.8 × 10 –3 = 0.

75 V and – 0.03 V . with V in = – 0. logical 1 . we obtain V out 1 = 0 V and V out 2 = – 1.42. and this power is converted to energy in the form of unwanted heat.92 V .03 V 3 Therefore.92 – ( – 5.75 V (logical 0 ). Because V E = – 1.. V BE2 + V E = V REF and thus V E = – 1.75 V as logical 0 (Low). with V in = – 1. 2.Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL) very rapidly.03 V .6 V .92 V . the output levels can be made comparable to the input levels by attaching two emitter followers to the outputs as shown in Figure 6. The condition V in = – 0. We observe that V E – ( – V EE ) – 1.03 V and V out 2 = 0 V .9 V . let V in = – 0. transistor T 1 does not conduct and V out 1 is essentially connected to the ground. To find V out 2 when V in = – 1. The propagation time for this arrangement is less than a nanosecond.9 V is established as logical 1 (High) and V in = – 1. we must first find the current I C2 . and transistor T 2 is OFF.. the transistor T 2 is barely turned ON or barely turned OFF and this allows a very rapid change of state from ON to OFF or vice versa. We observe that with V BE2 = 0.75 V (logical 0 ).2 ) I C1 ≈ I E = ----------------------------. In the circuit of Figure 6.2 ) I C2 ≈ I E = ----------------------------.= 4.03 V 3 Therefore. The emitter current I E is almost constant since the base−to−emitter resistance is much smaller than the emitter resistor R E and this current flows through either transistor T 2 or transistor T 2 depending on the value of V in while V REF is held constant at – 1. i. transistor T 1 conducts hard.e.= ----------------------------------. that is.92 – ( – 5. Next. and V out 2 is essentially connected to the ground.32 V with respect to the ground.1 × 10 = – 1. which means the circuits require high power. Therefore all current flows through transistor T 1 and the collector current of this transistor is V E – ( – V EE ) – 1. However. the input levels are – 1.75 V .9 V (logical 1 ). logical 0 .32 – 0. there is a disadvantage and this is that the transistors are continually drawing current.= ----------------------------------.41 the resistor values are approximate and for proper operation they must be very precise. Let us now assume that V in = – 1. Because V E = – 1.1 × 10 = – 1. we obtain V out 1 = – 1.92 V .1 mA RE 800 and V out 2 = – R C2 I C2 = – 250 × 4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−27 .9 V and the outputs are 0 V and – 1.= 4. V out 1 and V out 2 are complements of each other.e. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. We observe that: 1. The output voltage levels are not the same as input voltage levels. i. Also.6 = – 1. However.1 mA 800 RE and V out 1 = – R C2 I C2 = – 250 × 4.

03 – 0.9 V (High) or VIN = − 1. It should also be noted that ECL is not a new technology. Motorola introduced the MECL series in the 1980’s.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits RC1 250 Ω RC2 IC1 250 Ω IC2 V'OUT1 + 0 .75 ns and power consumption of 40 mW . let us review the basic construction and their operation.75 V ( log ical 1 ) Figure 6.75 = – 1. 6. the outputs at the emitter−followers are V out 1 = V' out 1 – V BE = – 1.75 V (Low) − + VEE = 5.12 NMOS Logic Gates We discussed MOSFETs in Chapter 4 but.7 5 V Emitter follower T1 VIN VBE2 = 0 .32 V 100 Ω −2 V VIN = − 0. We recall that a MOSFET is a 4−terminal device but normally the substrate is connected to the source thus making it a 3−terminal device. Henceforth.44.2 V + 0 . for convenience.43 shows a typical 2−input ECL gate and.00 – 0.42. Two types of ECL gates are the ECL 10K and ECL 100K. The complete ECL circuit With the emitter−followers connected at the outputs V' out 1 and V' out 2 of the basic differential circuit and recalling that in the emitter−follower configuration the output voltage is essentially the same as the input. The symbol for a 2−input ECL gate is shown in Figure 6. the MOSFET will be 6−28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .78 V ( log ical 0 ) and V out 2 = V' out 2 – V BE = 0.7 5 V − Emitter follower VOUT2 100 Ω −2 V Figure 6. as before.6 V VE RE = 800 Ω IE T2 V'OUT2 − VOUT1 VREF = − 1.45 = – 0. the latter having a propagation delay time of 0. the resistor values are approximate.

45. behaves like an open switch.44.45.46.6 V VE RE = 800 Ω IE T3 VREF = − 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−29 . RC1 250 Ω RC2 IC1 250 Ω IC2 Emitter follower Emitter follower A+B A+B A T1 B T2 VBE2 = 0 .43. Condition under which an NMOS device behaves as an open switch Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. when V GS < V T . Symbol for ECL gate D B G S n – channel S G D N G S p – channel D B G S D P Figure 6. Typical 2−input ECL gate A B A+B A+B Figure 6.NMOS Logic Gates shown as a 3−terminal block as in Figure 6.46.2 V Figure 6.5 V and it is referred to as the threshold voltage. D G V GS + _ S S S N V DD D 10 10 D Ω or Open switch V GS < V T Figure 6. Designations for n− and p−channel MOSFETS An n−channel MOSFET or simply NMOS device. as shown in Figure 6. where V T = 1.32 V − + VEE = 5.

we will represent these with resistor symbols with a typical value of 100 KΩ . where V T = 1.48.5 V is the threshold voltage. since in integrated circuits resistors are being replaced by NMOS or PMOS devices because these devices require much less space than physical resistors. in our subsequent discussion we will the state of an NMOS or PMOS device ON or OFF (closed or open switch) by a low resistance ( 1 KΩ ) or a very high resistance ( 10 10 Ω ) respectively. Also.49. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . as shown in Figure 6.47.48.47. 6−30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. as shown in Figure 6. as shown in Figure 6. when V GS > V T .Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits An NMOS device behaves like a closed switch. Condition under which a PMOS device behaves as an open switch An PMOS device behaves like a closed switch. when V GS < V T . D G V GS + _ S S S V DD D 10 Ω 3 D P or Closed switch V GS < V T Figure 6. D G V GS + _ S S S N V DD D 10 Ω 3 D or Closed switch V GS > V T Figure 6. Condition under which an NMOS device behaves as a closed switch A p−channel MOSFET or simply PMOS device. We will denote these as N L or P L where the subscript L stands for load.49. when V GS > V T . behaves like an open switch. Condition under which a PMOS device behaves as a closed switch For convenience. D G V GS + _ S S S V DD D 10 10 D Ω P or Open switch V GS > V T Figure 6.

6.51. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and the output is RX 10 V out = ------------------.1 The NMOS Inverter A typical NMOS inverter is shown in Figure 6. R X = 10 10 Ω . N L = R D = 10 5 Ω . and the output is RX 10 V out = ------------------.V DD = ---------------------.13.× 5 ≈ 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−31 . By application of the voltage division expression as with the NMOS inverter.12.NMOS Logic Gates 6. the NMOS device N is ON. the NMOS device N is OFF. With V in = 5 V (logical 1 ).12.14.V DD = -------------------.50. we find that for positive logic the truth table is as shown in Table 6. N L = R D = 10 5 Ω .50 where with V IN = 0 V (logical 0 ). R X = 10 3 Ω . The truth table for positive logic is shown in Table 6. the inversion operation has been performed. TABLE 6.× 5 ≈ 5 V 10 5 RX + RD 10 + 10 10 Thus. Typical NMOS inverter and again the inversion operation is performed.13 Truth table for NMOS inverter V in 0 1 V out 1 0 A PMOS inverter has a similar arrangement where the NMOS devices are replaced by PMOS devices.2 The NMOS NAND Gate A 2−input NMOS NAND gate is shown in Figure 6.05 V 3 5 RX + RD 10 + 10 V DD = 5 V RD D + V in _ G N S + V out _ + V in _ G S V DD = 5 V V DD = 5 V RD 10 Ω 3 5 3 or G S D N D NL + V out _ RX 10 Ω + V out _ or 10 10 Ω Figure 6.

a CMOS circuit has almost no static power dissipation.15. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .12. Power is only dissipated in case the circuit actually switches. Unlike NMOS or bipolar circuits. 6−32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. memories and application specific integrated circuits. 2−input NMOS NAND gate TABLE 6.14 Truth table for 2−input NMOS NAND gate A B V out 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 6. resulting in much better performance.51. we find that for positive logic the truth table is as shown in Table 6.13 CMOS Logic Gates CMOS logic uses both NMOS and PMOS devices to form logic functions. The main advantage of CMOS over NMOS and bipolar technology is the much smaller power dissipation.3 The NMOS NOR Gate A 2−input NMOS NOR gate is shown in Figure 6. 6. This allows to integrate many more CMOS gates on an IC than in NMOS or bipolar technology. CMOS technology is the dominant semiconductor technology for the manufacturing of microprocessors.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits V DD = 5 V D G NL S D + A _ G N S D + B _ G S N _ V out + 10 Ω 3 V DD = 5 V RD 10 Ω + 5 or 10 3 10 Ω V out 10 Ω or 10 10 Ω _ Figure 6. By application of the voltage division expression as with the NMOS NAND gate.52.

Typical CMOS inverter In Figure 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−33 . and the output is Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. V DD = 5 V S G D + V in _ D G N S + 10 V out _ V in = 0 V 10 V DD = 5 V V DD = 5 V 10 P 10 Ω + Ω V out ≈ 5 V _ 3 10 Ω + or 10 Ω 3 V out ≈ 0 V _ V in = 5 V Figure 6.52.53 with V in = 0 V (logical 0 ).1 The CMOS Inverter A typical CMOS inverter is shown in Figure 6. 2−input NMOS NOR gate TABLE 6.13.53.53. device N is OFF. device P is ON.15 Truth table for 2−input NMOS NOR gate A B V out 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 6.CMOS Logic Gates V DD = 5 V D G NL S D + VA _ G N S + VB _ G D N S + V out _ 10 Ω 3 V DD = 5 V 10 Ω + 10 Ω 3 5 or 10 or 10 V out Ω _ 10 Ω 10 Figure 6.

16.17.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits 10 10 V out = ---------------------. we find that for positive logic the truth table is as shown in Table 6.V DD = ---------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . V DD = 5 V V DD = 5 V S G G S 10 Ω 10 10 Ω 3 P D D P D + or 10 3 or 3 10 Ω 10 Ω + V out _ 10 Ω + VA _ + VB _ G S D or 10 N V out N S 10 10 Ω Ω 10 3 G or 10 Ω _ Figure 6. device P is OFF.16 Truth table for CMOS inverter V in 0 1 V out 1 0 6. With V in = 5 V (logical 1 ).54. TABLE 6.54.× 5 ≈ 5 V 10 3 10 3 10 + 10 10 + 10 10 10 and the inversion operation has been performed.V DD = ---------------------. By application of the voltage division expression as with the CMOS inverter.13. 2−input CMOS NAND gate 6−34 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The truth table for positive logic is shown in Table 6.2 The CMOS NAND Gate A 2−input CMOS NAND gate is shown in Figure 6. device N is ON. and the output is RX 10 V out = ------------------.× 5 ≈ 0 V 3 10 RX + RD 10 + 10 3 and again the inversion operation is performed.

we find that for positive logic the truth table is as shown in Table 6.55. Tri−State Devices. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−35 . A buffer or line driver is normally used to change (amplify) the voltage level at the output of a logic circuit as shown in Figure 6. the output of a logic circuit needs to be buffered.17 Truth table for 2−input CMOS NAND gate VA 0 0 1 1 VB 0 1 0 1 V out 1 1 1 0 6. S + VA G D S + VB G D + D G S D G S V DD = 5 V V DD = 5 V 10 Ω 3 P or 10 3 10 Ω P 10 Ω or 10 10 Ω 10 Ω 3 + 10 Ω V out 10 10 3 N N or Ω or 10 V out 10 Ω Figure 6.14 Buffers.13.18 Truth table for 2−input CMOS NOR gate VA 0 0 1 1 VB 0 1 0 1 V out 1 0 0 0 6.Buffers.55. By application of the voltage division expression as with the CMOS inverter. and Data Buses TABLE 6. and Data Buses In certain applications. 2−input CMOS NOR gate TABLE 6. Tri−State Devices. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.3 The CMOS NOR Gate A 2−input CMOS NOR gate is shown in Figure 6.56.18.

57 and its truth table is shown in Table 6. and average propagation delay time is 14 ns . which simplifies design. Figure 6.58 shows the circuits for these ICs. The SN7407 has minimum breakdown voltages of 30 V.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits Logic Circuit A Buffer ( Line Driver ) B Figure 6. open−collector outputs for interfacing with high−level circuits (such as CMOS) or for driving high−current loads (such as lamps or relays). Circuit for the IC SN7407/SN7417 buffer (Courtesy of Texas Instruments) The circuits for the SN7407/SN7417 are completely compatible with most TTL families. Figure 6.58. Symbol for a buffer gate TABLE 6. Voltage amplification with the use of a buffer The symbol of a buffer gate is shown in Figure 6. and the SN7417 has minimum breakdown voltages of 15 V. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Typical power dissipation is 145 mW . Inputs are diode clamped to minimize transmission−line effects.57. 6−36 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.56. A B Figure 6. The maximum sink current is 40 mA for both the SN7407 and SN7417. and also are characterized for use as buffers for driving TTL inputs.19.19 Truth table for buffer amplifier with positive logic A 0 1 B 0 1 The TTL ICs SN7407 and SN7417 are a hex buffers meaning that each contains 6 buffers featuring high−voltage.

60. an open circuit. The output of these devices can assume three states. Some other ICs are tri−stated buffers or gates. G A B Figure 6. and High−Z (high impedance). Tri−State Devices. The truth table for the SN74125 device is shown in Table 6. that is.21 is the truth table for that device.59 shows the symbols for ICs SN74125 and SN74126 quad bus buffers with 3−state outputs. the SN7428 quad 2−input positive−nor buffers.21 Truth table for the TTL SN74125 3−state buffer A B G 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 High Z High Z Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. G A SN74125 B G A SN74126 B Figure 6. Symbol for the SN74366 hex tri−state inverting buffer TABLE 6.59.20 Truth table for the SN74125 3−state buffer A B G 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 High Z High Z Figure 6. and Data Buses Other examples of buffered gates are the TTL SN7406/SN7416 Hex Inverter buffers with open− collector high−voltage outputs. Symbols for the TTL SN74125 and SN74126 devices The output of the SN74125 device is disabled when G is High. logic 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−37 . and the SN7440 dual−four input positive−NAND buffers. logic 1.Buffers.20. Figure 6. and Table 6.60 shows the symbol for the TTL SN74366 hex tri−state inverting buffer. and the output of the SN74126 is disabled when G is Low. TABLE 6.

Control G D N S V in D G P S V out Figure 6.61. when Control = 0 the switch is open. or bidirectional where data can flow in either direction where each direction can be controlled by tri−state devices as shown in Figure 6. the resistance between V IN and V OUT is very low and the signal is transmitted without degradation.63 where the control line C A → B directs the data flow from left to right and C B → A from right to left. both NMOS and PMOS can be switched ON of OFF at the same time rather than alternately. With this arrangement. C VIN VOUT C Figure 6. or simply a bus can be unidirectional. A data bus. When Control = 1 the switch is closed. that is. Thus. one in which data can flow in one direction only.61 where the control input serves as an open or closed switch. Symbol for the CMOS transmission gate A data bus is a group transmission paths such as groups of wires used as a common path to interconnect several devices. and V out = V in . the CMOS transmission gate can be used for both analog and digital signals and the only requirement is that the signal does not exceed the power supply voltages.62 shows the symbol for the CMOS transmission gate. 6−38 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.61. and V out = High Z . both the NMOS and PMOS devices are OFF.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits Another tri−state device is the CMOS transmission gate shown in Figure 6. both the NMOS and PMOS devices are ON. If they are ON. If they are OFF. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . there is no path from the input to the output.62. Also. Figure 6. The CMOS transmission gate As shown in Figure 6. the CMOS transmission gate circuit consists of one NMOS and one PMOS connected in parallel and controlled by inverted gate voltages.

we saw how the addition of a Schottky diode can be used to prevent transistor saturation as shown in Figure 6. Thus. Schottky diode B E C Schottky transistor B E C Figure 6. Typical bidirectional bus 6.Present and Future Technologies A1 B1 A2 B2 An Bn CA → B CB → A Figure 6. the Low−power Schottky 2−input NAND gate is identified as SN74LS00 whose internal construction is shown in Figure 6. the resistances are considerably higher in the upgraded versions of the TTL family and the ICs are identified with the LS designation which stands for Low− power Schottky device.64. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−39 . just about all of these devices have been replaced with newer devices even though the ICs that we described are still in use by experimenters and laboratory work in colleges and universities.63.65. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.64.15 Present and Future Technologies The IC devices that we described in previous sections of this chapter have been around for over forty years. In Chapter 3. Bipolar NPN transistor with Schottky diode and its representation as Schottky transistor To achieve low−power consumption. Since speed and low−power consumption are the most desirable characteristics.

the conventional diodes have been replaced by Schottky diodes. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . This is because transistor T 5 never goes into saturation as it is explained below.66.65.3 V E Figure 6. have been replaced by Schottky transistors.19 with SN74LS00 2−input NAND gate shown in Figure 6. Let us consider the terminal voltages of the Schottky transistor shown in Figure 6. V BC = 0. Internal construction of the SN74LS00 2−input NAND gate (Courtesy Texas Instruments) A comparison of the SN7400 2−input NAND gate shown in Figure 6. reveals that in the latter all resistances are higher.66.65.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits T4 T5 Figure 6.8 V C V CE = 0. we find that 6−40 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and all transistors except T 5 .5 V B V BE = 0.65.2) and noting that V CB = – V BC . by application of (6.2) From Figure 6. Schottky transistor terminal voltages We observe that these values satisfy KVL since V BC + V CE – V BE = 0 (6.

The BiCMOS inverter circuit is shown in Figure 6. V out = V CET2 ≈ 0.8 = 1. The propagation delay time is about 4 ns compared to about 11 ns for the standard TTL. whereas CMOS technology offers high input resistance. high gain.3 + 0. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and this combination results in low−power logic gates.67.1 V and therefore we conclude that transistor T 5 never enters the saturation region. It combines bipolar and CMOS to give the best balance between available output current and power consumption. Another recent technology is the BiCMOS. This device can be used with both analog and digital signals. As we know.8 V . and low output resistance. We will only show the BiCMOS inverter and the BiCMOS 2−input NAND gate. When V in = 5 V . When V in = 0 V . the PMOS device and transistor T 1 are OFF while the NMOS device and transistor T 2 are ON. Basically.Present and Future Technologies V CET5 = V BCT5 + V BET5 = V CET4 + V BET5 = 0. Basic BiCMOS inverter circuit. We will not discuss the BiCMOS technology in detail.2 V . A more recent advancement in TTL technology is the Advanced Low−power Schottky denoted as SN74ALSXX.67.2 = 4. and the power consumption is about 1 mW compared to about 10 mW for the standard TTL. a 2−input NAND gate in this technology is indicated as SN74ALS00. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−41 . the NMOS device and transistor T 2 are OFF while the PMOS device and transistor T 1 are ON. Then. a BiCMOS is a two−stage amplifier that uses a CMOS device in the first stage and a bipolar transistor in the second stage. This inverter functions as follows: V DD = 5 V S G D + V in _ G S P T1 D N T2 + V out _ Figure 6. V out = V DD – V CET1 ≈ 5 – 0. Thus. Then. bipolar transistors offer high speed.

Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits
The BiCMOS 2−input NAND gate has the same arrangement as the 2−input CMOS NAND gate with the addition of two NPN transistors at the outputs of the NMOS and PMOS devices as shown in Figure 6.68.
V DD = 5 V

G

S P D

G

S P D T1

R D + V _ A + V _ B G N S D N S R T2 _ V out +

G

Figure 6.68. The basic BiCMOS NAND gate

As we mentioned in Chapter 3, gallium arsenide (GaAs) is the fastest technology with propagation delay times about 20 ps and even though prices for these devices have fallen considerably during the last few years, the cost is still very high in comparison with other IC families. Undoubtedly, faster and with lower power consumption devices will emerge in the future. The interested reader is urged to check occasionally the Internet for new products developed by Texas Instruments, Motorola, National Semiconductor, Fairchild, and other IC manufacturers for new products.

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Summary 6.16 Summary
• Electronic logic gates are used extensively in digital systems and are manufactured as integrated circuits (IC’s). The basic logic gates are the inverter or NOT gate, the AND gate, and the OR gate, and these perform the complementation, ANDing, and ORing operations respectively. • Four other logic gates, known as NAND, NOR, Exclusive OR (XOR), and Exclusive NOR (XNOR), are derivatives of the basic AND and OR gates. However, AND and OR gates consist of NAND and NOR gates respectively, followed by an Inverter. • Generally, an uncomplemented variable represents a logical 1 , also referred to as the true condition, and when that variable is complemented, it represents a logical 0 , also referred to as the false condition. Thus, if A = 1 (true), it follows that A = 0 (false). • Integrated circuit manufacturers assign the letter H (High) to the 5 volt level and the letter L (Low) to the ground level. With the H and L assignments, the logic circuitry designer has the option of assigning a logical 1 to H and logical 0 to L, or logical 0 to H and logical 1 to L. The former convention is known as positive logic, and the latter as negative logic. • The Inverter performs the complementation operation. Thus if the input is A the output will be A and vice versa. The TTL SN7404 Hex Inverter is a popular transistor−transistor logic (TTL) IC device. All SN74 series devices are TTL devices. The newer SN74ALS04 device is faster and consumes less power. ALS stands for Advanced Low power Schottky transistor. • The output of an AND gate is logical 1 (true) only when all inputs are logical 1 . The earlier TTL SN7408 Quad 2−input AND gate has been superseded with the SN74ALS08 device. • The output of an OR gate is logical 1 (true) whenever one or more of its inputs are logical 1 . The earlier SN7432 Quad 2−input OR gate has been superseded with the SN74ALS32 device. • The output of an NAND gate is logical 0 (false) only when all inputs are logical 1 . The earlier SN7400 Quad 2−input NAND gate has been superseded with the SN74ALS00 device. • The input clamp voltage denoted as V IK is the maximum negative voltage that may be applied at the input terminals of a typical TTL gate without damaging the IC. To insure that this value is not exceeded, diodes are included at the inputs of gates. • The output of an NOR gate is logical 1 (true) only when all inputs are logical 0 (false). The SN7402 Quad 2−input NOR gate has been superseded with the SN74ALS02 device. • The exclusive−OR (XOR) logic gate has two inputs and one output. The output of an exclusive−OR gate is logical 1 (true) when only one of the inputs, but not both, is logical 1 . The SN7486 XOR gate has been superseded with the SN74ALS86 device. • The exclusive−NOR (XNOR) logic gate has two inputs and one output. The output of a XNOR gate is logical 1 (true) only when the inputs are the same, that is, both logical 0 or Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

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Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits
both logical 1 . For this reason, the XNOR gate is also known as equivalence gate. There is no IC XNOR gate in the TTL family but one can be formed with an XOR gate (SN7486) followed by an inverter (SN7404). We can also implement the XNOR function using the SN7486 IC with negative logic. • The fan−in of a gate is the number of its inputs. Thus, a 3−input NAND gate has a fan−in of 3. • Fan−out is a term that defines the maximum number of digital inputs that the output of a single logic gate can feed. Generally, TTL gates can feed up to 10 other digital gates or devices. Thus, a typical TTL gate has a fan−out of 10. • A buffer can be used when it becomes necessary for a single TTL logic gate to drive more than 10 other gates or devices. A typical buffer has a fan−out of 25 to 30. An inverter (NOT gate) can serve this function in most digital circuits if complementation is also required. • For TTL logic gates, one unit load is defined as 40 μA when the output is in High state, and 1.6 mA when the output is in Low state. • Passive pull−up refers to the condition where a resistor pulls−up the output voltage towards V CC . • Active pull−up refers to the condition where a transistor rather than a resistor is used to pull− up the output voltage towards V CC . • Sourcing and sinking currents refer to the current flow in TTL circuits. A driver gate is said to be sourcing current when it’s output is High. A driver gate is sinking current when it’s output is Low. • Totem−pole configuration refers to the arrangement where at the output stage of a TTL gate one transistor is stacked on top of another and their operation is complementary, that is, when one transistor is ON the other transistor is OFF. • Some TTL logic gates are designed with the collector of transistor at the output stage unconnected and are referred to as open collector TTL devices. The advantage of the open−collector configuration over the totem−pole configuration is that the outputs of two or more open− collector TTL gates can be tied together to realize the AND function. This arrangement is referred to as wired−AND operation. The passive pull−up arrangement is often used with open collector TTL devices. • Totem pole TTL gates should not be tied together for wired AND operation. • The data sheets provided by IC device manufacturers contain very important parameters that designers must take into consideration. • Besides the TTL, the emitter−coupled logic (ECL) is another logic family employing bipolar transistors, and with the exception of gallium arsenide technology, is the fastest logic family.

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Summary
• In contrast to TTL where the transistors are either cut off or saturated, depending on the state of the circuit, in ECL the transistors always operate in the active region so they can change state very rapidly. The basic ECL circuit is essentially a differential amplifier. • The ECL gate provides two outputs, one which implements the OR function, and the other implements the NOR function. • Two types of ECL gates are the ECL 10K and ECL 100K, the latter having a propagation delay time of 0.75 ns and power consumption of 40 mW . It should also be noted that ECL is not a new technology; Motorola introduced the MECL series in the 1980’s. • The earlier NMOS and PMOS logic gates have now been superseded by CMOS logic gates. CMOS logic uses both NMOS and PMOS devices to form logic functions. CMOS technology is the dominant semiconductor technology for the manufacturing of microprocessors, memories and application specific integrated circuits. The main advantage of CMOS over NMOS and bipolar technology is the much smaller power dissipation. • A buffer or line driver is normally used to change (amplify) the voltage level at the output of a logic circuit. • Some other ICs are tri−stated buffers or gates. The output of these devices can assume three states, logic 0, logic 1, and High−Z (high impedance). • The CMOS transmission gate is another tri−state device where the control input serves as an open or closed switch. • A data bus is a group transmission paths such as groups of wires used as a common path to interconnect several devices. A data bus, or simply a bus can be unidirectional, that is, one in which data can flow in one direction only, or bidirectional where data can flow in either direction where each direction can be controlled by tri−state devices. • A more recent advancement in TTL technology is the Advanced Low−power Schottky denoted as ALS. Thus, a 2−input NAND gate in this technology is indicated as SN74ALS00. The propagation delay time is about 4 ns compared to about 11 ns for the standard TTL, and the power consumption is about 1 mW compared to about 10 mW for the standard TTL. • The BiCMOS technology combines bipolar and CMOS to give the best balance between available output current and power consumption. Bipolar transistors offer high speed, high gain, and low output resistance, whereas CMOS technology offers high input resistance, and this combination results in low−power logic gates. Basically, a BiCMOS is a two−stage amplifier that uses a CMOS device in the first stage and a bipolar transistor in the second stage. This device can be used with both analog and digital signals. • Gallium arsenide (GaAs) still remains the fastest technology with propagation delay times about 20 ps and even though prices for these devices have fallen considerably during the last few years, the cost is still very high in comparison with other IC families.

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Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits 6.17 Exercises
1. The circuit below is known as Resistor Logic (RL) gate.
1 KΩ V1 V2 1 KΩ 1 KΩ V out

a. Write the truth table for the input combinations of 0 V and 5 V with respect to the ground. b. State the conditions under which this circuit can be classified as an AND gate. c. State the conditions under which this circuit can be classified as an OR gate. d. State some of the deficiencies of this circuit when used as a logic gate. 2. The circuit below is known as Diode Logic (DL) gate.
V1 V2 15 KΩ 5V

V out

Write the truth table for the input combinations of 0 V and 3 V with respect to the ground. Which type of logic gate does this circuit represent? 3. The circuit below is another form of a Diode Logic (DL) gate.
V1 V2 1 KΩ V out

Write the truth table for the input combinations of 0 V and 5 V with respect to the ground. Which type of logic gate does this circuit represent?

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Exercises
4. The circuit below is a 3−input Resistor−Transistor Logic (RTL) gate.
750 Ω T1 750 Ω T2 750 Ω T3 1 KΩ V out 5V

V1

V2

V3

Write the truth table for the input combinations of 0 V and 5 V with respect to the ground. Which type of logic gate does this circuit represent? 5. For the circuit below find V out 1 and V out 2 when each of V 1 through V 4 assumes the values of
0 V and 5 V with respect to the ground.
750 Ω

V3

T3

V4 V1 V2 750 Ω T1 T2 1 KΩ V out 1 5V

750 Ω

T4

1 KΩ

V out 2

750 Ω

5V

6. For the circuit of Exercise 5, derive an expression for V out 1 High level when the driving gate has a fan−out of 2. Hint: Start with an equivalent circuit. 7. The circuit below is a 3−input Diode−Transistor Logic (DTL) gate.

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Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits
V CC = 5 V

R1 D1 V1 V2 V3 D2 D3

2 KΩ D4 D5 R3

R2

2 KΩ V out

20 KΩ

Write the truth table for the input combinations of 0 V and 5 V with respect to the ground. Which type of logic gate does this circuit represent? 8. It is known that the inverter circuit shown below has the value h FE = 30 minimum. Calculate the levels of the output voltage v out when the levels of the input voltage v in are 0 and 12 volts. You may first assume that v out ( sat ) = 0 V to obtain approximate values and then assume that v out ( sat ) = 0.2 V for exact values.
V CC = 12 V RC R1 2.2 KΩ

v out
R2

v in 15 KΩ

100 KΩ

V BB = – 12 V

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Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 6.18 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises
1.
1 KΩ V1 V2 1 KΩ 1 KΩ V out

a. With V 1 = V 2 = 0 V , V out = 0 V . With V 1 = 0 V , and V 2 = 5 V , R 1 is in parallel with
R3

and by the voltage division expression
V out t
R 1 || R 3 0.5 KΩ = ---------------------------- ⋅ V 2 = ------------------------------------ ⋅ 5 V = 1.67 V || R 3 1 KΩ + 0.5 KΩ R2 + R1

V1 = 0 V

With V 1 = 5 V , and V 2 = 0 V , R 2 is in parallel with R 3 and by the voltage division expression
V out
V2 = 0 V

R 2 || R 3 0.5 KΩ = ---------------------------- ⋅ V 1 = ------------------------------------ ⋅ 5 V = 1.67 V 1 KΩ + 0.5 KΩ R 1 + R 2 || R 3

With V 1 = V 2 = 5 V , we apply the principle of superposition and we find that
V out
V1 = V2 = 5 V

= V out

V1 = 0 V

+ V out

V2 = 0 V

= 1.67 + 1.67 = 3.34 V

With these values we construct the truth table below.
V1
0V 0V 5V 5V

V2
0V 5V 0V 5V

V out
0V 1.67 V 1.67 V 3.34 V

b. This circuit can be classified as an AND gate if V out ≥ 3.34 V c. This circuit can be classified as an OR gate if V out ≥ 1.67 V d. This circuit is not practical for use as a logic gate because if more than two inputs exist, more different output levels result. Moreover, there is no compatibility between the input and output levels. With the above arrangement for instance, with V 1 = V 2 = 5 V the output is V out = 3.34 V and if this output becomes the input of another gate shown below as Gate 3, the outputs drop to 2.72 V as shown in parentheses. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

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Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits
5V 5V 5V 5V 1 3.34 V (2.72 V) 3 2 3.34 V (2.72 V) 2.23 V (1.81 V)

2.
V1 V2 15 KΩ 5V

V out

Both diodes are forward−biased for any combination of the inputs since the value of V CC is greater than 3 V and can be represented as in the circuit below.
0.7 V V1 V2

0.7 V

15 KΩ 5V V CC

V out

By inspection, when V 1 = V 2 = 0 V , or V 1 = 0 V and V 2 = 3 V , or V 1 = 3 V and V 2 = 0 V , the output is V out = 0.7 V . When V 1 = V 2 = 3 V , the output is V out = 3.7 V and thus the truth table is as shown below.
V1
0V 0V 3V 3V

V2
0V 3V 0V 3V

V out
0.7 V 0.7 V 0.7 V 3.7 V

The truth table indicates that this circuit could be used as an AND gate.

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Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises
3.
V1 V2 1 KΩ V out

By inspection, when V 1 = V 2 = 0 V , the output is V out = 0 V . When V 1 = 0 V and
V 2 = 5 V , or V 1 = 5 V and V 2 = 0 V , or V 1 = V 2 = 5 V , one or both diodes conduct and

the output is V out = 5.0 – 0.7 = 4.3 V and thus the truth table is as shown below.
V1
0V 0V 5V 5V

V2
0V 5V 0V 5V

V out
0V 4.3 V 4.3 V 4.3 V

The truth table indicates that this circuit could be used as an OR gate. 4.
750 Ω T1 750 Ω T2 750 Ω T3 1 KΩ V out 5V

V1

V2

V3

By inspection, when V 1 = V 2 = V 3 = 0 V , none of the three transistors conduct and thus V out = 5 V . When one or more of the input voltages is 5 V one or more of the transistors will saturate and the output will be V out = 0.2 V ≈ 0 V . The truth table is as shown below and thus this circuit behaves as a 3−input NOR gate.

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Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits

Inputs

Output

V1
0V 0V 0V 0V 5V 5V 5V 5V

V2
0V 0V 5V 5V 0V 0V 5V 5V

V3
0V 5V 0V 5V 0V 5V 0V 5V

V out
5V 0V 0V 0V 0V 0V 0V 0V

5.
V3 750 Ω T3

V4 V1 V2 750 Ω T1 T2 1 KΩ V out 1 5V

750 Ω

T4

1 KΩ

V out 2

750 Ω

5V

This circuit is a 2−input NOR gate with fan−out of 1. We recall that fan−out is the number of gate inputs that can be driven by a single gate output. Thus, in the circuit above the output of the first 2−input NOR gate drives (is connected to) one of the inputs of the second 2−input NOR gate. By inspection, when V 1 = 0 V and V 2 = 5 V , or V 1 = 5 V and V 2 = 0 V , or V 1 = V 2 = 5 V , one of both transistors T 1 and T 2 conduct and thus V out 1 = 0.2 V ≈ 0 V . When V 3 = 0 V and V out 1 = 0 V , V out 2 = 5 V . Next, let us examine the case where V 1 = V 2 = 5 V . Under this condition V out1 < 5 V because current flows through the 750 Ω at the base of transistor T 4 which now conducts, and and V BET4 = 0.7 V . We can now find that current from the equivalent circuit below.

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Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises
750 Ω

1 KΩ 5V I

0.7 V

5 – 0.7 4.3 I = -------------------------- = ----------- = 2.46 mA 1000 + 750 1750

The actual value of V out 1 is 5 V minus the voltage drop across the 1 KΩ resistor. Thus,
V out 1 = 5 – 10 × 2.46 × 10
3 –3

= 2.54 V

We see then that by connecting one input of a gate to the output of another gate causes the high level to decrease from its open circuit value of 5 V to the value of 2.54 V . 6. For a fan−out of 2, the equivalent circuit is as shown in Figure (a) below and its Thevenin equivalent is as shown in Figure (b).

1 KΩ 5V

750 Ω 0.7 V (a)

750 Ω 0.7 V

1 KΩ 5V I (b)

750 ⁄ 2 Ω 0.7 V

From Figure (b)
4.3 5 – 0.7 I = --------------------------------- = --------------------------------1000 + 750 ⁄ 2 1000 + 750 ⁄ 2

and
1000 V out 1 = 5 – --------------------------------- 4.3 = 1.87 V 1000 + 750 ⁄ 2

The equivalent circuit of Figure (a) can be extended to the situation where there are N gates driven by one output of a gate, that is a fan−out of N, by replacing the resistance 750 ⁄ 2 by 750 ⁄ N . Then,
1000 V out 1 = 5 – --------------------------------- 4.3 1000 + 750 ⁄ N

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Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits
Note: RTL is no longer used as a logic family. It is one of the earlier families employed years ago with a maximum fan−out of 5 and fan−in of 4. 7.
V CC = 5 V

R1 D1 V1 V2 V3 D2 D3

2 KΩ D4 D5 R3

R2

2 KΩ V out

20 KΩ

With one or more of the inputs V 1 , V 2 , or V 3 at 0 V , the given circuit becomes as shown below where the 0.2 V is assumed to be the output of a previous logic gate with logical 0 .
V CC = 5 V

R1 0.7 V 0.2 V VA

2 KΩ D4 D5 R3 VB

R2

2 KΩ V out = 5 V

20 KΩ

With V A = 0.2 V + 0.7 V = 0.9 V , the transistor is OFF. For the transistor to be ON, the voltage V A with respect to the ground would have to be
V A = V D4 + V D5 + V BE = 0.7 + 0.7 + 0.7 = 2.1 V

above ground. Therefore, V out = 5 V . Next, we will consider the case where all three inputs are high, that is, V 1 = V 2 = V 3 = 5 V . In this case, the three input diodes D 1 , D 2 , and D 3 are reverse−biased and thus do not con-

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by KVL R 1 I – 0.2 V 0.9 V VD R3 VB From the circuit above. But this would not be a good design since any small noise voltage such as 0.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises duct.7 + 0.7 V 0.27 V 2 KΩ + 20 KΩ This voltage is more than sufficient to turn the transistor on and thus V out = 0.= 3.2 + 0. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Let us assume that it is OFF.7 )V B = V BE = R 3 I = 20 KΩ × ------------------------------------. Then.5 = 0. diodes D 4 and D 5 are forward−biased and the equivalent circuit is as shown below. when at least one of the input voltages is Low. V CC = 5 V R1 2 KΩ VB R2 2 KΩ V out = 0.7 V R3 20 KΩ I To determine the output voltage V out we need to find out whether the transistor is ON or OFF.2 V and thus the transistor will be OFF.7 V + R 3 I = V CC = 5 V 5 – ( 0.9 – 0.2 V would result to 0. VA 0. The two diodes D 4 and D 5 in series are both necessary for the following reason: If only one diode were used.2 V .7 = 0.5 V when added to 0.7 V – 0.7 V and this would turn the transistor ON. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−55 . However. V BE = V B = V B – V B = 0. the voltages V A and V B would be as shown below.

v out = 12 V and the inversion operation has been performed. It is one of the earlier families employed years ago with power consumption of about 10 mW and propagation delay time of approximately 30 ns . With v in = 0 V the circuit is as shown below. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . V CC = 12 V 2. DTL is no longer used as a logic family.⋅ ( – 12 V ) = – 1. Inputs Output V1 0V 0V 0V 0V 5V 5V 5V 5V V2 0V 0V 5V 5V 0V 0V 5V 5V V3 0V 5V 0V 5V 0V 5V 0V 5V V out 5V 5V 5V 5V 5V 5V 5V 0V Note: Like the RTL.57 V 100 KΩ + 15 KΩ and this voltage will certainly keep the transistor at cutoff. for v in = 0 V . Therefore.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits The truth table for this 3−input DTL gate is shown below and we see that it behaves like a 3− input NAND gate.2 KΩ VB 15 KΩ 100 KΩ V BB = – 12 V v out = 12 V By the voltage division expression 15 KΩ V B = V BE = ------------------------------------------. 6−56 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. 8.

Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises
With v in = 12 V the circuit is as shown below. First let us assume that v out ( sat ) = 0 V to obtain approximate values and verify the assumption that the transistor is indeed in saturation.
V CC = 12 V 2.2 KΩ IC I1 IB 100 KΩ

VB

v out ( sat ) = 0 V

v in = 12 V

15 KΩ I2

V BB = – 12 V

Let the minimum base current for saturation be denoted as I B ( min ) . Then, I B ( min ) = I C ⁄ h FE where
12 V I C = ---------------- = 5.45 mA 2.2 KΩ

and thus
IC --------------------I B ( min ) = ------- = 5.45 mA = 0.182 mA h FE 30

The actual base current can be found from the circuit above. We find that
12 V I 1 = ---------------- = 0.80 mA 15 KΩ 12 V I 2 = ------------------- = 0.12 mA 100 KΩ

and
I B = I 1 – I 2 = 0.80 – 0.12 = 0.68 mA

Since this value is considerably larger than I B ( min ) , we accept the fact that the transistor is in saturation. Next, we assume that v out ( sat ) = 0.2 V to obtain more exact values. The circuit then is as shown below, and since the transistor is in saturation, there must be
v BE ( sat ) = 0.7 V

and with these values,

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Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits
12 V – 0.2 I C = ------------------------ = 5.1 mA 2.2 KΩ

IC 5.1 mA I B ( min ) = ------- = ------------------ = 0.17 mA 30 h FE I 1 = 12 V – 0.7 V = 0.75 mA ------------------------------15 KΩ ) I 2 = 0.7 V – ( – 12 V - = 0.13 mA --------------------------------------100 KΩ

and
I B = I 1 – I 2 = 0.75 – 0.13 = 0.62 mA

We observe that the more exact computations do not differ significantly from those obtained by assuming that the transistor in saturation is essentially a short circuit. Therefore, when v in = 12 V , v out ( sat ) = 0.2 V and again the inversion operation is performed.

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Chapter 7
Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators

T

his chapter is an introduction to several pulsed circuits and waveform generators also known as relaxation oscillators. These circuits are part of a family of circuits that include differentiators, integrators, clipping and clamping circuits, pulse−timing and delay circuits, logic circuits, and switching circuits. In this chapter we discuss the three types of multivibrators, the 555 Timer, and the Schmitt trigger. Sinusoidal oscillators are discussed in Chapter 10.

7.1 Astable (Free−Running) Multivibrators
An astable or free−running multivibrator, shown in Figure 7.1, is essentially a digital clock which has two momentarily stable states which alternate continuously thus producing square pulses as shown in Figure 7.2. We have assumed that all devices in the circuit of Figure 7.1 are identical.
V CC RC Output 1 C Q1 C Q2 RB RB RC Output 2

Figure 7.1. Astable multivibrator
Output 1

Output 2

Figure 7.2. Output waveforms of the astable multivibrator

Let us now consider Output 1 and assume that the time ON T 1 and time OFF T 2 are equal and the period is T as shown in Figure 7.3.

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7−1

Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators
Output 1 T1 T T2

Figure 7.3. Waveform showing period T and times ON and OFF for the multivibrator circuit of Figure 7.1

If in Figure 7.3 T 1 = T 2 , the pulse repetition frequency f is given by
1 1 1 1 f = -- = ----------------- = ------------------------------- = --------------------------------T1 + T2 0.69 × R B × C T ln 2 × R B × C

where R B and C are as shown in Figure 7.1.

7.2 The 555 Timer
The 555 Timer circuit is a widely used IC for generating waveforms. A simplified diagram is shown in Figure 7.4.
V CC R Threshold R Trigger R Disch arg e 2 ⁄ 3 V CC

+

Comparator 1 R Q S Q Output

1 ⁄ 3 V CC

+
Comparator 2

Figure 7.4. Simplified circuit for the 555 Timer

We observe that this IC includes a resistive voltage divider consisting of three identical resistors and this divider sets the voltage at the plus (+) input of the lower comparator at 1 ⁄ 3 V CC and at plus (+) input of the upper comparator at 2 ⁄ 3 V CC . The outputs of the comparators determine

7−2

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Astable Multivibrator with the 555 Timer
the state of the SR flip−flop whose output is either Q or Q . Thus, if Q is High (Set state), Q is Low, and if Q is Low, Q will be High (Reset state) or vice versa. The SR flip−flop is Set when a High level is applied to the S input, and it is Reset when a High level is applied to the R input. Accordingly, the flip−flop is Set or Reset depending on the outputs of the two comparators, and these outputs are determined by the inputs Threshold at the plus (+) input of Comparator 1, and Trigger at the minus (−) input of Comparator 2. The output of the 555 Timer is the Q output of the SR flip−flop and when it is Low, Q will be High, and if the input Discharge is High, the transistor will be saturated and it will provide a path to the ground.

7.3 Astable Multivibrator with the 555 Timer
A useful application of the 555 Timer is as an astable multivibrator. From our previous discussion, we recall that the astable multivibrator is a pulse generator producing waveforms such as that shown in Figure 7.5.

T1 T

T2

Figure 7.5. Typical waveform for an astable multivibrator

For the waveform of Figure 7.5,
Period = T = T 1 + T 2 1 Pulse Repetition Frequency = f = -T T1 Duty Cycle = ----T

Figure 7.6 shows an astable multivibrator employing a 555 Timer. We will see that with this circuit the duty cycle will always be greater than 0.5 as shown in Figure 7.7. For the circuit of Figure 7.6 let us first assume that the capacitor is uncharged and the SR flip−flop is Set. In this case the output is High and the transistor is does not conduct. The capacitor then will charge towards V CC through the resistors R A and R B . When the capacitor reaches the value v C = 1 ⁄ 3 V CC the output of Comparator 2 goes Low and the SR flip−flop remains Set.

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7−3

Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators
V CC

RA R RB

2 ⁄ 3 V CC

+
R

Comparator 1 R Q S Q

T1 T 2

vC C

1 ⁄ 3 V CC

Output

+
Comparator 2 R

Figure 7.6. Implementation of an astable multivibrator with a 555 Timer v C = 2 ⁄ 3 V CC v C = 1 ⁄ 3 V CC
T1 T2

Output waveform

Figure 7.7. Input and output waveforms for the astable multivibrator of Figure 7.6

When the capacitor reaches the value v C = 2 ⁄ 3 V CC , the output of Comparator 1 goes High and resets the SR flip−flop and thus the output Q goes Low, Q goes High, the transistor becomes saturated, its collector voltage becomes almost zero, and since it appears at the common node of resistors R A and R B , the capacitor begins to discharge through resistor R B and the collector of the transistor. The capacitor voltage v C decreases exponentially with time constant t d = R B C

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Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

Astable Multivibrator with the 555 Timer
and when it reaches the value v C = 1 ⁄ 3 V CC , the output of Comparator 2 goes High and Sets the SR flip−flop. The output Q goes High, Q goes Low, the transistor is turned OFF, the capacitor begins to charge through the series combination of resistors R A and R B , and its voltage rises exponentially with time constant t r = ( R A + R B )C and when it reaches the value v C = 2 ⁄ 3 V CC it resets the flip−flop and the cycle is repeated. We are interested in the pulse repetition frequency f = 1 ⁄ T and the duty cycle T 1 ⁄ T where T = T 1 + T 2 and the desired values are dependent on appropriate values of resistors R A and R B and the capacitor C . As we know, the capacitor voltage as a function of time is given by
v C ( t ) = V ∞ – ( V ∞ – V in )e
– t ⁄ R eq C

(7.1)

where V ∞ is the final value and V in is the initial value of the voltage across the capacitor. For the charging interval T 1 the circuit is as shown in figure 7.8.
V CC RA

RB

vC ( t )
C

Figure 7.8. Circuit for the charging interval

For this interval, V ∞ = V CC , V in = 1 ⁄ 3 V CC , and R eq = R A + R B . Then, relation (7.1) becomes
v C ( t ) = V CC – ( V CC – 1 ⁄ 3 V CC )e
– t ⁄ ( R A + R B )C

= V CC – ( 2 ⁄ 3 V CC )e

– t ⁄ ( R A + R B )C

(7.2)

At t = T 1 , v C ( t ) = 2 ⁄ 3 V CC and relation (7.2)becomes
2 ⁄ 3 V CC = V CC – ( 2 ⁄ 3 V CC )e ( 2 ⁄ 3 )e e
– T 1 ⁄ ( R A + R B )C – T 1 ⁄ ( R A + R B )C

= 1⁄3

– T 1 ⁄ ( R A + R B )C

= 1⁄2

– T 1 ⁄ ( R A + R B )C = ln ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) = ln 1 – ln 2 = 0 – ln 2

or

T 1 = ln 2 ⋅ ( R A + R B )C = 0.69 ( R A + R B )C

(7.3)

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

7−5

Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators
For the discharging interval T 2 the circuit is as shown in figure 7.9.
V CC RA RB

vC ( t )
C

Figure 7.9. Circuit for the discharging interval

For this interval, V ∞ = 0 V , V in = 2 ⁄ 3 V CC , and R eq = R B . Then, relation (7.1) becomes
v C ( t ) = 0 – ( 0 – 2 ⁄ 3 V CC )e
–t ⁄ RB C

= ( 2 ⁄ 3 V CC )e

–t ⁄ R B C

(7.4)

At t = T 2 , v C ( t ) = 1 ⁄ 3 V CC and relation (7.4)becomes
1 ⁄ 3 V CC = ( 2 ⁄ 3 V CC )e ( 2 ⁄ 3 )e e
–T2 ⁄ RB C –T2 ⁄ RB C

= 1⁄3

–T2 ⁄ RB C

= 1⁄2

– T 2 ⁄ R B C = ln ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) = ln 1 – ln 2 = 0 – ln 2

or

T 2 = ln 2 ⋅ ( R A + R B )C = 0.69R B C

(7.5)

The period T is the summation of (7.3) and (7.5). Thus,
T = T 1 + T 2 = 0.69 ( R A + R B )C + 0.69R B C = 0.69 ( R A + 2R B )C

(7.6)

The right side of (7.6) cannot be negative; accordingly, the circuit of Figure 7.9 cannot achieve the condition T 2 > T 1 . Moreover, from (7.3) and (7.5) we observe that T 1 and T 2 cannot be equal. Therefore, with the circuit of Figure 7.9 T 1 will always be greater than T 2 and the duty cycle will always be greater than 0.5 of 50 percent. But we can achieve a duty cycle close to 50 percent if we choose resistor R A to be much smaller than resistor R B . Example 7.1 For the astable multivibrator of Figure 7.10 the capacitor has the value of 10 nF . Determine appropriate values for the resistors R A and R B so that the circuit will produce a pulse repetition frequency of 200 KHz with a duty cycle of 60%.

7−6

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

Astable Multivibrator with the 555 Timer
V CC

RA R RB

2 ⁄ 3 V CC

+
R

Comparator 1 R Q

T1 T 2

vC C

1 ⁄ 3 V CC

Output S Q

+
Comparator 2 R

Figure 7.10. Astable multivibrator for Example 7.1

Solution: The period T = T 1 + T 2 is a function of the capacitor and resistor values as shown in relation (7.6), that is,
T = T 1 + T 2 = 0.69 ( R A + 2R B )C

The pulse repetition frequency is f = 1 ⁄ T and thus
5 1 --------------------------f = 10 = ------------------------------------------ = 1.443 × 10 0.69 ( R A + 2R B )C R A + 2R B 8

1.443 × 10 R A + 2R B = --------------------------- = 14.43 KΩ 5 10

8

(7.7)

The duty cycle is T 1 ⁄ T and from relations (7.3) and (7.6) we obtain
0.69 ( R A + R B )C RA + RB RA + RB T Duty cycle = 0.6 = ----1 = ------------------------------------------ = ---------------------- = -----------------------0.69 ( R A + 2R B )C R A + 2R B 14.43 KΩ T R A + R B = 0.6 × 14.43 = 8.66 KΩ

(7.8)

Subtraction of (7.8) from (7.7) yields Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

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Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators
R B = 14.43 – 8.66 = 5.77 KΩ

(7.9)

and from (7.8)

R A = 8.66 – 5.77 = 2.89 KΩ

Figure 7.11 shows an alternate form of an astable multivibrator using the 555 Timer.
V CC

RA RB R

2 ⁄ 3 V CC

+ vC C
R

Comparator 1 R Q S Q

T1 T 2

1 ⁄ 3 V CC

Output

+
Comparator 2 R

Figure 7.11. Alternate form of an astable multivibrator with a 555 Timer

With the circuit of Figure 7.11 we can obtain any desired value for the duty cycle as we will see from the relations below. For the charging interval T 1 the circuit is as shown in figure 7.12.
V CC RA

vC ( t )
C

Figure 7.12. Circuit for the charging interval

7−8

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

Astable Multivibrator with the 555 Timer
For this interval, V ∞ = V CC , V in = 1 ⁄ 3 V CC , and R eq = R A . Then, relation (7.1) becomes
v C ( t ) = V CC – ( V CC – 1 ⁄ 3 V CC )e
–t ⁄ RA C

= V CC – ( 2 ⁄ 3 V CC )e

–t ⁄ RA C

(7.10)

At t = T 1 , v C ( t ) = 2 ⁄ 3 V CC and relation (7.10) becomes
2 ⁄ 3 V CC = V CC – ( 2 ⁄ 3 V CC )e ( 2 ⁄ 3 )e e
–t ⁄ RA C –t ⁄ R A C

= 1⁄3

–t ⁄ RA C

= 1⁄2

– T 1 ⁄ R A C = ln ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) = ln 1 – ln 2 = 0 – ln 2 T 1 = ln 2 ⋅ R A C = 0.69R A C

(7.11)

For the discharging interval T 2 the circuit is as shown in figure 7.13.
V CC RA

vC ( t )
C RB

Figure 7.13. Circuit for the discharging interval

For this interval, V ∞ = ( R B ⁄ ( R A + R B ) )V CC , V in = 2 ⁄ 3 V CC , and R eq = R A || R B . Then, relation (7.1) becomes
RB RB – t ⁄ ( R A || R B )C v C ( t ) = ⎛ ------------------- ⎞ V CC – ⎛ ------------------- ⎞ V CC – 2 ⁄ 3 V CC e ⎝ RA + RB ⎠ ⎝ RA + RB ⎠

(7.12)

At t = T 2 , v C ( t ) = 1 ⁄ 3 V CC and relation (7.12)becomes
RB RB – T ⁄ ( R || R )C 1 ⁄ 3 V CC = ⎛ ------------------- ⎞ V CC – ⎛ ------------------- ⎞ V CC – 2 ⁄ 3 V CC e 2 A B ⎝ RA + RB ⎠ ⎝ RA + RB ⎠ e
– T 2 ⁄ ( R A || R B )C

R A – 2R B [ 1 ⁄ 3 – R B ⁄ ( R A + R B ) ]V CC = --------------------------------------------------------------------- = ⎛ ---------------------- ⎞ ⎝ 2R A – R B ⎠ [ 2 ⁄ 3 – R B ⁄ ( R A + R B ) ]V CC e
–T2 ⁄ RB C

(7.13)

= 1⁄2

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

7−9

Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators
R A – 2R B – T 2 ⁄ ( R A || R B )C = ln ⎛ ---------------------- ⎞ = ln ( R A – 2R B ) – ln ( 2R A – R B ) ⎝ 2R A – R B ⎠ 2R A – R B T 2 ⁄ ( R A || R B )C = ln ( 2R A – R B ) – ln ( R A – 2R B ) = ln ⎛ ---------------------- ⎞ ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠

or

RA ⋅ RB 2R A – R B T 2 = ------------------- C ⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------- ⎞ ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB

(7.14)

However, there is one restriction as we can see from relation (7.13), that is, the term R B ⁄ ( R A + R B ) must be less than 1 ⁄ 3 . Therefore, the period T is the summation of (7.11) and (7.14) from which we obtain the relation
2R A – R B RA ⋅ RB T = T 1 + T 2 = 0.69R A C + ------------------- C ⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------- ⎞ ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB 2R A – R B RA ⋅ RB T = 0.69R A + ------------------- ⋅ C ⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------- ⎞ ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB

(7.15)

subject to the condition that R B ⁄ ( R A + R B ) < 1 ⁄ 3 , and this condition can be simplified as shown below.
RB ------------------- < 1 ⁄ 3 RA + RB 3R B < R A + R B 2R B < R A RB < RA ⁄ 2

(7.16)

Example 7.2 Using the astable multivibrator of Figure 7.11 find an appropriate ratio for resistors R A and R B so that the output will be a square waveform, i.e., a waveform with duty cycle at 50 % . Solution: To achieve a duty cycle at 50 % , we must make T 1 = T 2 and this condition will be satisfied if we equate relations (7.11) and (7.14) subject to the constraint of (7.16). Then,
2R A – R B RA ⋅ RB ln 2R A C = ------------------- C ⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------- ⎞ ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB

7−10

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

Astable Multivibrator with the 555 Timer
2R A – R B RB ------------------- ⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------- ⎞ = ln 2 ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB RA + RB 2R A – R B ln 2 ⋅ ⎛ ------------------- ⎞ = ln ⎛ ---------------------- ⎞ ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ ⎝ RB ⎠ 2R A ⁄ R B – 1 RA ln 2 ⋅ ⎛ ------ + 1⎞ = ln ⎛ ----------------------------- ⎞ ⎝ RA ⁄ RB – 2 ⎠ ⎝ RB ⎠

For convenience, we let x = R A ⁄ R B and the relation above is written as
2x – 1 ln 2 ⋅ ( x + 1 ) = ln ⎛ -------------- ⎞ ⎝ x–2 ⎠

(7.17)

This is a non−linear equation and we could try to solve it with the MATLAB symbolic expression solve(‘eqn’) as
syms x; solve('(x+1)*log(2)=log((2*x−1)/(x−2))')

but this returns the value of – 1 which obviously is meaningless for this example. Therefore, let us plot relation (7.17) with the following MATLAB script to find the x−axis zero crossing.
x=2.1:0.01:2.5; y=(x+1)*log(2)−log((2.*x−1)./(x−2)); plot(x,y);grid

Figure 7.14 indicates that x−axis zero crossing occurs at approximately x = R A ⁄ R B = 2.363 and thus to achieve a duty cycle at 50 % , we should choose that the ratio R A ⁄ R B should be close to this value.
0.4 0.2 0 Relation (7.17) -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 -1.2 2.1 2.15 2.2 2.25 2.3 2.35 x=RA/RB 2.4 2.45 2.5

Figure 7.14. Plot for finding the ratio RA ⁄ R B to achieve 50 % duty cycle for the circuit of Figure 7.14

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

7−11

1 × 10 An unstable multivibrator can also be constructed with an op amp as shown in Figure 7.= 0 R2 R1 v out ( R 1 + R 2 )v ( + ) -------------------------------.16 KΩ . Thus.69R A C = 0.1 × 10 C –6 3 from which 5 × 10 C = -------------------------------------3 = 1. The value of the capacitor can be found from either expression (7. An unstable multivibrator using an op amp From the circuit of Figure 7.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators Let us choose R A = 5.14) but (7.15(a). then. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . T 1 = 5 × 10 –6 = 0. application of KCL at the non−inverting input of the op amp yields v ( + ) – v out v ( + ) -----------------------.= ---------------------. then R B = 5.15.69 × 5.= a v out ( R1 + R2 ) (7.11) or (7. V ( + ) sat v out t C Rf v(−) v(+) R1 (a) R2 V ( − ) sat v out a V ( + ) sat a V ( − ) sat a V ( + ) sat a V ( − ) sat v(+) (b) t v(−) (c) t (d) Figure 7.11) is simpler.= --------R1 R2 R2 R1 v ( +) --------.42 nF 0.1 ⁄ 2.363 = 2. if we require that T 1 = 5 μs .69 × 5.18) 7−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.15.1 KΩ .+ -------.

The capacitor C and the feedback resistor R f form a simple RC circuit and when the voltage v ( − ) at the inverting input is at a higher than the voltage v ( + ) at the non−inverting input.= R f C ln --------------------------------------V(+) – aV(+) V(+) ( 1 – a ) sat sat sat (7.15(a) we can derive the period of the pulse repetition frequency as follows: From relation (7.21) indicate that if the positive and negative values of the saturation voltage have the same amplitude.15(b) yields the appropriate expressions for the timing periods as indicated below.⎞ ⎝ 2R ⎠ 2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.18) 2R 1 T = t 1 + t 2 = 2R f C ln ⎛ 1 + -------. When the potential difference between the inverting and non−inverting inputs of the op amp approaches the zero value the op amp comes out of saturation and subsequently the positive feedback from the output to the inverting input of the op amp drives the op amp to positive saturation. Assuming that the initially the op amp is in negative saturation.15(d) and when it reaches the value aV ( + ) sat the output switches back to the negative saturation state. The voltage across the capacitor cannot change instantaneously and rises exponentially as shown in Figure 7.Astable Multivibrator with the 555 Timer where a is the attenuation factor since it is less than unity.21) V ( − ) sat – aV ( + ) sat V ( − ) sat – aV ( + ) sat t 2 = R f C ln --------------------------------------. and are shown in Figures 7. Accordingly. the positive and negative saturation values are denoted as aV ( + ) sat and aV ( − ) sat respectively. the capacitor charges through R f towards the negative saturation value aV ( − ) sat . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−13 .15(a) and 7.20) and (7. V ( + ) sat – a V ( − ) sat V ( + ) sat – a V ( − ) sat t 1 = R f C ln --------------------------------------.22) (7.= R f C ln --------------------------------------V(+) – aV (+) V(−) ( 1 – a ) sat sat sat Relations (7. the voltage at the non−inverting input is aV ( − ) sat .20) (7.15(c) and 7.23) and with (7. For the astable multivibrator of the op amp circuit of Figure 7. then t 1 = t 2 and the period of the pulse repetition becomes T = t 1 + t 2 = 2R f C ln 1 + a ----------1–a (7.15(d).1) v C ( t ) = V ∞ – ( V ∞ – V in )e –t ⁄ Rf C Taking the natural log of both sides and solving for the time t we obtain ( V ∞ – V in ) t = R f C ln -----------------------------(V – v (t)) ∞ C (7.19) Substitution of the voltages shown in Figures 7.

the output reverses states.4 Monostable (One−Shot) Multivibrators A monostable or one−shot multivibrator is an electronic circuit with two output states in which only one state is stable. changes from 0 to 1 for a short period of time.1 × 10 ln ⎛ -------------------------------------. and then returns to its normal state.16.⎞ = 1. and V ( − ) sat = – 5 V .31 ms ⎝ 50 ⁄ 6 ⎠ V ( − ) sat – aV ( + ) sat – 5 – ( 1 ⁄ 6 ) ( 10 ) 4 –6 t 2 = R f C ln --------------------------------------.20) and (7.35 ms ⎝ – 25 ⁄ 6 ⎠ 7.⎞ = 2.= -------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . 7−14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.16 compute the timing periods given that C = 0.⎞ ⎝ 10 × ( 1 – 1 ⁄ 6 ) ⎠ V(+) ( 1 – a ) sat 65 ⁄ 6 –2 = 5 × 10 ln ⎛ -----------. R 2 = 50 KΩ .18) the attenuation factor is R1 1 10 a = ---------------------.= 50 × 10 × 0. R f = 50 KΩ .⎞ ⎝ –5 × ( 1 – 1 ⁄ 6 ) ⎠ V(−) ( 1 – a ) sat – 40 ⁄ 6 –2 = 5 × 10 ln ⎛ --------------.3 Solution: From (7.21) V ( + ) sat – a V ( − ) sat 10 – ( 1 ⁄ 6 ) ( – 5 ) 4 –6 t 1 = R f C ln --------------------------------------. Unstable multivibrator circuit for Example 7. R 1 = 10 KΩ .= 50 × 10 × 0. depending upon the circuit parameters which are discussed below.= -6 10 + 500 ( R1 + R2 ) and with (7.1 μF . This circuit stays in its normal state (usually a logical 0) until a signal is applied to its input.3 For the astable multivibrator circuit of Figure 7. that is. v out C Rf v(−) v(+) R1 (a) R2 V ( + ) sat v out V ( − ) sat t (b) Figure 7.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators Example 7.1 × 10 ln ⎛ ------------------------------------. When triggered by an input signal. V ( + ) sat = 10 V .

the output pulse width can be varied from 40 ns to 28 s . the pulse width will be T = 100 ms . Under those conditions. the monostable multivibrator will produce the output pulse shown. Also the 74121 is retriggable meaning that the input may be a train of periodic pulses. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. if R X = 20 KΩ and C X = 5 μF . Typically.33 × R X × C X For instance.Monostable (One−Shot) Multivibrators Figure 7.18. Block diagram and typical input and output waveforms for a monostable multivibrator We observe that a positive going pulse at the input signal (transition from A to B) which is often referred to as the leading edge of the pulse (the transition from C to D is referred to as the trailing edge of the pulse) makes the 0 output to change state momentarily from state 0 to state 1 for a time period designated as T which is determined by an external resistor R X and an external capacitor C X as shown in Figure 7.18.18. the 74121 has three trigger inputs: A 1 . With the 74121 device. Device SN74121 is a typical monostable multivibrator circuit and it is shown in Figure 7. and B .17 shows a block diagram of a typical monostable and its input and output waveforms.5 A 1 and A 2 are both active low and the B input is active high. The 74121 monostable multivibrator As shown in Figure 7. In Figure 7. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−15 .17. Input B A Q Output Q Output T C D Q Output Input Monostable Multivibrator Figure 7. As stated above.18. CX Input 5 B A1 4 10 9 RX 14 Q 7 6 V CC Output 74121 A2 3 Figure 7. time period that the output will stay High is determined by an external resistor R X and an external capacitor C X . any or all of these three pins may be connected to the input trigger signal. Depending on the desired circuit operation. A 2 . the capacitor value is greater than 1 μF and the resistor value is greater than 10 KΩ and the pulse width period T at the output is determined from the relation T = 0.

It can be used to widen a narrow pulse as shown in Figure 7. with the output at negative saturation.18. Next. while the input pulse is zero. hence the name monostable. This voltage at the non−inverting of the op amp will go momentarily negative and will drive the output of the op amp into negative saturation V ( − )sat . and this is the stable state of the circuit.19. let us assume that a negative going pulse whose amplitude exceeds the voltage v ( + ) . So. and to block unwanted input pulses as shown in Figure 7.V ( + ) sat R1 + R2 (7. the voltage v ( + ) at the non−inverting input will also become negative.20. But this condition is only tem- 7−16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.20.7 V . that is.7 V and thus the voltage across the inverting input of the op amp is v ( − ) = 0.e. about 0. The use of a monostable multivibrator to block unwanted input pulses A monostable multivibrator can also be constructed with an op amp as shown in Figure 7. resistors R 1 and R 2 are chosen such that R 2 ⁄ R 1 = 10 and thus v ( + ) » v ( − ) . Input Output Figure 7. the op amp remains in positive saturation..24) Usually.20. A monostable multivibrator using an op amp In the circuit of Figure 7. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . By the voltage division expression.19. At this state. D1 C1 Rf v(-) v(+) C2 D2 R1 R3 R2 v out v in Figure 7. the voltage at the non−inverting input of the op amp is R2 v ( + ) = ----------------. Accordingly. v out = V ( + ) sat . i.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators The monostable multivibrator is used primarily in pulse shaping applications. diode D 1 is forward biased and the voltage across the capacitor C 1 is the same as that of diode D 1 . the output of the op amp is held at positive saturation. v in = 0 .

Monostable (One−Shot) Multivibrators porary because diode D 1 is now reverse−biased and allows capacitor C 1 to charge negatively. Now. the capacitor will begin charging through resistor R1 and will rise exponentially towards the supply voltage VCC . and also by the ratio R 1 ⁄ R 2 .27) As with astable multivibrators.26) simplifies to the approximate expression t ≈ 0. The expression for the timing period can be derived from relations (7.= R f C 1 ln ---------1–a ( V ( − ) – aV ( − ) ) sat sat (7. the multivibrator will be returned to it stable state at zero volts level. the output of this comparator will go High. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. we may express (7. and the capacitor will discharge. and the time t is determined by the time constant of capacitor C 1 and feedback resistor R f .1 R f C 1 (7.25) as R1 t = R f C 1 ln ⎛ 1 + ----. Thus. At this time. we can form a monostable multivibrator using a 555 timer circuit as shown in Figure 7.⎞ ⎝ R ⎠ 2 (7. and the output of the op amp is once again driven into positive saturation.21.21. relation (7. The voltage at the input terminal is sufficiently high to keep the output of Comparator 2 Low.26) and if we choose R 2 ⁄ R 1 = 10 .19) which for the monostable multivibrator is appropriately expressed as ( V ( − ) sat – 0 ) 1 t = R f C 1 ln -------------------------------------------. We see then that the output of the op amp remains at negative saturation V ( − ) sat only long enough for capacitor C 1 to charge to approximately the value of v ( + ) . the flip−flop will be Set and its output Q will go High and output Q will go Low and the transistor will be at cutoff. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−17 .18) or (7.25) where a is the attenuation factor defined as before as R1 a = ---------------------( R1 + R2 ) Alternately. The output Q will also be Low. the transistor will go in saturation. Once the capacitor voltage exceeds the threshold voltage of Comparator 1. and when v ( − ) becomes slightly more negative v ( + ) . the flip−flop will be Reset. in the stable state the SR flip−flop will be in the Reset state keeping the transistor in saturation and thus the capacitor voltage will be close to zero volts. if a negative going pulse is applied at the input. the output of Comparator 2 will go High. As shown in Figure 7.

1). v C ( t ) = V ∞ – ( V ∞ – V in )e –t ⁄ R1 C and assuming that the negative going pulse is applied at the input at t = 0 when V in = 0 . at t = T the above relation becomes ( 2 ⁄ 3 )V CC = V CC – V CC e e –T ⁄ R1 C –T ⁄ R1 C = 1⁄3 – T ⁄ R 1 C = ln ( 1 ⁄ 3 ) = ln 1 – ln 3 T ≈ 1. We can find the pulse width T for the time that the monostable multivibrator changes momentarily from its stable state by observing that the capacitor voltage. when charging. this threshold voltage is 2 ⁄ 3 V CC . A monostable multivibrator using a 555 timer circuit.21.1R 1 C (7. From (7. Because the three resistors have the same value. reaches the threshold voltage at the minus (−) input of Comparator 1.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators V CC R1 R2 Comparator 1 C R2 R Q S Q Comparator 2 RB R2 Figure 7.28) 7−18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

* are electronic circuits with two stable outputs one of which is the complement of the other. or more commonly referred to as flip−flops. For this circuit it is assumed that the value of the collector resistance R C is chosen such that the collector current I C ≈ V CC ⁄ R C does not exceed the maximum permissible current.1 The Fixed−Bias Flip−Flop The fixed−bias circuit shown in Figure 7. J−K. the self− biased flip−flop. and Toggle flip−flops are described in Digital Circuit Analysis and Design with Simulink Modeling and Introduction to CPLDs and FPGAs. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−19 .5.22 is one of the earlier types.4 Compute the stable−state currents and voltages for the flip−flop circuit of Figure 7. In this section we will introduce the fixed−bias flip−flop.5 Bistable Multivibrators (Flip−Flops) Bistable multivibrators.23. Data. The triggering signal which is used to induce a transition from one state to another will be discussed later in this section. † This circuit is also known as Ecless−Jordan configuration Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. + V CC RC R1 V C1 T1 R2 R2 T2 R1 RC V C2 – V BB Figure 7. Fixed−bias flip−flop circuit We will illustrate the operation of the circuit of Figure 7.Bistable Multivibrators (Flip−Flops) 7. * The logic diagrams and characteristic tables for the Set−Reset. and the Schmitt trigger circuit. It is also assumed that the values of resistors R 1 and R 2 . Example 7. ISBN 978−1−934404−05−8.22. The outputs will change only when directed by an input command. 7. Assume that the transistors have a minimum h FE value of 50. The cutoff and saturation characteristics are specified by the manufacturer.22† with the following example. and the bias voltage V BB are selected so that in one state the base current is adequate to drive one transistor into saturation and in the second state the base−emitter junction must be below cutoff.

4 Let us first assume that transistor T 1 is OFF and transistor T 2 is ON.20(b) respectively. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . we will initially neglect them and we let V C2 ( sat ) ≈ 0 V and V B2 ( sat ) ≈ 0 V as shown in Figures 7. Fixed−bias flip−flop circuit for Example 7.23.20(a) and 7. Circuits for the computation of the stable states for Example 7.24(a).2 KΩ V C2 ≈ 0 V V C1 T1 OFF Figure 7.4.2 KΩ 15 KΩ 15 KΩ V C2 Solution: This circuit consists of two cross−coupled inverter circuits such as that of Exercise 8 in Chapter 6.2 KΩ I2 V B1 100 KΩ – 12 V (a) 15 KΩ T2 ON I1 I C2 2.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators + 12 V 2. + 12 V 2.24. The analysis is facilitated by breaking the given circuit into two parts. and the second part indicating the connection between the collector of T 1 and the base of T 2 as shown in Figure 7.24(b).⋅ ( – 12 V ) = – 1.2 V ).2 KΩ V C1 T1 100 KΩ 100 KΩ – 12 V T2 2. To verify that with transistor T 1 7−20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. By the voltage division expression 15 KΩ V B1 = ------------------------------------------.57 V 100 KΩ + 15 KΩ and this voltage will certainly keep transistor T 1 at cutoff. the first part indicating the connections between the base of transistor T 1 and the collector of transistor T 2 as shown in Figure 7. Since the saturation voltages are small (about 0. + 12 V I3 15 KΩ V B2 ≈ 0 V 100 KΩ (b) I B2 I4 ON T2 OFF T1 – 12 V Figure 7.

Then.11 mA ) .= 0.10 mA 15 KΩ + 100 KΩ I C2 = I 1 – I 2 = 5.Bistable Multivibrators (Flip−Flops) beyond cutoff transistor T 2 is in saturation.45 mA 2.70 × 10 3 3 –3 = 10. the collector voltage V C1 if found from Figure 7. we have shown that transistor T 2 is deeply into saturation.58 mA and Then. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5 V . I C2 5. Finally. The second stable state is the one in which transistor T 1 is ON and transistor T 2 is OFF.58 mA ) > ( I B ( min ) = 0. The analysis is the same as above where the voltages and currents are interchanged between transistors T 1 and T 2 .= 0. Thus.24(b). we will use the given minimum value of h FE . 0 – ( – 12 ) I 2 = ------------------------------------------. we calculate I C2 by first finding I 1 and I 2 as follows: 12 V I 1 = ---------------.45 – 0. the value of I B2 exceeds the minimum base current value of I B ( min ) required for saturation.35 mA We observe that the value of I 2 is much less than the value of I 1 and in a practical flip−flop design this may not be the case. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−21 . and V C2 = 10. the minimum base current I B2 is read from the collector characteristics curve for a particular transistor and since no curves were given.2 × 10 × I 3 = 12 – 2.70 – 0.1.= 0.11 mA 50 h FE Let us now compute the value of I B2 from Figure 7.2 KΩ + 15 KΩ 12 I 4 = ------------------.= --------------------.35 mA I B ( min ) = ------.= 5.12 = 0. Since ( I B2 = 0.70 mA 2.20(b) as V C1 = 12 – 2.= 0.2 KΩ Also. that is.for the minimum value of I B2 for saturation. We find that 12 I 3 = -----------------------------------------. the voltages and currents for a stable state for the flip−flop of this example are summarized in Table 7.2 × 10 × 0.10 = 5. With the assumption that the saturation are zero volts.12 mA 100 KΩ I B2 = I 3 – I 4 = 0.5 V and this value is close to the collector supply voltage of 12 volts. Usually.

Self−bias flip−flop circuit The procedure for calculating the stable states is similar to that for a fixed−bias flip−flop and it is illustrated in Example 7.5.25.58 mA 0V 7. as shown in Figure 7. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . + V CC RC R1 V CN1 T1 R2 R2 T2 RC V CN2 R1 RE Figure 7.56 V 0.4 Parameter I C1 V C1 I C2 V C2 I B1 V B1 I B2 V B2 Value 0 mA 10.2 The Self−Bias Flip−Flop This is also one of the earlier types of flip−flops. is used to provide self−bias and thus the need for a negative power supply is eliminated.1 Voltages and currents for a stable state for the flip−flop of Example 7.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators TABLE 7. In a self−bias flip−flop.5 V 5.35 mA 0V 0 mA −1.25.5. 7−22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. a common emitter resistor R E .

26. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−23 .27.28. – V CC – 12 V RC R1 OFF T1 V BE1 V EN1 V BN1 R2 10 KΩ I B2 + I C2 30 KΩ ON I B2 I C2 T2 RE 0.26 which uses P−N−P identical transistors. and the second part indicating the connection between the collector of T 1 and the base of T 2 as shown in Figure 7.27. Find the minimum value of h FE which will keep the ON transistor in saturation. The circuit of Example 7. Self−bias flip−flop circuit for Example 7. the first part indicating the connections between the base of transistor T 1 and the collector of transistor T 2 as shown in Figure 7. We must first compute the voltage V EN1 shown in Figure 7.27. The analysis is facilitated by breaking the given circuit into two parts. Let us first assume that transistor T 1 is OFF and transistor T 2 is ON.5 Compute the stable−state currents and voltages for the flip−flop circuit in Figure 7. – V CC – 12 V RC 4 KΩ V CN1 T1 R2 10 KΩ RE V EN1 R1 30 KΩ R2 10 KΩ 500 Ω V EN2 R1 30 KΩ T2 RC 4 KΩ V CN2 Solution: This circuit consists of two cross−coupled inverter circuits such as that of Exercise 8 in Chapter 6.5 showing the connections between the base of T 1 and collector of T 2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5 KΩ N V CE2 V CN2 V EN2 4 KΩ Figure 7.Bistable Multivibrators (Flip−Flops) Example 7.5 Figure 7.

64 KΩ V TH1 10.29) Figure 7. then by replacing the base circuit of T 2 by its equivalent.29.5 showing the connections between the base of T 2 and collector of T 1 where the minus (−) sign indicates that the neutral point (ground) is at a higher potential than the emitter.29. – V CC RC R1 OFF T1 R2 10 KΩ 30 KΩ x RC 4 KΩ 12 V R2 R1 30 KΩ x 10 KΩ R TH1 3. The circuit of Example 7.28. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .5 7−24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.9 V – 12 V 4 KΩ x y y V CC y Figure 7. Collector circuit for the computation of Thevenin equivalent.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators From the circuit of Figure 7. combining these two. With transistor T 2 and emitter resistor R E disconnected. the Thevenin equivalent is as shown in Figure 7.28 V EN2 = – ( I B2 + I C2 ) R E – V CC – 12 V RC 4 KΩ R1 30 KΩ T1 V CN1 V EN1 OFF V BN2 R2 10 KΩ I B2 V EB2 RE 500 Ω N ON T2 V EN2 (7. To find the saturation currents I B2 and I C2 we will apply Thevenin’s theorem by first replacing the collector circuit of transistor T 2 by its equivalent. Example 7.27 we observe that V EN2 = V EN1 and from Figure 7. and inserting the transistor T 2 between them.

64I C2 = 10.31 where have assumed that V EC ( sat ) = 0.73 V ( R1 + R2 + RC ) ( 30 + 10 + 4 ) ( R C + R 1 )R 2 34 × 10 R TH2 = ( R C + R 1 ) || R 2 = ------------------------------.7 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. – V CC RC 4 KΩ R1 30 KΩ T1 OFF RC R1 R TH2 – 12 V R2 10 KΩ v w N 4 KΩ 30 KΩ R2 V CC 10 12 V KΩ v w 7. We find the values of I B2 and I C2 by application of KVL around the loops indicated in Figure 7.31.5 From Figure 7.03 0.2 + 3.= -------------.30.33) The Thevenin equivalent voltages and resistances of V TH1 .( – V CC ) = ------------------------------. Example 7.7 + 7.Bistable Multivibrators (Flip−Flops) From Figure 7.30 R2 10 V TH2 = V vw = ----------------------------------. combined with transistor T 2 and resistor R E yield the circuit of Figure 7.5I B2 + 4.30. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−25 .23I B2 + 0.14I C2 = 10.= 3.= ----------------.= 7. we obtain 8.73 V v w Figure 7.64 KΩ 44 R1 + R2 + RC (7. and R TH2 .( – V CC ) = ------------------------------.73 KΩ 44 RC + R1 + R2 (7.73I B2 = 2. we replace the base circuit of T 2 by its equivalent as shown in Figure 7.5 ( I B2 + I C2 ) + 0.73 KΩ V TH2 2.29 ( R1 + R2 ) ( 30 + 10 ) V TH1 = V xy = ----------------------------------. Base circuit for the computation of Thevenin equivalent.9 Rearranging and simplifying.30) (7.( – 12 ) = – 2.7 V .5I C2 = 2.32) (7.31) Next.5 ( I B2 + I C2 ) + 0. 0. R TH1 .9 V ( 30 + 10 + 4 ) ( R1 + R2 + RC ) ( R 1 + R 2 )R C 40 × 4 R TH1 = ( R 1 + R 2 ) || R C = ------------------------------.( – 12 ) = – 10. V TH2 .2 V and V EB ( sat ) = 0.73 0.

Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators R TH1 3. I C2 2.7 – 1. From Figure 7. and I C2 = 2.64 KΩ I C2 7.33 = – 2.57 ) × 0.33 ) = +0..5.09 I B2 (7. From Figure 7. fprintf(' \n'). we now find the value of h FE . fprintf(' \n') IB2=0.V CN2 = ----------------.03 V R2 10 V BN1 = ----------------. x=A\B.33 = – 1.5 when transistor T 2 is in saturation Using MATLAB with the matrix left division operator. fprintf('IC2=%2.= 28.27.38 V 30 + 10 R1 + R2 V BE1 = V BN1 – V EN1 = – 0.x(1)). fprintf('IB2=%2. 0.09 (7.7 V RE 0.53 V V BN2 = V BE2 + V EN2 = – 0. B=[2.x(2)).( – 1.= --------.09 + 2.27. we obtain write and execute the following script which produces the values of the currents I B2 and I C2 .35) With these values.28.3f mA \t'. A=[8. From Figure 7.73 V I B2 + I C2 R TH2 0.36) The voltages can now be found from the circuits of Figures 7.090 mA IC2=2.26 we observe that V EN2 = V EN1 and from relation (7.53 V ) = – 0.41) From Figure 7.2 – 1.2 V 10.73 KΩ I B2 V TH2 2.33 V (7.18) V EN1 = V EN2 = – ( I B2 + I C2 ) R E = – ( 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .5 KΩ V TH1 0.57 h FE = -----.38) (7.95 V 7−26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.574 mA Thus. and V CN2 = V CE2 + V EN2 = – 0.9 V Figure 7.5 4. The composite Thevenin equivalent circuit of Example 7.03 10.31.23 0.37) (7.7]'.5 = – 1.57 I B2 = 0.34) (7.14].5 0.39) (7.27 and 7.40) (7.28...3f mA \t'.38 – ( 1.

4 From the circuit of Figure 7.09 mA −2.Bistable Multivibrators (Flip−Flops) With this value. V CN1 = V CN1a + V CN1b = – 10.V CC = -------------.32(b) we find that R1 30 V CN1b = -----------------.42) The stable state values of the circuit of Example 7.59 V 4 + 30 RC + R1 Therefore.03 V −1.83 V 2.53 V to V CN1 = – 10.32.( – 12 ) = – 10.83 V or vice versa. for simplification is redrawn into two simple resistive networks as shown in Figure 7. R1 V BN2 30 KΩ RC 4 KΩ V CN1a RC V CC 4 KΩ R1 30 KΩ (b) V CN1b – 2.57 mA −1.33 V We observe that the output changes from V CN2 = – 1. Finally. Circuits for the computation of V CN1 .( – 2.03 V – 12 V (a) Figure 7. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5 are summarized in Table 7.53 V 0 mA −1.03 ) = – 0. the PNP transistor is OFF.28 which.56 V 0. Example 7.4 Parameter Value 0 mA I C1 V CN1 I C2 V CN2 I B1 V BN1 I B2 V BN2 V EN1 = V EN2 −10.83 V (7.32(a) we find that RC 4 V CN1a = -----------------.32. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−27 .2 TABLE 7.24 30 + 4 R1 + RC and from the circuit of Figure 7.V BN2 = -------------. to find the value of V CN1 we apply superposition to the circuit of Figure 7.2 Voltages and currents for a stable state for the flip−flop of Example 7.

The interval time during which conduction transfers from one transistor to the other is known as the transition time.33 transistor T 1 if OFF. and to initiate a transition. Transistor T 1 has an input capacitance C i and in the absence of the parallel capacitor C 1 .5. and its reciprocal is the maximum frequency at which the flip−flop will respond. referred to as speed−up capacitors.43) The triggering signal which is usually employed to initiate a transition from one state to the other is either a pulse of short time duration or a step voltage. 7−28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Fixed−bias flip−flop circuit including speed−up capacitors The smallest allowable interval between triggers is referred to as the resolving time of the flip−flop. In some applications it is desired to have a change of state occur immediately after the application of an abrupt triggering signal.33.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators 7. denoted as point Y 2 will rise rapidly and it is desirable that this rapid rise will be transmitted with minimum delay to the base of T 1 denoted as point X 1 . the circuit configuration consisting of resistors R 1 and R 2 . the maximum frequency f max of operation is given by the relation R1 + R2 1 f max = ----.= --------------------2τ 2C 1 R 1 R 2 (7. It is always desirable to reduce the transition time and this can be accomplished by inserting small capacitors. The collector voltage of T 2 .33.3 Triggering Signals for Flip−Flops A flip−flop will remain in one of its stable states indefinitely until a triggering signal is applied to make a transition.* + V CC RC V C1 T1 Y1 C1 R1 X1 R2 R2 C1 R1 Y2 X2 T2 RC V C2 – V BB Figure 7. transistor T 2 is ON. Let us assume that in the flip−flop circuit of Figure 7. a negative pulse is applied at the base of T 2 denoted as point X 2 . and input capacitor C i constitutes an uncompensated attenuator. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . In practice. please refer to Appendix B. This pulse or step may be used in a man- * For a discussion on compensated attenuators. in parallel with the coupling resistors R 1 as shown in Figure7.

In unsymmetrical triggering signal is effective in initiating a transition in only one direction (polarity). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−29 . The circuits of Figure 7. The circuits of Figure 7. +V CC RC D3 RC C T D1 T1 OFF (a) ON (b) D2 T2 R2 D3 R2 OFF T1 ON T2 C T D1 D2 – V BB Figure 7. each successive triggering signal initiates a transition. Methods of symmetrical triggering through diodes at the collectors or the bases of the transistors Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.35 show how a flip−flop may be triggered in a symmetrical manner.35.Bistable Multivibrators (Flip−Flops) ner that will produce either symmetrical or unsymmetrical triggering.34. regardless of the state in which the flip−flop happens to be. A second triggering signal from a separate source must be initiated in a different manner to achieve the reverse direction.34 show a method of triggering unsymmetrically an NPN and a PNP bipolar transistor. + V CC RS RC C1 R1 OFF (a) R2 ON T2 Trigger input C T1 – V BB RC Trigger input – V CC C1 ON T2 R2 RS C T 1 R1 OFF (b) + V BB Figure 7. A method of triggering unsymmetrically an NPN or a PNP transistor In symmetrical triggering.

4 Present Technology Bistable Multivibrators The bistable multivibrator (flip−flop) circuits we’ve discussed thus far are the original circuits and were in use in the 1960s. It provides an voltage when its input signal v s reaches some predetermined value set at the non−inverting 7−30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.37(a).36. We will briefly discuss a bistable multivibrator with an op amp in this subsection.36(a) are the conditions where the output is at positive or negative saturation. vs v out V+ v out R1 V+ upper v out R2 V ref vs V+ lower vs (a) (b) (c) Figure 7. 7.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators 7.5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .37. The circuit of Figure 7. It assumes either positive or negative saturation by the positive feedback formed by resistors R 2 and R 3 . v in C R1 R3 (a) v in v out v out R2 (b) Figure 7.36 shows how an op amp can be configured to behave as a bistable multivibrator. Schmitt trigger circuit and waveforms for increasing and decreasing input signals The Schmitt trigger circuit and transfer characteristics are similar to the comparator. We have included them in this text because they are the circuits from which present technology bistable multivibrators such as those with CMOS technology and op amps have evolved. Op amp configured as a bistable multivibrator The stable states for the bistable multivibrator of Figure 7.6 The Schmitt Trigger Another bistable multivibrator circuit is the Schmitt trigger shown in Figure 7.36(b) causes the circuit to switch states. A positive or negative going pulse as shown in Figure 7.

If the input signal v s rises slightly above this threshold voltage. Example 7. with (7.= -------------------------------------------. the input signal v s is as shown in Figure 7. Then. V+ = V+ upper . The threshold voltages V+ upper and V+ lower are determined by the resistors R 1 and R 2 . the output is positively saturated as long as the input signal v s is less than the upper threshold V+ upper .+ ----------------------.38(a). when V out is the maximum positive output voltage.44) In (7.44).⎞ V = V out + V ref ---------. V+ – V ref V+ – V out --------------------.⎞ ⋅ V = ---------------------------------------+ ⎝ R1 ⋅ R2 ⎠ R1 ⋅ R2 R 1 V ref + R 2 V out V+ = ---------------------------------------R1 + R2 (7.24 V 10250 R1 + R2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. These threshold voltages can be found by application of KCL at the non−inverting input of the op amp.6 For the Schmitt trigger circuit of Figure 7.+ ----. Normally.= 2.37(b). As shown in Figure 7. and when V out is the maximum negative output voltage. Solution: It is given that the Schmitt trigger saturates positively at +12 V . the peak−to−peak output voltage of the Schmitt trigger of Figure 7. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−31 . The zener voltages are chosen so that the output swing from positive to negative or vice versa.The Schmitt Trigger input of the op amp. Thus.37 is often limited by the use of back−to−back zeners across the output terminal and ground.44) 4 R 1 V ref + R 2 V out 10 × 2 + 250 × 12 V+ upper = ---------------------------------------. V+ = V+ lower . is compatible with commercially available IC digital devices.--------⎝ R1 R2 ⎠ + R1 R2 R 1 V ref + R 2 V out R1 + R2 ⎛ ----------------. the output drop abruptly to – V out ( max ) and stays there until v S drops below a lower threshold voltage V+ lower .38(b). The output of the op amp changes from the positive saturation voltage V out ( max ) to its negative saturation voltage – V out ( max ) and vice versa.= 0 R2 R1 1 1 ⎛ ----. and the reference voltage V ref . Find and sketch V+ upper and V+ lower .

the output abruptly swings to negative saturation.38.= 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . i.e. Schmitt trigger circuit and input signal waveform for Example 7. – 12 V as shown in Figure 7. i.6 12 V out ( V ) 4 2 0 vS 2. 7−32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the output drops again to – 12 V as shown in Figure 7.3 When the output saturates negatively at – 12 V the lower threshold voltage is 4 R 1 V ref + R 2 V out 10 × 2 + 250 × ( – 12 ) V+ lower = ---------------------------------------. the output abruptly swings back to positive saturation. when the input signal v S exceeds this value. when the input signal v S drops below this value.24 V 1.66 V 2. Waveforms for Example 7. and when the input signal v S rises again to 2..39.e.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators That is. vs V+ R1 R2 10 KΩ 250 Ω vs ( V ) V out = ± 12 V 4 2 0 4 7 t ( ms ) –2 V ref = 2 V (a) (b) Figure 7.24 V . +12 V .= ---------------------------------------------------.24 V 4 7 t ( ms ) –2 – 12 Figure 7.39.66 V 10250 R1 + R2 That is.39..

• A bistable multivibrator.7 Summary • An astable multivibrator is essentially a digital clock which has two momentarily stable states which alternate continuously producing square pulses. depending upon the circuit parameters. monostable. astable. • A monostable multivibrator is an electronic circuit with two output states in which only one state is stable. is an electronic circuits with two stable outputs one of which is the complement of the other. the output reverses states for a short period of time. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−33 . and bistable. • IC device SN74121 is a popular monostable multivibrator where the time period that the output will stay High is determined by an external resistor R X and an external capacitor C X .e. can be constructed with op amps employed as comparators. • Both astable and monostable multivibrators can constructed with a 555 timer circuit. • The Schmitt trigger is another bistable multivibrator circuit.Summary 7. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. When triggered by an input signal. • All three types of the multivibrators. commonly referred to as flip−flop. A monostable multivibrator is used primarily in pulse shaping applications and to widen narrow pulses. • The 555 Timer circuit is a widely used IC for generating waveforms. This circuit stays in its normal state until a signal is applied to its input. i.. The outputs will change only when directed by an input command.

Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators 7. For the astable multivibrator below V CC = 5 V and C = 1 nF . For the astable multivibrator below V CC = 5 V and C = 1 nF . Find the values for the resistors R A and R B so that the circuit will produce the waveform shown. Find the values for the resistors R A and R B so that the circuit will produce the waveform shown. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .8 Exercises 1. V CC RA R RB 2 ⁄ 3 V CC + R Comparator 1 T1 T2 vC C 1 ⁄ 3 V CC R Q S Q Output + R Comparator 2 v (V) 5 t ( μs ) 0 1 2 3 4 2. 7−34 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

Repeat Exercise 2 to design a circuit that will produce the following waveform.Exercises V CC RA RB R+ 2 ⁄ 3 V CC Comparator 1 T1 T2 vC C R 1 ⁄ 3 V CC R Q S Q Output + R Comparator 2 v (V) 5 t ( μs ) 0 1 2 3 4 5 3. v (V) 5 t ( μs ) 0 1 2 3 4 4. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. a capacitor with value C = 1 nF and appropriate resistor values to produce an output pulse of 20 μs duration. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−35 . Design a monostable multivibrator using a 555 timer.

The fixed−bias flip−flop circuit below is the same as that of Example 7. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . vs V+ R1 40 KΩ R2 10 KΩ 0 –5 (b) π π⁄2 3π ⁄ 2 2π ωt (r ) V out = ± 10 V vs ( V ) 5 V ref = – 1 V (a) Find and sketch V+ upper and V+ lower . For the Schmitt trigger circuit of Figure (a) below.4. the input signal v S is as shown in Figure (b).2 KΩ V C2 15 KΩ 15 KΩ – 12 V The transistors are identical and the curves supplied by the manufacturer specify that V CE2 ( sat ) = 0. 6.7 V .15 V and V BE2 ( sat ) = 0. Assume that the transistors have a minimum h FE value of 50.2 KΩ V C1 T1 100 KΩ 100 KΩ T2 2. Using these voltages. 7−36 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. recalculate the stable−state currents and voltages. + 12 V 2.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators 5.

69 ( R A + 2R B )C R A + 2R B 5.75 = 75 % From relation (7.6) T = 4 × 10 –6 = 0.11) by 3 and equate it to relation (7. v (V) 5 T1 0 1 T T2 2 3 4 5 t ( μs ) The period is T = T 1 + T 2 = 1 + 3 = 4 μs .33 = 3.= ---------------------. Then. The duty cycle is T 1 ⁄ T = 1 ⁄ 4 = 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−37 .44 = 890 Ω 2. we must make T 2 = 3T 1 and this condition will be satisfied if we multiply relation (7.3) and (7.77 KΩ (1) –9 0. To achieve a duty cycle at 25 % .77 = 4.69 ( R A + 2R B )C = 0.75 = ----.= --------------------0.25 = 25 % .= 5. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. v (V) 5 T1 0 1 2 3 T2 4 t ( μs ) T The period is T = T 1 + T 2 = 3 + 1 = 4 μs and the duty cycle is T 1 ⁄ T = 3 ⁄ 4 = 0.33 – 3.33 KΩ (2) Subtraction of (2) from (1) yields R B = 5.14) subject to the constraint of (7.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 7.77 – 4.16).9 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 1.44 KΩ and from (2) R A = 4.6) we obtain 0.69 × 10 ( R A + 2R B ) –6 –9 4 × 10 R A + 2R B = -------------------------.69 ( R A + R B )C RA + RB RA + RB T1 Duty cycle = 0.= -----------------------------------------.77 KΩ T R A + R B = 0.69 × 10 The duty cycle is T 1 ⁄ T and from relations (7.75 × 5.

⎞ ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB 2R A – R B RB ------------------.⎞ = 3 ln 2 ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB RA + RB 2R A – R B 3 ln 2 ⋅ ⎛ ------------------.⎞ ⎝ RA ⁄ RB – 2 ⎠ ⎝ RB ⎠ For convenience. we let x = R A ⁄ R B and the relation above is written as 2x – 1 3 ln 2 ⋅ ( x + 1 ) = ln ⎛ -------------. let us plot the above relation with the following MATLAB script to find the x−axis zero crossing.005:0.⎞ = ln ⎛ ---------------------.006 The plot above indicates that the x−axis zero crossing occurs at approximately x = R A ⁄ R B = 2.*(x+1)−log((2. The value of the capacitor can be 7−38 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. plot(x.05 0 T2=3T1 -0.15 -0.0052 2.0058 2. we should choose that the ratio R A ⁄ R B should be close to this value but not exactly equal or less than 2.+ 1⎞ = ln ⎛ ----------------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .006. x=2.0058 and thus to achieve a duty cycle at 25 % .2 2.0001:2.05 -0.0054 2./(x−2)).0056 x=RA/RB 2.*x−1).C ⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------.y).⎞ ⎝ RB ⎠ ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ 2R A ⁄ R B – 1 RA 3 ln 2 ⋅ ⎛ -----.1 -0.005 2.*log(2).⎞ ⎝ x–2 ⎠ Therefore.grid 0.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators RA ⋅ RB 2R A – R B 3 ln 2R A C = ------------------. y=3.⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------.

69 × 5.⎞ = ln ⎛ ---------------------.⎞ ⎝ x–2 ⎠ Therefore.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises found from either expression (7. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−39 .*log((2. 2R A – R B RA ⋅ RB ln 2 ⋅ R A C = 3 ⋅ ------------------.14) by 3 and equate it to relation (7. We require that T 1 = 1 μs and assuming R A = 5. y=log(2).75 = 75 % Here.1 KΩ .1 × 10 T2 4 t ( μs ) The period is T = T 1 + T 2 = 3 + 1 = 4 μs and the duty cycle is T 1 ⁄ T = 3 ⁄ 4 = 0.1:0.11) subject to the constraint of (7. x=2.⎞ ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB RB 2R A – R B ln 2 ------------------.grid Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.69 × 5.11) is simpler. we must make T 1 = 3T 2 and this condition will be satisfied if we multiply relation (7.C ⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------.⋅ ⎛ -----.*x−1).11) or (7.⋅ ⎛ ------------------.01:6.+ 1⎞ = ln ⎛ ----------------------------.⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------. we let x = R A ⁄ R B and the relation above is written as 2x – 1 ln 2 ⋅ ( x + 1 ) = 3 ln ⎛ -------------. we obtain T 1 = 10 –6 = 0.16). let us plot above relation with the following MATLAB script to find the x−axis zero crossing. Then.y).69R A C = 0.⎞ ⎝ RA ⁄ RB – 2 ⎠ ⎝ RB ⎠ 3 For convenience.*(x+1)−3.⎞ = ------⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB 3 2R A – R B ln 2 R A + R B ------. plot(x.1 × 10 C –6 3 3./(x−2)). v (V) T 5 T1 0 1 2 3 10 C = -------------------------------------3 = 284 pF 0.⎞ ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ ⎝ RB ⎠ 3 2R A ⁄ R B – 1 ln 2 R A ------.14) but (7.

We require that T 1 = 3 μs and assuming R A = 5.5 3 3. 4.69 × 5.1C 1.5 x=RA/RB 5 5. resistor R 1 must have the value of 20 × 10 T R 1 = ----------. From relation (7.25 and thus to achieve a duty cycle at 75 % . we obtain T 1 = 3 × 10 –6 = 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .1 × 10 C –6 3 3 × 10 C = -------------------------------------3 = 853 pF 0.= 18.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators 2 0 -2 T1=3T2 -4 -6 -8 -10 2 2.5 4 4. and as the duty cycle increases. The value of the capacitor can be found from either expression (7.21 which is repeated below for convenience. this ratio approaches the value of 11.1 × 10 –6 7−40 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5 6 The plot above indicates that x−axis zero crossing occurs at approximately x = R A ⁄ R B = 4.= ----------------------. we should choose that the ratio R A ⁄ R B should be close to this value.11) or (7.1 KΩ .1R 1 C With a capacitor of value C = 1 nF to produce an output pulse of T = 20 μs duration.69R A C = 0.2 KΩ –9 1.1 × 10 Example 7.2 and Exercises 2 and 3 reveal that as the duty cycle decreases the ratio R A ⁄ R B approaches the value of 2. We will use the monostable multivibrator of Figure 7.28). T ≈ 1.69 × 5.11) is simpler.14) but (7.

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Fixed−bias flip−flop circuit for Example 7. As in Example 7. and the second part indicating the connection between the collector of T 1 and the base of T 2 as shown in Figure (b).4. the first part indicating the connections between the base of transistor T 1 and the collector of transistor T 2 as shown in Figure (a).2 KΩ V C1 T1 100 KΩ 100 KΩ T2 2.2 KΩ V C2 15 KΩ 15 KΩ – 12 V Figure 7.3. we break the given circuit into two parts.40. + 12 V 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−41 .Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises V CC R1 R2 Comparator 1 C R2 R Q S Q Comparator 2 RB R2 5.

11 = 5.28 mA I C2 5.⋅ 0.⋅ ( – 12 V ) + ------------------------------------------.39 mA --------------------------------2.2 KΩ Then.11 mA 15 KΩ + 100 KΩ I C2 = I 1 – I 2 = 5.39 – 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .2 KΩ + 15 KΩ ) I 4 = 0.28 mA I B ( min ) = ------. and 0.= 0. By the voltage division expression and the superposition principle.15 V T2 ON I3 OFF ON V B2 ≈ 0.7 – ( – 12 . we calculate I C2 by first finding I 1 and I 2 as follows: I 1 = 12 V – 0.= 0.15 V = 5.= 0.15 – ( – 12 ) I 2 = ------------------------------------------.43 V 100 KΩ + 15 KΩ 100 KΩ + 15 KΩ and this voltage will certainly keep transistor T 1 at cutoff.7 V 100 KΩ I B2 I4 T2 (a) (b) – 12 V Let us first assume that transistor T 1 is OFF and transistor T 2 is ON.2 KΩ 15 KΩ OFF +12 V 2.= 0. 7−42 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.13 mA -------------------------100 KΩ and Then. 100 KΩ 15 KΩ V B1 = ------------------------------------------.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators +12 V 2.11 mA 50 h FE Let us now compute the value of I B2 from Figure (b). We find that 12 – 0.66 mA 2.7 I 3 = -----------------------------------------.= --------------------.15 = – 1. To verify that with transistor T 1 beyond cutoff transistor T 2 is in saturation.2 KΩ 15 KΩ I1 V C1 T1 T1 V B1 100 KΩ – 12 V I2 I C2 V C2 ≈ 0.

that is.66 – 0.11 mA ) . we have shown that transistor T 2 is deeply into saturation. Therefore.2 × 10 × 0. The analysis is the same as above where the voltages and currents are interchanged between transistors T 1 and T 2 .15 V 0 mA I C1 V C1 I C2 V C2 I B1 V B1 I B2 V B2 −1.1 and those of the table above reveals that the error in assuming that a transistor in saturation behaves as an ideal short circuit is very small and this error can be neglected.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises I B2 = I 3 – I 4 = 0.13 = 0.28 mA 0.2 × 10 × I 3 = 12 – 2. with the values given the more accurate voltages and currents for a stable state for the flip−flop of this example are summarized in the table below. Parameter Value 0 mA 10. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−43 . Finally.5 V and this value is close to the collector supply voltage of 12 volts.7 V A comparison of the values of Table 7.53 mA Since ( I B2 = 0.53 mA 0. the collector voltage V C1 if found from Figure (b) as V C1 = 12 – 2. the value of I B2 exceeds the minimum base current value of I B ( min ) required for saturation.53 mA ) > ( I B ( min ) = 0. and V C2 = 10. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The second stable state is the one in which transistor T 1 is ON and transistor T 2 is OFF.43 V 0.5 V .66 × 10 3 3 –3 = 10.5 V 5.

7−44 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.e.= -----------------------------------------------------------.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .= 4 × 10 × ( – 1 ) + 10 × ( – 10 .e. when the input signal v S drops below this value..2 V – 2.= 1. the output abruptly swings back to positive saturation. when the input signal v s exceeds this value. and this cycle repeats. 4 4 R 1 V ref + R 2 V out --------------------------------------------------------------------) V+ lower = ---------------------------------------. V out ( V ) vs V+ R1 V out = ± 10 V 10 5 vS R2 40 KΩ 10 KΩ 0 –5 – 10 1. +10 V .2 V 4 R1 + R2 5 × 10 That is.= –2. the output abruptly swings to negative saturation. i. – 10 V as shown.8 V 4 R1 + R2 5 × 10 That is.. i.8 V V ref = – 1 V (a) (b) 4 4 R 1 V ref + R 2 V out 4 × 10 × ( – 1 ) + 10 × 10 V+ upper = ---------------------------------------.

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The intent is to provide the basic principles of the frequency dependence that is an essential prerequisite for the effective design and utilization of most electronic circuits.1 Properties of Signal Waveforms In the study of electronic systems we encounter an extremely wide variety of signal waveforms. and the Laplace transformation please refer to Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling. Periodic signals can be represented as the superposition of sinusoidal components by a Fourier series of the form v ( t ) = V + V 1 cos ( ωt + θ 1 ) + V 2 cos ( 2ωt + θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( 3ωt + θ 3 ) + … (8. ω 2 . Fortunately. and so on. but it contains no information about the phase angles of the components. are not harmonically related. and so on. ω is the fundamental frequency or first harmonic. very powerful techniques for this purpose are available such as the Fourier series.1.2) where V is the DC component of the composite signal. and ω 1 . is the second harmonic. the sinusoidal composition of the sound is continuously changing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−1 . the Fourier transform. For these waveforms we attempt to represent the signals as a superposition of sinusoidal components of appropriate amplitudes. The simplest are sinusoidal with frequencies of 60 Hz or 400 Hz but in most cases we are concerned with a more complicated class of periodic but non−sinusoidal waveforms. referred to as the frequency spectrum of the signal reveals information about the frequencies and amplitude. and phases. Unfortunately. 3ω is the third harmonic.* Fourier transform. the composite signal can be approximated by the superposition of a number of sinusoidal components expressed as v ( t ) = V + V 1 cos ( ω 1 t + θ 1 ) + V 2 cos ( ω 2 t + θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( ω 3 t + θ 3 ) + … (8. Figure 8.1) where V is the DC component of the composite signal. In this case. for instance.Chapter 8 Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers T his chapter presents certain basic concepts and procedures that are applicable to frequency dependent single−stage and cascaded amplifiers. In the case of speech or music. * For a thorough discussion on Fourier series. 8. not all signals consist of harmonically related components. ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9. 2ω . ω 3 . frequencies. and the Laplace transformation.

Thus.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers bn 4A/π 4A/3π 4A/5π 0 1 3 5 4A/7π 7 4A/9π 9 nωt Figure 8. ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9.1.4) We recall that the RMS value of a sinusoid is the amplitude of the sinusoid divided by 2 .sin nωt n (8. the third.1 The frequency components of the frequency spectrum of Figure 8. Typical frequency spectrum The frequency spectrum of Figure 8. The average power P over a period T is 1 P = -T ∫ T 0 1 2 2 v dt = -. * Please refer to Chapter 7.v t T T = v 0 2 (8. the fundamental.⎛ sin ωt + -. and the fifth harmonic Solution: The instantaneous power is p = v 2 ⁄ R and for simplicity let us assume that R = 1 .* T A 0 π 2π ωt Figure 8.1 represents the square waveform shown in Figure 8. 8− 2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Waveform that produces the frequency spectrum in Figure 8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the fundamental frequency b.3) below.2. the fundamental and the third harmonic c.3) What percentage of the average power is absorbed by a. Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling. 4A 1 1 4A v ( t ) = -----.sin 3ωt + -.1 are as shown in relation (8.1 Example 8.2.sin 5ωt + …⎞ = -----⎝ ⎠ π 5 3 π ∑ n = odd 1 -.

12 ⎝ ⎠ 9 25 π 2 a. the third. Figure 8.⎞ + ⎛ ---------. Figure 8.3) is 2 4A 4A 1 2 4A 1 2 2 2 2 P 1 + P 3 + P 5 + … = V 1 + V 3 + V 5 + … = ⎛ ---------.⎛ 1 + 1 + ----.2) with the introduction of a constant time delay T . and the fifth harmonic components: 8 1 ---. then the waveform of the output signal is an exact copy of the input waveform.+ …⎞ -. Percentage of power absorbed by the fundamental frequency component: 8 ⎛ ---. the amplification decreases at high frequencies as a result of the parasitic capacitances in the circuit.⋅ -. but it is delayed in time.Properties of Signal Waveforms the average power in the harmonics of relation (8.3. Typical frequency characteristics of an amplifier As shown in Figure 8.⋅ 1⎞ + ⎛ ---------. This can be illustrated by expressing relation (8. Then. the amplification near the lower and near the higher band of frequencies should not be less than 70 percent of the amplification in the middle of the band.⋅ ⎛ 1 + 1 + ----.⋅ 1 ⎞ × 100 = 81% ⎝ π2 ⎠ b. Also. for a good designed amplifier. and decreases at low frequencies because of the presence of coupling capacitors. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−3 . Percentage of power absorbed by the fundamental frequency and the third harmonic components: 8---.⋅ ⎛ 1 + 1 ⎞ × 100 = 90% -2 9⎠ π ⎝ c. It turns out that if an amplifier retards the phase of each sinusoidal component of the signal in direct proportion to the frequency of that component. Of course. the power absorbed would be considerably higher if the signal would include a DC component.⎞ × 100 = 93% -2 ⎝ 9 25 ⎠ π This example indicates that most of the power is absorbed by the fundamental frequency and the first two non−zero harmonics.⋅ -. Percentage of power absorbed by the fundamental frequency.3.⎞ + … ⎝ 2π 3 ⎠ ⎝ 2π 5 ⎠ ⎝ 2π ⎠ 8A = --------. v ( t – T ) = V + V 1 cos ( ω 1 ( t – T ) + θ 1 ) + V 2 cos ( ω 2 ( t – T ) + θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( ω 3 ( t – T ) + θ 3 ) + … Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.3 shows a typical curve of amplification versus frequency.

the analysis and design of linear amplifiers is concerned with the characteristics of amplification and phase shift versus frequency. it is merely delayed in time.4(b) are equivalent. For the remaining of this chapter and Chapter 9.4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .5) Relation (8.2 Prove that the circuits of Figure 8. the signal is not distorted. Reversing the above process we can see that if an amplifier introduces a phase lag that increases linearly with frequency. Equivalent circuits for Example 8.5) reveals that the introduction of a constant delay adds a phase lag φ k to each component. directly proportional to the frequency of that component. medium.4(a) and 8. ISBN 978−0−9709511−5−1. 8− 4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and high frequencies is to first define the transfer function G ( s ) gain and the frequencies as the poles of the transfer function and draw the Bode plot using MATLAB. gm vg v in R1 (a) vg v1 R3 R2 v2 v out R4 v in R1 vg v1 R3 R2 v2 v out gm vg R4 gm vg (b) Figure 8.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers Letting φ k = ω k T we obtain v ( t – T ) = V + V 1 cos ( ω 1 t – φ 1 + θ 1 ) + V 2 cos ( ω 2 t – φ 2 + θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( ω 3 t – φ 3 + θ 3 ) + … (8. we will develop procedures for constructing these characteristics.* The results of the following example will be useful in our analysis and development of equivalent circuits. and the amplifier produces a time delay T = K . an easy method to begin with the design of amplifiers at low. then φ = Kω . and if the amplification is the same for all frequencies. Subsequently.2 * Frequency response and Bode plots are discussed in detail in Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications. Example 8. In conclusion.

The Transistor Amplifier at Low Frequencies Proof: Application of KCL at v 1 and v 2 of Figure 8.+ g m v g = 0 R3 R4 (8.= 0 R3 R2 v2 v2 – v1 --------------.+ g m v g + ----.4(b) yields v1 v1 – v2 ----.7) are the same and thus the circuits of Figures 8.4(a) and 8. An incremental model for the amplifier that is valid at low and medium frequencies is Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.6) Application of KCL at v 1 and v 2 of Figure 8. 8.6) and (8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−5 .– g m v g + --------------.+ ----.7) We observe that equations (8. Transistor amplifier and equivalent circuits at low frequencies The behavior of the amplifier of Figure 8.+ --------------. R2 V CC rn v in I 1 IB R1 R3 RA β IB C3 (b) C R2 I2 v in RB R3 (a) C3 rn v in I1 R1 IB rn R2 3 --------------(1 + β) v in I 1 I2 β IB R3 (c) C3 β IB IB R1 ( 1 + β )R 3 (d) R2 β IB I2 Figure 8.= 0 R3 R4 (8.5 shows a transistor amplifier and its equivalent circuits that can be used as a low frequency amplifier.4(a) yields v1 v1 – v2 ----.2 The Transistor Amplifier at Low Frequencies Figure 8.– g m v g = 0 R3 R2 v2 – v1 v2 --------------.5(a) at low frequencies is affected by the action of capacitor C 3 .4(b) are equivalent.5.

in (8. most of the signal current flows through R 1 rather than into the base of the transistor. 8− 6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. they are used primarily for estimating how large C 3 must be for satisfactory performance.10) We now recall that the amplitude of a low−pass filter is given by† V out 1 G ( jω ) = ---------.= -------------------------------2 2 2 V in 1+ω R C and the half − power ( 3 dB ) frequency is defined at G ( jω ) = 1 ⁄ 2 which occurs when ω = 1 ⁄ RC . ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9.5(b) can be replaced by an equivalent pair of sources to obtain the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 8. The current amplification is reduced accordingly. † Please refer to Chapter 11. It follows that for large. For such purposes. it is good engineering practice to use coarse approximations whenever they contribute a substantial simplification of the problem without destroying the usefulness of the results. The parameters shown are approximations and this circuit should not be used for precision calculations. and ( 1 + β )R 3 may be 50 or 100 kilohms. ( 1 + β )R 3 × 1 ⁄ jω ( C 3 ⁄ ( 1 + β ) ) ( 1 + β )R 3 Z eq = --------------------------------------------------------------------------. Thus.5(c). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .10) let us define the frequency * The reduction theorem is discussed in Appendix E.8) (8.9) and R1 I b = ------------------------------. the current source βI B in the circuit of Figure 8.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers shown in Figure 8.⋅ I 1 ( 1 + β )R 3 R 1 + r n + --------------------------1 + jωR 3 C 3 (8.⋅ I 1 R 1 + r n + Z eq where Z eq is the parallel combination of resistance ( 1 + β )R 3 and capacitance C 3 ⁄ ( 1 + β ) . Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling. As we’ve learned in Example 8. By inspection of the circuit in Figure 8. hence at very low frequencies.2.5(b). In a typical circuit R 1 may be 5 or 10 kilohms.5(d). Accordingly. where C 3 acts as an open circuit. the current gain is A C = I 2 ⁄ I 1 = βI b ⁄ I 1 (8.5(d). The reduction theorem* is then applied to obtain the simplified equivalent circuit of Figure 8.= --------------------------( 1 + β )R 3 + 1 ⁄ jω ( C 3 ⁄ ( 1 + β ) ) 1 + jωR 3 C 3 R1 I b = --------------------------------------------------. uniform amplification. C 3 should be chosen to act as a short circuit at all frequencies in the band occupied by the sinusoidal components of the signal.

13) approaches unity. Changing the value of C 3 does not change the shape of the ramp in the amplitude characteristic.12) and with (8.14) (8.15) and ( 1 + β )R 3 k 3 = ----------------------R1 + rn Substitution of (8.5. hence the first factor is the current gain at medium frequencies.8) we find that the current gain is given by βI b 1 + jω ⁄ ω 3 βR 1 I2 A C = --.= ------.16) can be used as a guide in the design of transistor amplifiers for low−frequency responses once the quiescent operating point has been established.13) and factoring 1 + k3 out the denominator yields Am 1 + jω ⁄ ω 3 A C = ------------.+ ----R1 + rn ω3 (8. and C 3 = 2.3 For the transistor amplifier in Figure 8. we obtain R1 I1 1 + jω ⁄ ω 3 I b = ---------------.11) Factoring R 1 + r n out of the denominator in (8. it is known that R 1 = 3 KΩ . Relation (8. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.10) and multiplying both numerator and denominator by 1 + jω ⁄ ω 3 . r n = 12 KΩ .⋅ --------------------------------------------R1 + rn ( 1 + β )R 3 jω 1 + ----------------------. Construct the logarithmic amplitude characteristic for this amplifier in the low− and medium−frequency range. and the second factor on the right side in (8. it only shifts the ramp parallel to the frequency axis.⋅ -------------------------------------------1 + k 3 1 + jω ⁄ ( 1 + k 3 )ω 3 (8.The Transistor Amplifier at Low Frequencies ω3 = 1 ⁄ R3 C3 (8.13) can be expressed in a more convenient form by defining two new terms as βR 1 A m = ---------------R1 + rn (8. β = 80 . Example 8.16) Relation (8.+ ----R1 + rn ω3 (8. The bypass capacitor is then chosen to make the break in the amplitude characteristic at ω = ( 1 + k 3 )ω 3 occur at a suitable point below the band of frequencies occupied by the signal.14) and (8. R 3 = 1 KΩ .13) In the medium−frequency range the term ω ⁄ ω 3 is very large.⋅ --------------------------------------------R1 + rn ( 1 + β )R 3 jω I1 I1 1 + ----------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−7 .= ---------------.5 μF .15) in (8.

= 400 rad/sec –6 R3 C3 1000 × 2.4 ) × 64 = 410 Hz The amount by which the amplification at low frequencies is less than its value at medium frequencies is 20 log ( 1 + k 3 ) = 20 × 0.3 8− 8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers Solution: The amplification at medium frequencies is given by (8.≈ 64 Hz 2π 2π The factor k 3 is found from (8.= 5. from DC to the break frequency at 64 Hz .= -------------. ( 1 + β )R 3 ( 1 + 80 ) × 1 k 3 = ----------------------.= ---------------------------. Amplitude characteristic for the amplifier of Example 8. the gain is 25 – 16 = 9 dB .16) is or ω3 400 f 3 = ----.25 = 25 dB 1 1 ω 3 = ----------. that is.6 where the frequency is shown in logarithmic scale and the gain is in dB scale. Thus βR 1 80 × 3 A m = ---------------.6.4 ) × 400 = 2560 rad/sec or ( 1 + k 3 )f 3 = ( 1 + 5.40). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .= ----------------------------------------.16) is ( 1 + k 3 )ω 3 = ( 1 + 5.5 × 10 The break frequency ω 3 in (8. The amplitude characteristic is shown in Figure 8.4 3 + 12 R1 + rn and the break frequency for the factor ( 1 + k 3 )ω 3 in the denominator of relation (8.= -------. 30 20 10 0 Gain ( dB ) ( 1 + k 3 )f 3 f3 64 Hz 410 Hz 1 10 100 1000 f ( Hz ) Figure 8.= 18 R1 + rn 3 + 12 and in decibels A m ( dB ) = 20 log 18 = 20 × 1.8 = 16 dB Therefore.15).

rn=12000. The hybrid− π model for the transistor at high frequencies An incremental model for the transistor amplifier in Figure 8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−9 .13.y).8. semilogx(f.. w3=1.. grid 26 24 22 20 Gain (dB) 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 0 10 10 1 10 10 10 Frequency (Hz) . Gain versus frequency plot for Example 8.*10.. R1=3000. Section 3.9(a) that is valid at medium and high frequencies is shown in Fig../(rn+R1).. R3=1000.*w.7 can be obtained with the following MATLAB script: f=1:10:10^(6).*pi.5. beta=80.3 with MATLAB 8.^(−6).*w3))). Ac=(Am. 8.9(b). w=2. we introduced the hybrid− π model for a transistor at high frequencies and this model is repeated in Figure 8./w3)).*R1).log scale 2 3 4 10 5 10 6 Figure 8. k3=((1+beta).8 for convenience. y=20*log10(abs(Ac)). C3=2.3 The Transistor Amplifier at High Frequencies In Chapter 3.*(1+j. B ib v be r' b v' be = v r be C1 + + − C2 ic ro ie v ce C − E gm v Figure 8..The Transistor Amplifier at High Frequencies A smooth curve shown in Figure 8.7./(R3.*w.*C3)./((1+k3). Am=(beta./((1+k3)*(1+j. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.*R3).*f./(rn+R1).

17) and for the useful frequency range this current is much smaller than the current g m v .9(b). Transistor amplifier and equivalent circuits at high frequencies The transistor circuit of Figure 8.9(a) is represented by the hybrid− π model of Figure 8.9. resistance r' b is typically in the order of 50 to 100 ohms while resistance R 1 is in the order of several kilohms and thus we can eliminate r' b by replacing the portion of the circuit on the left of r be with a Norton equivalent circuit and Figure 8.18) (8. we find that ro R2 v out = ---------------.9(c) shows the circuit after this modification. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .( – g m v ) ro + R2 (8.19) and letting –gm ro R2 A = --------------------( ro + R2 ) 8−10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. In the circuit of Figure 8. these capacitances tend to short−circuit node b' to ground and this results in a significant reduction of the voltage v and the current g m v . The behavior of this amplifier is affected at high frequencies by the parasitic capacitances C e and C c . Therefore. and the resistance associated with the source I 1 .Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers R2 Ib V CC I1 R1 r' b r be RA v b' Ce I Cc I2 b ro v in RB gm v (b) R2 v out R3 (a) C3 v R1 I1 (c) I Cc Ce I2 R eq v ro R2 r be ( 1 + A )C c C eq Ce I2 gm v v out I1 R1 r be ro gm v R2 v out (d) Figure 8. The current I flowing through capacitor C c is given by I = jωC c ( v – v out ) (8. where the resistance R 1 represents resistances R A . At high frequencies. with the assumption that I « g m v .9(b). R B .

g m R eq ro + R2 and we define the half−power ( 3 dB ) frequency as 1 ω 1 = ----------------R eq C eq (8.g m v ro + R2 C eq = C e + ( 1 + A )C c r be R 1 R eq = -----------------r be + R 1 1 ⁄ jωC eq R eq ⎛ ⎞ v = ⎜ ------------------------------------.17) as I = jωC c ( v + Av ) = jωC c ( 1 + A )v ≈ jωC c Av (8.= ---------------.27) Next.⋅ --------------------------------r o + R 2 1 + jωR eq C eq I1 (8. the gain A in (8. this amplifying property of the transistor which increases the apparent value of the collector capacitance is known as the Miller effect.26) (8. r o » R 2 . g m R eq ro I2 A c = --.26) yields 1 A c = A m -----------------------1 + jω ⁄ ω (8. Thus.⋅ I 1 1 + jωR eq C eq ⎝ R eq + 1 ⁄ jωC eq ⎠ (8.20) Typically. and thus A ≈ g m R 2 . Therefore.21) This relation enable us to replace the current I by a capacitor of the value ( 1 + A )C c as shown in Figure 8.22) by (8.28) into (8.25) The current gain A c is now found by division of (8. From the circuit of Figure 8.23) (8. ro I 2 = ---------------.⋅ I 1 ⎟ R eq = --------------------------------.The Transistor Amplifier at High Frequencies we obtain v out = – Av (8. we can express (8.20) is in the range of 10 to 1000.22) (8. and as we know from Appendix C.28) Substitution of (8.29) 1 At medium frequencies ω is small. we let ro A m = ---------------. that is. ω « ω 1 .24) (8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−11 .27) and (8. and the second factor on the right side in Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.9(d).9(d).25). Also.

10.33) Thus.10.33) provides us the half−power point for the current gain of a transistor at high frequencies.31) as 1 + r be ⁄ R 1 ω 1 = ω β ⋅ -----------------------------1 + AC c ⁄ C e (8. A ( dB ) Am 3 dB ω1 ω ( log scale ) Figure 8.23) and (8.27) is the current gain at medium frequencies. hence we can express (8. Therefore.88) as ω β = 1 ⁄ r be C e .31) In Chapter 3 we defined the β cutoff frequency (relation 3.26) is close to unity.28) yields r be + R 1 ω 1 = -------------------------------------------------------[ C e + ( 1 + A )C c ]r be R 1 (8. Obviously.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers (8.30) can be expressed as 1 + r be ⁄ R 1 1 ω 1 = -----------. Example 8. the magnitude of the frequency characteristics for the transistor amplifier at medium and high frequencies have the form shown in Figure 8.32) or 1 + r be ⁄ R 1 f 1 = f β ⋅ -----------------------------1 + AC c ⁄ C e (8.⋅ -----------------------------r be R 1 1 + AC c ⁄ C e (8. (8.4 The model for a transistor amplifier at high frequencies is shown in Figure 8.26).24) into (8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Typical logarithmic amplitude characteristics for the transistor amplifier at high frequencies Substitution of (8.30) and since A is much larger than unity. the half−power point frequency f 1 can be greater or smaller than the β cutoff frequency f β depending on the values of resistor R 1 and the gain A = g m R 2 . relation (8. 8−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.11. The useful frequency range for the amplifier is considered to extend up to the half− power frequency given by (8. hence the quantity A m in relation (8.

6 From Chapter 3.2 C e = ----.12.2 gm fT f β = --. Determine: a.93). Model of the transistor amplifier for Example 8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−13 .= -----. relation (3.= 400 = 5 MHz -------β 80 This indicates that large current amplification is provided at frequencies up to 5 MHz . the Miller effect ( 1 + A )C c at high frequencies b.12. I2 R2 Cc R1 I1 r be Ce gm v Figure 8. the quiescent collector current is I C = 5 mA . C c = 3 pF . and from (3. the given model circuit can be simplified to that shown in Figure 8.83).6 For this circuit it is known that R 1 = 5 KΩ . 80 β r be = -----. the medium frequency current amplification A m c.The Transistor Amplifier at High Frequencies v b R1 I1 r' b b' r be Ce Cc I2 ro gm v R2 v out Figure 8. g m = 40I C = 40 × 5 × 10 –3 = 0. the half−power frequency f 1 Solution: Since R 1 » r' b and r o » R 2 .= 79.= ----------------------------.11. r o = 50 KΩ . gm 0.= 400 Ω 0. β = 80 . R 2 = 1 KΩ .92).6 pF 8 ωT 2π × 4 × 10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Simplified model of the transistor amplifier for Example 8. From (3.78). r' b = 50 Ω .2 Ω –1 From relation (3. and the current gain−bandwidth frequency is f T = 400 MHz .

= 370 Ω 3 r be + R 1 5.12. Then. c.= 0. From Figure 8.27) as ro A m = ---------------.2 × 370 = 74 This value is close to the value of β of the transistor and thus it is near the maximum value that can be obtained by this transistor. The Miller effect is ( 1 + A )C c where A = g m R 2 = 0.33). 3 r be R 1 ------------------------------R eq = -----------------.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers a. 1 + r be ⁄ R 1 6 1 + 400 ⁄ 5000 f 1 = f β ⋅ -----------------------------.2 × 1000 = 200 Thus.13 8−14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the combined low− and high−frequency characteristics can be displayed on a single set of coordinates as shown in Figure 8.g m R eq ro + R2 and since r o » R 2 .635 MHz – 12 – 12 1 + AC c ⁄ C e 1 + 200 × 3 × 10 ⁄ ( 80 × 10 ) 8. The half−power frequency f 1 is found from (8. However.4 Combined Low− and High−Frequency Characteristics The frequency dependence of various amplifier circuits is examined by treating the low−frequency characteristics separately from the high−frequency characteristics. b.= 5 × 10 ⋅ -----------------------------------------------------------------------------.= 400 × 5 × 10. A m ≈ g m R eq = 0. ( 1 + A )C c = 201 × 3 × 10 – 12 = 603 × 10 – 12 = 603 pF and this indicates that the dominant effect at high frequencies is the Miller effect.4 × 10 and the medium frequency current amplification A m is given by (8.

the results obtained in the previous sections of this chapter are to a large extent directly applicable in the analysis of cascaded amplifiers. Since there are many applications requiring greater signal amplifications than this. Combined low− and high−frequency amplitude versus frequency characteristics 8. the principal design problem is then to obtain uniform amplification over a sufficiently wide band of frequencies. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. they are usually modified in some respects. It is also possible to design a particular circuit to amplify signals in a certain frequency range and to exclude of all other signals at other undesirable frequencies. The properties of cascaded amplifiers are usually such that the signal transmission tends to zero at both low and high frequencies.Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers 40 20 A ( dB ) 0 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 f ( log scale ) Figure 8. cascading amplifiers in this manner introduces some additional considerations in circuit design. the total amplification is then the product of the amplifications of the individual stages. by the networks used to couple the individual stages in cascade. However.13. and it requires the use of additional circuit components that affect the behavior of the circuit. it is common practice to connect a number of stages in cascade so that each stage amplifies the signal in succession. Figure 8. it is possible to analyze. Thus. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−15 . each stage in a multistage amplifier as a separate part of the overall circuit and to determine the overall properties of the amplifier by combining the results of these separate analyses. In most cases. however. In some cases cascaded amplifiers are required to amplify signals occupying a wide band of frequencies. or design. hence these amplifiers are referred to as bandpass networks. the design problem in these cases is to obtain uniform amplification in the desired band with sufficiently strong discrimination against signals in adjacent bands.14 shows an RC−coupled transistor amplifier circuit and its high−frequency equivalents.5 Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers The magnitude of the signal amplification obtainable from single−stage voltage and current amplifiers is limited to a factor of a less than 100 depending on the type of transistor employed.

+ -----. A high−frequency model for the cascaded transistor stages is shown in Figure 8. Thus. and G eq 3 .+ ----- 1 RA 1 RB 1 r be (8. are the equivalent conductances connected between the three nodes v 1 . The conductances G eq 1 .34) 1 R2 1 RA 1 RB 1 r be (8. G eq 2 . v 3 .14. Circuit of a cascaded RC−coupled transistor amplifier and its high frequency models In Figure 8. and ground. G eq 1 = -----. capacitor C 4 is referred to as the interstage coupling capacitor and its function is to block the DC component through the RC coupling network.14(b) where we have assumed that the base spreading resistance r' be is negligible.14(a). Transistors can also be direct coupled under certain conditions.+ ----.+ ----.+ -----G eq 2 = -----. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . v 2 .35) and 8−16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers V CC RA R2 C4 RA R2 C4 v in RB R3 C3 RB R3 C3 R4 v out (a) v1 G eq 1 I1 I2 v2 CE Cc I3 v3 CE Cc g m v 1 G eq 2 (b) gm v2 G eq 3 v1 I1 G eq 1 R1 I2 v2 I3 v3 CE Cc C1 g m v 1 G eq 2 (c) CE C2 g v m 2 G e q3 Figure 8.

the collector capacitance C c . and if the amplifier of Figure 8. and the resistor R 1 is negligible in comparison to the reactance of capacitor C 1 . and the half−power frequency for the output circuit of the first stage defined as G eq 2 ω 2 = ------------------------------CE + C2 + CC (8. 1 R 1 = ----------ω2 C1 (8. then the simplified representation for the first stage would reduce to the same form as that for the second stage. and the process could be repeated for each stage in a cascade of any number of stages. The Miller capacitance has the value (8. The value of R 1 depends on the mid−band value of the gain A 1 as defined in (8. the values of R 1 and C 1 can be found from CE + C2 + CC 1 R 1 = ------------------. Thus.24(c) is preceded by Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. hence the effect of the collector capacitance in this stage can be accounted for by a Miller capacitance as shown in Figure 8. R 1 = 1 ⁄ ω 2 C 1 where ω 2 is the half−power frequency for the output circuit of the first stage.24(c) were negligible in comparison with the reactance of C 1 .37) C 2 = ( 1 + A 2 )C C where A2 = v3 ⁄ v2 (8.9(d).39) and (8.14(c).38) Similarly. The first stage is as shown in Figure 8.39). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−17 . relation (8.= ------------------------------gm CC ω2 A1 CC (8. R 1 is one kilohm or less.+ ----R2 R4 (8. hence the Miller effect is slightly different in the first stage.40) In terms of relations (8.43) shows that at ω = ω 2 .Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers 1 1 G eq 3 = ----.42) and C1 = A1 CC We can also express R 1 in terms of C 1 using (8.39) The model for the first stage of the amplifier differs from that of the second stage in that its load has a capacitive component as well as a resistive component.41) (8. However.14(c) where C 1 is the shunt capacitance that is present in the load of the first stage transistor. Typically.43) If the resistance R 1 in the circuit of Figure 8. When this is done. the second stage has the simplified representation shown in Figure 8.36) The model for the second stage of the amplifier has the same form as the model for a single−stage amplifier shown in Figure 8.9(c). A1 = v2 ⁄ v1 (8.42). If R 1 is not neglected.40). it is convenient to neglect R 1 at frequencies up to ω 2 . that is.

R 3 = 0. and stage−by−stage analysis is easy. Sketch and dimension the asymptotes for the high−frequency amplitude characteristics. the Miller effect computations become more and more complicated as more stages are cascaded.15. the Miller effect in this stage has a still more complicated form. the transistors are identical with R A = 15 KΩ .⋅ ------------------------------------------------------------------G eq 1 + jω ( C E + C c + C 1 ) I1 G eq 1 1 + jω ( C E + C c + C 1 ) ⁄ G eq 1 (8. To avoid these complications.44) by (8.16 gm 8−18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Of course.47) by (8.68 KΩ .5 KΩ .= --------.44) (8. Then with these approximations. I2 = –gm v1 I 1 = [ G e q1 + jω ( C E + C c + C 1 ) ]v 1 division of (8. g m = 40I C = 40 × 4 × 10 –3 = 0. the representation for each stage in the cascade takes a simple form. from Figure 8. Compute the overall current gain A c at medium and high frequencies.= ----------------------------------------------.45) yields –gm gm I3 1 A c 2 = --.14(c).49) Example 8.5 For the cascaded amplifier circuit of Figure 8.48) yields –gm gm I2 1 A c 1 = --.6 KΩ .46) (8. From relation (3. R B = 3. and R 4 = 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .45) and division of (8.= – ---------. and the output resistance r o is very large and it can be neglected.= 625 Ω 0.= -----------------------------------------------------------.⋅ -----------------------------------------------------G eq 2 + jω ( C E + C 2 ) I2 G eq 2 1 + jω ( C E + C 2 ) ⁄ G eq 2 (8. and neglecting R 1 .= – ---------.14(c). I3 = –gm v2 I 2 = [ G eq 2 + jω ( C E + C 2 ) ]v 2 (8.47) (8.78). relation (3.83). The quiescent collector current in each stage is I C = 4 mA . and at this operating point β = 100 . f T = 100 MHz . From Figure 8. C C = 4 pF . r' b = 50 Ω . R 2 = 2. it is practical to neglect R 1 and consider all computations as approximations.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers yet another transistor stage.48) Also.3 KΩ . Solution: From Chapter 3.16 Ω –1 100 β r be = -----.

= 67 –3 G e q3 2.+ -----------------.16 C E = -----.4 × 10 and expressing ω in megaradians per second.+ -----------------.= 255 pF 8 ωT 2π × 10 For the second stage of the amplifier. Figure 8.15.35).g m R eq ro + R2 and since r o » R 2 . Cascaded amplifier for Example 8.⋅ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 = – 67 --------------------------------------– 12 – –7 –3 1 + jω2.4 × 10 From (8.+ ----.+ -----------.= 2.5 KΩ From (8.4 mΩ R2 R4 2.+ ----.16 A m2 = g m R eq = ---------.4 mΩ R A R B r be R 2 15 KΩ 3.5 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the current gain of the second stage amplifier at medium frequencies is gm 0.1. –1 1 1.= ---------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−19 .37) the Miller effect capacitance is C 2 = ( 1 + A m2 )C C = ( 1 + 67 )4 = 272 pF From (8.+ -----------------.11 1 G eq 3 = ----.= 2.2 × 10 2.27) ro A m = ---------------.3 KΩ 50 Ω 2.93).+ ----. we find that 1 A c 2 = – 67 -------------------------1 + jω ⁄ 4.= -------------------.5 gm 0.36). –1 1.= – ---------.= -----------------.⋅ -----------------------------------------------------I2 G eq 2 1 + jω ( C E + C 2 ) ⁄ G eq 2 1 1 0. gm I3 1 A c 2 = --.16 = – ----------------------.46). from (8.6 KΩ 0.= ----------------------.+ -----.4 × 10 1 + jω ( 255 + 272 ) × 10 ⁄ 2.Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers V CC RA R2 R2 C 4 R4 RB R3 C3 RB R3 C3 C4 RA v out v in and from (3.11 1 1 1 G eq 2 = -----.6 KΩ From (8.

49).37) the Miller effect capacitance is C 1 = ( 1 + A m 1 )C C = ( 1 + 67 )4 = 272 pF From (8.+ ----. we find that 1 A c 1 = – 80 -------------------------1 + jω ⁄ 3.⋅ ------------------------------------------------------------------1 + jω ( C E + C c + C 1 ) ⁄ G eq 1 I1 G eq 1 1 1 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .4 × 10 From (8.72 For the first stage of the amplifier we found above that G eq 2 = 2.⋅ --------------------------⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ 1 + jf ⁄ 0.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers With the frequency expressed in MHz . we obtain 1 A c 2 = – 67 --------------------------1 + jf ⁄ 0.16 = – -----------------.4 mΩ –1 From (8.8 With the frequency expressed in MHz . From (8.60 The overall current gain A c is obtained by multiplying A c 1 by A c 2 . Thus.+ -----------------. the current gain of the first stage amplifier at medium frequencies is gm 0.3 KΩ 625 Ω gm I2 1 A c 1 = --. 1 1 1 1 A c = A c 1 A c 2 = ⎛ – 80 --------------------------.11 1 1 G eq 1 = -----.g m R eq ro + R2 and since r o » R 2 .60 1 + jf ⁄ 0.+ -----.= 2 mΩ R A R B r be 15 KΩ 3.16 A m 1 = g m R eq = ---------.= ---------------.60 1 + jf ⁄ 0.72 1 + jf ⁄ 0.= 67 –3 G eq 2 2.34).29) ro A m = ---------------.⎞ = 5360 ⋅ --------------------------.⎞ ⎛ – 67 --------------------------.= – 80 -----------------------------------------– 12 –3 –7 –3 1 + jω2. we obtain 1 A c 1 = – 80 --------------------------1 + jf ⁄ 0.= ----------------------.⋅ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. –1 1 1.66 × 10 2 × 10 1 + jω ( 255 + 4 + 272 ) × 10 ⁄ 2 × 10 and expressing ω in megaradians per second.= – ---------.72 8−20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.+ --------------.

we used the same procedure as in the simplification of Figure 8.⋅ I 3 R 2 + R 4 + 1 ⁄ jω C 4 R or Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5(d).17 shows a cascaded transistor amplifier circuit and its model that is valid at low and medium frequencies. RC−coupled amplifier circuit and its model at low frequencies The effect of the coupling capacitor at the output of the amplifier is determined from right side part of Figure 8.17(b) with the use of the current division expression as follows: 2 I 4 = -----------------------------------------. V CC R2 C4 R2 C4 RB R4 RA RA v out v in RB R3 C3 R3 C3 (a) I1 C4 Ib1 R1 I2 C3 R2 C4 Ib 2 3 ---------------(1 + β) C I3 R2 C4 I4 R4 v in rn R3 rn R1 ( 1 + β ) R3 (b) v out β Ib 1 β Ib 2 Figure 8. Asymptotes for the high−frequency characteristics of the amplifier for Example 8.5 Figure 8.Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers Figure 8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−21 . and the slope of each high−frequency asymptote is – 20 dB per decade. The characteristics of the amplifier are affected at low frequencies by the coupling and bypass capacitors.5(a) to derive the simple equivalent circuit of Figure 8. A ( dB ) 80 40 f = 720 KHz f = 600 KHz 0 10 0 – 20 dB ⁄ decade – 40 dB ⁄ decade 10 5 10 6 f ( log scale ) Figure 8. With r o assumed to be very large.16.16 shows a sketch showing the asymptotes for the high−frequency amplitude characteristics where the frequency is shown in a log scale and the gain in dB where A c ( dB ) = 20 log 5360 ≈ 75 .17.

R1 R2 R' 1 = ----------------R1 + R2 (8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .56) where and ω3 = 1 ⁄ R3 C3 βR' 1 A m = ---------------R1 + rn ( 1 + β )R 3 k 3 = ----------------------R' 1 + r n where. the interstage network has the same form as the amplifier shown in Figure 8. R' 1 is the parallel combination of R 1 and R 2 in Figure 8.5(d).17(b).57) At very low frequencies C 3 acts as an open circuit and the interstage coupling capacitor C 4 contributes the factor jω ⁄ ω 5 ------------------------1 + jω ⁄ ω 5 (8.55) (8. and with this choice C 4 acts as a short circuit while C 3 is making the transition from a short circuit to an open circuit.= ----------------. and the current gain for each stage has the same form as (8. Thus.⋅ -------------------------------------------. Thus.54) (8.5(d). with C 4 acting as a short circuit we find that Am 1 + jω ⁄ ω 3 A C = – ------------.50) Defining the frequency ω 4 as we express (8.53) (8. 8−22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.51) (8.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers jω C 4 ( R 2 + R 4 ) R2 R2 I4 --.= -----------------------------------------.58) * The minus (−) sign stems from the fact that the current I 3 in Figure 8. we choose the capacitors so that the low−frequency half−power point is determined by C 3 .50) as 1 ω 4 = ---------------------------C4 ( R2 + R4 ) R2 jω ⁄ ω 4 I4 --.17(b) has a direction opposite to the current I 2 in Figure 8. with C 4 acting as a short circuit.⋅ ------------------------R 2 + R 4 1 + jω ⁄ ω 4 I3 (8.16). and with this transition.⋅ -------------------------------------------R 2 + R 4 1 + jω C 4 ( R 2 + R 4 ) I3 R 2 + R 4 + 1 ⁄ jω C 4 (8.* 1 + k 3 1 + jω ⁄ ( 1 + k3 )ω 3 (8.= ----------------. Thus.52) To simplify the procedure of deriving an expression for the gain I 3 ⁄ I 2 we make use of the fact that the value required for the bypass capacitor C 3 is much larger than the value required for the coupling capacitor C 4 .

Find ω 3 . Then. The coupling and bypass capacitors are to be chosen to yield suitable performance at low frequencies.⋅ ------------------------1 + k 3 1 + jω ⁄ ( 1 + k 3 )ω 3 1 + jω ⁄ ω 5 (8.⋅ -------------------------------------------. a. Find the values of the resistances in the simplified low−frequency model in Figure 8. b. Finally. The break frequency associated with the coupling capacitor C 4 at the output of the amplifier is to occur at 16 Hz .61) and with the factor contributed by the interstage coupling capacitor C 4 . The quiescent collector current in each stage is I C = 1 mA . R 2 = 6. treating C 4 in the interstage network as a short circuit. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.8 KΩ . r' b = 200 Ω . and the output resistance r o is very large in comparison with R 2 and thus it can be neglected.2 KΩ . C 4 is chosen to make the break at ω 5 occur at some frequency below ω 3 where C 3 acts as an open circuit. ( 1 + β )R 3 is much larger than the other resistors in that group. Example 8. and the transistor parameters are β = 200 . c. and thus 1 ω 5 ≈ ----------------------------( R 1 + R 2 )C 4 (8. f T = 8 MHz . the complete expression for the current gain is Am 1 + jω ⁄ ω 3 jω ⁄ ω 5 A C = – ------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−23 .18.62) Normally.Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers where 1 ω 5 = -------------R eq C 4 (8. The highest break frequency associated with the interstage coupling network is to be ( 1 + k 3 )f 3 = 160 Hz . C C = 20 pF . R 3 = 2.6 A cascaded transistor amplifier circuit and its model that is valid at low and medium frequencies are shown in Figure 8. Compute the value of C 4 required in the output circuit. C 3 is chosen to make the break at ( 1 + k 3 )ω 3 occur at a desired point below the band of the high frequencies of the signal. find the required value for the bypass capacitor C 3 .59) and R eq is the equivalent resistance when C 4 acts as a short circuit and C 3 as an open circuit.28(b). and R 4 = 1 KΩ .60) Usually. and. The transistors are identical with R A = 56 KΩ . the design process begins with the selection of the proper resistor values to establish a suitable quiescent point. R B = 12 KΩ . Thus. R eq = R 1 || R 2 + r n + ( 1 + β )R 3 (8.

78). Also.51). R 3 = 2. find the minimum value for C 4 in the interstage network.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers V CC RA R2 C4 RA R2 C4 R4 v out v in RB R3 C3 (a) I1 C4 Ib 1 I2 R2 C4 Ib 2 RB R3 C3 3 ---------------(1 + β) C I3 R2 C4 I4 R4 v in rn R1 R3 C3 rn R1 ( 1 + β ) R3 (b) v out β I b1 β I b2 Figure 8.28μF 3 ( R 2 + R 4 )ω 4 ( 6.8 + 1 ) × 10 × 2π × 16 g m = 40I C = 40 × 1 × 10 –3 = 40 mΩ –1 β200 r be = -----.87). From relation (8.79). RA RB 56 × 12 R 1 = ------------------.= 5 KΩ –3 gm 40 × 10 r n = r' b + r be = 200 Ω + 5 KΩ = 5.= --------------------.18. and from (3. and R 4 = 1 KΩ are given. is to be at least as small as ω 3 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .2 KΩ 1 1 8−24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2 KΩ .= -----------------------------------------------------------.6.83). Treating C 3 as an open circuit.8 KΩ . The break frequency associated with the coupling capacitor C 4 in the interstage network. C 4 = ---------------------------.= 1.= ----------------. From relation (3. The values of R 2 = 6. b. d.= 9. Cascaded amplifier circuit and its low−frequency equivalent for Example 8.2 = 442 KΩ From Chapter 3.9 KΩ 56 + 12 RA + RA ( 1 + β )R 3 = ( 1 + 200 )2. Solution: a. relation (3. denoted as ω 5 in relation (8.

*w. fprintf('R2 = %2. fprintf('R1prime = %2. w5=w3....61)..33 Hz 48.9 + 6... fprintf('R4 = %2.1 R' 1 + r n 4..2f K \t'./((1+k3). fprintf(' \n'). RA=56000. Then. Acnum=(Am.9 + 6.R2/1000)....2 k 3 = ----------------------. can be greatly simplified by writing a MATLAB script such as that shown below and plot the overall current gain..R3/1000).= 48. C4d=1/((R1+R2)*w5)..= -----------------------------------.R1/1000).2f K \t'.....= 21.1 or ω 3 = 2πf 3 = 2π × 3.85 μF 3 ( R 1 + R 2 )ω 5 ( 9. fprintf('R1 = %2. beta=200.2 We are given that ( 1 + k 3 )f 3 = 160 Hz . fprintf(' \n'). fprintf(' \n'). w=1:10:10^5../Acden.= 4..*log10(abs(Ac)). R2=6800... Am=beta*R1prime/(rn+R1prime).2f K \t'. fprintf(' \n').2 × 10 d..2f K \t'. R1=RA*RB/(RA+RB).56). fprintf(' \n')...*w.9 × 6.2f K \t'.. and from (8.*(j.= -------------------.*(1+j. Ac=Acnum.rn/1000).rbe/1000). Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= ---------------------------------------------------. fprintf(' \n')...RA/1000). fprintf(' \n'). 160 f 3 = --------....2f K \t'.2f K \t'. fprintf(' \n').0 KΩ 9. fprintf('rbe = %2.. C4b=1/((R2+R4)*w4). R4=1000.... fprintf('R3 = %2...*w3)). fprintf('rbprime = %2. f3=160/(1+k3).. fprintf(' \n'). C3=1/(w3*R3).. rbprime=200..R4/1000)..8 ) × 10 × 21 The computations for all examples and the end−of−chapter exercises.. fprintf('RB = %2..2f K \t'.54).33 = 21 rad/s and from (8.6 μF 3 ω3 R3 21 × 2.2f K \t'..57).. R1 R2 9.Ic*1000)...*w./w5).= 2..RB/1000). f4=16.= 3.*(1+j.Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers c. gm=40*Ic. RB=12000. 1 1 C 4 = ----------------------------. rn=rbprime+rbe. rbe=beta/gm./w3). fprintf('Ic = %2..0 + 5. fprintf(' \n').*(1+j. Ic=10^(−3). AcdB=20.8 R1 + R2 ( 1 + β )R 3 ( 1 + 200 ) × 2.8 R' 1 = ----------------.2f K \t'.. fprintf(' \n')..= --------------------------------. fprintf(' \n'). w3=2*pi*f3. fprintf('rn = %2. From relation (8./w5))... Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−25 .. w4=2*pi*f4.*w. 1 1 C 3 = ----------.rbprime/1000). k3=(1+beta)*R3/(R1prime+rn).2f mA \t'. With ω 5 = ω 3 = 21 rad/s and with (8...R1prime/1000). Acden=(1+k3)... R3=2200. R1prime=R1*R2/(R1+R2). fprintf('RA = %2..

00 K rn = 5. fprintf(' \n')..03 K rbprime = 0. fprintf('f4 = %2.2f rps \t'...00 mmho k3 = 47...00 K RB = 12.C4b*10^6).27 Hz w3 = 20.00 K R2 = 6..88 K R1prime = 4. fprintf('f3 = %2.2f \t'...55 rps C3 = 22.12 microF w5 = 20. fprintf('gm = %2.. fprintf(' \n').Am)..92 microF Am = 87.. fprintf(' \n').w3).2f Hz \t'. fprintf('C4b = %2.C4d*10^6).beta).53 rps C4b = 1.. title('Low−frequency characteristics for multistage amplifier. fprintf('Am = %2.20 K Ic = 1.8') RA = 56.. fprintf('k3 = %2. grid. fprintf('w3 = %2. ylabel('Current gain (dB scale)')...19. fprintf('w4 = %2.. semilogx(f. Example 8.gm*1000). fprintf(' \n').... fprintf('C4d = %2.2f mmho \t'..Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers fprintf('beta = %2..f3)..2f Hz \t'...30 The plot for the current gain (in dB scale) versus frequency (in log scale) is shown in Figure 8. fprintf(' \n').2f rps \t'.. fprintf(' \n'). 8−26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. fprintf(' \n').0f \t'...2f microF \t'.00 K R1 = 9.w4).*pi). xlabel('Frequency in Hz (log scale)').2f rps \t'... fprintf(' \n')..w5)...92 f3 = 3. fprintf(' \n').20 K rbe = 5.2f microF \t'.28 microF gm = 40. f=w.00 Hz w4 = 100. fprintf(' \n')...55 rps C4d = 2...2f \t'.80 K R3 = 2...00 mA beta = 200 f4 = 16.2f microF \t'..C3*10^6). fprintf(' \n'). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .. fprintf('C3 = %2. fprintf('w5 = %2.k3)./(2. AcdB)..20 K R4 = 1.f4).. fprintf(' \n').

Frequency characteristics for a typical single stage amplifier Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and ω L is the low−frequency half−power point.20 where the symbols f L and f H define the low− and high−frequency ranges respectively. At low frequencies the voltage gain A v L is obtained from the relation jω ⁄ ω L A v L = – A m L ------------------------1 + jω ⁄ ω L (8.5 at low frequencies. Amplitude of current gain versus frequency for Example 8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−27 .11).19.8 Current gain (dB scale) 10 0 10 10 10 Frequency in Hz (log scale) 1 2 3 10 4 10 5 Figure 8.8 8.20. Example 8. ω L = ω 3 is as defined in relation (8. For instance.63) where A m L depends on the circuit parameters.6 Overall Characteristics of Multistage Amplifiers The asymptotes for the amplitude and phase characteristics for a typical RC−coupled stage amplifier are shown in Figure 8.14).Overall Characteristics of Multistage Amplifiers 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -1 10 Low-frequency characteristics for multistage amplifier. and A m L is as defined in relation (8. for the transistor amplifier circuit of Figure 8. A ( dB ) 40 20 0 20 dB/decade – 20 dB/decade 90 ° 45 ° 0 fL 1 2 fH f ( Hz ) fL 1 10 1 10 10 10 10 2 3 4 5 10 fH 6 10 7 1 10 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 – 45 ° – 90 ° f ( Hz ) (a) (b) Figure 8.

64 . for three stages is 0. It can be shown* that the half−power bandwidth of the cascade of n identical stages is given by Bn = B1 2 1⁄n –1 (8.20 and 8. for the transistor amplifier circuit of Figure 8.67) where B 1 = ω H and ω H is the half−power frequency for on stage amplifier at medium and high frequencies.27). and A mH is as defined in relation (8. ω H = ω 1 is as defined in relation (8. 8−28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.51 .21.18. The quantity 2 1 ⁄ n – 1 is referred to as the bandwidth reduction factor for n identical stages in cascade. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .90).21. We can obtain the combined low− and high−frequency characteristics for the voltage gain A v by multiplying relation (8.64) where A mH depends on the circuit parameters.65) If two identical stages such as that shown in Figure 8.43 .Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers At high frequencies the voltage gain A v H is obtained from the relation 1 A v H = – A m H ------------------------1 + jω ⁄ ω H (8. are connected in cascade.9 at high frequencies. For two stages the bandwidth reduction factor is 0.89) by (8. we observe that the bandwidth between the half−power points decreases as more stages are connected in cascade. * The proof is left as an exercise for the reader at the end of this chapter. Typical overall amplitude characteristics for two identical stages in cascade By comparing the amplitude characteristics of Figures 8. and ω H is the high−frequency half−power point. jω ⁄ ω L A v = A m L A m H -------------------------------------------------------------( 1 + jω ⁄ ω L ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ ω H ) (8. For instance. A ( dB ) 40 20 0 f ( Hz ) 40 dB/decade – 40 dB/decade fL fH Figure 8. the overall voltage gain A v is obtained from the relation ( jω ⁄ ω L ) 2 A v = A m -----------------------------------------------------------------2 2 ( 1 + jω ⁄ ω L ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ ω H ) 2 (8. thus.28).21.66) The overall amplitude characteristics for two identical stages in cascade is shown in Figure 8. and for four stages it is 0.

For example. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−29 . the overall voltage gain is given by ( jω ⁄ ω L1 ) ( jω ⁄ ω L2 ) A v = A m 1 A m 2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------( 1 + jω ⁄ ω L1 ) ( 1 + ( jω ⁄ ω L2 ) ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ ω H1 ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ ω H2 ) (8. relation (8. Typical overall amplitude characteristics for two nonidentical stages in cascade Relation (8. A ( dB ) 20 0 40 – 20 – 40 f L1 f L2 f H2 f H1 f ( Hz ) Figure 8. jω A v ( jω ) = K ---------------------------------------------------( jω + jω L ) ( jω + jω H ) The roots of the denominator of an expression for A v ( jω ) may be purely imaginary such as jω L = – 100 or complex conjugates such as jω H = – 3 + j 2 . we are interested on the values that lie on the jω axis of the complex frequency plane.71) and we can obtain the steady−state voltage gain for any frequency ω by letting s = jω . As indicated by the form of (8.65) is more conveniently expressed in a pole−zero pattern by letting K = –AmL Am H ωH (8. and when the highest power of the denominator is greater than the highest degree of the numerator. The values of s that make a rational function zero are called zeros of the function. hence s = 0 is a zero of the function of (8.71). hence s L and s H are poles of the function of (8. then the voltage gain is Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Overall Characteristics of Multistage Amplifiers If two non−identical stages are connected in cascade. and s H = – ω H . The values of s that make rational functions infinite are called poles of the function.71). The asymptotes for a typical amplitude characteristic are shown in Figure 8.69) (8. However.68) and the overall amplitude and phase characteristics are obtained by addition of the constituent characteristics. we can let s = jω . the function is completely specified except for a constant multiplier. voltage and current gains can be expressed as the ratio of two polynomials in the variable s .22 where the notations 20 and 40 stand for 20 dB/decade and 40 dB/decade respectively.70) is written as s A v ( s ) = K -----------------------------------( s – s L ) ( s – sH ) (8. Therefore. For all practical electric and electronic circuits. if the zeros of a certain voltage gain are – 1 and – 3 .70) Then. and if the poles are – 2 and – 4 . if all the poles and zeros of a rational function are known.22. Replacing jω with s and defining s L = – ω L .71). the expression is referred to as a rational function. it is convenient to substitute the symbol s for jω and after the roots of a quadratic equation in s are found.

Imaginary axis s = jω Real axis sH sL Figure 8. The design of networks to provide a desired frequency characteristic begins with the choice of a pole−zero pattern that yields an approximation to the desired performance. is denoted by a circle at the origin of the complex plane.= K ------------------------2 (s + 2)(s + 4) s + 6s + 8 2 (8. If the constant multiplier is not unity. Figure 8. ( jω + 1 ) ( jω + 3 ) 3K ( 1 + jω ⁄ 1 ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ 3 ) A v ( jω ) = K ---------------------------------------. The amplification at high frequencies is 40 dB .73) Thus if the poles and zeros of a rational function are known.⋅ -----------------------------------------------------( jω + 2 ) ( jω + 4 ) 8 ( 1 + jω ⁄ 2 ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ 4 ) (8. The poles of A v ( s ) which occur when s = s L = – ω L and s = s H = – ω H are represented by crosses on the negative real axis.= -----.71). the variable s = jω corresponds to some point on the imaginary axis shown as a filled circle.71) As shown in Figure 8. if it is not positive. 8−30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.7 The pole−zero pattern for the voltage gain of a certain amplifier is shown in Figure 8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .72) and for steady−state sinusoidal conditions.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers s + 4s + 3 (s + 1)(s + 3) A v ( s ) = K -------------------------------. it adds a constant number of decibels to the amplitude characteristic. the pole−zero diagram is a set of rectangular coordinates known as the complex plane. The zero of A v ( s ) which occurs when s = 0 .24. A zero corresponds to a break of 20 dB/decade upward in the asymptotic characteristic. It is also interesting to note that the poles and zeros of A v ( jω ) correspond to the break frequencies expressed in radians per second. Pole−zero pattern for relation (8. Construct the asymptotes for the logarithmic amplitude characteristic. For instance.23 shows the pole−zero diagram for the voltage gain of a single−stage amplifier obtained from relation (8. the logarithmic amplitude and phase characteristics can be constructed. it adds an angle of 180° to the phase shift. Example 8.23. The design is then completed by finding a network configuration and the parameter values that yield the desired pol−zero pattern. and a pole corresponds to a break of 20 dB/decade downward. The relation between the poles and zeros of the voltage or current gain and the frequency characteristics is displayed in a useful way by the pole−zero diagram.23. except for the effect of the constant multiplier. For steady−state sinusoidal operation.

Overall Characteristics of Multistage Amplifiers Solution: With the given values of the poles and zeros. the above relation reduces to A v ( jω ) ω→∞ = K It is given that at high frequencies the voltage gain is 40 dB . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−31 . A ( dB ) 40 15.77 ) = 15.8. 32.2 0 f ( Hz ) 4.= 100 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------( 1 + jω ⁄ 128 ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ 812 ) × 128 × 812 ( jω + 128 ) ( jω + 812 ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ 30 ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ 200 ) A v ( jω ) = 5.77 -----------------------------------------------------------------( 1 + jω ⁄ 128 ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ 812 ) The asymptotes for the logarithmic amplitude characteristic with A v ( dB ) = 20 log ( 5. 200. 20.2 dB is shown in Figure 8. and 129 respectively. Pole−zero pattern for Example 8.25 where the radian frequencies 30. Recalling that A dB = 20 log 100 = 40 it follows that K = 100 and ( 1 + jω ⁄ 30 ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ 200 ) × 30 × 200 ( jω + 30 ) ( jω + 200 ) A v ( jω ) = 100 ---------------------------------------------------.25.8 20 32 129 Figure 8. and 812 are shown in Hz as 4.7 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Logarithmic amplitude characteristic for Example 8.9 ( jω + 30 ) ( jω + 200 ) A v ( jω ) = K ---------------------------------------------------( jω + 128 ) ( jω + 812 ) For very large values of the frequency ω . the voltage gain is Imaginary axis – 812 – 200 – 128 – 30 Real axis Figure 8. 128.24.

74) and the instantaneous output power is v2 p out = ----RL 2 (8. A typical transistor radio many employ a cascade of five amplifier stages. Denoting the voltage gain as A v we obtain v2 A v = 20 log ---v1 (8. and the fifth stage is a power amplifier designed to produce the greatest possible power output.27. find: 8−32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.75) The power gain in dB is defined as p out G p = 10 log --------p in (8. The first four are designed to yield the greatest possible current amplification.= 10 log ----------. Let us consider the equivalent circuit of a voltage amplifier shown in Figure 8.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers 8.= 20 log ---.26 is v2 R1 v2 ⁄ RL v2 R1 G p = 10 log -------------.26.78) Example 8.26. the power gain of the circuit of Figure 8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . i1 v1 R1 R2 i2 μv 1 v2 RL Figure 8. and in this case the second term on the right side of (8.8 For the three−stage amplifier shown in Figure 8.7 Amplification and Power Gain in Three or More Cascaded Amplifiers Transistor amplifiers are conveniently characterized as current amplifiers. Equivalent circuit of a typical voltage amplifier The instantaneous input power to this amplifier is v1 p in = ----R1 2 (8.76) Thus.77) is zero.77) In communications circuits it is desirable to make RL = R1 .+ 10 log ----2 2 v1 RL v1 ⁄ R1 v1 RL 2 2 (8.

= 40 dB v1 v1 G p 1 = A v 1 + 10 log 1 MΩ = A v 1 + 0 = 40 dB ------------1 MΩ Second stage: v3 50v 2 A v 2 = 20 log ---.= A v 2 + 10 log 20 = 34 + 13 = 47 dB 50 KΩ Third stage: v4 2v 3 A v 3 = 20 log ---. the voltage amplification and power gain of each stage in dB b.Amplification and Power Gain in Three or More Cascaded Amplifiers v 1 1 MΩ v2 v3 v4 100v 1 1 MΩ 50v 2 50 KΩ 2v 3 10 Ω Figure 8.= A v 3 + 10 log 5000 = 6 + 37 = 43 dB 10 Ω b.8 a.27.= 20 log ------------. Overall voltage gain: v 4 = 2v 3 = 2 × 50v 2 = 2 × 50 × 100v 1 = 10000v 1 v4 10000v 1 A v = 20 log ---. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−33 . First stage: v2 100v 1 A v 1 = 20 log ---.= 20 log ------. the overall voltage amplification and overall power gain of each stage in dB Solution: a.= 6 dB v3 v3 50 KΩ G p 3 = A v 3 + 10 log ---------------.= 20 log ---------.= 34 dB v2 v2 1 MΩ G p 2 = A v 2 + 10 log ---------------. Three−stage amplifier for Example 8.= 80 dB v1 v1 Overall power gain: G p = A v + 10 log 1 MΩ = A v + 10 log 100000 = 80 + 50 = 130 dB ------------10 Ω Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= 20 log ------------------.

ω 3 . is the second harmonic. • To achieve higher gains. the amplification near the lower and near the higher band of frequencies should not be less than 70 percent of the amplification in the middle of the band. and so on. • Signals that are not can be approximated by the superposition of a number of sinusoidal com- ponents expressed as v ( t ) = V + V 1 cos ( ω 1 t + θ 1 ) + V 2 cos ( ω 2 t + θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( ω 3 t + θ 3 ) + … where V is the DC component of the composite signal. and ω 1 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . ω is the fundamental frequency or first harmonic. • If an amplifier retards the phase of each sinusoidal component of the signal in direct propor- tion to the frequency of that component.3. 3ω is the third harmonic. • Amplification decreases at high frequencies as a result of the parasitic capacitances in the cir- cuit. • Transistor amplifier circuits designed for high frequencies are discussed in Section 8. • Transistor amplifier circuits designed for low frequencies are discussed in Section 8. the combined low− and high−frequency characteristics can be displayed on a single set of coordinates. 8−34 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2. 2ω . we use multistage amplifier circuits.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers 8. • The frequency dependence of various amplifier circuits is examined by treating the low−frequency characteristics separately from the high−frequency characteristics. • The frequency spectrum of a signal reveals information about the frequencies and amplitude. • For a good designed amplifier. However. but it is delayed in time.8 Summary • Periodic signals can be represented as the superposition of sinusoidal components by a Fourier series of the form v ( t ) = V + V 1 cos ( ωt + θ 1 ) + V 2 cos ( 2ωt + θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( 3ωt + θ 3 ) + … where V is the DC component of the composite signal. are not harmonically related. and decreases at low frequencies because of the presence of coupling capacitors. ω 2 . then the waveform of the output signal is an exact copy of the input waveform. The overall characteristics of multistage amplifiers can be easily approximated and displayed with the use of asymptotes. but it contains no information about the phase angles of the components. • The behavior of transistor amplifier at low frequencies is affected by the action of the bypass capacitor that is in parallel with the emitter resistor. and so on. • The amplifying property of the transistor which increases the apparent value of the collector capacitance is known as the Miller effect.

For example. voltage and current gains can be expressed as the ratio of two polynomials in the variable s .43 . the values of s that make rational functions infinite are called poles of the function. if the zeros of a certain voltage gain are – 1 and – 3 . If all the poles and zeros of a rational function are known. the expression is referred to as a rational function. and for four stages it is 0.Summary • The bandwidth between the half−power points decreases as more stages are connected in cascade. then the voltage gain is expressed as (s + 1)(s + 3) A v ( s ) = K -------------------------------(s + 2)(s + 4) and for steady−state sinusoidal conditions. • If two non−identical stages are connected in cascade. The values of s that make a rational function zero are called zeros of the function. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−35 . the overall voltage gain is given by ( jω ⁄ ω L1 ) ( jω ⁄ ω L2 ) A v = A m 1 A m 2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------( 1 + jω ⁄ ω L1 ) ( 1 + ( jω ⁄ ω L2 ) ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ ω H1 ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ ω H2 ) • For all practical electric and electronic circuits. The half−power bandwidth of the cascade of n identical stages is given by Bn = B1 2 1⁄n –1 where B 1 = ω H and ω H is the half−power frequency for on stage amplifier at medium and high frequencies.51 . ( jω + 1 ) ( jω + 3 ) A v ( jω ) = K ---------------------------------------( jω + 2 ) ( jω + 4 ) • A zero corresponds to a break of 20 dB/decade upward in the asymptotic characteristic. and the previous stages are used for voltage amplification. The quantity 2 1 ⁄ n – 1 is referred to as the bandwidth reduction factor for n identical stages in cascade. and when the highest power of the denominator is greater than the highest degree of the numerator. and if the poles are – 2 and – 4 . for three stages is 0. • Some amplifiers require a cascade of three or more applications to achieve higher voltage amplification and power gain.64 . and a pole corresponds to a break of 20 dB/decade downward. • The relation between the poles and zeros of the voltage or current gain and the frequency characteristics are displayed in a useful way by the pole−zero diagram. The last stage is used to produce the greatest possible power output. the function is completely specified except for a constant multiplier. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. For two stages the bandwidth reduction factor is 0.

R 2 = 6. The high−frequency model has the form shown below.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers 8. the transistors are identical with R A = 56 KΩ . r' b = 50 Ω . and R 4 = 1 KΩ . V CC RA R2 v out v in RB R3 C3 2.2 KΩ . R 2 = 2 KΩ . C c = 3 pF . A transistor is used as an amplifier for video signals. Determine the values of g m . r' b = 200 Ω . Find the value of capacitor C 3 so that the highest break frequency for the low−frequency model will be 1 KHz . The quiescent collector current in each stage is I C = 1 mA . r be . For the cascaded amplifier circuit below. and the Miller effect b. R A = 33 KΩ and R B = 15 KΩ . r o = 30 KΩ . and the current gain−bandwidth frequency is f T = 200 MHz . With the value of R 1 found in part (b) what is the mid−band current amplification? 3. R B = 12 KΩ . I2 R1 I1 Cc r be Ce ro R2 gm v The quiescent collector current is I C = mA and the collector load resistor is R 2 = 1 KΩ . For the transistor amplifier below.9 Exercises 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . R 3 = 2. Determine the value of R 1 c. The transistor parameters are β = 50 . The amplifier circuit is to be designed so that the high−frequency half−power point for the current gain is 3 MHz . R 3 = 1 KΩ . a. C e .8 KΩ . 8−36 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and the transistor parameters are β = 200 . the input resistance r n = 500 Ω . and β = 80 .

c. v1 I1 R1 G e q1 I2 v2 CE C2 I3 v3 CE Cc C1 gm v1 G e q2 gm v2 G e q3 b. Sketch and dimension the asymptotes for the high−frequency amplitude characteristics. Hint: Begin with the assumption that the amplitude of the voltage gain of a one−stage amplifier is given by Av = A = Am ⁄ ( 1 + ( ω ⁄ ωH ) ) 2 5. Neglecting the effect of the resistance R 1 in the model circuit above.Exercises C C = 20 pF . find the overall current gain A c = I 3 ⁄ I 1 . V CC RA R2 C4 RA R2 C4 RB R 4 v out v in RB R3 C3 R3 C3 a. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−37 . Find the parameter values of the simplified high−frequency model circuit shown below. Prove that the half−power bandwidth of the cascade of n identical stages is given by Bn = B1 2 1⁄n –1 where B 1 = ω H and ω H is the half−power frequency for one stage amplifier at medium and high frequencies. Imaginary axis Imaginary axis – 10ω 1 (a) –ω1 Real axis – 20 ω 1 (b) –2 ω1 –ω1 Real axis Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. 4. The pole−zero patterns for the voltage gain of two transistor amplifiers are shown below. and the output resistance r o is very large in comparison with R 2 and thus it can be neglected. f T = 8 MHz .

Which of these amplifiers can deliver 10 w to the loudspeaker with the smallest input voltage? c. Draw the circuit diagram for a cascade of stages like those in Figures (b) and (c) that will meet the specifications of part (b) above. Two types of amplifiers shown in Figures (b) and (c) below are available for the cascade connection. 000 . This amplifier is to deliver a signal to a loudspeaker whose resistance is 10 Ω . Which of the amplifiers in Figures (b) and (c) yields the greatest no−load voltage amplification? d. 6. Will both of these amplifiers transmit DC signals? b.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers a. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . how much power does it deliver to the loudspeaker? b. A cascade of amplifier stages similar to that shown in Figure (a) below is to be used to amplify the signal from the stereo amplifier and deliver 10 w to the loudspeaker. Use MATLAB to obtain the plot for the amplitude characteristic for the pole−zero pattern of Figure (b) assuming that the function is multiplied by the constant K = 40. Use the smallest possible number of stages and show how a 1 MΩ potentiometer can be used in the first stage as a volume control. If the amplifier is connected directly to the loudspeaker. v1 μv 1 v2 μv 2 (a) v3 μv 3 RL 50 KΩ 10 Ω v1 (b) 50v 1 v1 (c) 1v 1 8−38 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. a. A certain stereo amplifier delivers a sinusoidal voltage of 10 mV RMS on open circuit and has an internal resistance of 500 Ω .

11) or Then.= 1.= ------------------.3 KΩ 33 + 15 RA + RB For this exercise we must find k 3 and f 3 such that ( 1 + k 3 )f 3 = 1 KHz From (8.3 + 0.5 R1 + rn 1000 f 3 = -------------------.= ---------------------------. and thus.= 7.5 10.10 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 1. R2 V CC RA v out v in RB R3 C3 The low−frequency model is shown below where R 1 || ( R A + R B ) rn I1 R1 IB ( 1 + β )R 3 (1 + β) 3 --------------- C I2 R2 β IB where RA RB 33 × 15 R 1 = -----------------.5 ) 1 ω 3 = ----------R3 C3 1 f 3 = -----------------2πR 3 C 3 1 1 C 3 = ---------------. ( 1 + β )R 3 ( 1 + 80 ) × 1 k 3 = ----------------------.15).= 10.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 8.35 μF 3 2πR 3 f 3 2π × 10 × 118 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. From (8.≈ 118 Hz ( 1 + 7. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−39 .= ----------------------------------.

From Chapter 3. I2 R1 I1 Cc r be R eq Ce ro R2 gm v Figure 8. Simplified model of the transistor amplifier for Example 8.78).6 a.25 KΩ gm 0. 8−40 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5 and in decibels A m ( dB ) = 20 log 76.04 Ω –1 From relation (3.04 and from (3.6 dB The amount by which the amplification at low frequencies is less than its value at medium frequencies is 20 log ( 1 + k 3 ) = 20 × 0.6 – 18.83).88 = 37.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers The amplification at medium frequencies is given by (8.= ----------------------.3 R1 + rn 10. g m = 40I C = 40 × 1 × 10 –3 = 0.14). β50 r be = -----.6 = 19 dB .93 = 18. relation (3. from DC to the break frequency at 118 Hz .= --------.= 76.28. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .92). The amplitude characteristics are shown below where the frequency is shown in logarithmic scale and the gain is in dB scale.= 1. the gain is 37. 40 30 20 10 0 1 118 Hz Gain ( dB ) ( 1 + k 3 )f 3 f3 1 KHz 10 100 1000 f ( Hz ) 2.3 A m = --------------.6 dB Therefore. Thus βR 1 80 × 10.3 = 20 × 1.3 + 0.

8 pF 8 ωT 2π × 2 × 10 The Miller effect is ( 1 + A )C c where A ≈ g m R 2 = 0.= 31.g m R eq = ---------------.= ----. gm 0.93).04 × 500 × 1250 = 13.= 38.= 10 R1 R 1 = 500 Ω 3 3 3 c.65 ) = 14 ⎝ R1 ⎠ 5 × 10---------------.25 × ------.7 × 3 × 10 ⁄ 31.8 ro + R2 r o + R 2 R 1 + r be 31 1750 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. From (8.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises fT -------f β = --.= 200 = 4 MHz β 50 This indicates that large current amplification is provided at frequencies up to 4 MHz .04 × 1000 = 40 Thus.= -----------------------------------.25 × 10 ⁄ R 1 6 6 3 × 10 = 4 × 10 ⋅ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------– 12 – 12 1 + 38.27) as ro ro R 1 r be 30 -------------------------A m = ---------------.33) with f 1 = 3 MHz 1 + 1.8 × 10 10 4 ⎛ 1 + 1. 6 gm ro R2 0.19).04 C e = -----. ( 1 + A )C c = 41 × 3 × 10 – 12 = 123 × 10 – 12 = 123 pF and this indicates that the dominant effect at high frequencies is the Miller effect.7 3 ( ro + R2 ) 31 × 10 and by substitution into (8.× 0.04 × 30 × 10 A = --------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−41 . The medium frequency current amplification A m is given by (8. From (3.= ----------------------------.⎞ = 3 ( 1 + 3. b.g m -----------------.

from (8. g m = 40I C = 40 × 1 × 10 –3 = 0.04 gm and from (3.+ ------------.04 A m 2 = g m R eq = ---------. relation (3.93). V CC RA R2 C4 RA R2 C4 RB R 4 v out v in RB R3 C3 R3 C3 a. –1 1 1 1 1 G eq 3 = ----.= 796 pF 6 ωT 2π × 8 × 10 For the second stage of the amplifier.04 C E = -----.04 Ω –1 From relation (3.g m R eq ro + R2 and since r o » R 2 .78).= -------------------------.8 KΩ 1 KΩ R2 R4 From (8.= 5 KΩ 0.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers 3.= 34.15 mΩ 6. the current gain of the second stage amplifier at medium frequencies is gm 0.= ----------------------------.8 –3 G eq 3 1. gm 0.= --------.15 × 10 8−42 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= -----------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . 200 β r be = -----.27) ro A m = ---------------.83). The parameter values of the simplified high−frequency model circuit shown below are as follows: v1 I1 R1 G e q1 I2 v2 CE C2 I3 v3 CE Cc C1 gm v1 G e q2 gm v2 G e q3 From Chapter 3.36).+ ----.= 1.

45 × 10 and expressing ω in megaradians per second.04 = – -------------------------.+ ---------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−43 .⋅ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 = – 89 -----------------------------------------– 12 – –6 –3 1 + jω3.= 89 –3 G eq 2 0. the current gain of the first stage amplifier at medium frequencies is gm 0.11 1 1 1 G eq 2 = -----.+ ---------------.45 mΩ R A R B r be R 2 56 KΩ 12 KΩ 5 KΩ 6. from (8.27) ro A m = ---------------.36 × 10 0.49). we find that 1 A c 2 = – 89 -------------------------1 + jω ⁄ 0.g m R eq ro + R2 and since r o » R 2 .= ---------------.8 KΩ From (8.3 With the frequency expressed in KHz .30 mΩ 56 KΩ 12 KΩ 5 KΩ R A R B r be From (8.⋅ -----------------------------------------------------I2 G eq 2 1 + jω ( C E + C 2 ) ⁄ G eq 2 1 1 0.= ---------------. gm I3 1 A c 2 = --.45 × 10 From (8.45 × 10 1 + jω ( 796 + 716 ) × 10 ⁄ 0.= -------------------------.4 For the first stage of the amplifier we found above that G eq 2 = 0. Neglecting R 1 .45 mΩ –1 From (8.46).+ -----.+ ----.+ ----. –1 1 1 1 1 1 1 G eq 1 = -----.04 A m 1 = g m R eq = ---------.= 0.+ ------------. we obtain 1 A c 2 = – 67 --------------------------1 + jf ⁄ 47. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.34). –1 1 1.1.+ ----.= 0.37) the Miller effect capacitance is C 2 = ( 1 + A m 2 )C C = ( 1 + 34.+ -----------------.+ ------------.+ ----.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises From (8.= – ---------.35).8 )20 = 716 pF From (8.37) the Miller effect capacitance is C 1 = ( 1 + A m 1 )C C = ( 1 + 89 )20 = 1800 pF b.

the frequency in log scale.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers gm I2 1 A c 1 = --.= – ---------.4 1 + jf ⁄ 18. we find that 1 A c 1 = – 133.= – 133.3 --------------------------1 + jf ⁄ 18.3 The sketch below shows the asymptotes for the high−frequency amplitude characteristics with the gain in dB where A c ( dB ) = 20 log 11864 ≈ 82 .⋅ --------------------------⎝ 1 + jf ⁄ 47.3 --------------------------. The overall current gain A c is obtained by multiplying A c 1 by A c 2 .⎞ = 11864 ⋅ --------------------------.⋅ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Since the amplitude of the voltage gain of a one−stage amplifier is given by Am A v = A = ----------------------------------2 1 + ( ω ⁄ ωH ) for n identical stages of this type connected in cascade.115 With the frequency expressed in KHz .3 ⎠ 1 + jf ⁄ 47.3 KHz 0 10 0 10 4 10 5 f ( log scale ) 4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .72 × 10 0. the overall amplification will be Am A n = -----------------------------------------2 n ( 1 + ( ω ⁄ ωH ) ) n 8−44 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.30 × 10 and expressing ω in megaradians per second. and the slope of each high−frequency asymptote is – 20 dB per decade.4 KHz – 20 dB ⁄ decade – 40 dB ⁄ decade f = 18.⋅ ------------------------------------------------------------------I1 G eq 1 1 + jω ( C E + C c + C 1 ) ⁄ G eq 1 1 1 0. we obtain 1 A c 1 = – 133.4 ⎠ ⎝ 1 + jf ⁄ 18.04 = – -------------------------.3 -----------------------------------------– 12 –3 –6 –3 1 + jω8.⎞ ⎛ – 89 --------------------------. 1 1 1 1 A c = A c 1 A c 2 = ⎛ – 133. Thus.3 -------------------------------1 + jω ⁄ 0.3 c.30 × 10 1 + jω ( 796 + 20 + 1800 ) × 10 ⁄ 0. A ( dB ) 80 40 f = 47.

AvdB=20.*(j. ω 2 1 + ⎛ ----.⎞ ⎝ B1 ⎠ ω 2 1 + ⎛ ----. The MATLAB script and resulting plot are shown below. ylabel('Gain (dB scale)')... w=1:10:100000.⎞ ⎝ B1 ⎠ n n = 2 1⁄n = 2 from which ω = B1 2 1⁄n –1 This value of ω is the half−power bandwidth of the cascade of n identical stages.. xlabel('Frequency in rad/s (log scale)'). ω1 1 A V = ------------------------------.. Imaginary axis – 10ω 1 (a) –ω1 Real axis – 20 ω 1 (b) –2 ω1 –ω1 Real axis a.= ----------( 2ω 1 ) ( 20ω 1 ) 40ω 1 Therefore..*w+100.^4../D. semilogx(w.*w)+400000.*10. Therefore. since ω H = B 1 . N=j. this amplifier will not transmit DC signals...*log10(abs(Av)). jω A V = ----------------------------------------------------( jω + ω 1 ) ( jω + 10ω 1 ) and when ω = 0 (DC condition). A V = 0 .AvdB). this amplifier will transmit DC signals. For the amplifier whose pole−zero pattern is shown in (b). Bn = B1 2 1⁄n –1 Imaginary axis 5.*N. D=(j. Av=4. b. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−45 .*w).. Therefore.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises The half−power frequency for the cascade of n identical stages is the value of ω that will make the denominator of the above expression equal to 2 . Hence. ( jω + ω 1 ) A V = -------------------------------------------------------( jω + 2ω 1 ) ( jω + 20ω 1 ) and when ω = 0 (DC condition). grid. For the amplifier whose pole−zero pattern is shown in (a).^2+2200. title ('Amplitude characteristic for Exercise 5') Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers 30 25 20 Gain (dB scale) 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 0 10 Amplitude characteristic for Exercise 5 10 1 10 10 Frequency in rad/s (log scale) 2 3 10 4 10 5 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the power delivered to the loudspeaker will be 8−46 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the total series resistance will be R eq = 500 + 10 = 510 Ω and the current through the loudspeaker will be 10 mV i = ----------------.6 μA 510 Ω Thus. v1 μv 1 v2 v3 RL μv 2 (a) μv 3 50 KΩ 10 Ω v1 (b) 50v 1 v1 (c) 1v 1 a. If the amplifier is connected directly to the loudspeaker.= 19.

c. the amplifier of Figure (c) will deliver 10 w to the loudspeaker with the smallest input voltage.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises p = i R = ( 19. the amplifier of Figure (b) will produce the greatest voltage amplification. Voltage amplification in amplifier of Figure (b) will be 50v 1 A b = 20 log ---------. d.= 50 mA 10 + 10 and power will be P c = I c R c = ( 50 × 10 ) × 10 = 25 mw 2 –3 2 Therefore. 500 Ω 10 KΩ 10 KΩ 10 Ω 10 Ω RL v2 v3 50v 2 50v 3 v4 v1 1 MΩ 1v 4 For last stage we must have P L = I 2 R L = 10 w and since R L = 10 Ω . Current in amplifier of Figure (c) will be 1×1 I c = ----------------. v 4 = 10 + 10 = 20 V . and L V L = 10 V .= 34 dB v1 2.84 × 10 2 –6 2 –9 w b.25 mw 2 –3 2 3 2.6 × 10 ) × 10 = 3. 1. Current in amplifier of Figure (b) will be 50 × 1 I b = -------------------------. Let us assume 1 v input to each of the amplifiers in Figures (b) and (c). and Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−47 .= 0 dB v1 Therefore. 1. Voltage amplification in amplifier of Figure (c) will be 1v 1 A c = 20 log ------.= 5 mA 10000 + 10 and power will be P b = I b R b = ( 5 × 10 ) × 10 × 10 = 0. I L = 1 A . Therefore.

⋅ 10 mV ≈ 10 mV 1 MΩ + 500 Ω The first and second stages were so chosen as to provide the greatest voltage amplification. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers 1 MΩ v 2 = ---------------------------------. 8−48 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

effective use of the transmission medium requires the use of narrowband systems operating at high frequencies. resistors. and our subsequent discussion will be based on these devices. they are the amplitude.. To generate these signals a high−frequency carrier wave.Chapter 9 Tuned Amplifiers T his chapter begins with an introduction to tuned amplifiers. 9. Thus they are adequate for audio amplifiers used in public address and home entertainment systems. Tuned amplifiers can also be designed with bipolar junction transistors and MOSFETs.* A passive bandpass filter is constructed with passive devices. However.e. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−1 . Various systems of this kind operate throughout the frequency spectrum from 10 KHz to about 10 GHz although at the higher end of this range ordinary transistors are not used. servomechanisms. and thus it provides no gain. For these higher frequencies it is necessary to use tuned amplifiers with RLC coupling to overcome the effects of parasitic capacitances and to provide a filtering operation in the form of frequency−selective amplification. automatic pilots. is caused to change instant by instant in accordance with the information signal to be transmitted. i. please refer to Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. and capacitors. A tuned amplifier is essentially a bandpass filter. A sinusoid has three characteristics that can be modulated. ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. either by wire or wireless. as between two cities or between a space vehicle and a ground station. We will examine the properties of various tuned amplifiers that find applications to telecommunications systems employing narrowband modulated signals. When signals must be transmitted over long distances. usually a sinusoid. The process by which the carrier wave is made to change in accordance with the information signal is called modulation. active filters with op amps are very popular. In this section we will introduce the properties of various tuned amplifiers that find application in telecommunication systems. New tools for the analysis and design of tuned amplifiers are developed. when the signals must be transmitted over long distances. efficient utilization of the transmission medium requires the use of high−frequency.1 Introduction to Tuned Circuits The amplifiers discussed in previous chapters are sufficient for most applications in which it is not required that the signals be transmitted over long distances. the frequency. electronic instruments. inductors. narrowband signals. and a host of similar applications. For small signals. and * For a thorough discussion on passive and active filters.

The properties of AM waves are developed in the paragraphs that follow. ISBN 978−1−934404−03−4. If the information. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and in this application it is frequently called an envelope detector.2) * FM and PM systems are best described by Bessel functions. it is convenient to assume that the modulating signal is a sinusoid expressed as v m ( t ) = V m cos ( ω m t + θ m ) (9. In an AM system the magnitude of v m ( t ) is always less than V C . frequency−modulated (FM).1) and Figure 9. please refer to Numerical Analysis Using MATLAB and Excel. and V C is the amplitude of the unmodulated carrier. wave is a voltage v m ( t ) . 9− 2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. although they are not discussed specifically. or modulating. To examine the properties of the AM wave further. and they give rise to amplitude−modulated (AM).1. then an AM carrier can be expressed as v s ( t ) = [ V c + v m ( t ) ] cos ω C t (9. FM* and PM waves have similar properties. the waveform of the envelope must be preserved.1 we observe that the waveform of the envelope of the modulated signal is the same as the waveform of the modulating signal v m ( t ) . Thus if the information in the modulated carrier is to be preserved. The peak rectifier is also known as diode detector. the peak rectifier circuit that we discussed in Chapter 2 is used for this purpose. vm ( t ) Modulating signal Carrier Envelope vc ( t ) t t Figure 9. The information can be recovered by recovering the waveform of the envelope.1) where ω C is the carrier frequency.Tuned Amplifiers the phase. From relation (9. Signal and carrier wave that is amplitude−modulated by the signal. To understand the requirements that must be met by tuned amplifiers it is necessary to examine the nature of these waves and to understand the way in which they are used in telecommunication systems. The waveform of such an AM wave is shown in Figure 9. and phase−modulated (PM) signals. hence the envelope of the modulated wave never drops to zero.1. For an introduction to these functions.

2(a) shows the relative amplitudes and frequencies of the carrier and side waves. it predictable for all times. a carrier wave at the carrier frequency. and it is always less than unity. except that usually the side waves are much closer to the carrier wave than it is possible to show in the diagram. and these are referred to as the upper and lower sidebands of the AM wave. Frequency spectra of AM waves Figure 9. In (9.V c cos [ ( ω c + ω m )t + θ m ]t + --. it can be expanded in a Fourier series. In practice.3) as m = Vm ⁄ Vc v s ( t ) = V c [ 1 + m cos ( ω m t + θ m ) ] cos ω c t and the quantity m is known as the modulation index in an AM system.4) (9.2.5) can be simplified by using the trigonometric identity for the product of two cosines.2) and (9.Introduction to Tuned Circuits Substitution of (9.2) into (9. In the more general case there are many pairs of side waves.5) we have assumed that the modulating signal v m ( t ) is sinusoidal and as such.3) (9. vs ( t ) vs ( t ) Ideal bandpass filter (a) ωc ω (b) ω Figure 9.* and the analysis of an AM system can be performed by the superposition of the effects of each sinusoidal component known as harmonics. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−3 . and two side waves at frequencies on either side of the carrier frequency. v m ( t ) is non−sinusoidal but if it is periodic in nature as most physical phenomena are. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. please refer to Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling. In most AM waves the carrier frequency is much larger than the highest frequency in the modulating signal. ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9. hence. m m v s ( t ) = V c cos ω c t + --. a typical AM radio station broadcasting speech and music with frequencies up to 5 KHz has a carrier frequency of 1 MHz * For a detailed discussion and applications in Fourier series. Relation (9.V c cos [ ( ω c – ω m )t – θ m ] 2 2 (9.5) and letting we express (9. Thus.2. Thus.6) reveals that a sinusoidally modulated AM wave is the superposition of three sinusoidal components. The frequency spectrum of a typical sinusoidally modulated AM wave is shown in Figure 9. it conveys no useful information.6) Relation (9.1) yields v s ( t ) = [ V c + V m cos ( ω m t + θ m ) ] cos ω c t (9.

2 . To illustrate what may happen when the symmetry is destroyed. A narrowband allows the transmission of many simultaneous telephone conversations on a single pair of conductors in a coaxial cable and for the simultaneous use of space by all radio transmitters.3. Tuning a radio receiver is the operation by which the passband of the amplifier is shifted from one place to another in the frequency spectrum. Figure 9. and the amplitude of the total voltage becomes almost constant as indi- 9− 4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. that is. The study of tuned amplifiers in the sections that follow is concerned with the response of the amplifiers to modulated waves and with design techniques for obtaining optimum performance. and the lower−sideband vector rotates clockwise at the same speed. their total bandwidths are small compared to their center frequencies. These signals can be separated by frequency−selective amplification.3(b) shows the case in which the sidebands have been shifted 90° out−of−phase in phase with respect to the carrier. then the upper−sideband vector rotates counterclockwise at ω m rad ⁄ sec . and 3 . The significance and importance of this symmetry is illustrated further by the phasor diagrams in Figure 9. The advantage of AM signals is that they are narrowband signals. Figure 9. Amplifiers of this kind are called bandpass amplifiers.3. in which each sinusoidal component of the wave is represented by a rotating vector. If these components are to add up to give the original AM wave. However. Each signal uses a different carrier frequency. ωm VC ωm (a) ωm VC (b) ωm (c) Figure 9. this symmetry must be preserved. that this result depends on the symmetry between the sidebands. the idealized gain characteristic for such an amplifier is indicated in Figure 9. and normally the difference between these frequencies is great enough so that the spectra of the signals are completely separated and occupy different frequency bands. Phasor representation of an AM wave In Figure 9. The sidebands have equal amplitudes. the sum of the sideband vectors (represented by the dotted line) is at every instant normal to the carrier vector.2(b). If the carrier vector is taken as the reference and is assumed to be stationary. Optimum performance is concerned with the rejection of adjacent channels as well as with faithful amplification of the desired channel.6) shows that a symmetry exists between the upper and lower sidebands of an AM wave.2(b) shows the frequency spectra of three AM signals indicated as 1 . In this case. Relation (9.Tuned Amplifiers and a total bandwidth of 10 KHz centered at 1 MHz . and they have phase angles with respect to the carrier that are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.3(a) the sum of the two sideband vectors (represented by the dotted line) is at every instant colinear with the carrier vector and it gives a sinusoidal variation in the amplitude of the total voltage. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

proportional to the freElectronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. but our intent here is to illustrate that poorly designed amplifiers can degrade the signal.V 2 cos [ ( ω c + ω 2 )t – θ 2 ] + -. Ideally.7) Substitution of (9. the amplification at the ends of the band of frequencies occupied by the signal should not be less than 70 percent of the amplification in the center of the band. This fact can be illustrated by considering a modulated signal consisting of the sum of a number of sinusoids of frequencies ω1. are subject to this kind of fading and distortion as a result of the properties of the transmission medium. and it is badly distorted. the signal recovered by an envelope detector at the receiving end is very small. when transmitted over long distances. Just about all radio signals. In a properly designed tuned circuit. it follows from (9.7) into (9. not necessarily harmonically related.V 1 cos [ ( ω c – ω 1 )t – θ 1 ] 2 2 1 1 + -.1) yields 1 1 v s ( t ) = V c cos ω c t + -. ω2. If the modulating signal is allowed a constant time delay T. The no phase shift requirement stated above can be somewhat controlled by the fact that a linear phase−shift characteristIc produces a pure delay in the envelope waveform without distorting it.2 except that in this case each sideband contains a sinusoidal component corresponding to each sinusoidal component of the modulating signal.7) becomes v m ( t ) = V 1 cos [ ω 1 ( t – T ) – θ 1 ] + V 2 cos [ ω 2 ( t – T ) – θ 2 ] + V 3 cos [ ω 3 ( t – T ) – θ 3 ] + … (9.3(c) where the dotted vectors represent the vector sum of the carrier and the sidebands. such that v m ( t ) = V 1 cos ( ω 1 t – θ 1 ) + V 2 cos ( ω 2 t – θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( ω 3 t – θ 3 ) + … (9.10) that imposing a constant time delay on v m ( t ) is equivalent to imposing a lagging phase shift on each sinusoIdal component. It also decreases at low frequencies because of the presence of coupling capacitors. with single−sideband systems the need for coherence between two sidebands is eliminated.9) or v m ( t ) = V 1 cos ( ω 1 t – ω 1 T – θ 1 ) + V 2 cos cos ( ω 2 t – ω 2 T – θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( ω 3 t – ω 3 T – θ 3 ) + … (9. … . then. System performance can be improved in this respect by transmitting only one of the two sidebands.3(c) occurs. When the condition of Figure 9. The amplification decreases at high frequencies as a result of the parasitic capacitances in the tuned amplifier.8) The frequency spectrum for this signal is similar to the spectra shown in Figure 9. and they should provide no phase shift in this band. each pair of sideband components exhibits the symmetry discussed above.V 1 cos [ ( ω c + ω 1 )t – θ 1 ] + -. amplifiers for AM signals should provide uniform amplification over the band of frequencies occupied by the signal.Introduction to Tuned Circuits cated in Figure 9. ω3. Single sideband systems are discussed in communications systems text. then (9.10) Since T is a constant.V 2 cos [ ( ω c – ω 2 )t – θ 2 ] + … 2 2 (9. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−5 .

6) 3 3 6 6 3 6 3 v S ( t ) = 10 cos 2π × 10 t + -.V 2 cos [ ( ω C – ω 2 )t + φ 2 + θ 2 ] + … 2 2 (9. It can also be shown that a constant phase shift added to the linear phase characteristic produces a delay in the carrier. Thus if we let ω 1 T = φ 1 .1 A carrier v C ( t ) = 10 cos 2π × 10 t 6 is amplitude−modulated with a signal v m ( t ) = 3 cos 1000πt + 5 cos 2000πt Sketch a diagram of the frequency spectrum of the amplitude−modulated wave similar to that of Figure 9. φ 2.V 1 cos [ ( ω C – ω 1 )t + φ 1 + θ 1 ] 2 2 1 1 + -.8) with the delayed envelope can be expressed as 1 1 v s ( t ) = V C cos ω C t + -.cos [ ( 2π × 10 + π × 10 )t + θ m ]t + -. Solution: From relation (9.V 1 cos [ ( ω C + ω 1 )t – φ 1 – θ 1 ] + -.4. The results obtained in the preceding discussion are useful guides in judging the merits of various tuned amplifiers and in designing these amplifiers for optimum performance. A good amplifier for use with modulated signals should have uniform gain in the frequency band occupied by the signal. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .V 2 cos [ ( ω C + ω 2 )t – φ 2 – θ 2 ] + -. the corresponding AM wave of (9. Example 9.2. … are directly proportional to the separation of the side frequency from the carrier frequency.cos [ ( 2π × 10 – π × 2 × 10 )t ] 2 2 and the frequency spectrum is as shown in Figure 9. Thus.cos [ ( 2π × 10 – π × 10 )t ] 2 2 5 5 6 3 6 3 + -. and it should have a linear phase characteristic in that frequency band.cos [ ( 2π × 10 + π × 2 × 10 )t + θ m ]t + -.3 by the same amount and leaves the relations among them unchanged.Tuned Amplifiers quency of that component. it can be shown by going through this process in reverse that the result is a pure delay in the envelope. Alternatively. Show the amplitude and frequency for each component of the AM wave. 9− 6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. if an AM signal is transmitted through an amplifier having a linear phase characteristic with a negative slope.11) where φ 1. a constant phase shift rotates all vectors in the diagrams of Figure 9. ω 2 T = φ 2 and so on.

please refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications. The resonant frequency is given by ω 0 = 1 ⁄ LC and the quality factor at parallel resonance is given by Q 0P = ω 0 C ⁄ G a.-. ISBN 978−0−9709511−5−1.2 2 1 MHz – 1 KHz 1 MHz – 500 Hz 1 MHz 5 3 --.1 × 10 × 77. ω 0 = 1 ⁄ ( LC ) 2 f 0 = 1 ⁄ 4 π 2 LC 1 C = --------------------------------------------------------------------2 = 77.= --. or Then. or c. Figure 2.2 A radio receiver* with a parallel GLC circuit whose inductance is L = 0. what is the ratio of the voltage at 810 KHz to the voltage at 740 KHz ? Solution: a. Frequency spectrum for Example 9. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−7 . b.= 5.1 Example 9.16.4.5 × 10 × ( 810 × 10 ) Q 0P = ω 0 C ⁄ G 5 – 12 2 π f0 C –1 2 π × 8.2 pF –3 3 2 4 π 0. Chapter 2.4 μΩ 75 Q 0P 2 I III V 810 KHz = --------------------.Introduction to Tuned Circuits 10 5 3 -.24 × 10 (9.5 mH is tuned to a radio station transmitting at 810 KHz resonant frequency.= --------------------------------------------------------------------.= -------------------------–6 Y 810 KHz Y0 G 5.2 2 f 1 MHz + 1 KHz 1 MHz + 500 Hz Figure 9.= ----. If a nearby radio station transmits at 740 KHz and both signals picked up by the antenna have the same current amplitude I ( μA ).12) * For a block diagram of a typical AM radio receiver and description. What is the value of conductance G if Q 0P = 75 ? c. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2 × 10 G = -------------. What is the value of the capacitor of this circuit at this resonant frequency? b.

5.24 × 10 ---------------------.24 × 10 ) + ⎛ 2π × 740 × 10 × 77.6 –6 –6 V 740 KHz I ⁄ 71.2 × 10 I ⁄ 5.17) and thus I 1 ( s ) = Y ( s )V ( s ) 9− 8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2 × 10 –1 (9.2 μΩ I V 740 KHz = -------------------------–6 71. the voltage developed across the parallel circuit when it is tuned at f = 810 KHz is 13.2 × 10 ⎝ –6 2 2 1 – -----------------------------------------------------------------3⎞ 3 – ⎠ 2π × 740 × 10 × 0.2 × 10 5. and the losses in the inductor.+ ----.= 13. and with this assumption this circuit is good at frequencies up to a few hundred KHz. Small signal tuned transistor amplifier circuit In the circuit of Figure 9.24 × 10 (9.2 Single−tuned Transistor Amplifier The small signal model for a single−tuned transistor amplifier is shown in Figure 9. The resistance R 1 is in the order of 1 kilohm or less and represents the internal resistance of the current source.15) that is. the biasing transistors.13) or Y 740 KHz = ( 5.= -------------------------------. we assume that the parasitic capacitances are negligible.+ sC R 1 sL (9.= -------------------------.5 × 10 or and Then from (9. 9.16) (9.12) and (9.14) –6 –6 V 810 KHz 71. I1 v R1 L C gm v R2 I2 Figure 9.14). where Y 740 KHz = I V 740 KHz = --------------------Y 740 KHz G + (ωC – 1 ⁄ (ωL) ) 3 – 12 2 2 (9.Tuned Amplifiers Also.5. Y 740 KHz = 71.5. the input resistance of the transistor.6 times larger than the voltage developed at f = 740 KHz . The admittance Y ( s ) on the left side of the circuit is 1 1 Y ( s ) = ----. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

71) in Chapter 8. If they are real. relation (9.19) has the same form as relation (8.= -------------------------------------------------1 ⁄ R 1 + 1 ⁄ ( sL ) + sC I1 ( s ) or gm s . the poles of (9.Single−tuned Transistor Amplifier Also.15) yields gm s A c ( s ) = – -----.19) For convenience.18) can be expressed as the product of two linear factors. (9.2 A c ( s ) = – -----.24) (9. gm s A c ( s ) = – -----.5.22) The quadratic denominator in (9.14) the current gain A c is –gm I2 ( s ) A c ( s ) = ---------.12). From the parallel network of Figure 9. we observe that at parallel resonance inductive susceptance* and * The inductive susceptance is defined as B L = 1 ⁄ jωL and the capacitive susceptance as B C = jωC Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. hence the pole−zero pattern and the frequency characteristics of the tuned amplifier with real poles are the same as those of the RC−coupled amplifier which cannot provide a truly narrow−band characteristic.21) and 1 2α = ------RC Substitution of (9.20) (9.25) and we find that and s1 = – α + α – ω0 s2 = – α – α – ω0 2 2 2 2 Depending on the values of the circuit parameters. we define two new symbols as 2 1 ω 0 = ------LC (9.16) and (9. in our subsequent discussion we will be concerned with circuit parameters which will yield complex poles. and (9.e.18) From (9. i. I2 ( s ) = –gm V ( s ) (9.13). We are also interested in the current gain at the resonant frequency denoted as A c0 .⋅ -----------------------------------------------------C s + ( 1 ⁄ RC )s + 1 ⁄ LC (9. Therefore.⋅ -------------------------------C s 2 + 2αs + ω 2 0 (9..17) into (9.⋅ ---------------------------------C ( s – s1 ) ( s – s2 ) (9.18) may be either real or complex.23) (9. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−9 .

and the amplification at resonance so that the half−power bandwidth will be BW = 10 KHz and the passband will be centered at 1 MHz .Tuned Amplifiers capacitive susceptance cancel each other and the admittance of the parallel R 1 LC circuit reduces to R 1 and thus Ac 0 = I2 ⁄ I1 = –gm R1 (9. please refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications. one above and the other below the resonance frequency and thus the bandwidth between the two half−power frequencies is given by 1BW = 2α = ------RC (9. Also. Find the values of L . b. and the half−power frequency is the frequency at which the amplification is A = A c ( max ) ⁄ 2 . there are two half−power frequencies. Solution: a.3 The equivalent circuit of single−tuned amplifier is shown in Figure 9.= 32 nF 4 2π × 10 × 500 * For a detailed discussion on quality factor Q. the half−power frequencies provide a measure of the bandwidth of the circuit. For the specified bandwidth it is necessary that 4 1 BW = --------. ISBN 978−0−9709511−5−1 9−10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2 a.6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . 1 C = ----------------------------------. The quality factor Q 0 * at parallel resonance. C . Transistor equivalent for the tuned amplifier of Example 9.27) Example 9. I1 R1 v L C R2 gm v I2 Figure 9.6 and has a transconductance g m = 40 mΩ –1 and R 1 = 500 Ω .= 2π × 10 R1 C and with R 1 = 500 Ω .26) As in the case of the RC amplifier in Chapter 8.

8 × 10 6 –6 = 5Ω Fortunately. Impedance transformation in a tuned transistor amplifier and its model Resistors R A and R B provide the necessary biasing but they also include coils in series with these resistors (not shown) and these coils are known as radio frequency chokes (RFCs).5 × 10 × 32 × 10 The current gain at the resonant frequency is A c 0 = g m R 1 = 40 × 10 × 500 = 20 –3 b. V CC I1 RA RC I1 ⁄ a v' C L RB vs RP v out RE CE L1 (a) C v s --a2 a2 L v' (b) R' gm v R2 I2 Figure 9. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−11 .= ( 2π × 10 ) = 39. and a relatively high quality factor Q 0 .2. and the transformation ratio is Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The quality factor Q 0 at parallel resonance is Q 0 = ω 0 CR 1 = 2π × 10 × 32 × 10 × 500 = 100 6 –9 In Example 9.Single−tuned Transistor Amplifier For the specified center frequency 2 6 2 12 1 ω 0 = ------. we can transform values required by the specifications into practical values of the circuit parameters by the use of a transformer. 1 L = ------------------------------------------------------9 = 0. An RFC blocks radio frequencies but passes audio frequencies when both frequencies are applied to the same circuit. the very low value of R 1 = 500 Ω makes a large value of C necessary to obtain the narrow bandwidth BW = 10 KHz . Moreover. Figure 9.7. the coefficient of coupling* among the turns is close to unity.7(a) shows a practical tuned transistor amplifier in which a tapped inductor is used as a step−down autotransformer. the very low value of L causes the inductive reactance at 1 MHz to have a very low value of ω 0 L = 2π × 10 × 0. The inductors used in the autotransformer have ferrite cores.8 μH 12 – 39.5 × 10 LC and with C = 32 × 10 –9 .

32) Also.= a < 1 L N (9. The resistance R P includes the internal resistance of the source supplying the input signal.28) where L is the total inductance.Tuned Amplifiers V1 ----. and the secondary side is the portion of the coil below the tap. please refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications. In Figure 9.+ ---------. N is the number of turns in the coil.7(b) represents the parallel combination of a 2 R P with R S .7(a) is transferred to the right side. it assumes the value a 2 R P .= V L N1 ----1 = ----.30) (9. Let the resistance in series with the coil in the primary be denoted as R P and the resistance in series with the coil in the secondary be denoted as R S .7(b) C 1 1 Y' ( s ) = ---. a practical inductor contains some resistance in series with it.+ ---. that is. I 2 ( s ) = – g m V' ( s ) –gm I2 ( s ) A c ( s ) = ----------------. From Figure 9.= Y' ( s )V' ( s ) a (9. L 1 is the inductance portion of the coil below the tap. The resistance R' shown in Figure 9.7(b). When the portion of the circuit on the left of the transformer coil in Figure 9. ISBN 978−0−9709511−5−1 9−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.31) (9. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .29) The input signal current is also transformed to I 1 ⁄ a as shown in Figure 9. a2 RP RS R' = ----------------------a2 RP + RS (9. and when it is referred to the secondary. the small signal model assumes the form shown in Figure 9.7(a). and the capacitance C and the total inductance L are transformed by the factor a 2 .s 2 R' a Ls a 2 I1 ( s ) ---------. we observe that the current amplification is increased by the transformer action.7(b) and since a is less than unity. and N 1 is the number of turns in the coil below the tap. As we know.= ---------------------------------------------------------2 2 I1 ( s ) ⁄ a 1 ⁄ R' + 1 ⁄ a Ls + Cs ⁄ a * For a detailed discussion on transformers. the primary side of the step−down autotransformer is the total inductance and this represents the primary side of the autotransformer.

33) reduces to g m R' A co = – ----------a (9.= ----------------------RP RS C R'C (9. and this condition occurs when maximum power is delivered to R S .4 I2 a. Therefore. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−13 .7(a) forms a lossless coupling network and if R P and R S are fixed. but the bandwidth becomes 2 a2 RP + RS a BW = -------. the coupling network can be adjusted for maximum amplification.34) The LC combination in Figure 9. and R' = 500 Ω .8.⋅ --------------------------------------------------------2 C s + ( a ⁄ R'C )s + 1 ⁄ LC (9. maximum amplification is obtained when the value of a is chosen so that a2 RP = RS (9. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and the amplification at resonance so that the half−power bandwidth will be BW = 10 KHz and the passband will be centered at 1 MHz . Find the values of L . I1 ⁄ a C ---a2 R2 –1 vs a2 L v' R' g m v' Figure 9. the inductive susceptance and capacitive susceptance cancel out and thus the admittance is just R' . transconductance g m = 40 mΩ .Single−tuned Transistor Amplifier ag m s .36) The quality factor Q 0 at parallel resonance is Q 0 = ω 0 CR' (9. b.37) Example 9.2 A c ( s ) = – --------. Therefore.35) At resonance.4 The equivalent circuit of single−tuned amplifier shown in Figure 9. relation (9. Circuit for Example 9. The quality factor Q 0 at parallel resonance.8 has the transformation ratio a = 1 ⁄ 20 . C .33) Therefore. the transformer action leaves the resonant frequency ω 0 unchanged.

= ------------------------------------.1 Synchronously Tuned Amplifiers The amplitude characteristic for two synchronously tuned amplifiers is the characteristic for one stage but with the amplification squared at each point.= ( 2π × 10 ) = 39. The corresponding pole−zero diagram has the form shown in Figure 9. 1 ⁄ 400 C = ----------------------------------.= 400 1 ⁄ 20 a b.5 are cascaded. For the specified bandwidth it is necessary that 4 a2BW = -------.= 2π × 10 R'C and with R' = 500 Ω .3 Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers To achieve higher selectivity it is necessary that tuned amplifiers are connected in cascade by means of a coupling capacitor or transformer coupling.3.23).= 0. The quality factor Q 0 at parallel resonance is Q 0 = ω 0 CR' = 2π × 10 × 80 × 10 6 – 12 × 500 = 100 9.9 where the numbers in parentheses indicate double poles and zeros. 9−14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Tuned Amplifiers Solution: a. the two stages are said to be synchronously tuned. In this form.5 × 10 LC and with C = 80 × 10–12 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . The phase characteristic is the characteristic for one stage with the angle multiplied by 2. hence the zero at the origin and the poles s 1 and s 2 each appear twice in the overall current gain. We have assumed that the Miller effect is negligible. However.32 mH 12 – 12 39. When two identical stages like the one shown in Figure 9. 1 L = -------------------------------------------------------. the overall current gain is given by the square of relation (9.= 80 pF 4 2π × 10 × 500 For the specified center frequency 2 6 2 12 1 ω 0 = ------. they are chosen to act as short circuits in the passband of the amplifier.5 × 10 × 80 × 10 The current gain at the resonant frequency is –3 g m R' 40 × 10 × 500 A c 0 = ----------. When coupling capacitors are used. the half−power bandwidth is less than the bandwidth of one stage. 9.

25). They are very useful in the analysis and design of practically all narrowband amplifiers and filters.40) (9. For the typical narrowband amplifier they are very good approximations.39) Since we are concerned with complex numbers.42) (9.10(a).24) and (9.Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers ( 2) ( 2) ( 2) Im Re Figure 9. that is.43) (9. and in the complex frequency plane it represents the distance of the poles s 1 and s 2 from the origin as shown in Figure 9.38) (9.44) and letting we obtain β = α – ω0 s 1 = – α + jβ s 2 = – α – jβ 2 2 2 From relation (9.10. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−15 . s1 β Im α Im ( s – s1 ) Re ω0 s = jω Re s2 (a) ( s – s2 ) (b) Figure 9. Pole−zero pattern for two synchronously tuned amplifiers in cascade In the study of tuned amplifiers. To understand these approximations. Graphical representation of the relations s 1 = – α + jβ . s1 = – α + α – ω0 s2 = – α – α – ω0 2 2 2 2 (9.41) (9. two important relations are the narrowband approximations. s 2 = – α – jβ . we express these as s1 = – α + j α – ω0 s2 = – α – j α – ω0 2 2 2 2 (9. and β 2 = α 2 – ω2 0 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. we refer back to relations (9.9.42) we observe that ω 0 is the hypotenuse of a right triangle.

⋅ -------------------------2C α + jΔω 2αC 1 + jΔω ⁄ α (9.⋅ -------------------------------2C jω + α – jω 0 2C α + j ( ω – ω 0 ) (9.51) Also. An amplifier suitable for use with this signal will have a resonant frequency of ω 0 = 200α and as we can see from Figure 9. the poles s 1 and s 2 are extremely close to the imaginary axis.⋅ ------------------.50) Letting ω – ω 0 = Δω we can express (9. Therefore. since the vector s – s 2 is relatively further away.10(b). we obtain the simplified expression gm gm jω 0 1 A ( s ) = – -----.Tuned Amplifiers A typical AM signal has a center frequency that is 100 times the bandwidth of the signal to be transmitted.47) shows that in narrowband operation the ratio s ⁄ ( s – s 2 ) can be expressed as the constant 1 ⁄ 2 and that the narrowband approximations reduce the quadratic factor in the denominator to a linear factor. we see from Figure 9.48) gm gm 1 1 A ( jω ) = – -----.= – ---------. the vector s – s 1 gets smaller and experiences large percentage variations.⋅ --------------2C jω – s 1 (9. the percentage variations are much smaller and the variations in s and s – s 2 tend to cancel.⋅ ---------------C ( s – s 1 )2jω 0 2C ( s – s 1 ) (9. at resonance the amplification is given by 9−16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Also.50) as gm gm 1 1 A ( jω ) = – -----. This reduction is very important when more complex circuits are to be analyzed.47) can be expressed as gm 1 A ( jω ) = – -----. since β ≈ ω 0 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Now. let us consider the sinusoidal operation where s = jω and as jω moves along the imaginary axis near the pole s 1 . and thus s 1 = – α + jβ ≈ – α + jω 0 (9.⋅ ---------------------------.10(a) that β ≈ ω 0 . However. for sinusoidal operation s = jω and relation (9.= – -----.= – -----.46) and s – s 2 ≈ 2jω 0 When these approximations are substituted into relation 9.23.47) Relation (9.45) (9. for sinusoidal operation in the passband we obtain the narrowband approximations s = jω ≈ jω 0 (9.49) and by substitution into (9.⋅ ----------------------------.48) and since ω 0 = 200α .

51) yields 1 A ( jω ) = – A 0 ⋅ -----------------------------------1 + j2Δω ⁄ BW (9. one above and one below the resonant frequency.. for three stages it is 0. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers gm gm 1 A 0 = A c ( jω 0 ) = -----. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−17 .60) The square root of this expression is the bandwidth reduction factor for n identical stages connected in cascade.52) and (9. at the half−power frequency 2Δω 2 1 + ⎛ ----------.53) Substitution of (9.⋅ -------------------------.57) The half−power frequency for n identical stages connected in cascade occurs when the square of the denominator in (9.52) We also recall that the bandwidth is given by BW = 2α (9. BW = ω 0 ⁄ Q 0 .43 .58) from which BW 1 1 ⁄ n Δω = ± ----------. Then. and for four stages it is 0.= ---------2C jβ + α – jβ 2αC (9.⎞ = 2 ⎝ BW 1 ⎠ (9.e. For n stages connected in cascade.2 – 1 2 (9.56) where the subscript unity denotes a single stage.54).55) In terms of the bandwidth (relation9.57) equals 2. for two stages it is 0.53) into (9.64 .51 . i. 1 A ( jω ) = – A 0 ⋅ --------------------------------------1 + j2Q 0 Δω ⁄ ω 0 (9. the magnitude of the amplification is 1 n n A 1 = A = A 01 ⋅ ----------------------------------------------n 2 1 + ( 2Δω ⁄ BW 1 ) (9.59) There are two half−power frequencies. The bandwidth between these two half−power frequencies is BW n = 2Δω = BW 1 2 1⁄n –1 (9.54) This relation can also be expressed in terms of the quality factor at resonance. the magnitude of the amplification for one stage is 1 A 1 = A = A 01 ⋅ ----------------------------------------------2 1 + ( 2Δω ⁄ BW 1 ) (9. Thus.

..3..Tuned Amplifiers Example 9.C). fprintf('R = %5. the bandwidth reduction for synchronous tuning of two stages connected in cascade is about 0. BWf=BW1/(2*pi). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Synchronous tuning for two stages connected in cascade does not provide the best approximation to the ideal bandpass.2e F \t'.2e H \t'. and the capacitors will have a value of C = 80 pF for each stage. R=1/(BW1*C).. BW1). 9−18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2e Hz \t'.64 and this is confirmed by the ratio 100 KHz ⁄ 155 KHz .. fprintf(' \n') Upon execution of this script. Figure 9..12. as expected.11 shows the frequency response of a synchronous tuning for two stages in cascade in comparison to a single stage.. we will 0 let the following MATLAB script do the calculations for us... BWf)..2 Stagger−Tuned Amplifiers We can obtain a much better approximation by staggering the tuning of the stages to produce a pole−zero configuration like the one shown in Figure 9... fprintf('L = %5.2e Ohms \t'. Solution: The half−power bandwidth of each stage can be determined from relation (9. BWn=2*pi*10^5. C=25*10^(−12). 9.L). fprintf('C = %5.2e rad/sec \t'. fprintf('BWf = %5.. MATLAB displays the following results: C = 2. R). is larger than the overall half−power bandwidth of 100 KHz .5 Two synchronously tuned stages connected in cascade are to designed so that the resonant frequency will be f 0 = 25 MHz . the values of R from the relation BW 1 = 1 ⁄ RC and the values of L from ω 2 = 1 ⁄ LC .55e+005 Hz L = 1.10e+004 Ohms The half−power bandwidth of each stage is 155 KHz and.. Determine the values of L and R and the half−power bandwidth for each stage so that the overall half−power bandwidth will be 100 KHz .62e-006 H BW1 = 9.60). BW1= BWn/sqrt(2^(1/n)−1).76e+005 rad/sec R = 4. fprintf(' \n').. L=1/((2*pi*25*10^6)^2*C)..50e-011 F BWf = 1. As stated above.. n=2. For convenience.. fprintf('BW1 = %5. fprintf(' \n').

21) which are repeated below for convenience. With this arrangement. From relation (9. the spacing α from the imaginary axis remains constant also.10(a). Frequency responses for single stage and two synchronously tuned amplifiers.20) and (9. 2 1 ω 0 = ------LC (9.62) we observe that if R and C remain constant.12.62) 1 2α = ------RC From relation (9. The top flatness of the characteristic depends on the spacing between the poles in Figure 9.12(a).61) (9. and poles s 3 and s 4 are the poles of the other stage. Pole−zero pattern and amplitude characteristic for two stagger−tuned amplifiers Poles s 1 and s 2 in Figure 9.61) we observe that a change in L will result in Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and the pole−zero pattern of Figure 9.12(b).Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers (dB scale) Ac Single stage response Overall response for two synchronously tuned amplifiers ω0 ω (log scale) Figure 9. for example the relations (9. Im s1 s3 (2) Re Ac (dB scale) Single stage responses s4 s2 ω0 (a) (b) Overall response for two stagger tuned amplifiers ω (log scale) Figure 9.12(a) are the poles one of the stages. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−19 . Consider. the amplitude characteristic of the stagger−tuned amplifier will be shown in Figure 9.11. We observe that the passband of such stagger−tuned amplifier is wider and flatter than the passband of the synchronously tuned amplifier. and it is under the control of the designer. all four poles lie on a line parallel to the imaginary axis.

the staggering of the poles along the vertical line can be adjusted by adjusting the inductances in the two stages for slightly different values. can be expressed as 9−20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. gm 1 A ( jω ) = – -----. Figure 9. s 3 = – α + jβ 3 .64) where s 1 = – α + jβ 1 . and the vectors ρ 1 and ρ 3 correspond to the linear factors jω – s 1 and jω – s 3 .⋅ -----------------------------------------4C 1 C 2 ( jω – s 1 ) ( jω – s 3 ) 2 (9. C 1 and C 2 are the capacitances of the first and second stages respectively.64). the current gain of a two stagger−tuned amplifier is gm 1 A ( jω ) = --------------. Im s1 2λ λ ρ1 φ s jω c ρ3 2β s3 (a) α ωc (b) ω Figure 9. Hence.Tuned Amplifiers a change in ω 0 but since α remains constant. and the poles s 2 and s 4 together with the zeros at the origin contribute the constant 1 ⁄ 4 in the scale factor of that relation.13. the poles must move on a path parallel to the imaginary axis.13(a) shows an enlarged view of the pole−zero pattern in the vicinity of the poles s 1 and s 3 .63) Therefore.64) reveal that the frequency characteristics of the amplifier in the passband are determined by the two poles s 1 and s 3 . that is. corresponds to a point on the imaginary axis equidistant from s s 1 and s 3 . β is as shown in Figure 9. is given by relation (9.48).⋅ --------------2C jω – s 1 (9. The narrowband approximations and relation (9. Frequency characteristic for two stagger−tuned stages The frequency ω c . which is the center frequency of the passband. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .10(a). given by (9. and the narrowband approximations have reduced a fourth−degree polynomial in the denominator to a second−degree polynomial. We found that the current gain of one stage under sinusoidal conditions and after the narrowband approximations have been applied. The amplification.

71) (9. the semicircle does not intersect the imaginary axis and the amplitude characteristic has only one peak.⋅ ---------4C 1 C 2 2αβ 2 (9.1A = --------------. this circle will intersect the imaginary axis at two points. α = 1 ⁄ 2R 1 C 1 = 1 ⁄ 2R 2 C 2 and thus relation (9. The amplification at the peaks occurs when sin φ = 1 and thus α 2 A p = g m R 1 R 2 ----2β (9.66) and (9.⋅ ---------4C 1 C 2 ρ 1 ρ 3 2 (9. a circle with center at the middle of the line joining poles s 1 and s 3 that is parallel to the imaginary axis and with radius β .70).69) The poles for the two stages have the same real parts.73) ωp = ωc ± λ and since the radius of the semicircle is β .72) In general.69) can be expressed as α 2 A = g m R 1 R 2 ----.67) (9. and the amplitude characteristic has two peaks as shown in Figure 9.= ---------2αβ ρ1 ρ3 Substitution of (9. in m relation (9.13(a).65) As the variable s = jω moves along the imaginary axis. A = A p sin φ If α is greater than β .Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers gm . If α is less than β . the area of the triangle s 1 s s 3 remains constant and its value is (9. it is located at ω = ω c and it is less than A p .70) where g 2 R 1 R 2 is the resonant amplification of two stages with synchronous tuning. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−21 .66) a = αβ The area can also be expressed in trigonometric form as 1 a = -. sin φ is the only factor that varies with changes in ω . it follows that Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.67) sin φ 1 ---------.65) yields gm sin φ A = --------------. The frequencies at which the double peaks occur are denoted as (9. Therefore.ρ 1 ρ 3 sin φ 2 (9.68) into (9.13(b).68) and from (9. as shown by the dotted semicircle in Figure 9.sin φ 2β (9.

In this case. 9−22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= r 2 α (9.79) 2 From relations (9. a simpler and in some respects more useful measure of the bandwidth is the so−called triple− point bandwidth shown by the dotted lines in Figure 9. and the amplitude characteristic is maximally flat. denoted as A c is A c = A p sin φ c (9.⎞ – 1 = 2 ( r 2 – 1 ) ⎝ 2α ⎠ ⎝α⎠ (9.= -----------Ac sin φ c (9.75) Let φ c be the value of the angle φ when ω = ω c . In all of the amplifiers studied up to this point. the half−power bandwidth has been related in a simple way to the circuit parameters. We are mostly interested on the flat−staggered and the overstaggered cases.= -.Tuned Amplifiers λ = β –α 2 2 2 (9.77) The angle φ c is related to the pole positions by φc β tan ---. the amplification at the center frequency.78) When the amplifier is adjusted so that α = β . It is defined as W = 2 2λ * (9. Rearranging relation (9. however.80) It is convenient to express relation (9.80) we obtain W 2 β 2 ⎛ -----.79) W = 8λ = 8 [ β – α ] 2 2 2 (9.74) The triple−point frequencies ω t are the frequencies outside the double peaks at which the amplification has the same value as at the center frequency are obtained by ω t = ω c ± 2λ (9. and this condition marks the transition from the overstaggered (double peaks) to the understaggered adjustment.76) The peak−to−valley ratio for the double−peaked amplitude characteristic is Ap 1 -----.80) in terms of the design parameter r = β ⁄ α which is related to the peak−to−valley ratio in relation (9. Then. In the case of the overstaggered pair of tuned stages. the semicircle is tangent to the imaginary axis.⎞ = 2 ⎛ -. the amplifier is also said to be flat− staggered.74) and (9.13(b). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .81) * We reserve the notation BW for the 3 – dB bandwidth and we will use W for the triple−point bandwidth.77).

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.⎞ + 2β – 1 ------------⎝ 2α ⎠ ⎝α ⎠ α Letting r = β ⁄ α . Im s1 b Radius = 2β BW --------2 b BW 2β a o 2β s3 (a) a β–α (b) o Figure 9.81) reveals that the half−power bandwidth and the triple−point bandwidth are nearly equal except for cases of very slight overstaggering. flat−staggered and overstaggered amplifiers can be designed for a specified half−power bandwidth. Determination of the half−power frequencies of flat−staggered and overstaggered amplifiers In Figure 9. the radius of the circle is 2β . The corresponding half−power bandwidth in terms of the design parameter r = β ⁄ α can be determined from the geometrical constructions in Figure 9. Figure 9. and it follows from relation (9. and the center of the circle lies a distance β – α to the right of the imaginary axis. we can express (9.83) as BW ⎛ --------.76) that this condition occurs when φ = 45° . the peak amplification is A p . The relations derived above provide a simple.14. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−23 .84).83) or 2 β 2 ⎛ BW ⎞ = ⎛ -. Also.14.14(b) is an enlarged version of the small right triangle oab and by the Pythagorean theorem ⎛ BW ⎞ = 2β 2 – ( β – α ) 2 --------⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 (9.⎞ = r 2 + 2r – 1 ⎝ 2α ⎠ 2 (9.14(a) the line segment joining the poles s 1 and s 3 subtends the angle 2φ = 90° . In these cases the half−power frequencies can be taken as the frequencies at which A = A p ⁄ 2 .84) Using relation (9. direct design procedure for overstaggered stages.84) with (9. a comparison of (9.82) (9.Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers When the amplifier is flat−staggered or overstaggered.

and C are determined.79). relation (9. the triple−point bandwidth W . and β = 2500 rad/s . is given by relation (9. and the peak−to−valley ratio A p ⁄ A p . and the triple−point fre- quencies.6 A transistorized two−stage stagger−tuned amplifier has a pole−zero pattern like the one shown in Figure 9.75 × 10 ) × -----.13 Ac sin φ c sin 118° Therefore.81) gives the required value of α . and hence the circuit parameters. and the third can be chosen as desired to satisfy the other requirement as it was illustrated in the previous examples.78) φc β 2. α 1. Example 9. the ratio A p ⁄ A p defines r = β ⁄ α through relations (9.= r = -----.= -----------.e.These specifications are sufficient to define the poles of the amplitude gain A . L . Thus. the two of the three parameters R .= 270 2β 5 From relation (9.78).5 2 –3 2 3 2 A p = g m R 1 R 2 ----.77) Ap 1 1 -----..74) 9−24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5 3 φ c ⁄ 2 = tan ( 5 ⁄ 3 ) = 59° φ c = 118° –1 The peak−to−valley ratio A p ⁄ A c is given by relation (9.e. Find the peak amplification A p . i.5 5 tan ---. Solution: The peak amplification A p is found from (9.= -----------------. and the required value of β is obtained from the relation β = αr . W = 2 2λ where from relation (9. and the total shunt resistance in each stage is R 1 = R 2 = 0. the half−power bandwidth BW .. The pertinent dimensions are ω p = 10 6 rad/s .= ( 40 × 10 ) × ( 0. the amplifiers are overstaggered. α = 1500 rad/s .75 KΩ . Then.71). the peak−to−valley ratio A p ⁄ A c .Tuned Amplifiers The design requirements specify the center frequency ω c .13. The triple−point bandwidth W .= -2 α 1. Specifically. the triple−point bandwidth W .77) and (9.= 1. Both transistors have a transconductance of g m = 40 mΩ –1 . i. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .= -.

003 × 10 rad/s 6 6 3 ω t 2 = 0.83). β 2 BW 2 ⎛ --------.e.5 ⎠ α 1. i.78 × 10 rad/s ⎝α ⎠ ⎝ 1. we find that 1 1 1 C 1 = C 2 = -----------.27) and thus 1 BW = 2α = ------RC 1 1 2α = ----------.= ----------R1 C1 R2 C2 With ω c = 10 6 rad/s .. except the values of L and C .6.5 The triple−point frequencies are given by relation (9.75). was well illustrated in Example 9.997 × 10 rad/s 6 The procedure for finding all pertinent data. Example 9.⎞ + -----.⎞ + ----. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−25 .75 KΩ . Thus. Solution: From relation (9.⎞ + 2β – 1 ----⎝α ⎠ ⎝ 2α ⎠ α β 2 2β 2.⎞ = ⎛ -.– 1 = 2 × 1.= -----------.75 × 10 and Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. α = 1500 rad/s and R 1 = R 2 = 0.7 The pole locations for a two−stage stagger−tuned amplifier and the values of R 1 and R 2 are as given in Example 9.66 × 10 rad/s 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 6 6 2 The half−power bandwidth BW is given by relation (9. The following example illustrates the procedure for finding of L and C to meet all design specifications. ω t = ω c ± 2λ = 10 ± 2 × 2 × 10 ω t 1 = 1. Determine the values of L and C required for each stage.5 × 10 ⎛ -----.5 – 1.5 ) × 10 = 4 × 10 (rad/s) λ = 2 × 10 rad/s W = 2 2λ = 4 2 × 10 = 5.Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers λ = β – α = ( 2.– 1 = 6.= -----------------------------------------------3 = 0.6.5 2 5 3 3 BW = 2α ⎛ -.44 μF 3 2αR 2 2αR 1 3 × 10 × 0.

72) we obtain 1 2 A c = A p = -.28 μH 2 12 –6 2 0. from (9.15 shows the normalized amplitude characteristics for two tuned stages under four different adjustments.g m R 1 R 2 2 (9. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .003 × 10 × 0.= 2.15. Curve 3 is for flat staggering.1 . and Curve 4 is for overstaggering with A p ⁄ A c = 1.= ---------------------------------------------------------------.= 2.87) 9−26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. r = 1 .15.71) and (9. from relations (9. A -----Ac 1 2 3 4 ωc ω Figure 9.84) we obtain B fs = 2 2BW (9.86) The gain−bandwidth product for the flat−staggered amplifier is given by A c B fs = ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) ( g m R 1 R 2 )BW 2 (9.44 × 10 ωt 2 C2 Figure 9. For the flat−staggered case β = α .85) Letting B fs denote the bandwidth of two stages with flat staggering and BW the 3 – dB bandwidth of one of the stages. α is held constant while β is increased in steps.Tuned Amplifiers 1 1 L 1 = ------------.44 × 10 ωt 1 C1 1 1 L 2 = ------------. Curve 1 is for synchronous tuning.27 μH 2 2 12 –6 1. Curve 2 is for understaggering with φ c = 70° . The half−power bandwidths are indicated by the solid dots on these curves. and sin φ c = 1 . Thus.= ---------------------------------------------------------------. Amplitude characteristics for two tuned stages with different degrees of staggering For the curves in Figure 9.997 × 10 × 0.

ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9. for the gain−bandwidth product. Thus.16. three.60) we obtain A c B syn = A 1 BW 1 2 2 1⁄2 – 1 = 0. Maximally flat multistage tuned amplifiers In Figure 9. By a more extensive treatment* it can be shown that for a maximally flat amplitude characteristic. If the poles do not lie on the same vertical line. in accordance with the discussion in Section 9.3.16. Then. The more stages cascaded in this way. this fact may cause distortion of the envelopes of AM signals.64 ( g m R 1 R 2 ) ( BW ) 2 (9. In particular. and. and no matter how many stages are cascaded. The amplitude characteristics for one. please refer to Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−27 . The distribution of poles producing these characteristics is known as the Butterworth configuration. 9.Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers For two synchronously tuned stages we denote the bandwidth of two stages as B syn .1. and five stages are shown in Figure 9. * For a detailed discussion on this topic. skewed frequency characteristics result. the zeros at the origin and the poles in the lower half plane contribute only a constant to the gain in the narrow passband. the flatter the amplitude characteristic in the passband and the steeper the characteristic at the edges of the band. the relations encountered are similar in many respects to those encountered in the two−stage case. for narrowband amplifiers the frequency characteristics are determined entirely by the poles lying near the segment of the imaginary axis corresponding to the passband. using relation (9.88) The foregoing discussion of stagger−tuned amplifiers considers only the case in which the poles are staggered along a line parallel to the imaginary axis. in the usual case. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the poles of the signal gain must be uniformly spaced on a semicircle having its center on the imaginary axis. A 1 3 5 ωc ω Figure 9.3 Three or More Tuned Amplifiers Connected in Cascade When three or more tuned stages are to be connected in cascade. The center frequency ω c of the passband corresponds to the center of the circle on which the poles lie. the half−power frequencies are the frequencies at which the circle intersects the imaginary axis.16.

active filters with op amps are very popular. • The analysis and design of tuned amplifiers is greatly facilitated with the small signal models. Tuned amplifiers can also be designed with bipolar junction transistors and MOSFETs. we can transform values required by the specifications into practical values of the circuit parameters by the use of a transformer. two important relations are the narrowband approximations. i. α2 A = g m R 1 R 2 ----. • In the study of tuned amplifiers. They are very useful in the analysis and design of practically all narrowband amplifiers and filters.Tuned Amplifiers 9. and capacitors. inductors. • For synchronously tuned amplifiers the bandwidth between the half−power points is given by BW n = 2Δω = BW 1 2 1⁄n –1 • The passband of such stagger−tuned amplifier is wider and flatter than the passband of the synchronously tuned amplifier and thus provides a better approximation to the ideal bandpass. • For a single stage tuned amplifier the current gain at the resonant frequency is given by Ac0 = I2 ⁄ I1 = gm R1 and the bandwidth BW between the two half−power frequencies is given by BW = 2α = 1 ⁄ RC • In the design of tuned amplifiers.4 Summary • A tuned amplifier is essentially a bandpass filter. m 9−28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.e. • When two identical stages are cascaded. the two stages are said to be synchronously tuned.sin φ 2β • The amplification at resonance for a two stagger−tuned amplifier is given by where g 2 R 1 R 2 is the resonant amplification of two stages with synchronous tuning. • A radio frequency choke (RFC) blocks radio frequencies but passes audio frequencies when both frequencies are applied to the same circuit. and thus it provides no gain. For small signals. A passive bandpass filter is constructed with passive devices. • Tuned amplifiers are connected in cascade to achieve higher selectivity. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . • The amplitude characteristic for two synchronously tuned amplifiers is the characteristic for one stage but with the amplification squared at each point. resistors..

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and this condition marks the transition from the overstaggered (double peaks) to the understaggered adjustment. • For an overstaggered pair of tuned stages the triple−point bandwidth is defined as W = 2 2λ and half−power bandwidth BW is given by β 2 BW 2 ⎛ --------. the amplifier is also said to be flat−stag- gered.Summary • For stagger−tuned amplifiers. We are mostly interested on the flat−staggered and the overstaggered cases. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−29 .⎞ + 2β – 1 ----⎝α ⎠ ⎝ 2α ⎠ α • For uniform amplification over a wide band of frequencies we can cascade 3 or more amplifiers where the distribution of poles produce characteristics is known as the Butterworth configuration.⎞ = ⎛ -. the frequencies outside the double peaks at which the amplifica- tion has the same value as at the center frequency are obtained by ω t = ω c ± 2λ • For stagger−tuned amplifiers adjusted so that α = β . the frequencies at which the double peaks occur given by ωp = ωc ± λ • For stagger−tuned amplifiers.

and for this model. The small−signal model for a single−tuned amplifier is shown below. and the passband will be centered at 1 MHz .. 4. it is known that g m = 40 mΩ –1 and R 1 = 1 KΩ . Find the resonant amplification. i. g m = 5 mΩ –1 V1 R 2 gm V1 R1 L C V2 By a procedure similar to that in Section 9. c. Determine the current gain A c 0 = I 2 ⁄ I 1 . the half−power frequency. I1 v R1 L C gm v R2 I2 a. b.5 KΩ are to designed so that the resonant frequency will be f c = 25 MHz . the current gain at the resonant frequency. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and the voltage gain at resonance are given by the relations 2 1 ω 0 = ------LC 1 BW = 2α = --------R1 C Av0 = gm R1 a. 9−30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. we can show that the resonant frequency. 2.e. 3.5 KΩ are to designed so that the resonant frequency will be f c = 25 MHz . Find suitable values for circuit parameters so that the half−power bandwidth will be the 10 KHz . Find the resonant amplification. Determine the values of L and C so that the amplifier will have a resonant frequency of 100 KHz and a half−power bandwidth of 5 KHz . Find the quality factor at resonance.2. b.5 Exercises 1.Tuned Amplifiers 9. For the incremental model of a typical MOSFET tuned circuit below. Find the voltage amplification at resonance. Two synchronously tuned stages are connected in cascade and the transconductance of both transistors used is g m = 40 mΩ –1 where R 1 = 1 KΩ and R 2 = 1. A two−stage flat−staggered tuned amplifier is to designed with two transistors each with transconductance g m = 40 mΩ –1 where R 1 = 1 KΩ and R 2 = 1.

8 × 10 b.= 2π × 10 R1 C and for the specified center frequency we must have ω 0 = 1 ⁄ LC = ( 2π × 10 ) 2 6 2 For high gain we can choose a large value for R 1 .= -------------------------------------. 1 1 C = ------------------.= 80 μH 5 2 –9 ( 2π × 10 ) × 31. For the required bandwidth it is necessary that 4 1BW = 2α = --------. V1 R 2 gm V1 R1 L C V2 a. Let us assume that the parasitic capacitances are of more concern to us and choose a 200 pF capacitor.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 9. or f 0 = 1 ⁄ 2πLC . I1 v R1 L C gm v R2 I2 a.14 × 10 RC and with R 1 = 1 KΩ . 0 1 L = -----------------------------------------------------------. The current gain at resonance is A c0 = g m R 1 = 40 mΩ × 1 KΩ = 40 –1 2. The bandwidth in radians per second is 4 1 BW = 2α = ------. Or.= 31.= 2π × 5000 = 3.8 nF 4 3 BW ⋅ R 1 3. Thus. the bandwidth requirement yields Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.6 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 1. Then. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−31 . we can choose a large value for C to overcome the parasitic capacitances.14 × 10 × 10 2 The value of L is found from ω 2 = 1 ⁄ LC .

g m R 1 R 2 = -.Tuned Amplifiers 10 1 R 1 = ------------. By relation (9.= 0. The voltage gain at the center−frequency is A v 0 = g m R 1 = 5 × 10 × 80 × 10 = 400 –3 3 c. By relation (9.( 40 × 10 ) × 1 × 1. The quality factor at resonance is Q 0 = ω 0 CR 1 = 2π × 10 × 200 × 10 6 – 12 × 80 × 10 = 100 3 3.125 mH 2 2 ω 0 C ( 2π × 10 6 ) × 200 12 b. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the overall gain is A = g m R 1 R 2 = ( 40 × 10 ) × 1 × 1. and that of the second stage is A 2 = g m R 2 .= -----------------------------------------.5 × 10 = 60 2 –3 2 6 4.26) the resonant amplification of the first stage is A 1 = g m R 1 .= 80 KΩ 4 BWC 2π × 10 × 200 12 The value of L to meet the center−frequency requirement is 10 1 L = --------. Therefore.85) 1 2 1 –3 2 6 A c = A p = -.5 × 10 = 30 2 2 As expected this gain is half of that of Exercise 3 where the circuit was designed with synchronously tuned stages. 9−32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= ----------------------------------.

Oscillators are classified in accordance with the waveshapes they produce and the circuitry required to produce the desired oscillations. unless otherwise specified. heavy. and sawtooth waveforms. They are not suitable for use as extremely low−frequency oscillators because the inductors and capacitors would be large in size. Henceforth. Colpitts. An oscillator is essentially an amplifier circuit that provides its own input signal. These are used in the audio−frequency range. we will discuss the RC phase−shift and LC oscillator families. and the crystal−controlled Pierce oscillators. The crystal−controlled oscillator provides excellent frequency stability and is used from the middle of the audio range through the radio frequency range. square. * The term tank circuit stems from the fact that a network consisting of inductors and capacitors store energy same way as liquids and gases are stored in tanks. In Chapter 5 we introduced the Wien bridge oscillator. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 10−1 . Hartley. Non−sinusoidal oscillators are known as relaxation oscillators.2 Sinusoidal Oscillators As the name implies. the term oscillator will mean a sinusoidal oscillator. But a practical oscillator cannot meet these criteria. An ideal oscillator should produce an output signal with constant amplitude with no variation in frequency. triangular. are commonly used for the higher radio frequencies. frequency stability. and we will describe the Armstrong. These are known as the LC oscillators and use tank circuits*. in this chapter. and amplitude stability. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. In this chapter we will be concerned with oscillators that produce sinusoidal waveforms. Sinusoidal oscillators generate signals ranging from low audio frequencies to ultrahigh radio and microwave frequencies. amplifier characteristics.Chapter 10 Sinusoidal Oscillators T his chapter begins with an introduction to sinusoidal oscillators. Other types of employ inductors and capacitors for its frequency−determining network. A third type of sinusoidal oscillator is the crystal−controlled oscillator. and in Chapter 7 the family of multivibrators. crystal. 10. a sinusoidal oscillator produces a sine−wave output signal. the degree to which the ideal is approached depends on the class of amplifier operation. and costly to manufacture. 10. Many low−frequency oscillators use resistors and capacitors to form their frequency−determining networks and are referred to as RC oscillators. Subsequently.1 Introduction to Oscillators An oscillator may be defined as a class of wave generators that produce sinusoidal.

(10. the gain A f can be designed precisely.3) where the quantity βA is known as the loop gain.1.4) (10. then v = v in – v f and the feedback is known as degenerative or negative. relation (10. v f = βv out (10. Block diagram of a typical feedback amplifier Σ A v out From Figure 10.3) is expressed as v out A A f = --------.Sinusoidal Oscillators An oscillator must provide amplification where the amplification of signal power occurs from the input to the output of the oscillator and a portion of the output is fed back to the input to sustain a constant input.5) and with positive feedback as v out A A f = --------. If v f subtracts from v in . Also. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .= -------------1 ±β A v in (10. We will briefly discuss positive and negative feedback with reference to the block diagram of a feedback amplifier shown in Figure 10. If v f is added to v in . and v = v in – v f .2). and the amplifier is provided with negative feedback.1) where A denotes the open−loop gain of the amplifier. and since this network can be constructed with accurate devices such as precision resistors and capacitors. the open loop gain A is much greater than unity and thus the gain with feedback A f is for all practical purposes equal to ± 1 ⁄ β and this means that A f is effectively dependent on the feedback network. and 1 ± β A is known as the amount of feedback.1. v in ± v = v ±v in f vf β Figure 10. v out = Av (10. In a practical amplifier.= ---------------v in 1 + βA (10. then v = v in + v f and the feedback is known as regenerative or positive. we obtain the general expression for a feedback loop as v out A A f = --------.1). and the amplifier is provided with positive feedback From (10.= ------------1 –β A v in 10−2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2) where β is known as the feedback factor.1. With negative feedback.

1 .1 A certain amplifier has an open−loop gain A of 70 at an angle of zero degrees.= 18. and normal input voltage of 1 V . all amplifiers employ negative feedback. Determine the effects of negative feedback if the feedback factor β is 0.25% 1+7 1 + βA New input voltage v' in with feedback is v' in = v in ( 1 + βA ) = 1 × ( 1 + 7 ) = 8 V The output voltage v out without feedback is v out = Av in = 70 × 1 = 70 V and the output voltage v' out with feedback is v' out = A f v' in = 8. and with feedback is 0.75 1+7 1 + βA The amount of distortion D without feedback is 10% of the normal input voltage v in of 1 V .75 × 8 = 70 V Actual input voltage v to amplifier is v = v' in – βv' out = 8 – 0.0125 = 1.06 dB 8. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.75 Af Thus.= 8.= 0. sinusoidal oscillators use positive feedback. Example 10.10 0. distortion of 10% .4) the gain with negative feedback is 70 A A f = ---------------.1 × 70 = 1 V and the reduction in gain expressed in dB is 70 A dB = 20 log ----. the introduction of negative feedback has reduced the amplifier gain by 18 dB or we can say that 18 dB of feedback has been applied to the input of the amplifier.Sinusoidal Oscillators Practically.1 × 1 D f = ---------------.= 20 log --------.= ----------. Solution: For negative feedback βA = 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 10−3 . but as we will see shortly.1 × 70 = 7 and in accordance with relation (10.= ----------.

5) which is repeated below for convenience. Let us now assume that at that predetermined frequency the loop gain βA in relation (10. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . 3.2 the transistor.6) In an oscillator circuit the positive feedback must be large enough to compensate for circuit losses so that oscillations will be sustained. that is. v out A A f = --------. In the oscillator circuit of Figure 10.6) in the s−domain. Therefore. For instance. being in the common−emitter configuration. … 10.Sinusoidal Oscillators Example 10. To find the predetermined frequency ω 0 to produce sustained oscillations. This oscillator is also known as phase−shift oscillator. a practical oscillator must oscillate at a predetermined frequency and thus the oscillator must include a frequency−determining device which essentially is a band−pass filter allowing only the desired frequency to pass.7) and letting s = jω we obtain V out ( jω ) A ( jω ) A f ( jω ) = --------------------.9) and (10.8) must meet the Barkhausen criterion which states that to provide sinusoidal oscillations the magnitude and phase angle of the term β ( jω )A ( jω ) must be such that β ( jω 0 )A ( jω 0 ) ≥ 1 (10.10) will be satisfied.6) above is very close to unity and in this case the closed loop A f is very large.= ------------1 –β A v in (10.1 above and Exercise 1 at the end of this chapter illustrate the effects of degenerative (negative) feedback. In our subsequent discussion we will be concerned with regenerative (positive) feedback.8) To sustain oscillations at ω = ω 0 the denominator of (10.= -----------------------------------1 – β ( jω ) A ( jω ) V in ( jω ) (10. it is possible to obtain a finite output with a very small input and this is the principle behind the operation of an oscillator. the total phase shift in that oscillator will be 3 × 60° + 180° = 360° and the condition of relation (10.10) ∠β ( jω 0 ) + ∠A ( jω 0 ) = 2πn n = 1.3 RC Oscillator An amplifier and an RC network can form an oscillator as shown in Figure 10. V out ( s ) A(s) A f ( s ) = -----------------.9) can also be satisfied by making the product βA equal to unity. if A = 10 we can make β = 1 ⁄ 10 and the condition of relation (10.= ---------------------------1 –β ( s ) A ( s ) V in ( s ) (10.9) will also be satisfied. Let us again consider relation (10. 2. we express relation (10. Accordingly.2. provides 180° phase shift and the three RC sections can be selected that each section will provide 60° shift. Moreover. 10−4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The condition of relation (10.

12) In general. every circuit contains some resistance and this resistance causes reduction in the amplitude of the oscillations. 10. 29R 4R L β = 23 + --------. As we know. a level is reached where the gain of the amplifier decreases. For the RC oscillator of Figure 10.3 shows a block diagram of a typical LC oscillator. The frequency of oscillations is determined by the values of resistance and capacitance in the three sections. Simple form of an RC oscillator The output of the oscillator contains only a single sinusoidal frequency. However.11) where G is the transistor power gain and the values of the resistors and the transistor gain β are such that the following relation is satisfied. To sustain oscillations with constant amplitude it is necessary to use regenerative feedback. Eventually. the frequency of oscillation is given by 1 ω 0 = --------------------------------------2 C 4RR L + GR (10. and the value of the loop gain decreases to unity and constant amplitude oscillations are sustained. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 10−5 .2. the loop gain βA is greater than unity and the amplitude of the oscillations will increase. Variable resistors and capacitors are usually employed to provide tuning in the feedback network for variations in phase shift. When the oscillator is powered on. The feedback signal is coupled from the LC tank of the oscillator circuit Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the amplifier is biased for Class A operation to minimize distortion of the signal. a resonant circuit stores energy alternately in the inductor and capacitor.+ --------RL R (10. In an LC oscillator the sinusoidal signal is generated by the action of an inductor and a capacitor.4 LC Oscillators The LC type of oscillators use resonant circuits.13) where n is the number of RC sections. For an RC phase−shift oscillator. Figure 10. for an RC phase−shift oscillator the frequency of oscillation (resonant frequency) can be approximated from the relation 1 ω 0 = --------------RC n (10.2.LC Oscillators C R R C R C RL Figure 10.

3.5. Feedback signal coupling for LC type oscillators 10. Series and shunt fed Armstrong oscillators * A tickler coil is an inductor that is inductively coupled to the inductor of the LC tank circuit.4(c). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . V CC V CC Figure 10.4(b) or by using a capacitor pair in the tank circuit and tap the feedback signal between them as shown in Figure 10.Sinusoidal Oscillators by using a coil (tickler* or a coil pair) as shown in Figure 10.5 The Armstrong Oscillator Figure 10. Block diagram of a typical LC oscillator ( a ) Tickler coil ( b ) Coil pair ( c ) Capacitor pair Figure 10.4(a) and 10.5 shows two circuits known as Armstrong oscillators. 10−6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. L Feedback Amplifier C v out Figure 10.4.

4(b).14) where M is the mutual inductance* and h ob and h ib are the h−parameters representing the output admittance with open−circuit input and input impedance with short circuit output respectively.6 the frequency of oscillation is 1 ω 0 = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 C ( L 1 + L 2 + 2M ) – ( L 1 L 2 – M ) ( h ob ⁄ h ib ) (10.5(b) is referred to as shunt fed tuned collector Armstrong oscillator and it is so−called because the power supply voltage V CC supplied to the transistor is through a path parallel to the tank circuit. In a Colpitts oscillator the feedback is provided through a capacitor pair as shown in Figure 10.7 The Colpitts Oscillator Figure 10. In either of the oscillator circuits of Figure 10. the transistor conducts for a short period of time and returns sufficient energy to the tank circuit to ensure a constant amplitude output signal.6 The Hartley Oscillator Figure 10. 10. The transistor is operating as Class C amplifier.5.5(a) is known as series−fed tuned−collector Armstrong oscillator and it is so−called because the power supply voltage V CC supplied to the transistor is through the tank circuit. please refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 10−7 . Figure 10. As we’ve learned in Chapter 3.6 shows a simplified version of the Hartley oscillator. power through V CC is supplied to the transistor and the tank circuit begins to oscillate. L1 M L2 C V CC Figure 10.The Hartley Oscillator In an Armstrong oscillator. that is. Class C operation provides the highest efficiency among all amplifier operations.6. ISBN 978−0−9709511−5−1.7 shows a simplified version of the Colpitts oscillator. * For a detailed discussion on mutual inductance. Figure 10. the feedback is provided through a tickler coil as shown in Figure 10. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. For the oscillator circuit of Figure 10.4(a). Simplified circuit for the Hartley oscillator In a Hartley oscillator the feedback is provided through a coil pair as shown in Figure 10. as discussed in Chapter 3. 10.4(c).

Moreover. 10.* The Q of a crystal may vary from 10. the Colpitts oscillator is easier to tune and thus can be used for a wide range of frequencies. Accordingly. For the oscillator circuit of Figure 10. However. The frequency depends almost entirely on the thickness where the thinner the thickness.7. The frequency stability of crystal−controlled oscillators depends on the quality factor Q. Simplified circuit for the Colpitts oscillator The Colpitts oscillator provides better frequency stability than the Armstrong and Hartley oscillators. * The quality factor Q is a very important parameter in resonant circuits and it is discussed in detail in Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications.000. ISBN 978−0−9709511−5−1. other precision oscillators are constructed with cesium or rubidium.7 the frequency of oscillation is ω0 = C1 + C2 1 h ob . Besides the quartz crystal oscillators.15) where h ob and h ib are the h−parameters representing the output admittance with open−circuit input and input impedance with short circuit output respectively. Crystal oscillators are used in applications where frequency accuracy and stability ar of utmost importance such as broadcast transmitters and radar.Sinusoidal Oscillators C1 L C2 V CC Figure 10.+ ----------. as discussed in Chapter 3. temperature compensation must be applied to crystal oscillators to improve thermal stability of the crystal oscillator.8 Crystal Oscillators Crystal oscillators are oscillators where the primary frequency determining element is a quartz crystal. 10−8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the power obtainable is limited by the heat the crystal will withstand without fracturing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .000 to 100.----------------. The amount of heating is dependent upon the amount of current that can safely pass through a crystal and this current may be in the order of 50 to 200 milliamperes. the higher the frequency of oscillation. Because of the inherent characteristics of the quartz crystal the crystal oscillator may be held to extreme accuracy of frequency stability.-----LC 1 C 2 C 1 C 2 h ib (10.

17) and since the Q of a crystal oscillator is very high.18) The denominator of (10.19) We also can prove* that the resonance of the parallel combination occurs when ω 0P = C1 + C2 ----------------LC 1 C 2 (10. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 10−9 .8 where capacitor C 1 represents the electrostatic capacitance between the electrodes of the crystal and in general C1 » C2 .16) We now recall that in a series resonant circuit the quality factor Q at resonance is ω 0S L Q 0S = ----------R (10.8 in the s – domain is Z ( s ) = 1 ⁄ sC 1 || ( R + sL + 1 ⁄ sC 2 ) (10.20) * The proof is left as an exercise for the reader at the end of this chapter.18) is a quadratic and it implies the presence of two resonant frequencies which can be found by inspection of the equivalent circuit of Figure 10. Symbol and equivalent circuit for a crystal The impedance of the equivalent circuit of Figure 10. letting s = jω we obtain Z ( jω ) = jωL + 1 ⁄ jωC 2 = 0 and denoting this frequency as ω 0S we obtain 1 ω 0S = -------------LC 2 (10. the value of the resistance R in (10. Electrode C2 Crystal Electrode C1 L R Figure 10.Crystal Oscillators The symbol and the equivalent circuit of a quartz crystal are shown in Figure 10. The resonance of the series branch occurs when the imaginary part of the impedance is equal to zero. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.8.16) which can now be expressed as ( sL + 1 ⁄ sC 2 ) Z ( s ) = 1 ⁄ sC 1 || ( sL + 1 ⁄ sC 2 ) = ( 1 ⁄ sC 1 ) ⋅ -------------------------------------------------1 ⁄ sC 1 + sL + 1 ⁄ sC 2 or s + 1 ⁄ LC 2 Z ( s ) = ( 1 ⁄ sC 1 ) ⋅ --------------------------------------------------------------2 s + [ ( C 1 + C 2 ) ⁄ ( LC 1 C 2 ) ] 2 (10.17) must be very low and thus it can be omitted in relation (10.10. Thus.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .= 5.Sinusoidal Oscillators As stated above. 000 and with reference to the equivalent circuit of Figure 10. 10−10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Figure 10.2 A crystal oscillator has a nominal frequency of oscillation at 5 MHz with Q = 85.= 5.20) – 12 1 1 C1 + C 2.19). From (10.033 MHz –3 – 12 2π LC 2 2π 50 × 10 × 0. Example 10. C 1 = 2 pF .02 × 10 b. C 1 » C 2 and under this condition relation (10. The value of the resistance R Solution: a.20) reduces to that of relation (10.= ---------------------------------------. Find: a.9 The Pierce Oscillator The Pierce oscillator is a modified Colpitts oscillator that uses a crystal as a parallel−resonant circuit.= ---------------R R or 6 2πf 0S L 2π × 5.19) 1 1 --------------------. From (10. it is known that L = 50 mH . The series resonance ω 0S b.02 pF .8.= -------------------------------------------------------------------.058 MHz 2π 50 × 10 –3 × 2 × 10 –12 × 0.9 shows a Pierce oscillator with a PNP transistor as an amplifier in the common−base configuration.02 × 10 –12 2π LC 1 C 2 c. From (10. and for this reason is often referred to as crystal−controlled Pierce oscillator.02 × 10 f 0P = ----. The parallel resonance ω 0P c.17) ω 0S L 2πf 0S L Q 0S = ----------. and C 2 = 0.-----------------2 = ----.= 372 Ω 3 Q 0S 85 × 10 10.033 × 10 R = ---------------.

feedback is provided from the collector to the emitter of the transistor through capacitor C 1 and resistors R 1 . Besides the crystal. and R C are used to establish the proper bias conditions. the frequency of oscillation is also determined by the settings of the variable capacitors C E and C B .9. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.9.The Pierce Oscillator C1 RC CE RE R1 V CC RB CB C2 Output Figure 10. Pierce oscillator with PNP transistor in the common−base configuration In the oscillator circuit of Figure 10. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 10−11 . R B .

Other types of employ inductors and capacitors for its frequency−determining network. • An oscillator must provide amplification where the amplification of signal power occurs from the input to the output of the oscillator and a portion of the output is fed back to the input to sustain a constant input. The feedback signal is coupled from the LC tank of the oscillator circuit by using a tickler coil or a coil pair.10 Summary • An oscillator may be defined as a class of wave generators that produce sinusoidal. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . • In an LC oscillator the sinusoidal signal is generated by the action of an inductor and a capac- itor. • Many low−frequency oscillators use resistors and capacitors to form their frequency−determining networks and are referred to as RC oscillators. • In an oscillator circuit the positive feedback must be large enough to compensate for circuit losses so that oscillations will be sustained. the feedback is provided through a tickler coil. • In an RC oscillator the frequency of oscillations is determined by the values of resistance and capacitance in the three sections. the amplifier is biased for Class A operation to minimize distortion of the signal. The crystal−controlled oscillator provides excellent frequency stability and is used from the middle of the audio range through the radio frequency range. In this chapter we discussed sinusoidal oscillators. a practical oscillator must oscillate at a predetermined frequency and thus the oscillator must include a frequency −determining device which essentially is a band−pass filter allowing only the desired frequency to pass. • In an Armstrong oscillator. tri- angular. Non−sinusoidal oscillators are known as relaxation oscillators.Sinusoidal Oscillators 10. Moreover. 10−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. are commonly used for the higher radio frequencies. An oscillator is essentially an amplifier circuit that provides its own input signal. These are used in the audio−frequency range. approximated from the relation • In an RC phase−shift oscillator the frequency of oscillation (resonant frequency) can be 1 ω 0 = --------------RC n where n is the number of RC sections. • The output of the oscillator contains only a single sinusoidal frequency. These are known as the LC oscillators and use tank circuits. • A third type of sinusoidal oscillator is the crystal−controlled oscillator. • In a Hartley oscillator the feedback is provided through a coil pair. and sawtooth waveforms. Variable resistors and capacitors are usually employed to provide tuning in the feedback network for variations in phase shift. For an RC phase−shift oscillator. square.

• The Colpitts oscillator provides better frequency stability than the Armstrong and Hartley oscillators. Because of the inherent characteristics of the quartz crystal the crystal oscillator may be held to extreme accuracy of frequency stability. other precision oscillators are constructed with cesium or rubidium. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 10−13 . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the power obtainable is limited by the heat the crystal will withstand without fracturing. Moreover. and for this reason is often referred to as crystal−controlled Pierce oscillator. the Colpitts oscillator is easier to tune and thus can be used for a wide range of frequencies. The frequency depends almost entirely on the thickness where the thinner the thickness. • The Pierce oscillator is a modified Colpitts oscillator that uses a crystal as a parallel−resonant circuit. the higher the frequency of oscillation. The frequency stability of crystal−con- trolled oscillators depends on the quality factor Q. However. Besides the quartz crystal oscillators. • Crystal oscillators are used in applications where frequency accuracy and stability ar of utmost importance such as broadcast transmitters and radar. • In crystal oscillators the frequency determining element is a quartz crystal.Summary • In a Colpitts oscillator the feedback is provided through a capacitor pair.

The frequency ω 0 and the gain of the filter to produce sustained oscillations b. Find an appropriate ratio of R f ⁄ R 1 so that the closed loop gain will be A f = 10 c. Determine the decrease in the closed−loop gain A f if the open−loop gain A decreases by 20% . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . The gain of the filter at the frequency ω 0 3. 2. g.Sinusoidal Oscillators 10. Find the feedback voltage v f f. A sinusoidal oscillator consists of an amplifier with gain A = 10 and a bandpass filter whose center frequency is f 0 = 20 KHz . Find the input voltage v in at the non−inverting input. R1 Rf v in vs R2 v out a. Determine a. Electrode C2 Crystal Electrode C1 L R Prove that ω 0P = C1 + C2 ----------------LC 1 C 2 10−14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The figure below shows a crystal oscillator and its equivalent circuit. 000 . Derive an expression for the feedback factor β b.11 Exercises 1. For the op amp circuit below. Find the output voltage v out e. Express the amount of feedback in dB d. the open−loop gain is A = 10. and v S = 1 V .

0999 (2) 4 10 3 With (1) and (2) above RF ⁄ R1 + R1 ⁄ R1 1 1 -------------------------------------.12 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 1.⎞ v out ⎝ R + R1 ⎠ f R1 β = ----------------Rf + R1 and thus (1) b.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 10. The feedback factor β is the portion of the output voltage v out which appears at the inverting input.= -.01 R1 R c.= --------------.= 10 = -------------------4 1 + βA 1 + 10 β 4 from which 10 – 1 β = ---------------.0999 1 + R f ⁄ R 1 = 10.01 R1 ⁄ R1 β 0.4) and with A = 10 4 and A f = 10 we find that A 10 A f = ---------------. The amount of feedback is 1 + βA and in dB Feedback dB = 20 log ( 1 + βA ) = 20 log ( 1 + 0. From relation (10.= 10. R1 Rf v in vs R2 v out a.= 9.= 0. and by the voltage division expression R1 v ( − ) = ⎛ ----------------.01 f ----.0999 × 10 ) = 60 dB 4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 10−15 .

The voltage at the non−inverting input is v in = v s – v f = 1. To sustain constant amplitude oscillations we must have β ( jω 0 )A ( jω 0 ) = 1 and with A = 10 .975 1 + βA' 1 + 0. Let the reduced open loop gain be denoted as A' and the corresponding closed loop gain as A' f .999 V f. 000 and the percent change is 9. 000 A' f = ----------------. v out = A f v s = 10 × 1 = 10 V e.999 = 0. A' 0. Therefore. The feedback voltage v f is v f = βv out = 0.975 – 10 -----------------------.8 × 10. 2.025% 9. 10−16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= --------------------------------------------------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .1 3. Gain ω = ω0 = 1 ⁄ 10 = 0. Electrode C2 Crystal Electrode C1 L R This is a parallel circuit and thus the resonant frequency occurs when the imaginary part of the admittance Y is equal to zero.001 V g.975 where the minus (−) sign implies decrease is percentage.0999 × 0.000 – 0.26 × 10 r ⁄ s 3 5 b.× 100 = – 0. a.Sinusoidal Oscillators d.8 × 10.0999 × 10 = 0.= 9. Then. The frequency ω 0 at which sustained oscillations will be produced is the center frequency of the bandpass filter and thus ω 0 = 2πf 0 = 2π × 20 × 10 = 1.

Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 1 Y = jω 0 C 1 + --------------------------------------.⎞ = 0 2 ⎝ – ω LC + 1 ⎠ 0 2 C2 C 1 + ---------------------------.= 0 2 – ω 0 LC 2 + 1 C2 jω 0 ⎛ C 1 + ---------------------------.= 0 2 – ω 0 LC 2 + 1 C2 C 1 = -----------------------2 ω 0 LC 2 – 1 ω 0 LC 1 C 2 – C 1 = C 2 ω 0P = C1 + C2 ----------------LC 1 C 2 2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 10−17 .= 0 jω 0 L + 1 ⁄ jω 0 C 2 jω 0 C 2 jω 0 C 1 + ---------------------------.

Sinusoidal Oscillators NOTES: 10−18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

This prompt is displayed also after execution of a command. Several examples are provided with detailed explanations. and environmental applications. It is highly recommended that we use the Editor/Debugger to write our program. and making plots. From the File menu on the toolbar. and return to the command screen to execute the program as explained below. comment lines.2 Command Window To distinguish the screen displays from the user commands. or open a previously saved file.™ Inc. A. notes and file names When we first start MATLAB. A. MATLAB now waits for a new command from the user. access to MATLAB’s Editor / Debugger. This takes us to the Editor Window where we can type our script (list of statements) for a new file. we choose New and click on M−File. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−1 . we see the prompt >> or EDU>>. When the command screen.1 MATLAB® and Simulink® MATLAB and Simulink are products of The MathWorks. We must save our program with a file name which starts with a letter. we see various help topics and other information. and MATLAB functions. electronics. finding the roots of a polynomial. save it. important terms. telecommunications. procedures for naming and saving the user generated files. Initially. MATLAB enables us to solve many advanced numerical problems rapidly and efficiently. Impor* EDU>> is the MATLAB prompt in the Student Version Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. we are interested in the command screen which can be selected from the Window drop menu. These are two outstanding software packages for scientific and engineering computations and are used in educational institutions and in industries including automotive. aerospace. we will use the following conventions: Click: Click the left button of the mouse Courier Font: Screen displays Helvetica Font: User inputs at MATLAB’s command window prompt >> or EDU>>* Helvetica Bold: MATLAB functions Times Bold Italic: Important terms and facts. To use the Editor/Debugger: 1.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® T his appendix serves as an introduction to the basic MATLAB commands and functions.

q) % performs multiplication of polynomials p and q % The next statement performs partial fraction expansion of p(x) / q(x) are both correct.m or any other similar name. we use the clc command. we type quit or exit. we type demo and we see the MATLAB Demos menu. The files that we create are saved with the file name we use and the extension . Whenever we want to return to the command window. To get help with other MATLAB topics. When we are done and want to leave MATLAB. t and T are two different letters in MATLAB language.m. For example.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® tant! MATLAB is case sensitive. The MATLAB User’s Guide provides more information on this topic. Henceforth. The command clc clears the screen but MATLAB still remembers all values. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . to get information on graphics. But if we want to clear all previous values. we can type help followed by any topic from the displayed menu. we must make sure that it is added it to the desired directory in MATLAB’s search path. 2. for example. leaving only the >> prompt on the upper left of the screen. it will be understood that each input command is typed after the >> prompt and followed by the <enter> key. it is like exiting MATLAB and starting it again. myfile01. A comment can be typed on the same line as the function or command or as a separate line. variables and equations that we have already used. Once the script is written and saved as an m−file. It is a good practice to save the script in a file name that is descriptive of our script content. we type the file name without the . All text after the % (percent) symbol is interpreted as a comment line by MATLAB. A−2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. then. and thus it is ignored during the execution of a program. it distinguishes between upper− and lower−case letters. conv(p. if the script performs some matrix operations. we should use the command clear. and equations without exiting. 3. that is. To execute a program. we press <enter> and observe the execution and the values obtained from it.m extension at the >> prompt. MATLAB then returns to the command window. To appreciate MATLAB’s capabilities. Thus. we ought to name and save that file as matrices01. we may exit the Editor/Debugger window by clicking on Exit Editor/Debugger of the File menu. This command erases everything. we type help matlab\graphics. We should also use a floppy disk or an external drive to backup our files. For instance. For instance.m. We can do this periodically to become familiar with them. we click on the Close button. variables. if we want to clear all previously entered commands. The command help matlab\iofun will display input/output information. The MATLAB User’s Guide contains numerous help topics. In other words. If we have saved our file in drive a or any other drive.

the statement z=3−4j displays z = 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−3 .0000 3.Roots of Polynomials One of the most powerful features of MATLAB is the ability to do computations involving complex numbers. Example A.0000i In the above example. However. a polynomial is expressed as a row vector of the form [ a n a n – 1 … a 2 a 1 a0 ] . that is. A.0000−4.0000 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.0000 2. if the imaginary part is a function. We must include terms whose coefficients are zero. p1=[1 −10 35 −50 24] % Specify and display the coefficients of p1(x) -50 p1 = 1 -10 35 24 roots_ p1=roots(p1) % Find the roots of p1(x) roots_p1 = 4. We find the roots of any polynomial with the roots(p) function. For example. We can use either i . a multiplication (*) sign between 4 and j was not necessary because the complex number consists of numerical constants. or variable such as cos ( x ) . or j to denote the imaginary part of a complex number.0000 1.1 Find the roots of the polynomial p 1 ( x ) = x – 10x + 35x – 50x + 24 4 3 2 Solution: The roots are found with the following two statements where we have denoted the polynomial as p1. p is a row vector containing the polynomial coefficients in descending order.3 Roots of Polynomials In MATLAB. we must use the multiplication sign. such as 3-4i or 3-4j. we must type cos(x)*j or j*cos(x) for the imaginary part of the complex number. These are the coefficients of the polynomial in descending order. and the roots as roots_ p1.

Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® We observe that MATLAB displays the polynomial coefficients as a row vector. and 4 .3366 + 1. * By definition. therefore.4 Polynomial Construction from Known Roots We can compute the coefficients of a polynomial.1. Compute the coefficients of this polynomial. we must enter zero as its coefficient.7428 -1. p2=[1 −7 0 16 25 52] p2 = 1 -7 0 16 25 52 roots_ p2=roots(p2) roots_p2 = 6.5014 2. with the poly(r) function where r is a row vector containing the roots.3 It is known that the roots of a polynomial are 1. 2. and the roots as a column vector.3366 . from a given set of roots. Example A. the conjugate of a complex number A = a + jb is A∗ = a – jb A−4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2 Find the roots of the polynomial p 2 ( x ) = x – 7x + 16x + 25x + 52 5 4 2 Solution: There is no cube term. where we have defined the polynomial as p2. The roots are found with the statements below. 3.3202i A. complex roots always occur in complex conjugate* pairs. Example A.5711 -0. The result indicates that this polynomial has three real roots. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and two complex roots.3202i -0. and the roots of this polynomial as roots_ p2. Of course.

r3=[1 2 3 4] % Specify the roots of the polynomial r3 = 1 2 3 4 poly_r3=poly(r3) % Find the polynomial coefficients poly_r3 = 1 -10 35 -50 24 We observe that these are the coefficients of the polynomial p 1 ( x ) of Example A.0000i poly_r4 = 1 14 100 340 499 246 Therefore.Polynomial Construction from Known Roots Solution: We first define a row vector.1. Solution: We form a row vector.0000 -3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−5 . say r3 .0000+ 5. we find the coefficients with the poly(r) function as shown below.4 It is known that the roots of a polynomial are – 1. Find the coefficients of this polynomial. then. the polynomial is p 4 ( x ) = x + 14x + 100x + 340x + 499x + 246 5 4 3 2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.0000.0000 Column 5 -4. – 2. and we find the polynomial coefficients with the poly(r) function as shown below.0000 -2. say r4 . – 3. r4=[ −1 −2 −3 4+5j 4−5j ] r4 = Columns 1 through 4 -1. Example A. with the given roots as elements of this vector. with the given roots.5. 4 + j5. and 4 – j5 .0000i poly_r4=poly(r4) -4.

b) function.6 Let p 1 = x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 5 4 2 and p 2 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 6 4 2 Compute the product p 1 ⋅ p 2 using the conv(a.5 Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values The polyval(p. polyder(p) − produces the coefficients of the derivative of a polynomial p.1) at x = – 3 .b) − multiplies two polynomials a and b [q. Example A. A−6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Solution: p5=[1 −3 0 5 −4 3 2]. % val_minus3=polyval(p5. −3) % Evaluate p5 at x=−3. no semicolon is used here % because we want the answer to be displayed val_minus3 = 1280 Other MATLAB functions used with polynomials are the following: conv(a.x) function evaluates a polynomial p ( x ) at some specified value of the independent variable x . Example A.) after the right bracket suppresses the % display of the row vector that contains the coefficients of p5.5 Evaluate the polynomial p 5 ( x ) = x – 3x + 5x – 4x + 3x + 2 6 5 3 2 (A.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® A.r]=deconv(c. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .d) − divides polynomial c by polynomial d and displays the quotient q and remainder r. % These are the coefficients of the given polynomial % The semicolon (.

r]=deconv(c. Solution: % It is permissible to write two or more statements in one line separated by semicolons p3=[1 0 −3 0 5 7 9]. q = 0. p4=[2 −8 0 0 4 10 12]. -8 34 18 -24 11 -74 – 6x 5 10 -88 9 78 8 166 7 174 6 108 p 1 ⋅ p 2 = 2x – 8x + 34x + 18x – 24x 4 3 2 – 74x – 88x + 78x + 166x + 174x + 108 Example A.d) function.7 Let p 3 = x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 7 5 3 and p 4 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 6 5 2 Compute the quotient p 3 ⁄ p 4 using the [q.8 Let p 5 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 Compute the derivative ----.Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values Solution: p1=[1 −3 0 5 7 9].p 5 using the polyder(p) function. p2=[2 0 −8 0 4 10 12]. d dx 6 4 2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. p1p2=conv(p1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−7 .5000 r = 0 Therefore. [q.5 r = 4x – 3x + 3x + 2x + 3 5 4 2 4 -3 0 3 2 3 Example A.p4) q = 0.r]=deconv(p3.p2) % The coefficients of p1 % The coefficients of p2 % Multiply p1 by p2 to compute coefficients of the product p1p2 p1p2 = 2 -6 Therefore.

We can find the roots of the numerator and denominator with the roots(p) function as before. Example A. 0 -32 0 8 10 d ----. using the roots(p) function.0. Commas will display the results whereas semicolons will suppress the display.4186 .7.9 Let 5 4 2 p num x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 R ( x ) = ----------.1.6 Rational Polynomials Rational Polynomials are those which can be expressed in ratio form.9961i 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . as bn x + bn – 1 x + bn – 2 x + … + b1 x + b0 Num ( x ) R ( x ) = -------------------. we can write MATLAB statements in one line. roots_den=roots(den) % Do not display num and den coefficients % Display num and den roots roots_num = 2. der_p5=polyder(p5) % The coefficients of p5 % Compute the coefficients of the derivative of p5 der_p5 = 12 Therefore.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® Solution: p5=[2 0 −8 0 4 10 12]. As noted in the comment line of Example A.0712i -0.1633 A−8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.p 5 = 12x 5 – 32x 3 + 4x 2 + 8x + 10 dx A. Solution: num=[1 −3 0 5 7 9].9961i -1.3370 + 0.0712i -0.2) where some of the terms in the numerator and/or denominator may be zero.= ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------m m–1 m–2 Den ( x ) + am – 2 x + … + a1 x + a0 am x + am – 1 x n n–1 n–2 (A. if we separate them by commas or semicolons. that is.4186 + 1. roots_num=roots(num).3370 .= -------------------------------------------------------6 4 2 p den x – 4x + 2x + 5x + 6 Express the numerator and denominator in factored form. den=[1 0 −4 0 2 5 6].

9870i -1.6760−0.Rational Polynomials roots_den = 1.0712 ) ( x – 2.9870 ) ( x + 0.2108+ 0.9870i)*(−0.9304 -1.0512 ) ( x + 0.6760 + 0. we have p den = ( x – 1.9971 ) ( x + 0.4186 −1.2108 + j0.1058 (1.2108 – j 0.6760 – j0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−9 .0712i) ans = 6.4186 + 1.6760+ 0.1633 ) R ( x ) = ----------.= ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 2 p den ( x – 3. Accordingly.9961i) ans = 1.0.9961i)*(−0. we have the factored form p num = ( x – 2.0000 ) We can also express the numerator and denominator of this rational function as a combination of linear and quadratic factors.9870i) ans = 1. that is.2108 .4922i -0.9870 ) ( x + 1.0512 (−0. the negative sum of the roots is equal to the coefficient b of the x term.0186 ) ( x + 1. then we multiply the complex conjugate roots to obtain the constant term c using MATLAB as follows: (2.0.6760 + j0.4922 ) ( x – 1.0186 Thus.4186 + j1.2108−0. we form the coefficient b by addition of the complex conjugate roots and this is done by inspection.0712i)*(2. x 1 ⋅ x 2 = c .4922i) ans = 3.3370 + j0.9304 ) ( x + 0.0000 As expected.4186 – j1.9971 (−0.9961 ) ( x + 0.3370 – j0.4216x + 1.3370+ 0.6760 .9870i 1.0000 ) ( x + 1. while the product of the roots is equal to the constant term c .0712 ) ( x + 1.9304 ) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.8372x + 6. in a quadratic equation of the form x 2 + bx + c = 0 whose roots are x 1 and x 2 . For the numerator.2108 + 0.6740x + 1.4922i -0.1633 ) ( x + 0.9961 ) and for the denominator. 2 2 p num ( x – 4. – ( x 1 + x 2 ) = b .4922 ) ( x + 1. that is.3370−0.1058 ) ( x + 1. We recall that.4922i)*(1. the complex roots occur in complex conjugate pairs.3520x + 3.

6740*x+1. A R1 R2 C V L Figure A.10 A−10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. polynomial coefficients. we find that is the same as the numerator of the given rational expression in polynomial form. where x is the horizontal axis (abscissa) and y is the vertical axis (ordinate). We must remember that the conv(p. while the amplitude was held constant. Electric circuit for Example A.1058)*(x+1. where the radian frequency ω (radians/second) of the applied voltage was varied from 300 to 3000 in steps of 100 radians/second. A.9 above with MATLAB’s Symbolic Math Toolbox which is a collection of tools (functions) used in solving symbolic expressions. we use the following script: syms x % Define a symbolic variable and use collect(s) to express numerator in polynomial form collect((x^2−4. our interest is in using the collect(s) function that is used to multiply two or more symbolic expressions to obtain the result in polynomial form.1633)) ans = x^5-29999/10000*x^4-1323/3125000*x^3+7813277909/ 1562500000*x^2+1750276323053/250000000000*x+4500454743147/ 500000000000 and if we simplify this.1. For our example. Example A. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .q) function is used with numeric expressions only. we must create one or more symbolic variables such as x. They are discussed in detail in MATLAB’s Users Manual. that is.y) command that plots y versus x. We can use the same procedure to verify the denominator.10 Consider the electric circuit of Figure A. y.1.8372*x+6.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® We can check this result of Example A. Before using a symbolic expression.7 Using MATLAB to Make Plots Quite often. t. This is a very easy task with the MATLAB plot(x.9971)*(x^2+0. and so on. For the present. we want to plot a set of ordered pairs.

052 145.513 62..603 81.032 187.513 62.845 Plot the magnitude of the impedance.088 73.611 51.830 266.104 97.. it can be continued to the next line by typing three or more periods. and we press Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.589 71..789 71.83 266. If a statement.938 469. that is. Also.611 51.428 48.437 222..111.111 ω (rads/s) 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 |Z| Ohms 90.437 222. then pressing <enter> to start a new line.. The data are entered as follows: w=[300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900. if we want to see the values of w or z or both.056 1014.339 52. TABLE A.481 58.938 469.) to suppress the display of numbers that we do not care to see on the screen.468. Solution: We cannot type ω (omega) in the MATLAB Command prompt.432 38.481 58.182 40.052 145.032 187.240 54.182 40.182 436.717 46. and continue to enter data. |Z| versus radian frequency ω .056. we use the semicolon (.603 81.588 67.182 436. or a row vector is too long to fit in one line. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−11 .1 Table for Example A.665 140.286 44.. 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000].751 120. The magnitude of the impedance |Z| was computed as Z = V ⁄ A and the data were tabulated on Table A..088 73.717 46. 90.353 103.432 38.122 42. Of course.184 97. so we will use the English letter w instead.. we simply type w or z. This is illustrated below for the data of w and z.588 67.751 120.10 ω (rads/s) 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 |Z| Ohms 39..1. 1014. 48. as mentioned before. % z=[39.Using MATLAB to Make Plots The ammeter readings were then recorded for each frequency..240 54.122 42.665 140.286 44..353 103.339 52.845]..

y) command. changes from off to on or vice versa. Plot of impedance z versus frequency ω for Example A. box off: This command removes the box (the solid lines which enclose the plot).z). MATLAB displays the plot on MATLAB’s graph screen and MATLAB denotes this plot as Figure 1.2.10 This plot is referred to as the magnitude frequency response of the circuit. we click on the Window pull−down menu. the semilogy(x. title(‘string’): This command adds a line of the text string (label) at the top of the plot. except that the x−axis is represented as a log scale. xlabel(‘string’) and ylabel(‘string’) are used to label the x− and y−axis respectively. and the y−axis as a linear scale. When this command is executed. 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Figure A. The default* is off. except that the y−axis is represented as a * A default is a particular value for a variable that is assigned automatically by an operating system and remains in effect unless canceled or overridden by the operator. that is. The grid off command removes the grid.y) command. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . For this example. and box on restores the box. The command grid toggles them. or any plot. A−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.y) command which is similar to the plot(x. or from the Window pull−down menu.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® <enter>. To plot z (y−axis) versus w (x−axis). The default is on. we use plot(w.y) command is similar to the plot(x. Likewise. The magnitude frequency response is usually represented with the x−axis in a logarithmic scale. To return to the command window. This plot is shown in Figure A.y) command. more presentable with the following commands: grid on: This command adds grid lines to the plot. We can use the semilogx(x. we use the plot(x. We can make the above. The command box toggles them. and we choose Figure 1. To see the graph again. we press any key.2. we select MATLAB Command Window.

and this will place a cross−hair in the Figure window. Magnitude of Impedance vs. however. the plot is as shown in Figure A.z) command with semilogx(w. and the y−axis in dB (decibels). the function log(x) in MATLAB is the natural logarithm.3. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. To display the voltage v in a dB scale on the y−axis. and we replace the semilogx(w. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−13 . For instance. and the x−axis as a linear scale. grid.dB). the x−axis of the frequency response is more often shown in a logarithmic scale. we can add text. using * With the latest MATLAB Versions 6 and 7 (Student Editions 13 and 14). ylabel('|Z| in Ohms') After execution of these commands.2. Radian Frequency 1200 1000 800 |Z| in Ohms 600 400 200 0 2 10 10 w in rads/sec 3 10 4 Figure A. The command gtext(‘string’)* switches to the current Figure Window. We must remember. Throughout this text it will be understood that log is the common (base 10) logarithm. Modified frequency response plot of Figure A.Using MATLAB to Make Plots log scale. Let us now redraw the plot with the above options by adding the following statements: semilogx(w. whereas the common logarithm is expressed as log10(x).3. we can use the command gtext(‘Impedance |Z| versus Frequency’). and displays a cross−hair that can be moved around with the mouse. The loglog(x. lines and arrows directly into the graph using the tools provided on the Figure Window.z). and ln is the natural (base e) logarithm. Radian Frequency'). If the y−axis represents power. we add the relation dB=20*log10(v).z) command title('Magnitude of Impedance vs. xlabel('w in rads/sec'). For advanced MATLAB graphics. please refer to The MathWorks Using MATLAB Graphics documentation. voltage or current. and the logarithm to the base 2 as log2(x). Then.y) command uses logarithmic scales for both axes. % Replaces the plot(w.

1 sin(x) 0. and we press <enter>. 'sin(x+2*pi/3)'). The script for the 3−phase plot is as follows: x=linspace(0. 0. 'sin(x)'). last_value. v=sin(x+4*pi/3).02: 2)*pi instead.y. u=sin(x+2*pi/3). text(2.v). % The x−axis must be specified for each function grid on. The command text(x. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .75. text(4. The first line of the script below has the form linspace(first_value. An alternate function is x=first: increment: last and this specifies the increments between points but not the number of data points.02*pi:2*pi or x = (0: 0.5 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Figure A. 0.65. box on.65. We will illustrate its use with the following example which plots a 3−phase sinusoidal waveform. number_of_values) This function specifies the number of data points but not the increments between data points. we can move the cross−hair to the position where we want our label to begin.u.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® the mouse. and string is the label which we want to place at that location. 0.5 sin(x+2*pi/3) sin(x+4*pi/3) 0 -0. 'sin(x+4*pi/3)') These three waveforms are shown on the same plot of Figure A.65. Three−phase waveforms A−14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.’string’) is similar to gtext(‘string’). 60).4.95.y. It places a label on a plot in some specific location specified by x and y. % we could have used x=0:0.x.85. plot(x. % pi is a built−in function in MATLAB. 2*pi.x.4. y=sin(x). % turn grid and axes box on text(0.

or a combination of these. These.y. plot symbols. markers.z2.. where x. it starts with blue and cycles through the first seven colors listed in Table A. we must type plot(x. Also.'rs') plots a red square at each data point. and colors.'m*:') plots a magenta dotted line with a star at each data point.s2. colors.Using MATLAB to Make Plots In our previous examples.y2.y1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−15 . y and z are three vectors of the same length.. no markers are drawn unless they are selected. The default line is the solid line. and markets used in MATLAB Symbol b g r c m y k w Color blue green red cyan magenta yellow black white Symbol Marker point circle x−mark plus star square diamond triangle down triangle up triangle left triangle right pentagram hexagram Symbol Line Style solid line dotted line dash−dot line dashed line . o x + * s d − : −.s3. But with the latest MATLAB versions. they are drawn on two axes. that is.y.z) command plots a line in 3−space through the points whose coordinates are the elements of x. yn and zn are vectors or matrices. The general format is plot3(x1.s) command.. y and z. we did not specify line styles. TABLE A. MATLAB has also a three−dimensional (three−axes) capability and this is discussed next. −− ∨ ∧ < > p h For example.x2.2 Styles. there is no default marker. but does not draw any line because no line was selected. However. The plots we have discussed thus far are two−dimensional.z3. or line style. and other options directly from the Figure Window.y3. MATLAB allows us to specify various line types. These strings are the same as those of the two−dimensional plots.z1. If we want to connect the data points with a solid line.2 for each additional line in the plot. line width. can be added with the plot(x.2.'rs−'). and colors for our plots. where s is a character string containing one or more characters shown on the three columns of Table A.y. and plot(x.y.x3.y. and sn are strings specifying color. we can select the line color. The plot3(x. MATLAB has no default color. plot(x.) where xn.s1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. marker symbol. For additional information we can type help plot in MATLAB’s command screen.

Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® Example A. z= −2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .5.y. plot3(x. Three dimensional plot for Example A.y.11 In a two−dimensional plot. * This statement uses the so called dot multiplication. or on the same line without first executing the plot command.5.’string’) command will place string beginning at the co−ordinate (x. y= x. This must be done for each plot.z) commands.z.9. 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000 -2000 10 5 0 -5 -10 -10 -5 5 0 10 Figure A. Likewise.z) on the plot. grid on and box off are the default states.y) or plot3(x. division. in a three−dimensional plot we can set the limits of all three axes with the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax zmin zmax]) command.*x.^3+x+3. % Length of vector x % Length of vector y must be same as x % Vector z is function of both x and y* The three−dimensional plot is shown in Figure A. grid z = – 2x + x + 3y – 1 3 2 (A. It must be placed after the plot(x.z).3) We arbitrarily choose the interval (length) shown on the script below.5: 10.11 Plot the function Solution: x= −10: 0. The three−dimensional text(x.y. and dot exponentiation where the multiplication. For three−dimensional plots.^2−1. we can set the limits of the x− and y−axes with the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) command.*y. A−16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.y. These important operations will be explained in Section A. and exponential operators are preceded by a dot. dot division.

Y]=meshgrid(x. H. title('Volume of Right Circular Cone'). Solution: The volume of the cone is a function of both the radius r and the height h. % Creates R and H matrices from vectors r and h...H]=meshgrid(0: 4.. radius r (meters)').6 are rudimentary.4) Plot the volume of the cone as r and h vary on the intervals 0 ≤ r ≤ 4 and 0 ≤ h ≤ 6 meters. V = f ( r. ylabel('y−axis..12 The volume V of a right circular cone of radius r and height h is given by 1 2 V = -.9. The MATLAB User’s Manual and the Using MATLAB Graphics Manual contain numerous examples. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. These must be defined as length ( x ) = n and length ( y ) = m where [ m. Example A.. In this case.5 and A.6 shows how the volume of the cone increases as the radius and height are increased. V). dot division. and the matrix Y whose columns are copies of the vector y. in the second line we have used the dot multiplication. the vertices of the mesh lines are the triples { x ( j ). altitude h (meters)'). zlabel('z−axis. that is...z) command with two vector arguments. and y corresponds to the rows. This will be explained in Section A.. n ] = size ( Z ) . as in the previous example.^ 2 . y ) .* H) .. [R. xlabel('x−axis. We can generate the matrices X and Y with the [X. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−17 . box on The three−dimensional plot of Figure A. volume (cubic meters)'). y ( i ). We observe that x corresponds to the columns of Z. MATLAB can generate very sophisticated three−dimensional plots. h ) The three−dimensional plot is created with the following MATLAB script where. Z ( i.y.Using MATLAB to Make Plots We can also use the mesh(x. mesh(R. To produce a mesh plot of a function of two variables./ 3.y) function that creates the matrix X whose rows are copies of the vector x.πr h 3 (A. j ) } . The plots of Figure A. we must first generate the X and Y matrices that consist of repeated rows and columns over the range of the variables x and y.* R . and dot exponentiation. V=(pi . say z = f ( x. 0: 6).

division and exponentiation that follows. and the element−by−element multiplication.p) command following the discussion on multiplication.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® Volume of Right Circular Cone z-axis. and Exponentiation MATLAB recognizes two types of multiplication. and exponentiation.p). 111 Full Screen 211 212 221 222 212 221 223 211 223 224 222 224 221 223 122 Default 121 122 222 224 121 Figure A. Division. They are explained in the following paragraphs.n.7. These are the matrix multiplication. division. A. The possible combinations are shown in Figure A. No spaces or commas are required between the three integers m. Volume of a right circular cone. A−18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.6. altitude h (meters) Figure A. and exponentiation.9 Multiplication. We will illustrate the use of the subplot(m. division. n and p. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .7. volume (cubic meters) 150 100 50 0 6 4 2 2 0 1 0 x-axis. and exponentiation. radius r (meters) 4 3 y-axis. Possible subplot arrangements in MATLAB A.n. This command divides the window into an m × n matrix of plotting areas and chooses the pth area to be active. division.8 Subplots MATLAB can display up to four windows of different plots on the Figure window using the command subplot(m.

We recall that the elements of a row vector are separated by spaces. Thus. Division. 3. the elements of a column vector must be separated by semicolons. and then transpose it into a column vector. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−19 . and thus are called row vectors. consisted of one row and multiple columns.2. 11] b = -1 3 6 11 b=[−1 3 6 11]' b = -1 3 6 11 We will now define Matrix Multiplication and Element−by−Element multiplication. such a those that contained the coefficients of polynomials. and Exponentiation In Section A. as indicated by the transpose operator (′). 6. MATLAB produces the same display with either format. If an array has one column and multiple rows.Multiplication. is to write it first as a row vector. Matrix Multiplication (multiplication of row by column vectors) Let A = [ a1 a2 a3 … an ] % Observe the single quotation character (‘) and B = [ b 1 b 2 b 3 … b n ]' be two vectors. 6. the arrays [ a b c … ] . A*B = [ a 1 b 1 + a 2 b 2 + a 3 b 3 + … + a n b n ] = sin gle value (A. MATLAB uses the single quotation character (′) to transpose a vector. 3. We observe that A is defined as a row vector whereas B is defined as a column vector. Here. a column vector can be written either as b=[−1. multiplication of the row vector A by the column vector B . To distinguish between row and column vectors. 1.5) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. b=[−1. is performed with the matrix multiplication operator (*). it is called a column vector. Then. An easier way to construct a column vector. 11] or as b=[−1 3 6 11]' As shown below.

multiplication of the row vector C by the row vector D is performed with the dot multiplication operator (. A∗ B = 1 × ( – 2 ) + 2 × 6 + 3 × ( – 3 ) + 4 × 8 + 5 × 7 = 68 and this is verified with the MATLAB script A=[1 2 3 4 5]. A=[1 2 3 4 5].Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® For example. that is. Thus. Here. This operator is defined below.*). There is no space between the dot and the multiplication symbol. and we attempt to perform a row−by− row multiplication with the following MATLAB statements. A*B % Observe transpose operator (‘) in B ans = 68 Now. A*B % No transpose operator (‘) here When these statements are executed. B=[ −2 6 −3 8 7]'. if A = [1 2 3 4 5] and B = [ – 2 6 – 3 8 7 ]' the matrix multiplication A*B produces the single value 68. and warns us that we cannot perform this multiplication using the matrix multiplication operator (*). let us suppose that both A and B are row vectors. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . MATLAB displays the following message: ??? Error using ==> * Inner matrix dimensions must agree. Here. 2. C.6) A−20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Element−by−Element Multiplication (multiplication of a row vector by another row vector) Let C = [ c1 c2 c3 … cn ] and D = [ d1 d2 d3 … dn ] be two row vectors. B=[−2 6 −3 8 7]. not a row vector. Accordingly.∗ D = [ c 1 d 1 c2 d2 c3 d3 … cn dn ] (A. because we have used the matrix multiplication operator (*) in A*B. MATLAB expects vector B to be a column vector. we must perform this type of multiplication with a different operator. It recognizes that B is a row vector.

8.* sin(2 . and exponentiation operators.^) are used for element− by−element division and exponentiation.13') The plot for this example is shown in Figure A. C.∗ D = 1 × ( – 2 ) 2 × 6 3 × ( – 3 ) 4 × 8 5 × 7 = – 2 12 – 9 32 35 Check with MATLAB: C=[1 2 3 4 5].^2 . are used for matrix division and exponentiation.01 increments y=3 .) is never required with the plus (+) and minus (−) operators. division. We must remember that no space is allowed between the dot (.* t) + t . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. xlabel('t').* t)−2 .* cos(5 ./) and dot exponentiation (.7) in the 0 ≤ t ≤ 5 seconds interval.* exp(−3 .y). D=[−2 6 −3 8 7]. as illustrated in Examples A.) and the multiplication. plot(t. the division (/) and exponentiation (^) operators. let C = [1 2 3 4 5] and D = [ –2 6 –3 8 7 ] Dot multiplication of these two row vectors produce the following result. and Exponentiation This product is another row vector with the same number of elements.* exp(−4 .12 above. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−21 . Example A. As an example./ (t+1).*D % Vectors C and D must have % same number of elements % We observe that this is a dot multiplication ans = -2 12 -9 32 35 Similarly. grid.* t) . ylabel('y=f(t)').* t) . Division. C. Note: A dot (. whereas dot division (. Solution: The MATLAB script for this example is as follows: t=0: 0.13 Write the MATLAB script that produces a simple plot for the waveform defined as y = f ( t ) = 3e –4 t 2 cos 5t – 2e –3 t t sin 2t + ---------t+1 (A. % Define t−axis in 0. title('Plot for Example A.11 and A. as the elements of C and D .Multiplication.01: 5.

5 1 1. v = sin 2x ⁄ cos 2x in the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π using 100 data points. the eps number.8.5 4 4. It will be used with the next example. division. A−22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2 × 10 – 16 . Example A.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® Plot for Example A. This command must be placed after the plot command and must be repeated for each plot. This is because the last term (the rational fraction) of the given expression.13 Had we. To avoid division by zero. defined the time interval starting with a negative value equal to or less than – 1 . Plot for Example A. and also MATLAB’s capability of displaying up to four windows of different plots. xmax. is divided by zero when t = – 1 .13 5 4 3 y=f(t) 2 1 0 -1 0 0. the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) command. The command axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) scales the current plot to the values specified by the arguments xmin. which is a number approximately equal to 2. we use the special MATLAB function eps. w = sin 2x ⋅ cos 2x.5 5 Figure A. in this example. z = cos 2x.5 t 3 3. ymin and ymax.5 2 2. The following example illustrates the use of the dot multiplication. say as – 3 ≤ t ≤ 3 . MATLAB would have displayed the following message: Warning: Divide by zero. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and exponentiation.14 Plot the functions y = sin 2x. There are no commas between these four arguments. Use the subplot command to display these functions on four windows on the same graph.

5 0. % lower right of four subplots title('v=(sinx)^2/(cosx)^2').14 The next example illustrates MATLAB’s capabilities with imaginary numbers. plot(x.1 0 0 0 2 4 6 0 2 4 6 Figure A.y).% add eps to avoid division by zero subplot(221). v=y.v).9. plot(x. axis([0 2*pi 0 1]). theta Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Division. axis([0 2*pi 0 0. the abs(z).^ 2).Multiplication.5 0 0 2 2 4 2 6 0 0 2 2 4 2 6 w=(sinx) *(cosx) v=(sinx) /(cosx) 400 0. axis([0 2*pi 0 400]).z). % lower left of four subplots title('w=(sinx)^2*(cosx)^2'). subplot(222). plot(x. z=(cos(x). axis([0 2*pi 0 1]). % Interval with 100 data points w=y.^ 2). subplot(224). where r is the magnitude. We will introduce the real(z) and imag(z) functions that display the real and imaginary parts of the complex quantity z = x + iy.100).* z. subplot(223).9.% upper left of four subplots plot(x.3]). % upper right of four subplots title('z=(cosx)^2').r) function that produces a plot in polar coordinates./ (z+eps).2 200 0. y=(sinx)2 1 1 z=(cosx)2 0.2*pi. title('y=(sinx)^2'). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−23 . and Exponentiation Solution: The MATLAB script to produce the four subplots is as follows: x=linspace(0. Subplots for the functions of Example A. and the angle(z) functions that compute the absolute value (magnitude) and phase angle of the complex quantity z = x + iy = r ∠θ. We will also use the polar(theta. y=(sin(x). These subplots are shown in Figure A.w).

.^ 4 −j .10./ (10 + j ./ (w+eps)) ..15 With the given values of resistance. ylabel('Real part of Z').. and the round(n) function that rounds a number to its nearest integer. for simplicity. % % The first five statements (next two lines) compute and plot Re{z} real_part=real(z). Plot Im { Z } (the imaginary part of the impedance Z) versus frequency ω. Solution: The MATLAB script below computes the real and imaginary parts of Z ab which.* 10 ./ (w+eps)))). inductance.* (0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .* w −10. b. Example A. xlabel('radian frequency w').1ω – 10 ⁄ ω ) 4 6 (A. c.15 Consider the electric circuit of Figure A. plot(w.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® is the angle in radians. are denoted as z . Electric circuit for Example A. a 10 Ω 10 Ω 10 μF 0. It also produces a polar plot (part c). grid A−24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing...1 H Z ab b Figure A. Plot Re { Z } (the real part of the impedance Z) versus frequency ω.1 ....real_part).^ 6 . and plots these as two separate graphs (parts a & b).8) a. % Define interval with one radian interval. and capacitance.. the impedance Z ab as a function of the radian frequency ω can be computed from the following expression: 10 – j ( 10 ⁄ ω ) Z ab = Z = 10 + ------------------------------------------------------5 10 + j ( 0. z=(10+(10 .10. Plot the impedance Z versus frequency ω in polar coordinates.^5. w=0: 1: 2000.

. % Computes the phase angle of impedance Z.. polar(theta. ylabel('Imaginary part of Z'). grid 600 400 Imaginary part of Z 200 0 -200 -400 -600 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 radian frequency w 1400 1600 1800 2000 Figure A.12.. Plot for the imaginary part of the impedance in Example A. theta=angle(z). Plot for the real part of the impedance in Example A.. % Computes |Z|. and Exponentiation 1200 1000 800 Real part of Z 600 400 200 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 radian frequency w 1400 1600 1800 2000 Figure A. Division. % Rounds |Z| to read polar plot easier. % Angle is the first argument ylabel('Polar Plot of Z').. rndz=round(abs(z))..Multiplication..15 % The next five statements (next two lines) compute and plot Im{z} imag_part=imag(z).imag_part)... xlabel('radian frequency w').15 % The last six statements (next five lines) below produce the polar plot of z mag=abs(z).11. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−25 .... grid Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. plot(w.rndz).

the function file consisting of the two lines below function y = myfunction(x) y=x.13. A function file is a user−defined function using MATLAB.10 Script and Function Files MATLAB recognizes two types of files: script files and function files. followed by the output argument. We use function files for repetitive tasks. a script file is one which was generated and saved as an m−file with an editor such as the MATLAB’s Editor/Debugger.m extension. A−26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. but the file name must have the extension . the script for each of the examples we discussed earlier. A. Thus. make up a script file.x) − attempts to find a zero of a function of one variable.15 Example A. and returns that value. The function name and file name must be the same.* x) is a function file and must be saved as myfunction.m For the next example. accurate.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® 90 120 1500 60 1000 150 Polar Plot of Z 500 30 180 0 210 330 240 270 300 Figure A. fast. MATLAB searches for a value near a point where the function f changes sign. The first line of a function file must contain the word function. Generally. we will use the following MATLAB functions: fzero(f.m.^ 3 + cos(3. For example. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and flexible MATLAB is. where f is a string containing the name of a real−valued function of a single real variable. the equal sign ( = ). and the input argument enclosed in parentheses.15 clearly illustrates how powerful. A script file consists of two or more built−in functions such as those we have discussed thus far. or returns NaN if the search fails. Both types are referred to as m−files since both require the . Polar plot of the impedance in Example A.

Example A.y).01) −1.5 -1 -0.5: 0. and minima using the following script. it is MATLAB’s response to an undefined expression such as 0 ⁄ 0 .14. maxima.9) in the interval – 1.2 ) + 0.04 (A. Plot for Example A.lims) − plots the function specified by the string fcn between the x−axis limits specified by lims = [xmin xmax]. Using lims = [xmin xmax ymin ymax] also controls the y−axis limits.1). NaN (Not−a−Number) is not a function.– 10 2 2 ( x – 0.^ 2 + 0.^ 2 + 0.1 ) + 0.2).5 Solution: We first plot this function to observe the approximate zeros.1 and A. grid The plot is shown in Figure A.5 0 0.2.Script and Function Files Important: We must remember that we use roots(p) to find the roots of polynomials only.5 1 1.5 Figure A. plot(x.01: 1.16 using the plot command Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5 ≤ x ≤ 1. The string fcn must be the name of an m−file function or a string with variable x .01 ( x – 1. ∞ ⁄ ∞ .16 Find the zeros.– --------------------------------------. such as those in Examples A.5.14. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−27 . which we mentioned earlier. the minimum. fplot(fcn. x=−1./ ((x−1. y=1. or inability to produce a result as described on the next paragraph. and the maximum values of the function 1 1 f ( x ) = --------------------------------------. We can avoid division by zero using the eps number. 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -1./ ((x−0.04) −10.

4f \n'.16 using the fplot command We will use the fzero(f. we can use the fplot(fcn.lims) command to plot f ( x ) as follows: fplot('funczero01'.01)−1/((x−1. To save this file. The MATLAB script below will accomplish this.m to it. grid This plot is shown in Figure A. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . [−1. approximately. Now. we type the script above and we save it as funczero01.4f'. MATLAB appends the extension . x2) A−28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. y min = – 34 .2)^2+0.5 -1 -0. and when the Editor Window appears. y max = 90 . from the File drop menu on the Command Window. Plot for Example A.5]).9) more precisely.04)−10. Next. this plot is identical to the plot of Figure A.1)^2+0. and the minimum occurs at approximately x = 1.15.5 1.14 which was obtained with the plot(x.15. x1= fzero('funczero01'. fprintf('The roots (zeros) of this function are r1= %3.5 Figure A. 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -1.5 0 0.x) function to compute the roots of f ( x ) in Equation (A.2).Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® The roots (zeros) of this function appear to be in the neighborhood of x = – 0. As expected. The maximum occurs at approximately x = 0.3 . 0. approximately. −0.1 where.y) command as shown in Figure A.2 where.14. we define and save f(x) as the funczero01.m function m−file with the following script: function y=funczero01(x) % Finding the zeros of the function shown below y=1/((x−0.2 and x = 0. x2= fzero('funczero01'.3).5 1 1. x1). fprintf(' and r2= %3. we choose New.

grid and the plot is shown in Figure A.ymax).01) −1 / ((x−1.1)^2+0. we substitute it into f ( x ) . plot(x.01)−1/((x−1. that is.2) ^ 2 + 0. we use the following MATLAB script: syms x ymin zmin.6585 .. we recall that the maxima or minima of a function y = f ( x ) can be found by setting the first derivative of a function equal to zero and solving for the independent variable x . ymin=1/((x−0.1) ^ 2 + 0.04)+10.15../((x−0.01)+1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−29 .^2+0.04) −10 ymin = -34.3437i ans = 1. To find the value of y corresponding to this value of x.2). x=1. Thus.^2+0.1812 We can find the maximum value from – f ( x ) whose plot is produced with the script x=−1. zmin=diff(ymin) zmin = -1/((x-1/10)^2+1/100)^2*(2*x-1/5)+1/((x-6/5)^2+1/25)^2*(2*x-12/5) When the command solve(zmin) is executed.5. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.6585 + 0.3788 The earlier MATLAB versions included the function fmin(f. ymin=1 / ((x−0.01:1.04)−10. produces the following: ans = 0.3437i ans = 0.2012 above is the value of x at which the function y has its minimum value as we observe also in the plot of Figure A. This can be visualized by flipping the plot of a function f ( x ) upside−down.16. ymax=−1.1).x2) and with this function we could compute both a minimum of some function f ( x ) or a maximum of f ( x ) since a maximum of f ( x ) is equal to a minimum of – f ( x ) .1919 and r2= 0..x1.2)^2+0.5:0. For this example we use the diff(x) function which produces the approximate derivative of a function. This function is no longer used in MATLAB and thus we will compute the maxima and minima from the derivative of the given function. From elementary calculus.Script and Function Files MATLAB displays the following: The roots (zeros) of this function are r1= -0./((x−1.2012 The real value 1. MATLAB displays a very long expression which when copied at the command prompt and executed.2012.0.

04)−10).1)^2+0.5 -1 -0.2)^2+0.0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .16. Accordingly.5 Figure A. zmax=diff(ymax) zmax = 1/((x-1/10)^2+1/100)^2*(2*x-1/5)-1/((x-6/5)^2+1/25)^2*(2*x-12/5) solve(zmax) When the command solve(zmax) is executed.5 0 0. A−30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.3437i ans = 0.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -1.01)−1/((x−1.15 and A.0999 which is consistent with the plots of Figures A.5 1 1. we execute the following script to obtain the value of ymin . ymax=−(1/((x−0.16 Next we compute the first derivative of – f ( x ) and we solve for x to find the value where the maximum of ymax occurs. syms x ymax zmax. This is accomplished with the MATLAB script below.6585 + 0. produces the following: ans = 0.6585 .0999 From the values above we choose x = 0.3437i ans = 1.16. Plot of – f ( x ) for Example A.2012 ans = 0. MATLAB displays a very long expression which when copied at the command prompt and executed.

1) ^ 2 + 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−31 .and blank are printed for positive. negative. SHORT E Floating point format with 5 digits.Imaginary parts are ignored. and zero elements.2) ^ 2 + 0.04) −10 ymax = 89.Display Formats x=0. The format displayed has nothing to do with the accuracy in the computations. FORMAT may be used to switch between different output display formats as follows: FORMAT FORMAT FORMAT FORMAT FORMAT FORMAT FORMAT FORMAT FORMAT Default.2000 A. format format format format format format short 33. FORMAT LOOSE Puts the extra line-feeds back in.33 two decimal digits + only + or . + The symbols +.3333e+01 Four decimal digits plus exponent short g 33. LONG E Floating point format with 15 digits. Some examples with different format displays age given below. MATLAB performs all computations with accuracy up to 16 decimal places. Same as SHORT. . FORMAT BANK Fixed format for dollars and cents. % Using this value find the corresponding value of ymax ymax=1 / ((x−0. The available MATLAB formats can be displayed with the help format command as follows: help format FORMAT Set output format.33333333333334 16 digits short e 3. All computations in MATLAB are done in double precision.01) −1 / ((x−1. FORMAT RAT Approximation by ratio of small integers.333 Better of format short or format short e bank 33.3335 Four decimal digits (default) long 33. SHORT G Best of fixed or floating point format with 5 digits. or in short floating point format with four decimals if it a fractional number. SHORT Scaled fixed point format with 5 digits.or zero are printed Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. HEX Hexadecimal format. Spacing: FORMAT COMPACT Suppress extra line-feeds. LONG Scaled fixed point format with 15 digits. LONG G Best of fixed or floating point format with 15 digits.11 Display Formats MATLAB displays the results on the screen in integer format without decimals if the result is an integer number. The output format can changed with the format command.0999.

If X is a string. if %f is used. please refer to Numerical Analysis Using MATLAB and Spreadsheets.™ Inc.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® format rat 100/3 rational approximation The disp(X) command displays the array X without printing the array name. A−32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Thus.array) command displays and prints both text and arrays.* This outstanding software package consists of many applications known as Toolboxes. With this command only the real part of each parameter is processed. The fprintf(format. the values will be displayed and printed in fixed decimal format. and if %e is used. This appendix is just an introduction to MATLAB. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . * For more MATLAB applications. the values will be displayed and printed in scientific notation format. ISBN 0−9709511−1−6. It uses specifiers to indicate where and in which format the values would be displayed and printed. The MATLAB Student Version contains just a few of these Toolboxes. as add−ons. the text is displayed.. Others can be bought directly from The MathWorks.

This author feels that we can best introduce Simulink with a few examples. R 1Ω L 1⁄4 H C + vC ( t ) − + − i(t) vs ( t ) = u0 ( t ) 4⁄3 F Figure B.Appendix B Introduction to Simulink® T his appendix is a brief introduction to Simulink. simulate.1 Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB The MATLAB® and Simulink® environments are integrated into one entity. We will introduce Simulink with a few illustrated examples.1 For this example. Example B.2) yields Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.1.1) into (B. di L Ri L + L -----. Some familiarity with MATLAB is essential in understanding Simulink.2) Substitution of (B.1) and by Kirchoff’s voltage law (KVL). dv C i = i L = i C = C -------dt (B. B. We will compute v c ( t ) . and thus we can analyze. and revise our models in either environment at any point. Appendix A is included as an introduction to MATLAB. We invoke Simulink from within MATLAB.1 For the circuit of Figure B.5 V . the initial conditions are i L ( 0 − ) = 0 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications B−1 .1. and for this purpose. Circuit for Example B.+ v C = u 0 ( t ) dt (B. and v c ( 0 − ) = 0.

three different methods of obtaining the solution are presented.---------. are possible candidates since their derivatives have the same form but alternate in sign.+ 4 -------. Therefore.6) The values of s 1 and s 2 are the roots of the characteristic equation * Please refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications.+ 3v C = 3u 0 ( t ) 2 dt dt 2 dv C d vC ---------.. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and thus the complete solution will consist of the sum of the forced response and the natural response.-------. and the solution using Simulink follows.+ 3v C = 3 2 dt dt 2 (B. It is obvious that the solution of this equation cannot be a constant since the derivatives of a constant are zero and thus the equation is not satisfied.+ v C = u 0 ( t ) . non−homogeneous differential equation with constant coefficients.3 dt 2 3 dt 2 dv C d vC ---------. the solution cannot contain sinusoidal functions (sine and cosine) since the derivatives of these are also sinusoids. First Method − Assumed Solution Equation (B.3) Substituting the values of the circuit constants and rearranging we obtain: 1 d v C 4 dv C -. decaying exponentials of the form ke where k and a are constants. Appendix B for a thorough discussion.4) t>0 (B. the total solution will –s1 t –s2 t v c ( t ) = natural response + forced response = v cn ( t ) + v cf ( t ) = k 1 e + k2 e + v cf ( t ) (B.+ LC ---------. ISBN 978−0−9709511−5−1. It can be shown* that if k 1 e 1 and k 2 e 2 where k 1 and k 2 are constants and s 1 and s 2 are the roots of the characteristic equation of the homogeneous part of the given differential equation. B−2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5) is a second−order. for comparison.+ -.Introduction to Simulink® d vC dv C RC -------. Also.5) To appreciate Simulink’s capabilities.+ v C = u 0 ( t ) 2 dt dt 2 (B. However. the natural response is the sum of the terms k 1 e be –s1 t –s t –s t – at and k 2 e –s2 t .+ 4 -------.

dv C -------dt = – k 1 – 3k 2 t=0 (B. using v C ( 0 ) = 0.= 0 C C (B. i.14) By equating the right sides of (B..10) Substitution of this value into (B. By substitution into (B. yields the total solution as v C ( t ) = v Cn ( t ) + v Cf = k 1 e + k 2 e –t –3 t +1 (B.9) Since the right side of (B.5 k 1 + k 2 = – 0.+ 3v C = 3 2 dt dt t>0 (B.= --.7) yields of s 1 = – 1 and s 2 = – 3 and with these values (B. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications B−3 .= --dt dt C dv C -------dt iL ( 0 ) 0 = ----------.5 0 0 (B.8) The forced component v cf ( t ) is found from (B.11). and dv C dv C i L i L = i C = C -------.9) we obtain 0 + 0 + 3k 3 = 3 or v Cf = k 3 = 1 (B.6) is written as vc ( t ) = k1 e + k2 e –t –3 t + v cf ( t ) (B.7) Solution of (B.5 V and evaluating (B. we evaluate it at t = 0 . -------..8). Thus.13) and (B.+ 4 -------. First.Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB s + 4s + 3 = 0 2 (B.e.12) Also.13). and equate it with (B.9) is a constant. we obtain v C ( 0 ) = k 1 e + k 2 e + 1 = 0.5). we differentiate (B.11) The constants k 1 and k 2 will be evaluated from the initial conditions. 2 dv C d vC ---------.11) at t = 0 .14) we obtain Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.13) t=0 Next. the forced response will also be a constant and we denote it as v Cf = k 3 .

e – 3 e ⎞ = e – e A -⎠ dt 3⎝ 4 4 (B. for our example.25 .⎛ -.25e –t –3 t + 1 )u 0 ( t ) (B.25s C 3 ⁄ 4s + Vs ( s ) = 1 ⁄ s + − VC ( s ) I(s) 0. Using the expression for v C ( t ) in (B.75 e + 0.15).15) Simultaneous solution of (B..75 and k 2 = 0. we obtain the total solution as v C ( t ) = ( – 0.Introduction to Simulink® – k 1 – 3k 2 = 0 (B. vc(t) % The first derivative of y(t) y1 = 3/4*exp(-t)-3/4*exp(-3*t) y2=diff(y0. we find the expression for the current as dv C 4 3 –t – 3t – t – 3t .= -.16). By substitution into (B. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Transformed Circuit for Example B.2) % The second derivative of y(t) y2 = -3/4*exp(-t)+9/4*exp(-3*t) y=y2+4*y1+3*y0 % Summation of y and its derivatives y = 3 Thus.75*exp(−t)+0. y1=diff(y0) % Define symbolic variable t % The total solution y(t).16) Check with MATLAB: syms t y0=−0.12) and (B. gives k 1 = – 0.25*exp(−3*t)+1.1 B−4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2.5 ⁄ s + V (0) C − − Figure B.2.i = i L = i C = C --------. the solution has been verified by MATLAB.17) Second Method − Using the Laplace Transformation The transformed circuit is shown in Figure B.8). R 1 L 0.

† Partial fraction expansion is discussed in Chapter 3.-.5s + 2s + 3. For distinction. ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0. Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling.5 = ---------------------------------------.25e –t – 3t Third Method − Using State Variables di L Ri L + L -----. Please refer to Chapter 5.5 = -------------------------------.5⎞ + 0.+ v C = u 0 ( t ) ** dt * For derivation of the voltage division and current division expressions.75e + 0.+ --------------s (s + 1) (s + 3) s(s + 1)(s + 3) 2 Taking the Inverse Laplace transform‡ we find that v C ( t ) = 1 – 0.Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB By the voltage division* expression. u ( t ) denotes any input. Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling.† we let 2 r1 r2 r3 0.= -. Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling. we will denote the Unit Step Function as u 0 ( t ) .5s + 2s + 3 r 2 = --------------------------------s(s + 3) 0.18) 0.5s + 2s + 3----------------------------------.+ --------------s( s + 1 )( s + 3) s (s + 1) (s + 3) (B. please refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications.+ 0. ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9 ** Usually.75 0.+ --------------.-----V C ( s ) = --------------------------------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications B−5 .+ --------------. 2 3 ⁄ 4s 1. ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= --.⋅ ⎛ 1 – 0.-----2 ( 1 + 0.5s + 2s + 3 r 1 = --------------------------------(s + 1)(s + 3) 0.5s + 2s + 3 V C ( s ) = ----------------------------------. ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9 ‡ For an introduction to Laplace Transform and Inverse Laplace Transform.5 0.25s + 3 ⁄ 4s ) ⎝ s s(s + 1)(s + 3) s ⎠ s s s ( s + 4s + 3 ) Using partial fraction expansion.75 s = –1 = 0. please refer Chapters 2 and 3. in State−Space and State Variables Analysis.25 s = –3 and by substitution into (B.25 1 – 0.5s + 2s + 3 r 3 = --------------------------------s(s + 1) 2 2 2 = 1 s=0 = – 0.18) 0.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . · x x1 = –4 –4 1 + 4 u0 ( t ) ·2 3 ⁄ 4 0 x2 0 x (B. or dv C i L = C -------dt dv C 4· · x 1 = i L = C -------.Introduction to Simulink® By substitution of given values and rearranging.23) yields · · * The notation x (x dot) is often used to denote the first derivative of the function x .20) and (B.21) Also. di L · x 1 = -----.23) Solution† of (B. x = dx ⁄ dt . Example 5. and (B. that is. Then.= Cx 2 = -.4 dt or di L -----. Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling. (B. Page 5−23.x 1 4 and in matrix form. ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9 B−6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.x 2 3 dt 3 · x 2 = -.20).10.22). and thus. we define the state variables x 1 = i L and x 2 = v C . we obtain di 1 ------.23) is given in Chapter 5. we obtain the state equations · x 1 = – 4x 1 – 4x 2 + 4 3 · x 2 = -. from (B. † The detailed solution of (B.= – 4i L – 4v C + 4 dt (B.22) Therefore.* dt dv C · x 2 = -------dt (B.L = ( – 1 )i L – v C + 1 .19).x 1 4 (B.19) Next.

75e + 0.25e –t – 3t Then.25) Modeling the Differential Equation of Example B.* * Henceforth.3.25e –t (B.26) above is shown in Figure B. Let us express the differential equation of Example B. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications B−7 .1 with Simulink To run Simulink. In the MATLAB Command prompt.75 e + 0. the Commonly Used Blocks appear as shown in Figure B. We will use Simulink to draw a similar block diagram. we must first invoke MATLAB. The Simulink icon Upon execution of the Simulink command. we type: simulink Alternately.3.Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB x1 x2 = e –e –t –t – 3t – 3t 1 – 0.1 as 2 dv C d vC ---------. all Simulink block diagrams will be referred to as models.5.26) A block diagram representing relation (B. The right side is referred to as the Contents Pane and displays the blocks that reside in the library currently selected in the Tree Pane. In Figure B.= – 4 -------. we can click on the Simulink icon shown in Figure B.24) – 3t and x 2 = v C = 1 – 0.– 3v C + 3u 0 ( t ) 2 dt dt (B. It appears on the top bar on MATLAB’s Command prompt. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Figure B.4. Make sure that Simulink is installed in your system. x1 = iL = e –e (B. the left side is referred to as the Tree Pane and displays all Simulink libraries installed.4.

we perform the following steps: 1.4.6.5. we click on the leftmost icon shown as a blank page on the top title bar. The Simulink Library Browser d vC ---------2 dt 2 u0 ( t ) 3 Σ ∫ dt −4 dv C -------dt ∫ dt vC −3 Figure B. Block diagram for equation (B.26) using Simulink.Introduction to Simulink® Figure B. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . A new model window named untitled will appear as shown in Figure B.26) To model the differential equation (B. B−8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. On the Simulink Library Browser.

3.8.6 where we choose Save as and name the file as Equation_1_26. We choose the gain block and we drag it to the right of the unit step function.mdl file 2. We save file Equation_1_26 using the File drop menu on the Equation_1_26 model window (right side of Figure B. See Figure B. We point the mouse close to the connection point of the unit step function until is shows as a cross hair. See Figure B. Simulink will add the extension . The Untitled model window in Simulink. and on the right side we scroll down until we see the unit step function shown as Step. and draw a straight line to connect the two Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.6 is the model window where we enter our blocks to form a block diagram. See Figure B. it can be recalled by clicking on the white page icon on the top bar of the Simulink Library Browser. We select it. If the Equation_1_26 model window is no longer visible.8. Figure B.7.8. we click on the Sources appearing on the left side list.5. The gain block in Simulink is under Commonly Used Blocks (first item under Simulink on the Simulink Library Browser). we observe that we need to connect an amplifier with Gain 3 to the unit step function block. Model window for Equation_1_26. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications B−9 . With the Equation_1_26 model window and the Simulink Library Browser both visible.6. We save this as model file name Equation_1_26. The triangle on the right side of the unit step function block and the > symbols on the left and right sides of the gain block are connection points. With reference to block diagram of Figure B. 4.Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB Figure B.7. This is done from the File drop menu of Figure B.8). and all saved files will have this appearance. The new model window will now be shown as Equation_1_26. The window of Figure B. and we drag it into the Equation_1_26 model window which now appears as shown in Figure B.mdl.

then hold down the Ctrl key and left−click on the destination block. Dragging the unit step function into File Equation_1_26 Figure B.9. we change the gain from 1 to 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . See Figure B. B−10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Introduction to Simulink® blocks.9. File Equation_1_26 with added Step and Gain blocks * An easy method to interconnect two Simulink blocks by clicking on the source block to select it. Figure B.8.* We double−click on the gain block and on the Function Block Parameters.

11. Figure B.Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB 5. and we copy and paste it twice. Then. We repeat this step and to add a second Integrator block. We flip the pasted Gain blocks by using the Flip Block command from the Format drop menu. Figure B.11. Next.10. We then connect the output of the of the gain block to the first input of the adder block as shown in Figure B. We select it. File Equation_1_26 complete block diagram Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications B−11 . we double−click on these gain blocks and on the Function Block Parameters window. we change the gains from to −4 and −3 as shown in Figure B. and we label these as Gain 2 and Gain 3. we need to add a thee−input adder. From the Commonly Used Blocks of the Simulink Library Browser. File Equation_1_26 with added gain block 6. We double click it. we change the text “Integrator 1” under the second Integrator to “Integrator 2” as shown in Figure B. We click on the text “Integrator” under the first integrator block. and we drag it into the Equation_1_26 model window. and we connect it to the output of the Add block. The adder block appears on the right side of the Simulink Library Browser under Math Operations.10. we specify 3 inputs. we click on the Gain block.12.12. we choose the Integrator block. we add the Scope block which is found in the Commonly Used Blocks on the Simulink Library Browser. To complete the block diagram. File Equation_1_26 with the addition of two integrators 7. and on the Function Block Parameters window which appears. Figure B. we drag it into the Equation_1_26 model window. and we change it to Integrator 1. Finally.

Figure B.13. This is done by specifying the simulation time to be 10 seconds on the Configuration Parameters from the Simulation drop menu. To see the output waveform. as shown in Figure B. We also need to specify the simulation time. and 0. We can start the simulation on Start from the Simulation drop menu or by clicking on the icon. Obtaining the function v C ( t ) for Example B. Figure B. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .14. 9. is to use State− Space block from Continuous in the Simulink Library Browser.5 V are entered by dou- − ble clicking the Integrator blocks and entering the values 0 for the first integrator. we obtain the waveform shown in Figure B.13.1 with the State−Space block.14. B−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5 for the second integrator. The waveform for the function v C ( t ) for Example B. The initial conditions i L ( 0 − ) = C ( dv C ⁄ dt ) t=0 = 0 . and v c ( 0 ) = 0. we double click on the Scope block.Introduction to Simulink® 8.1 Another easier method to obtain and display the output v C ( t ) for Example B. and then clicking on the Autoscale icon.1.

23.15. The data and variables created in the MATLAB Command window.Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB The simout To Workspace block shown in Figure B. reside in the MATLAB Workspace. This gives us the ability to delete or modify selected variables. and in the Functions Block Parameters window we enter the constants shown in Figure B. Figure B. · x x1 = –4 –4 1 + 4 u0 ( t ) ·2 x 3 ⁄ 4 0 x2 0 The output equation is or y = Cx + du y = [0 1] x1 x2 + [ 0 ]u We double−click on the State−Space block. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications B−13 .15. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The Function block parameters for the State−Space block. From Equation B. This block writes its output to an array or structure that has the name specified by the block's Variable name parameter.14 writes its input to the workspace. We issue the command who to see those variables. Page B−6.

and the initial conditions are y ( 0 ) = y' ( 0 ) = y'' ( 0 ) = y''' ( 0 ) = 0 . we form. Example B.27) where y ( t ) is the output representing the voltage or current of the network.16. x2=0. Figure B. The waveform for the function v C ( t ) for Example B. and then clicking on the Autoscale obtain the waveform shown in Figure B. and to see the output waveicon.Introduction to Simulink® The initials conditions [ x1 x2 ]' are specified in MATLAB’s Command prompt as x1=0.5.27) as a set of state equations B−14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.1 with the State−Space block. As before. We will express (B. a. we double click on the Scope block. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and u ( t ) is any input. The state−space block is the best choice when we need to display the output waveform of three or more variables as illustrated by the following example.16. to start the simulation we click clicking on the icon.2 A fourth−order network is described by the differential equation 4 d y + a d y + a d y + a dy + a y ( t ) = u ( t ) --------3 -------2 ------1 ----0 3 2 4 dt dt dt dt 3 2 (B.

28) is of fourth−order. has the solution y ( t ) = 0. the output is where y = Cx + du Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.34) Also.Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB b. 1.+ 2 ------. The differential equation of (B. a 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications B−15 .28) subject to the initial conditions y ( 0 ) = y' ( 0 ) = y'' ( 0 ) = y''' ( 0 ) = 0 .30) We observe that · x1 = x2 · x2 = x3 · x3 = x4 d y · --------. we will select appropriate values for the coefficients a 3.+ y ( t ) = sin t 2 4 dt dt 2 (B. We denote the state variables as x 1.125 [ ( 3 – t ) – 3t cos t ] 2 (B. x 2.32) is written as · x = Ax + bu (B. and a 0 so that the new set of the state equations will represent the differential equation of (B. a 2.28).29) In our set of state equations. we must define four state variables that will be used with the four first−order state equations. and x 4 .31) and in matrix form · x1 · x2 · x3 · x4 0 0 = 0 –a0 1 0 0 –a1 0 1 0 –a2 0 0 1 –a3 x1 0 x2 + 0 u(t) 0 x3 1 x4 (B. we will display the waveform of the output y ( t ) .33) (B. and we relate them to the terms of the given differential equation as x1 = y ( t ) dy x 2 = ----dt d y x 3 = -------2 dt 2 d y x 4 = -------3 dt 3 (B.= x 4 = – a 0 x 1 – a 1 x 2 – a 2 x 3 – a 3 x 4 + u ( t ) 4 dt 4 (B.32) In compact form. x 3 . (B. therefore. and using Simulink. It is known that the solution of the differential equation 4 d y d y ------.

38) Since the output is defined as in matrix form it is expressed as B−16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.28) can be expressed in state−space form as · x1 · x2 · x3 · x4 0 0 = 0 –a0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 –2 0 0 1 0 0 + 0 sin t 0 x3 1 x4 x2 x1 (B. 0 1 · x= .27) will be reduced to the differential equation of (B. 0 1 · x= .36) 2.Introduction to Simulink® · x1 · x2 · x3 · x4 0 0 A= 0 –a0 1 0 0 –a1 0 1 0 –a2 0 0 . By inspection.37) where · x1 · x2 · x3 · x4 0 0 A= 0 –a0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 –2 0 0 . 0 b= 0.34) is expressed as x1 y = [1 0 0 0] ⋅ x2 x3 x4 + [ 0 ]u ( t ) (B. 0 b= 0.28) if we let a3 = 0 a2 = 2 a1 = 0 a0 = 1 u ( t ) = sin t and thus the differential equation of (B. 1 0 x1 x= x2 x3 x4 y ( t ) = x1 . and u = sin t (B. 1 –a3 x1 x= x2 x3 x4 y ( t ) = x1 .35) and since the output is defined as relation (B. and u = u ( t ) (B. the differential equation of (B. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

we double−click on the state−space block and we enter the following parameter values in the Function Block Parameters: A: [0 1 0 0. we click and drag the State−Space block from the Continuous on Simulink Library Browser.39) We invoke MATLAB. we drag the Signal Generator block on the Example_1_2 model window. Block diagram for Example B. 0 0 1 0. −a0 −a1 −a2 −a3] B: [0 0 0 1]’ C: [1 0 0 0] D: [0] Initial conditions: x0 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.17. and we save this model as Example_1_2. we start Simulink by clicking on the Simulink icon. We connect these four blocks and the complete block diagram is as shown in Figure B. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications B−17 .Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB x1 y = [1 0 0 0] ⋅ x2 x3 x4 + [ 0 ] sin t (B.17. and we click and drag the Scope block from the Commonly Used Blocks on the Simulink Library Browser. On the Simulink Library Browser we select Sources. 0 0 0 1.2 We now double−click on the Signal Generator block and we enter the following in the Function Block Parameters: Wave form: sine Time (t): Use simulation time Amplitude: 1 Frequency: 2 Units: Hertz Next. on the Simulink Library Browser we click on the Create a new model (blank page icon on the left of the top bar). Figure B. We also add the Display block found under Sinks on the Simulink Library Browser.

18.1 and B. Example B. we will create a model that will produce the simultaneous solution of three equations with three unknowns.2 The Display block in Figure B. a3=0. We change the Simulation Stop time to 25 . The model will display the values for the unknowns z 1 . and Gain blocks found in the Commonly Used Blocks library. z 2 . Figure B.2 using four Integrator blocks by this approach would have been more time consuming. we switch to the MATLAB Command prompt and we type the following: >> a0=1. we double click on the Scope block. then clicking on the Autoscale icon. and z 3 in the system of the equations a1 z1 + a2 z2 + a3 z3 + k1 = 0 a4 z1 + a5 z2 + a6 z3 + k2 = 0 a7 z1 + a8 z2 + a9 z3 + k3 = 0 (B. Examples B. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .17 shows the value at the end of the simulation stop time.3 Using Algebraic Constraint blocks found in the Math Operations library.2 have clearly illustrated that the State−Space is indeed a powerful block. Waveform for Example B. To see the output waveform. and we start the simulation by clicking on the icon. a2=2.18. we obtain the waveform shown in Figure B. We could have obtained the solution of Example B. a1=0. x0=[0 0 0 0]’.Introduction to Simulink® Absolute tolerance: auto Now. Display blocks found in the Sinks library.40) B−18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications B−19 . a3=−1. The output must affect the input through some feedback path.These values are shown in the Display blocks of Figure B. We can improve the efficiency of the algebraic loop solver by providing an Initial guess for the algebraic state z that is close to the solution value.19. the Initial guess parameter is zero. and z 3 = 5 . a4=1. a6=4. Model for Example B. Figure B. By default. a2=−3.3 Next. a9=2.. The Algebraic Constraint block constrains the input signal f ( z ) to zero and outputs an algebraic state z . k1=−8. a7=−6.Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB The model is shown in Figure B. The block outputs the value necessary to produce a zero at the input.19.19.. a5=5. k2=−7. z 2 = – 3 . we observe the values of the unknowns as z 1 = 2 . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. we go to MATLAB’s Command prompt and we enter the following values: a1=2. k3=5.. a8=1. This enables us to specify algebraic equations for index 1 differential/algebraic systems (DAEs). After clicking on the simulation icon.

Page 2−2. a2=−1.1. The model of Figure B. to be shown as a single Subsystem block.. k1=14. a3=4. Section 2. the reader with no prior knowledge of Simulink. It is highly recommended that the reader becomes familiar with the block libraries found in the Simulink Library Browser. should be ready to learn Simulink’s additional capabilities. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . a5=6. a9=15.* For instance.20† where in MATLAB’s Command prompt we have entered: a1=5. z 2 . * The Subsystem block is described in detail in Chapter 2. † The contents of the Subsystem block are not lost. a8=4. k3=9. 978−1−934404−09−6. ISBN 978−1−934404−09−6. a4=11..19 represented as a subsystem The Display blocks in Figure B. and this model will be shown as in Figure B. B. a6=9. Then. Page 2−2. Figure B.20 show the values of z 1 . a7=−8. Introduction to Simulink with Engineering Applications.19 except the display blocks. Introduction to Simulink with Engineering Applications.2 Simulink Demos At this time. and z 3 for the values specified in MATLAB’s Command prompt. These blocks are described in Section 2. We can double−click on the Subsystem block to see its contents.20. The Subsystem block replaces the inputs and outputs of the model with Inport and Outport blocks.Introduction to Simulink® An outstanding feature in Simulink is the representation of a large model consisting of many blocks and lines. we choose Create Subsystem from the Edit menu.1. the reader can follow the steps delineated in The MathWorks Simulink User’s Manual to run the Demo Models beginning with the thermo model. we can group all blocks and lines in the model of Figure B. This model can be seen by typing thermo in the MATLAB Command prompt. Chapter 2. B−20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.. k2=−6.

and the Derivative determines the reaction to the rate at which the error has been changing. C. By adjusting the three constants in the PID controller algorithm the PID can provide control action designed for specific process requirements. The components of a typical PID The Proportional value determines the reaction to the current error. and two examples are presented using the Simulink PID Controller Block and the Simulink PID Controller with Approximate Derivative Block. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications C− 1 . A PID controller attempts to correct the error between a measured process variable and a desired setpoint by calculating and then outputting a corrective action that can adjust the process accordingly. briefly known as PID. and Derivative values as shown in Figure C. Figure C.1 Description and Components of a Typical PID A proportional−integral−derivative (PID) controller is a control loop feedback system used in industrial control systems. The components and the functions of a typical PID are described. The PID controller calculation contains three separate parameters.Appendix C Proportional−Integral−Derivative (PID) Controller T his appendix is a brief introduction to the Proportional−Integral−Derivative Controller. The response of the controller can be described Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The weighted sum of these three actions is used to adjust the process via a control element such as the position of a control valve or the power supply of a heating element.1.1. the Integral. the Integral determines the reaction based on the sum of recent errors. the Proportional.

as illustrated by the example below. This is achieved by setting the gain of undesired control outputs to zero. PID with op amps C. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Proportional v in Integral v out Derivative Figure C. A PID controller will be called a PI. and the absence of an integral value prevents the system from reaching its target value due to the control action. since derivative action is very sensitive to measurement noise. C−2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. A PID controller can be formed with four op amps as shown in Figure C. PI controllers are particularly common. PD.2 The Simulink PID Blocks The Simulink PID block implements a PID controller where parameters are entered for the Proportional. the degree to which the controller overshoots the setpoint and the degree of system oscillation. Integral and Derivative terms.2.Proportional−Integral−Derivative (PID) Controller in terms of the responsiveness of the controller to an error. The use of the PID algorithm for control does not necessarily result in an optimal configuration for the system. Some applications may require using only one or two modes to provide the appropriate system control.3 produces the outputs of a transfer function without and with PID control.4. Example C. The output waveforms are shown in Figure C.1 The model in Figure C. P or I controller in the absence of the respective control actions.2.

The components of a typical PID with approximate derivative Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5.3.The Simulink PID Blocks Figure C. Output waveforms for the model in Figure C. Model for Example C.4. Figure C.2 without and with PID control The Simulink PID controller with approximate derivative calculation contains the functional blocks shown in Figure C.1 Figure C.5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications C−3 .

2 The model in Figure C. Model for Example C.6 produces the outputs of a transfer function without and with PID control with approximate derivative. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and Kd will cause a small change in rise time and decrease the overshoot.7. Kp and Ki will decrease the rise time and increase the overshoot. and Derivative Gain Kd are dependent on each another. Integral Gain Ki .6.7 by assigning other values for the Derivative divisor. The output waveforms are shown in Figure C. Output waveforms for the model in Figure C.2 Figure C.Proportional−Integral−Derivative (PID) Controller Example C.7. Figure C. C−4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.6 without and with PID control The reader should try to minimize the oscillations shown in Figure C. Generally. The examples presented in this appendix indicate that the Proportional Gain Kp .

20.1) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.1(a). D. Using Thevenin’s theorem. This is explained below. Also. and the time required for the output voltage v out to reach 90% of its final value is 2. The rise time.1RC . be unacceptable. v in R1 R2 (a) C2 v out av in R C2 (b) v out Figure D. we can replace the circuit of (a) with that of (b) where R represents the parallel combination of R 1 and R 2 and a in av in is the attenuation factor. denoted as t r . In an RC network the time required for the output voltage v out to reach 10% of its final value is 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications D−1 . we will investigate the types of responses which are obtained with a step voltage input if the circuit is improperly adjusted. It is an indication of how fast a circuit can respond to a discontinuity in voltage. in most cases.1. We will examine the conditions under which it is possible to ensure no distortion even if shunt capacitances are taken into consideration. We could make both R 1 and R 2 very large so that the input impedance of the attenuator would be large enough to prevent loading down the input signal but his may produce a large rise time which would.35 t r = 2.3RC . The rise time t r is the difference between these two values and in terms of the RC time constant τ it is given by 2.1 Uncompensated Attenuator Let us consider the simple resistor combination of Figure D.Appendix D Compensated Attenuators T his appendix begins with a simple resistive attenuator which may be used to reduce the amplitude of a signal waveform.2τ = 2.1(a) represents an unavoidable condition since the output of the resistive attenuator in most cases is followed by the input capacitance of a stage of amplification. is defined as the time it takes the voltage to rise from 10% to 90% of its final value. Actual and equivalent circuit for an uncompensated attenuator The presence of the stray capacitance C 2 in Figure D.= --------2πf c fc (D.2RC = ---------.

D. Because relation (D. meaning that its attenuation will once again become independent of frequency by placing a capacitor C 1 in parallel with resistor R 1 as shown in Figure D. so when computing the output voltage v out this branch may be omitted and the output will be equal to av in and independent of frequency.Compensated Attenuators where f c is the 3-dB frequency given by f c = 1 ⁄ 2πRC .2(a) is shown as in Figure D. D−2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2RC = 2.3 shows the appearances of the output signal when the input is a step voltage of amplitude V if the compensation is not precise.5 × 10 × 15 × 10 6 – 12 = 16. A compensated attenuator and its equivalent drawn as a bridge The circuit of Figure D. we form an attenuator with R 1 = R 2 = 1 MΩ and the input capacitance of a stage amplification is C 2 = 15 pF .5 μ sec This is a very large rise time for a practical application and thus it is unacceptable. If.2 × 0.2(a). With these values the rise time for the circuit of Figure D.3(a) the circuit is overcompensated and in Figure D. It was stated above that we could make the input impedance of the attenuator large enough to prevent loading of the input signal. it is practical to make capacitor C 1 variable and the final adjustment for perfect compensation may be made experimentally with the testing of a square-wave.3(b) is undercompensated.2) and under this condition there will be no current flow in the branch connecting point x to point y .2 Compensated Attenuator We can make an uncompensated attenuator a compensated attenuator.2.2(b) to form the four arms of a bridge. Figure D.2τ = 2. C1 R1 C1 v in v in R1 R2 (a) C2 x R2 (b) C2 y v out v out Figure D. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . for example. The bridge will be balanced if R1 C1 = R2 C2 (D. In Figure D.1(b) will be t r = 2.2) must hold precisely.

amplitude V Perfect compensation Output v out v out ( 0+ ) v out ( ∞ ) = aV v out ( 0+ ) v out ( ∞ ) = aV (a) (b) Figure D.Compensated Attenuator Step input.3. amplitude V Output v out Perfect compensation Step input. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications D−3 . Overcompensation and undercompensation responses of an attenuator to a step input Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

Compensated Attenuators NOTES: D−4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

or it may consist of a resistance of 3 Ω and a voltage source of 3 V of opposite polarity as shown in Figure E.Appendix E Substitution. the substitute branch may consist of a resistance of 1 Ω and a voltage source of 3 V as shown in Figure E. The substitution theorem can best illustrated with the simple circuit and the substitute branches shown in Figure E. Illustration of the substitution theorem For the simple resistor circuit of Figure E. According to the substitution theorem. and Miller’s Theorems T his appendix discusses three additional theorems that are especially useful in the simplification of circuits containing dependent sources. E. x 2Ω 4Ω 24 V 2Ω 2Ω x 3A 1Ω x 3Ω x XC = 8 ⁄ 3 Ω V ' = 10 ∠53. In our previous studies* we discussed the superposition principle and Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The current in the branch will be 3 A as before. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications E−1 .1° V x y (a) v xy = 6 V i xy = 3 A y 6V y (c) 3V y (d) 3V (b) y (e) Figure E.1.1 The Substitution Theorem The substitution theorem states that if the voltage across a branch with nodes x and y of a network is v xy and the current through this branch is i xy . the 2 Ω resistor across terminals x and y can be replaced with a source with a 6 V source as shown in Figure E.1. Reduction. For instance.1(a) we find by series−parallel resistance combinations that v xy = 6 V and i xy = 3 A . Other substitutions are possible also. or vice versa. The most common use of this theorem is to replace an impedance by a voltage or current source.1(c). ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0. a different branch may be substituted in its place in the network provided that the voltage across the substitute branch is also v xy and the current through it is also i xy .1(d). * For a detailed discussion of Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems and the superposition principle please refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications.1(b) and the rest of the network will be unaffected.

the bridge network shown in Figure E.3) The 12 equations of (E. For this branch. Zs a Z1 Z2 c Vs Z3 Z5 d Z4 b Figure E.2. V ab = Z ab I ab + Vs V cb = Z cb I cb V ac = Z ac I ac V cd = Z cd I cd V ad = Z ad I ad V db = Z db I db (E. and Miller’s Theorems The voltage source in Figure E. Reduction.1(e).2 has six branches and by application of Ohm’s law. V' = 6 + j8 = 10 ∠53. it becomes apparent that we have 6 equations with 12 unknowns. E− 2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. for example. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and thus we need 6 more equations to solve for all voltages and currents in each branch.1(e). We can obtain 3 additional equations by application of KCL. V xy = – jX C I xy + V' (E. I ab + I ac + I ad = 0 V ab + V ac + V cb = 0 I ca + I cd + I cb = 0 V ac + V cd + V da = 0 I da + I dc + I db = 0 V cb + V bd + V dc = 0 (E.1° Proof of the substitution theorem is based on the branch equations of the network. These are shown below. we can substitute the 2 Ω resistor across terminals x and y with a branch that has capacitive reactance in series with a source V' as shown in Figure E.1(a) could be DC or AC.1) With the value X C = 8 ⁄ 3 Ω .2) If we assume that the source volta