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Ar. Vaishali Latkar For Hands on -Lime workshop organised by NIASA and coordinated by Ar. Vaishali Latkar from 6th Sept10 – 10th Sept.10
LIME IN EVERYDAY LIFE
LIME IN MEDICAL FIELD
IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY
VERSATALITY OF LIME
CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY AGRICULTURE •WATER TREATMENT •SLUDGE TREATMENT •MEDICAL SECTOR SOIL STABILIZATION
with a pH of 12. limestone Heat generated in the formation of quick lime can be used for drying. setting or killing organism .LIME AS A MATERIAL CALCITE – Calcium Carbonate CaCo 3 + heat Cao+Co 2 Lime is an extremely caustic material when wet. The high pH provided by lime will kill unwanted bacteria. Lime will react with many soluble substances to form insoluble substances.
Hydraulic lime sets under water Polymers •Active clay responsible for strength •In India. fine brick dust (below 50 microns) called surkhi had been the pozzolonic addition to lime .PROPERTIES OF LIME AS A BUILDING MATERIAL •Slow hardening •Low durability Addition of Pozzolanic materials ( non hydraulic lime made into hydraulic by addition of material that will react with burnt lime and produce the silicate products with bnding ability leading to early strength) Non-hydraulic lime can only set through carbonation (re-absorption of CO2).
SETTING FOR STRENGTHENING Pozzolonic additions Clay Jaggery PLASTICISER Urad/ Cereals RETARDER LIME PROPERTIES ALTERED BY ADDITIONS OF • Gum AS REINFORCEMENT SOFT FINISHING Jute fibres Curd Horse hair straw BETTER BONDING Eggs Raw sugar .
WHY SHOULD WE USE LIME SUSTAINABILITY – Totally recyclable BREATHABALITY Due to porosity ENERGY EFFICIENCY Consumes less energy in making LOW THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY Keeps interiors cool in warmer climates and warm in cooler climates WATER PROOFING Lime mortars permeable. allow for evaporation of moisture A NATURAL ANTISEPTIC Due to high pH. dissolve free lime and bring it to the surface. PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION Releases water vapour when exposed to fire acting as fire retarder . after evaporation cracks are filled DURABILITY Many historic monuments are the proofs. reduces air pollutants STRUCTURAL OR SEASONAL MOVEMENTS Allow for movement without significant damage SELF HEALING Finer cracks allow water penetration.
whitewashing. faster setting time Stronger than fat lime Used for structural purposes Class B – Used for masonry mortars.TYPES OF LIME IN BUILDING USE Bureau of Indian standards( BIS) classifies lime for construction purposes ( IS: 712 – 1984) as . plaster undercoat Class C – fat lime for finishing plaster coat. lime concrete. 40-60 % lime •Cement – 40-60%clay and 60-40% lime •Pozzolonic cement – 70-90% clay – 3010% lime . When used as binder in the mortar. with puzzolona for masonry mortar Class DMagnesium/ dolomitic lime used for finishing plaster coat Class E Kankar Lime for masonry mortar Class F – silicious dolomitic lime for undercoat and finishing plaster coat. composite mortars. Class A – Eminently Hydraulic Lime Less volume increase Sets in water Greater clay impurity.( fat lime)10%foreign material. 90% lime •Hydraulic lime – 10-30% clay. •Non hydraulic or rich lime. classification as per Vicat( 1828).
sand and pozzolonic materials. pozzolanic materials. larger aggregates with hydraulic limes.USES OF LIME IN BUILDING •Lime washes It is dispersion of calcium hydroxide particles in an aqueous solution of approx. Lime putty stored for a long time with a water content of 52% by mass can be used as lime wash • Lime plaster •With numerous additives and admixtures • Lime Mortar By mixing and grinding lime. additives and water . additives and water •Lime Concrete Mixture of sand. 1g/l Ca(OH).
PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH LIME • Leaching • Atmospheric pollution • Crystalisation of soluble salts • Volume Changes • Biological Causes TECHNIQUES OF ANALYSIS • Petrographic study •Non Invasive Techniques • Light Microscopy • Wet Chemical Analysis • Scanning Electron Microscopy • X-ray diffraction • Physical Testing • Mechanical Testing • Dating technology .
000 years. incorporated various limes into their religious temples as well as their homes. plaster Decorative fine plaster workat tel-el amarna – 1” thk lime stucco finished with 1/8” thick lime . about 6. Lime – plaster + stucco Lime gypsum (CaSO4. EGYPTIAN The Egyptians. 2 H2O).000 years ago. dating back as far as 16. These paintings are often considered to be among the first true frescoes made by man.LIME IN HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE –A WORLD PERSPECTIVE CAVEMAN The Lascaux caves in France are frescoed of natural iron oxide pigments applied onto damp cave walls of high calcium content (Lime stone). they used lime to plaster the pyramids at Giza. In addition.
puzzolona and other materials on mortar. devoted a total chapter on lime •Talks about the choice and the use of lime.)’. in his ‘ten books on Architecture (40 B.GREEK AND ROMAN •Mycenae temples at homer’s time show lime stucco for marble surfaces •Lime used in stucco •Lime mortars unknown till Romans •Pliny the younger stated – no builder should employ lime which had not been slaked atleast three years •Vitruvius. •Gives details for the application of fine six coat marble dust and lime stucco on reed laths for internal decoration .C. sand.
Classical Roman Period Public structures – stone and hydraulic lime mortar with additions of pozzolanic sands. . Aqueducts were watrerproofed using hydraulic mortars. Dark period Loss of technical know how Buildings with soft lime mortar Use of mud for plastering purposes Lime was finally re-introduced when the Normans arrived and used lime for the construction of a number of religious buildings.
During the Renaissance. artisans. Throughout. lime made an explosive revival in the plastering and painting arts. Also known as Venetian Lime Plaster . made by applying lime directly onto terra cotta brick and lime-mortar bases.UPTO RENAISSANCE In southeast England in the 14th century. artisans from Venice created a new type of external facing called Marmorino. applied decorative lime plaster to the exterior of timber-framed structures. In the mid-15th century. lime was widely used for molded and ornamental plaster work. using trowels.CHRISTIAN .
as the pigment mixed solely with the water will sink into the intonaco( plaster coat).TEMPERAS AND FRESCOES FRESCO Buon fresco (Italian for true fresco) is painting technique in which water colours are applied to lime plaster when it is still wet. after a number of hours. The pigment is absorbed by the plaster. plaster dries and reacts with the air: this chemical reaction which fixes pigment particles in the plaster wet the it is the Sistine chapel ceiling by Michelangelo Renaissance paintings •Aided by climate •Colours comparatively dull . a binder is not required. which itself becomes the medium holding the pigment. Because of the chemical makeup of the plaster.
• less durable Examples – •Indian wall paintings •Last Supper by Leonardo Da Vinchi .TEMPERAS • Secco Fresco technique in which water colours are applied to dry plaster that has been moistened to simulate fresh plaster • The pigments thus require a binding medium. glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall. such as egg tempera.
neoclassical 19th century 1824 – cement by Aspadin Colonial architecture developed all over the world Use of lime in combination with cement Stucco works Great Wall of China used lime mortar in its construction .Baroque and rococo.
INDIAN PERSPECTIVE Earliest references in Bhimbetka paintings SACRED TEXT DESCRIBING LIME IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE • Vishnudharmottar purana 4-5th A.D. by King Someshwara Lime plaster • Shilparatna 16th Cent.D.D.D. A. A. by Kshemraj Shrikrishnaraj Lime in plaster • Samarangana Sutradhar 10th Cent. by shrikumara Lime plaster References of lime use in Harappan civilization found in the form of lime mortar with mud bricks . A. by King Bhoja Lime in plaster • Abhilashitartha Chintamani 12th Cent.
lime wash is given . stems of cereals Types as per Vishnu dharmottar purana Kalk samanya vajralep vajralep Vajratal lep for floor Vajrasanthal lep Metal additions riti(iron rust). Strengthened by using the fibres from coconut. small crushed pieces of burnt clay. kansa(lead) For finishing. mud-lime mixture together with sand. cotton.Special plasters by mixing organics in the mud.VAJRALEP Mythological books talk of vajralep .
USE OF LIME IN DIFFERENT FORMS IN DIFFERENT SETTINGS Maharashtra /Hindu Temples Andhra Pradesh / Public architecture Kerala /Palacial residential architecture Rajastan / Palacial residential archiecture .
INDIAN ART Tanjavur temple paintings Chola (985-1014AD) Ajanta paintings .
magneium. unconsolidated limestone Compact chemicalslimestone. marble. Kankar. stalagmite. stalactite. Coral limestone) COMPOSITION Argillaceous. modular limestone. conglomeratic limestone. crystalline lime stone. fossiliferous limestone (shell limestone. chalk. oolite . sandy siliceous. ferruginous. Earthy limestone. Phosphatic.SOURCES OF LIME LIMESTONE Classification as per Dixey ORIGIN Marl. dolomite TEXTURE Compact limestone.
DISTRIBUTION OF LIMESTONE IN INDIA Limestone •Calcium Carbonate or double carbonates of calcium and magnesium •With small quantities of silica. iron oxides. phosphorus and sulphur Consumption • Cement Industry – 75% • Iron and Steel Industry – 16% • Chemical Industry – 4% • Others – 5% . alumina.
4 1347.76 2001 1273. statistical abstract 2003. Gujrat.4 1524.PRODUCTION OF LIMESTONE IN INDIA 75% Of total limestone produced by six states of Madhya Pradesh.4 308.9 Source – Indian Bureau of Mines &.52 Productio 29. Rajasthan.4 24.41 1991 683.38 2003 1455. Andhra Pradesh.p.65 n in Lakhs tons Value in rupees crores 1 7.78 Lime from Katni. p. All states produce small quantities of limestones Year 1951 1961 147.6 88. marble city of Madhya pradesh and Rajasthan most sought after for building woks.79 1981 324. south side limestone of cement grade . Chattisgarh and Tamil nadu M.55 1971 150.
Tonk. Jalpaiguri •JAMMU AND KASHMIR Anantnag and Jammu • ASSAM AND MEGHALAYA •Nagaon. Krishna. Kangra and Chamba • HARYANA Mahendrapur. Ranchi. Nagaur. Kota. Nalgonda.Betul. Salem. Guntur.. Kurnool. Mahabubnagar and Karimnagar •GUJRAT Banaskantha. Raigarh and Durg •TAMILNADU Ramanathpuram. Bilaspur. Warangal. Chittorgarh. Hazaribaug. Udaipur and Pali •ANDHRAPRADESH Cuddapah. Singhbhum • HIMACHAL PRADESH Bilaspur. Jodhpur. Adilabad. Khasi and Jaintia Hills . Alwar.Surat. Belgaum.Kalahandi • JHARKHAND Palamu. Garo. Coimbatore. Dungarpur. Sirohi. Lucknow and Unnao • UTTARANCHAL Dehradun. Sibsagar. Junagarh. Smbalpur. Kachchh. Chandrapur. Sagar. Bikaner. Mussoorie • WEST BENGAL Darjiling. Sawai Madhopur. Chitrdurg. Satna.Rewa •RAJASTHAN Jhunjhunu. Ajmer. Mysore and Shimoga • MAHARASHTRA Yavatmal.STATES AND PLACES PRODUCING LIMESTONE •MADHYA PRADESH Jabalpur. Tumkur. Madurai and Thanjavur • KARNATAKA Gulbarga. Bundi. Tirunelveli. Ahmednagar • ORISSA Sundargarh. Kheda and Panchmahala •CHHATTISGARH Bastar. Banswara. Nanded.Tiruchirapalli.Raipur. Damoh. Amreli. Ambala • UTTAR PRADESH Mirzapur.
75 cm Of quartz or slate Wooden member dia 15 cm Pivoted by metal clamp. 2.4 int. Traditional Chakki Manually in pit of appropriate size depending on quantum Idli grinder can be used for smaller quantities . Channel width -70 cm Consolidation required Grounding wheel dia .TRADITIONAL PREPARATION OF LIME Should be on plain ground On higher level in the site Dia – 3.1 m ext.
COMPARISION TO CEMENT LIME • Permeable • Flexible • Soft • Weatherproof and not waterproof • Do not attract water • Deal with moisture effectively • Reduces green house effect CEMENT • Not permeable • Rigid • Hard • Waterproof • Attract water • Condensation problem • Causes green house gas effect .
ROORKEE RESEARCH NEW PRODUCTS •Limecrete Limecrete is a mixture of natural hydraulic lime (NHL) and aggregate that can be used to create breathable floors. Sand Lime/ Calcium Silicate Bricks Waterproofing in roof with lime concrete terracing Tamping machine for tamping lime concrete on roof Improved design for brick kiln and lime kiln STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING INSTITUTE. NEYVELI Fly ash lime gypsum brick for masonry . MADRAS Lime fly ash cellular slab for roofing RESERAC CENTRAL ROAD RESEARCH INSTITUTE.ORGANISATIONS WORKING IN LIME RESEARCH IN INDIA CENTRAL BUILDING INSTITUTE. It offers increased vapour permeability and is often used in combination with breathable membranes. DELHI Lime/ clay burnt pozzolona NEYVELI LIGNITE CORPORATION.
uk/ http://www.org/ http://www.eula.European lime organisation http://www.be/.sustainablebuild.org/ http://www.co.com/ Standards for lime working in place for America African Countries Europe India Austrelia Japan China .US and Canadian organization hwww.WORLD SCENARIO Already assumed a proportion of movement http://www.biolime.internationallime.lime.org/.britishlime.
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