Russell's model of affect has been increasingly employed to model the experiential nature of services.
The outcome variable employed in this stream of research is still the original approach/ avoidance response behaviour as developed by environmental psychologists. This is in contrast to much of the research in consumer behaviour, which uses satisfaction to evaluate consumption experiences. In this paper, a number of propositions are developed, and a conceptual model is proposed which integrates the march on the environmental perspective of service experiences with the standard satisfaction model. INTRODUCTION When purchasing a service, one usually receives very little one can take home and rarely acquires ownership of anything. Rather, it has been advanced that services are experiential in nature, and it has been suggested that the service consumption experience per se can be regarded as the major output of service organizations (Bitner 1990, Hui 1988). As Shorr, then executive vice president-marketing of Holiday Inns Inc, expressed it: "What I am selling, in terms of what people are buying, is a hotel experience" (in-Knisely 1991). In contrast to product marketeers, service providers have considerable opportunities to manage the multitude of interactions that together makeup a consumption experience (Czepiel, Solomon and Surprenant 1985). For example, the service experience can be managed by designing and managing the interactive production process (Shostack 1984), by selecting, training and managing service employees (Berry 1981; Bitner 1990; Bowen and Schneider 1985; Schneider 1980; Shamir 1980), by designing and maintaining the service environment (Bitner 1992; Bruner 1990; Donovan and Rossiter 1982; Milliman 1986), and by selectively targeting, socializing and educating customers (Lovelock 1981; Mills and Moberg 1982). Recent research in services has recognised the experiential nature of services and suggests that the affective state of consumers during consumption is therefore important and also potentially manageable. To model this affective state, Russell's circumplex model of affect (Russell 1980; Russell and Pratt 1980; Russell, Ward and Pratt 1981) has increasingly been employed. This model holds that affect, or the way people feel, is the mediating variable between stimuli, cognitive processes and response behaviour. In services marketing the model has been applied to explaining consumer behavior towards service environments (Bitner 1992; Donovan and Rossiter 1982), background music (Yalch and Spangenberg 1988), perceived choice, crowding and perceived control (Hui and Bateson 1991). There is growing interest in using this perspective to understand the environment-human and person-to-person interactions during the service encounter and to explain subsequent consumer behaviour. The model was originally developed in the context of environmental psychology. The objective was to examine the impact of environment on individuals' emotional state and their response behaviour. The model was later extended to also include social situations, and then was adopted in services marketing. Unfortunately, the outcome variable employed in this stream of research is still the original approach/avoidance response behaviour as developed by environmental psychologists. This is not
In the satisfaction literature. Yi 1990). Woodruff et al. The disconfirmation-of-expectations model. or the way people feel while consuming a service. as adopted by many researchers in services marketing. pleasure and arousal. research has primarily focused on people as cognitive beings. a conceptual model is developed that includes the experiential nature of services. Sirgy 1984) and experience based standards (Cadotte et al. Wirtz 1993). 1987. no research has yet addressed the relationship between confirmation/disconfirmation and the affective state of people during the consumption experience. Churchill and Surprenant 1982. Oliver 1980). In particular. research has shown that disconfirmation with schemata and moral standards (Mandler 1975. The objective of this paper is to link these two bodies of literature and show how they can be integrated. As disconfirmation-ofexpectations is a cognitive process similar to disconfirmation of schemata. 1983). Russell and his colleagues suggest that two dimensions. Izards discrete emotion of "anger" can be the outcome of a process
. has mostly been neglected by satisfaction researchers (Westbrook 1987. as outcomes of the disconfirmation process occurring after consumption.congruent with the vast majority of research in consumer behaviour. 1981). Westbrook and Oliver 1991. ideal performance (Miller 1977. whereby cognition refers to all those processes through which we organize information into knowledge (Kuhl 1986). The standard confirmation/disconfirmation model is essentially a model of cognitive processes and treats affective outcomes. Woodruff. Westbrook and Oliver 1991). Examples of these dimensions are locus of causality and dominance. MODEL DEVELOPMENT Consumer satisfaction is generally defined as an evaluative response to the perceived outcome of a particular consumption experience (Cadotte. Hoffman 1986) can lead to affective responses. Russell suggests that all other dimensions of affect that have been proposed are clearly interpretable as cognitive/perceptual in nature rather than affective (Russell and Pratt 1980. Research in psychology has shown that cognitive processes of all degrees of complexity can cause affective responses. or as rather vaguely defined parts of the satisfaction construct itself (Westbrook 1987. Russell et al. Oliver 1980. describe the internal emotional state of people per se. Cadotte and Jenkins 1983). Woodruff and Jenkins 1987. has been most widely applied and has received a lot of empirical support (e. which are general information processing concepts. 1982.. Oliver and DeSarbo 1988. Affect. such as expectations (Churchill and Surprenant 1982. All models used to conceptualize consumer satisfaction are based on a comparison process of one sort or another. where usually satisfaction is used as the outcome variable to evaluate consumption experiences. The majority of these models are based on a comparison between perceived performance and a preconsumption comparison standard. if they are considered at all. Day 1984. In particular. Affect for the purpose of this study is conceptualized using Russel's circumplex model of affect. For example. Westbrook and Oliver 1981. which refers to the internal state of people such as feelings and emotions. it is reasonable to believe that it can also cause affect. Specifically. Day 1977. in the standard disconfirmation-of-expectations model of consumer satisfaction.g. which uses expectations as the comparison standard. 1991.
Russell's discomposition of emotions into their underlying cognitive processes and internal emotional states offers a means of replacing the commonly applied but broad and vaguely defined categories of affect with a conceptualization of more precise specification. According to this line of argument disconfirmation. Applying Mandler's theory to satisfaction models. A growing number of researchers apply Russell's model in empirical research and unanimously agree on its appropriateness for modelling service experiences (e. Bateson and Hui 1987. This relationship can be argued from an alternative perspective. Specifically. interruption of intended behaviour (customer participation in the production process). causes arousal whereas confirmation does not." Applied to consumer satisfaction. 1982) suggests that arousal is produced by interruptions or unexpected events that alert the organism to cope with environmental contingencies. and interruption of intended goals (obtaining a specific bundle of benefits). however. Disconfirmation is defined as being negative when performance is perceived as being worse than expectations.attributing a negative outcome to someone else which results in an affective state with relatively high arousal and displeasure. arousal is proposed to be caused by disconfirmation of perceptual schcmata or by interferences in sequences of intended behaviour or goals.. Donovan and Rossiter 1982. interruption of a service schema (or script as employed by Smith and Houston 1983). and a shortfall in performance can cause displeasure. Mandler (1975. whether positive or negative. it has not been tested yet. the surprising. The researchers define information rate as the degree of novelty and complexity of the environment or situation. Hui and Bateson 1991). the new and the unfamiliar. Novelty refers to "the unexpected. Since service encounters consist mainly of these interactions. Therefore. the model would seem good for capturing the affective quality of service experiences. it seems plausible that a service performance exceeding expectations can cause pleasure. disconfirmation rather than confirmation can be considered as unexpected event." whereas complexity refers to the "number of elements and the extent of motion or change. Russell and Pratt (1981) explicitly stated the appropriateness of their model in capturing humanenvironment as well as social interactions. and vice versa for low information rates. Services are chosen and expected to deliver bundles of benefits to consumers. Th is view is intuitively appealing. Disconfirmation of expectations usually means that service performance falls short of (exceeds) what a consumer expected when making a purchase decision with negative (positive) implications for the service experience.g. This provides researchers with a well founded base for hypothesis development and testing (Russell 1980) which was considered crucial for this study. the information rate theory predicts the same impact of disconfirmation on
. Therefore the following proposition is put forward. Mehrabian and Russell (1974) propose that the information rate of an environment or a situation directly drives the level of arousal. P1 The degree of pleasure experienced in a service encounter is an increasing function of the perceived disconfirmation-of-expectations. and positive when performance is perceived as being better than expectations. High information rates are suggested to cause high levels of arousal.
In other words. furnishing further support for Westbrook's (1987) proposition that satisfaction is not only driven by the cognitive comparison process as commonly assumed. the information rate theory proposes that an increased level of unexpectedness and surprise means an increased information rate which causes higher levels of arousal. As it has not yet been used in the investigation of consumer satisfaction. as disconfirmation-of-expectations experiences arc more unexpected and surprising than confirmation experiences. Russell's circumplex model of affect is empirically well corroborated. In contrast. whether positive or negative. Russell and Ward 1982.
. Furthermore. has no discriminant validity problems between its dimensions and can be used to describe similarities and differences between affective states (Russell 1979. Like other facial expression based concepts of affect. Exceptions to the general neglect of affect in satisfaction research are two empirical studies by Westbrook (1987) and Westbrook and Oliver (1991) both of which show a link between affect and satisfaction. An analysis of the relationship between the emotional response patterns and satisfaction clearly showed a high correlation. However. Russell. Izard's (1977) model has been criticized as being an unstructured collection of discrete emotions (Smith and Ellsworth 1985). 1980. Ward and Pratt 1981). our intuitions about the similarities and differences among emotions are not captured by these models. Furthermore. the information rate theory would hold that disconfirmation situations have a higher information rate and cause higher levels of arousal than confirmation situations. but also by consumption related affective experiences. the measurement scales developed for these conceptualizations show problems of discriminant validity which contradict their claimed orthogonality (Holbrook 1986. These two studies used Izard's (1977) conceptualization of affect derived from facial expression research in psychology. The affective variables explained almost as much of the variance in consumer satisfaction (61% for satisfaction with cars and 48% with cable-TV services) as did the two cognitive variables (expectations and disconfirmation-of-expectations) together. it is hypothesized that Westbrook's (1987) and Westbrook and Oliver's (1991) results can be replicated with Russell's model of affect. Russell and Pratt 1980. In particular. Russell and Lanius 1984. On the basis of this discussion the following hypothesis is proposed: P2 The level of arousal experienced in a service encounter is an increasing function of the perceived magnitude of disconfirmation-of-expectations. neither of these studies investigated the notion that the affective state of consumers could be caused by the cognitive confirmation or disconfirmation process. Russell and Ridgeway 1983. P3 Satisfaction is an increasing function of the pleasure experienced during the service consumption process.arousal as Mandler's theory. Westbrook 1987). Russell and Snodgrass 1987. Westbrook and Oliver(1991) captured the affective reactions of 125 car owners to their newly purchased automobiles. Westbrook (1987) conducted a field study of cable-TV and automobiles which showed that there is a direct causal link between affect and consumer satisfaction.
in the psychology and services marketing literature many other potential causes of affect during the service experience have been identified.. A direct causal link between disconfirmation and satisfaction is central to the classical disconfirmationof-expectations model and has been supported empirically in a number of studies (e. For instance. sounds and
. Westbrook and Oliver 1991). social and environmental psychology shows that affect can be caused by cognitive processes of any degree of complexity (for a review of the affect literature refer to Wirtz 1994). FIGURE 1 THE HYPOTHESIZED RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PLEASURE. Therefore the following proposition is put forward: lSome caution needs to be raised for extremely low and extremely high levels of arousal. 1987. Oliver 1980. AROUSAL AND SATISFACTION In the context of consumer satisfaction. Mehrabian and Russell's (1974) empirical findings show that there is a significant pleasure-arousal interaction effect on approach-avoidance: in pleasant environments approach is a monotonic increasing function of arousal. Again.. However. the confirmation/disconfirmation variable is the only determinant of affect. Cadotte et al. this relationship has not been tested. Tse and Wilton 1988). Oliver and DeSarbo 1988. The literature in cognitive. Proposition 4 is advanced. arousal is also commonly referred to as an amplifier of the impact of pleasure on satisfaction (Oliver 1989. In the model developed so far. P5 Disconfirmation is a direct causal antecedent of satisfaction and not all effects of disconfirmation are mediated through affect. and therefore. Oliver and Bearden 1985. Figure 2 summarizes Propositions 1 to 5. and all other potential causes of affect are disregarded. This link was also confirmed in Westbrook's (1987) study on affect which showed that satisfaction was determined directly and independently by both disconfirmation and affect. colours. Figure 1 visualizes the hypothesized relationship. temperatures.g. extremely simple cognitive processes that have been shown to cause affect include sensations and the perception of stimuli (e. whereas in unpleasant environments approach is a monotonic decreasing function of arousal]. These situations were neglected. P4 The strength of the impact of pleasure (displeasure) on satisfaction (dissatisfaction) is an increasing function of the level of arousal experienced during the service consumption process.Arousal has generally been described as an "amplifier" of the impact of pleasure on behaviour (Mehrabian 1980). Westbrook 1987.g. as it was not aimed to study extreme cases of affect. The same results were obtained in a study with retail settings (Donovan and Rossiter 1982). light intensities. as the hypothesized impact on approach-avoidance can reach saturation and eventually reach a turning point (Mehrabian and Russell 1974).
crowding (Bateson and Hui 1987. Hui and Bateson 1991). consumer researchers have tested the following stimuli: perceived control. the service environment (Donovan and Rossiter 1982). Table 1 provides an overview of the main categories of cognitive processes that have been shown to cause affect. In the context of the service encounter. Disconfirmation-of-expectations belongs to the more complex cognitive processes and has therefore a potentially stronger impact on affect than simpler cognitive processes such as the perception of background music or touch of hands. Hui 1988. Hoffman 1986). The psychology literature on affect suggests that more complex cognitive processes have a stronger and more enduring impact on affect than simpler cognitive processes (Hoffman 1986). 1990) and schema processing (Fiske and Pavelchak 1986. Smith et al. P7 The complexity of cognitive processes is positively related to their potential impact on affect. in a situation with no disconfirmation (which is the usual consumption experience!) and no other complex cognitive processes occurring at the same time (as it is
. Rytting and Neslin 1976. considerable work has been done which is consistent with the findings in the psychology literature. the unconscious perception of background music in a restaurant (a cognitive process of lower complexity ) has a potentially less powerful impact on affect than the attribution of a spoilt dining experience to the inappropriate behaviour of a waiter (a process of higher complexity). These processes can range from extremely simple processes. These processes can happen consciously or even unconsciously (Moreland and Zajonc 1982. 1985). Hornik 1992). For example. Fiske and Taylor 1984. In Table 1 an approximation of the complexity of the main categories of affect eliciting cognitive processes is provided. background music (Yalch and Spangenberg 1988) and interpersonal touch of hands (Fisher. FIGURE 2 INCLUDING RUSSELL'S MODEL OF AFFECT IN SATISFACTION MODELS TABLE 1 COGNITIVE PROCESSES AS CAUSES OF AFFECT FIGURE 3 EXTENDED SATISFACTION MODEL P6 The affective state of consumers in the service encounter is a function of a multitude of cognitive processes. Mandler 1975). However. to very complex processes such as the perception of control. such as the unconscious perception of stimuli. Examples of very complex cognitive processes that have be shown to cause affect are attribution of causes (Weiner 1982. For example. perceived choice. Both simple and complex causes have strong analogies within services marketing. All of these stimuli were shown to he causal antecedents of affect. where attribution and script theory have already been studied. appraisals (Hoffman 1986.odours).
Indeed. IMPLICATIONS This model has implications for both practitioners and academics alike. Research opportunities lie in incorporating other potential causes of affect that are already identified in the psychology and services marketing literature. Figure 2 provides a specific starting point for examining the relationship and integratability of the stream of research in services marketing using affect. social and environmental psychology. and application and replication of findings in other areas. The model suggests that factors which influence consumers' affective state during consumption can hence influence customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Contributors to the marketing and satisfaction literature have repeatedly argued that the most common situation experienced for a consumer is that expectations and perceived performance match. simply because consumers adjust their expectations to the higher performance levels and do not then experience positive disconfirmation thereafter. suggest a wide range of research possibilities. it has been argued that it is difficult to increase consumer satisfaction by increasing performance. Examples are Mehrabian and Russell's (1974)work on the impact of environments and social situations on affect and
. From an academic perspective the model is important because it allows us to bring together the recently proposed environmental perspective in services marketing with the main stream disconfirmation model of consumer satisfaction. Each one could be explored and expanded through empirical research. and research in consumer satisfaction using the disconfirmation-of-expectations model. this model provides a much broader perspective on satisfaction. These factors have often been studied in services marketing but not as potential influences of customer satisfaction. P8 In the absence of complex cognitive processes the simpler cognitive processes determine the affective state of consumers in the service encounter. Given the scarcity of research reported in the consumer behaviour and services marketing literature. The propositions are very specific and can readily be submitted to empirical testing. there is a tremendous opportunity for theory building. Managerially. 1986) to the more complex such as employeecustomer interactions or perceived control (Hui and Bateson 1991). empirical testing. FURTHER RESEARCH The proposed conceptual framework. This extended model broadens the field in which to search for improvement. in particular cognitive. The extended model is shown in Figure 3. They range from simple factors such as background music and colours (Belizzi. Figure 3 and the related propositions arc purposefully general.the case for many daily routine service encounters) these processes with lower complexity might significantly determine the affective outcomes. Milliman 1982. Improving customer satisfaction has become a major objective for many companies. including the hierarchy of cognitive processes as causes of affect according to their complexity. Crowley and Hasty 1983.
MA: Lexington Books. H. 58 (Spring). "Music. Bitner. "Towards a Process Model of Consumer Satisfaction. Woodruff and Roger L." Journal of Marketing. or injection of predictive control by providing information. and John R. eds. "Store Atmosphere: An Environmental Psychology Approach. Michael R. 491 -504." Journal of Retail Banking. Robert B. (1981). 19 (November). Ernest R. Rossiter (1982). "Servicesscapes: The Impact of Physical Surroundings on Customers and Employees. Mood.. and Michael Hui (1987). Czepiel. Shanahan. 33-40.A. "Evaluating Service Encounters: The Effects of Physical Surroundings and Employee Responses. and Carol Surprenant (1982). "Boundary-Spanning-Role Employees and the Service Encounter: Some Guidelines for Management and Research. Belizzi. 69-82.
. Lexington." Journal of Marketing." Journal of Marketing Research. David E. Furthermore. spacial layouts. one could start exploring the potential impact of cognitive processes of varying complexity on affect in the context of service encounters. John E." Journal of Retailing.. Mary J." in Integration for Competitive Advantage. "An Investigation into the Determinants of Customer Satisfaction. Bitner. Robert J. Examples could be the unconscious and conscious perception of colours. 3 (1). 59 (Spring)." Journal of Retailing. Leonard L. Surprenant (1985). Joseph A. Gilbert A. The Service Encounter. Jr. eds. Donovan.. Surprenant. Michael R. Weiner's (1985) findings on the impact of attribution processes on affect. 54 (October). 57-71. "Expectations and Norms in Models of Consumer Satisfaction." Journal of Marketing. Bruner. 127147. and Benjamin Schneider (1985). 153-183. "The Employee as Customer. Solomon and Carol F. John A. Solomon and Carol F. Hasty (1983).. Gordon C. Ralph L. humidity and temperatures.subsequent behaviour. or the work on mere exposure effects on affect (Moreland and Zajonc 1982). Jenkins (1987). (1990). New York: Lexington Books. "The Effects of Color in Store Design. background music. Mary J. and Marketing. 94-104." in The Service Encounter. Berry. Chicago: American Marketing Association. Keith Hunt. 305-314. (1990). Churchill. 34-57. 54 (April). C. ed." Journal of Marketing Research. MA: Marketing Science Institute. Crowley and Ronald W.G. "A Model for Crowding in the Service Experience: Empirical Findings. Cambridge. 21-45. Ayn E. Congram and J.A. Czepiel John A. J. Czepiel. (1992)." Conceptualization and Measurement Of Consumer Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction. Day. Bowen. 56 (April). interruption of perceptual and social schemata. REFERENCES Bateson. Cadotte. 24 (August). (1977).
Wilson.M.. Mass. in Affect and Cognition: The 17th Annual Carnegie Symposium on Cognition. Mandler. Bateson (1991).T. "Affect." in Managing Services Marketing. Jeffrey. Holbrook. "Hands Touching Hands: Affective and Evaluative Effects on Interpersonal Touch.Fisher.T.H. Pavelchak (1986)." Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. R. "Perceived Control and Crowding in the Service Encounter.. Marvin Rytting and Richard Neslin (1976).T. eds. A. Carroll E. "Perceived Control and the Effects of Crowding and Consumer Choice on the Service Experience. 404-434. George.: Oelgeschlager. NJ: Erlbaum. (1980). NY: Wiley. (1977). Donnelly and W. Wayne D. Sorrentino and E. Michael (1988)." in Handbook of Motivation and Cognition: Foundation of Social Behaviour. (1986). and Shelley E. 168-203." in The Role of Affect in Consumer Behaviour. Susan T. 244-280." in Handbook of Motivation and Cognition: Foundations of Social Behaviour. Julius (1986).: MIT Press. Clark and S. Social Cognition. Mandler. Cognition. Christopher H. and Motivation. George (1975). Lovelock. Peterson. Dynamic Change and Action Control. Sorrentino and E.G." Sociometry.. Russell (1974). "Emotion in the Consumption Experience: Toward a New Model of the Human Consumer.R.Mind and Emotion. 17-52. and James A. Fiske. Higgins. Hui. An Approach to Environment Psychology. Michael and John E. "The Structure of Value: Accounting for Taste. eds. NY: Guildford Press. Chicago: The Dryden Press. 174-184. eds. Knisely.. 26-47. MA: Addison-Wesley. 18 (September). "Category Based versus Piecemeal -Based Affective Responses. M. Mass. 59. Fiske. Richard M. Human Emotions. eds. Hoyer and William R. John E. NY: Guildford Press. J. Hillsdale. Cambridge. Fiske. MA: Lexington Books. George (1982). Hui.M. Sorrentino and E. eds.. "Why Marketing Management Needs to be Different for Services. (1986). Tory Higgins. Developments in Schema-Triggered Affect. Basic Dilnensions for a General Psychological Theory. and Mark A. Gunn and Hain. Martin L. Morris B. Chicago: American Marketing Association. eds. Higgins. Taylor (1984). A. Mehrabian. Hoffman. "Comparing Marketing Management in Package Goods and Service Organizations.G." in Marketing of Services. London Business School. NY: Plenum Press. 39 (4). NY: The Guildford Press. Kuhl. 3-36.. Gary (1991). (1981). Robert A.. Izard.S.
. "Motivation and Information Processing: A New Look at Decision Making. 416-421." in Handbook of Motivation and Cognition: Foundation of Social Behaviour. Susan T. Mehrabian." Journal of Consumer Research. R. Cambridge. Bateson ed.
460-469. "The Influence of Background Music on the Behaviour of Restaurant Patrons. Oliver. and Geraldine A. James A. 495-507. 18. (1982)." Journal of Environmental Psychology." Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. Richard L. Cambridge. 795-804. Russell. James A." Developmental Psychology. "Studying Satisfaction. Russell." Journal of Marketing Research. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Similarity and Attraction. and Wayne S. Richard L. eds. "Using Background Music to Affect the Behaviour of Supermarket Shoppers. Mills. 37 (3). 1. 395-415. 311-322. Keith Hunt. "Affective Space is Bipolar. 245-281." Journal of Consumer Research. John A. "Perspectives on the Technology of Service Operations. Oliver. Russell. James A. 119-135. James A. "Adaptation Level and the Affective Appraisal of Environments. "Exposure Effects in Person Perception: Familiarity." Journal of Business Research. Moreland. "A Circumplex Model of Affect. 286-289. (1977). and U. 467-478. (1979). "Emotion and the Environment. 2." Journal of Marketing. F. Posing Problems and Making Meaningful Measurements. 7 (3). (1980)." Journal of Consumer Research. Inc. and William 0. 345-356.. Richard L. Vol. Richard L. "A Description of the Affective Quality Attributed to Environments." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Pratt (1980). H. Modifying Models." in Conceptualization and Measurement of Consumer Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction. Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behaviour. 39 (6). 4 (2). 14 (March). Milliman. "A Cognitive Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction Decisions.K. DeSarbo (1988)." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology." Journal of Consumer Satisfaction.J. 13 (September). "Dimensions Underlying Children's Emotion Concepts. 72-91. (1980). P. Russell. 1-16. Zajonc (1982). Oliver.
. and Doreen Ridgeway (1983). Milliman. Eliciting Expectations." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Lanius (1984). 235-246. James A. Daniel Stokols and Irwin Altman. Oliver. 13." in Handbook of Environmental Psychology." Academy of Management Review. (1986). 86-91. James A. Moberg (1982). Ronald E. 17 (November). and Robert B. "Disconfirmation Processes and Consumer Evaluation in Product Usage. 46 (Summer). "Response Determinants in Satisfaction Judgements. Russell. "Processing of the Satisfaction Response in Consumption. 19. MA: Marketing Science Institute. 1161-1178. and Jacalyn Snodgrass (1987).Miller. Ronald E. (1989). Russell. 38 (August). ed. Bearden (1985). Richard L. and D.
1 (Summer). 25 (January). 27-44. and Michael J. 48. 813-838. 8. and Lawrence M. Richard S. G. Hillsdale..Russell. Oliver (1991). 185209. Upah. Tse David K. Clark and Susan T." Psychology and Marketing." Paper Presented at the 98th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association. William R." Advances in Consumer Research." Journal of Marketing Research. "The Emotional Consequences of Causal Attributions. Robert A. (1984). NJ: Erlbaum.A Factor Analysis Study." in Emerging Perspectives in Services Marketing. eds. Lawrence M. 33 (10). Autumn. 27-43. "Affective Quality Attributed to Environments .." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 204-212. Jill Novacck. 94-99." Journal of Marketing Research. Margaret S. 741-756. Fiske. 97. "Between Service and Servility: Role Conflict in Subordinate Service Roles. Lynn Shostack and Gregory D. 258-270. "The Service Organization: Climate is Crucial. Dispositions. "Product/Consumption-Based Affective Responses and Postpurchase Processes. Leonard L. "Developing Better Measures of Consumer Satisfaction: Some Preliminary Results. Craig A. Shamir. Weiner. Berry." Psychological Bulletin." Journal of Consumer Research. Oliver (1981). 84-91. "Environmental Psychology. 74-85. (1987). "The Dimensionality of Consumption Emotion Patterns and Consumer Satisfaction. Joseph M. Benjamin (1980). 24 (August). Pope (1990). 259-288. "A Social Cognition Model of Consumer Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction: An Experiment. and Richard L. Houston (1983). Wilton (1988). George and Claudia Marshall. Smith. "Patterns of Cognitive Appraisal Emotion. Ruth A. Smith. eds. Westbrook." in Developing New Services. Boston. Robert A. "Script-Based Evaluations of Satisfaction with Services. 18." Environment and Behavior. Shostack. Ward (1982). Westbrook Robert A. "Spontaneous Causal Thinking. "Antecedents of Emotion: Situations. 13. Lynn (1984)." Annual Review of Psychology. and Phoebe C. Weiner. and Peter C. Sirgy. 5265. Attributions and Appraisals. American Marketing Association. James A. Boas (1980)." Organizational Dynamics. and Richard L. "Service Design in the Operating Environment. Westbrook. 651-688.
. Bernhard (1985). eds. James A.. Pratt (1981). Chicago. Ward and Geraldine A. "Models of Consumer Satisfaction Formation: An Extension. Craig A.. G. Smith. 59-62. Lazarus and Lois K. Schneider. Bernhard (1982). Russell. Chicago: American Marketing Association. Ellsworth (1985)." in Affect and Cognition: The 17th Annual Carnegie Symposium on Cognition." Human Relations.
1. Chicago: American Marketing Association. Woodruff." Asian Journal of Marketing. "The Affect Literature in Psychology . Yalch. Robert B." Educators Proceedings. "A Critical Review of Consumer Satisfaction. ed. Jochen (1994. Valerie A. Jochen (1993).. "An Environmental Psychological Study of Foreground and Background Music as Retail Atmospheric Factors. Youjae (1990). 296-304.Wirtz. Vol. Jenkins (1983). Richard F.
." in Review of Marketing. Efficiency and Effectiveness in Marketing. 68-123. 721. Cadotte and Roger L." Journal of Marketing Research. 106-110. Zeithaml. Wirtz. "A Critical Review of Models in Consumer Satisfaction.. forthcoming). and Eric Spangenberg (1988). 1. "Modelling Consumer Satisfaction Processes Using Experience-Based Norms. Ernest R. 20 (August).a Review for Consumer Behaviourists." Asian Journal of Marketing. Vol. Yi.