Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Engineering

JUN 2011



Alhamdulillah, praise to Allah s.w.t for His Kindness and Merciful to let me successful finish this final project and report.

My utmost gratitude goes to my supervisor Mr. Tunku Muhammad Nizar bin Tunku Mansor for guidance, valuable advice and very helpful in process finish this project. I¶m also gave this appreciation for Mr. Baharuddin, Mr. Muzaidi and Mr. Norjasmi for real guidance and suggestion to improve this report.

Also thanks for my beloved mom Nik Eshah Nik Mahmood, my father Musa Sulong, my inspiration and beloved wife Hazanal Suzima Hassan, two energetic and motivation sons Irfan, Mu¶iz and coming soon another prince charming for their really moral, spiritual, financial and physical support to make sure completed this project.

Not forget my colleagues Umi, Alif, Azim, Fadhlan, Joe and others for directly and indirectly support thanks a lot may Allah bless all of you.



I hereby declare that my Final Year Project Thesis is the result of my research work under supervision of Mr. Tunku Muhammad Nizar bin Tunku Mansur. All literature sources used for the writing of this thesis have been adequately referenced.

Name Matrix number Supervisor Title of thesis


Candidate¶s signature: ««««««« Date: ««««««««««««««

Supervisor signature: «««««««« Date: ««««««««««««««..



This project report titled Design And Optimization Of Solar Power System by Using Homer Software was prepared and submitted by Mohd Radhi bin Musa (Matrix Number: 081091407) and has been found satisfactory in terms of scope, quality and presentation as partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Bachelor of Engineering (Electrical System Engineering) in Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP).

Checked and Approved by



School of Electrical System Engineering Universiti Malaysia Perlis

JUN 2011




CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Background Overview of Solar Power System Overview of Photovoltaic System Overview of Stand Alone PV System Overview of HOMER software Problem Statements Objectives Scope of Projects Report Outline 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 5



Photovoltaic (PV) Power 2.1.1 PV Cell, Module and Array 2.1.2 I-V and P-V Curves 2.1.3 Design Consideration

7 8 10 11 15 15 17 18 19 19 20 21 21 22


Battery 2.2.1 Battery Storage Capacity


Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) 2.3.1 MPPT Systems Work 2.3.2 DC to DC Converter Inverter Introduction of HOMER Software 2.5.1 History of HOMER Software 2.5.2 Usage of HOMER Software 2.5.3 Simulation with HOMER Software

2.4 2.5

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 3.2 Introduction Design Calculation 3.2.1 Selected Site 3.2.2 Climate Information 3.2.3 Meteorological Data 3.3 Load Analysis 3.3.1 Estimating the Load 3.4 3.5 Design Solar Power System System Cost 3.5.1 PV Module 3.5.2 Battery Banks 3.5.3 Converter 3.5.4 Design Capital Cost 23 24 24 25 26 29 29 29 35 35 36 36 37


Page CHAPTER 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.1 4.2 Introduction Analysis Component Part 4.2.1 Load and Temperature Data 4.2.2 Solar Radiation Data 4.2.3 Wind Speed Data 4.3 Simulation by Using HOMER Software 4.3.1 Selected Load 4.3.2 Initial Setup 4.3.3 Simulation Result 4.4 Discussion 38 39 39 39 40 41 41 42 48 53









Tables No. 2.1 2.2 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 4.1 4.2 Growth of photovoltaic generation capacity in Malaysia Trojan deep cycle lead acid battery characteristics Data solar irradiation from internet Daily Average Solar Insolation in kWh/m2 (MMD) Electrical performance under STC for Suntech STP 130-12/Tb Electrical and mechanicals characteristics for Trojan T-105 Average daily PV energy produced Estimate capital cost for each component Solar radiation data at Ulu Pauh, Arau (2006) Wind speed data at Ulu Pauh, Arau (2006)

Page 8 16 26 27 30 32 34 37 40 41



Figures No. 1.1 2.1 Arrangement of PV cell, module and array History development of global cumulative PV power installed per region P-N junction of PV cell generating electricity Equivalent PV electrical circuit Current/Power vs. Voltage characteristics at 250C Solar altitude and solar azimuth angles Used of bypass diode to mitigate shading Effect of temperature to I-V curve Stand Alone PV system Lead acid battery discharge rate and temperature Sine wave output inverter Flow chart of the project methodology Location Arau in the map Location Ulu Pauh, Arau, Perlis Humidity and Air Pressure at Ulu Pauh, Arau, Perlis Air and Ground Temperature at Ulu Pauh, Arau, Perlis

Page 2

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 14 17 20 23 24 25 28 28

2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5


Figures No. 3.6 3.7 3.8 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 Solar radiation and Wind at Ulu Pauh, Arau, Perlis Design of PV System for selected load Average monthly energy produced and demand Interface of HOMER software Schematic of hybrid power system Primary load inputs Characteristics PV inputs Characteristics wind turbine inputs Characteristics battery inputs Characteristics converter inputs Characteristics solar resource inputs Characteristics wind resources inputs Optimization result for given schematic diagram Overall results for the schematic diagram given Result for costing Simulation result for the PV Simulation result for the wind turbine Simulation result for the battery Simulation result for the converter Simulation result for electrical part

Page 28 33 34 42 43 44 45 45 46 46 47 48 48 49 50 50 51 51 52 53




Phototovoltaic Direct Current Maximum Power Point Maximum Power Point Tracker Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables Nominal Operating Cell Temperature Temperature cell Temperature ambient State of Charge Malaysian Meteorological Department Maximum Depth of Discharge kilowatt kilowatt hour Watt hour / meter2 Voltage open circuit Current short circuit Voltage maximum Current Maximum Voltage rated Current rated Solar azimuth angle Solar altitude angle Ampere hour




Dalam era kenaikan harga minyak yang melambung tinggi dipasaran maka semua pihak mulai mencari-cari sumber tenaga alternatif. Sumber tenaga alternatif sebenarnya adalah bebas daripada pencemaran, lebih senang diperolehi dan yang paling penting adalah boleh diguna semula. Terlalu banyak contoh sumber alternatif seperti tenaga angin, tenaga geoterma, tenaga air mahupun tenaga solar. Namun begitu tenaga solar boleh diperolehi secara terus daripada pancaran sinaran matah ari seperti menggunakan sistem µphotovoltaic¶ ataupun menggunakan konsep pemanasan haba seperti µconcentrating solar power¶. Sistem µphotovoltaic¶ berdikari umumnya mempunyai µMaximum Power Point Tracking¶ (MPPT), bateri, alat kawalan dan penyonsang. Gabungan sistem ini akan membentuk kemampuan yang lebih efektif kepada orang awam di mana sahaja dan di dalam apa jua keadaan. Projek ini akan menggunakan tenaga tidak lebih daripada 200 watt di mana objektif utama adalah ianya berdikari dan sesuai digunakan bersama alatan elektrik yang lain. Pengoptimuman kuasa dan penggunaannya akan dapat dianalisa dan disimulasi oleh analisa beban dan perisian HOMER.




In an era of high energy prices, many people are looking to use alternative sources of energy. The alternative energy sources are the pollution free, friendly user, their availability is free and can be renewable. From a lot of sources such as wind energy, geothermal energy, hydro energy and solar energy the most useful and accessibility are the solar energy. From the solar power, sunlight can convert to electricity directly using Photovoltaic¶s (PV) or indirectly which using Concentrating Solar Power (CSP). This stand alone photovoltaic system mainly consist Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), batteries bank, controller and inverter. These hybrid systems develop to assure satisfactory performance to people at any where, any situation and any condition. This project solar power system is build to allow power not more than 200 watt which main objective was to implement the portable system for flexible usage and optimization for individual applications. This project also can be determined and analyze by Load Analysis and Homer software.





Background This chapter focused on Stand Alone Solar Power system and the research of

designing, building, operating and analyzing the system. It also explained on the significances of using HOMER software to analyze, optimize and simulate that system.


Overview Of Solar Power System Energy comes in various different forms such as light, heat, electric and other

else. Basically energy is changing from one form to another form. Nowadays there are another ways to get electrical energy more convenient, free pollution, unlimited and renewable like using solar energy, biomass energy, geothermal energy and wind energy. The sun constantly gives the energy carried through the space as electromagnetic radiation. Most of the solar energy that goes through the earth surface is in form of visible light. Actually the earth receives energy in just one hour from the sun more than what is consumed in the whole world for one year. From solar energy it¶s become to the


solar power by using Photovoltaic (PV). The advantages of solar power are environmental friendly, more independent system and low cost for maintenance.


Overview Of Photovoltaic System The Photovoltaic (PV) actually another name for solar cell which photo means

µlight¶ and voltaic refers to electricity [1]. Meanwhile a group of solar cells are called a solar panel. Fortunately the PV effect was discovered in 1839 by French physicist Edmond Becquerel [2].

The PV system was less time designing and installing, highly modular static structure, noiseless, high power capability, longer life with little maintenance, charge itself and very light weight. This PV panel made up of a semiconductor material that converts the light into energy. Their concepts are very simple and similarly like p-n junction diode. From the sunlight, solar radiation will strike the PV panel and then the cell at panel will convert solar radian to the Direct Current (DC) electricity.

Actually at PV panel cell, the photons of the absorbed sunlight removes the electrons from the atom and then move out automatically filling the holes in that cell. The flow of the electron is equivalent to the amount of ambient light absorbed by the panel cell. This flow of electrons to the load stop when the sunlight provided does not generate enough energy to allow the electrons to break free from their bonds.

Basically one single cell can produces about 0.5 volt and then they are connected together to form modules (combination of 36 cells). Combination connected of modules can form larger units called arrays as shown by Figure 1.1 below. The system of PV applications comes in three forms; stand alone (off grid), grid connected and hybrid system.


Figure 1.1: Arrangement of PV Cell, Module and Array [3] 1.4 Overview Of Stand Alone PV System

The stand alone PV system completely independent applications and obviously has been practical by domestic industries such as for the street lighting systems and cost are more effective. In order to ensure the supply of the stand alone system with electric power also in the times without radiation such as at night or with very low radiation (strong cloud cover), stand alone systems mostly have an integrated storage system [4].

So this stand alone solar power system is comprised of several units of components such as PV panel, switches, batteries, Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), inverter and meters. Presently a lot of the stand alone PV systems appliances are used such as solar calculators, solar watches, traffic light or street lighting. Mostly nowadays the rural area and the residential are using the stand alone PV systems. The advantages of the stand alone PV systems is more cheap, easy to installing and transporting meanwhile the disadvantages are it cannot generate high amount of electricity and use a lot of batteries.


Overview Of Homer Software The HOMER energy modeling software is powerful tool for designing hybrid

power systems, which contain a mix of conventional generators, cogeneration, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic, hydropower, batteries, fuel cells, biomass and other inputs [5]. HOMER software simulates and optimizes stand-alone and grid-connected power 17

systems. This computer model will simplifies the task of evaluating design options for both off-grid and grid-connected power systems for remote, stand alone, and Distributed Generation (DG) applications. HOMER's optimization and sensitivity analysis algorithms allow the user to evaluate the economic and technical feasibility of a large number of technology options and to account for uncertainty in technology costs, energy resource availability, and other variables.

HOMER models both conventional and renewable energy technologies consists: a) Power sources including Solar Photovoltaic, Wind Turbine, run of river hydro power, diesel, gasoline and biogas generator, electric utility grid, micro turbine, fuel cell. b) Storage including battery bank, hydrogen, flow batteries and flywheels. c) Loads including daily profiles with seasonal variation, deferrable (water pumping and refrigeration), thermal and efficiency measures.

Engineers and non-professionals like to use HOMER to run simulations of different energy system compare the results and get a realistic projection of their capital and operating expenses. HOMER determines the economic feasibility of a hybrid energy system optimizes the system design and allows users to really understand how hybrid renewable systems work.


Problem Statements

Nowadays when used electrical appliances in several outdoor event there are quiet problem to obtain the power supplies. So it had certain alternatives like a portable generator or tapping from nearest residual power supply.

Even though this method is always done before but it delivered such big problem like short circuit, insufficient power supply and disturbance the people around with unnecessary sound and so many things. For a new solution from renewable energy 18

which more effective and practical, the Stand Alone Solar Power system have been designed and developed. Meanwhile to make sure that system is reliable and efficient it must analyze and simulate with HOMER software.



The main objectives to develop this project are: a) To design and develop an optimize solar power system b) To compare between solar energy or wind energy or hybrid system are useful at selected site c) To monitor the performance of this project by using Load Analysis d) To analyze and simulate by using µHOMER software¶ e) To create public awareness about green technology


Scope Of Projects

This project scope on: a) Designing the solar power system with certain small load such as electrical appliances b) Developing the optimize solar power system which compact, effective and convenient to the public c) Analyzing the performance by using Load Analysis d) Simulating optimization by using µHomer software¶ e) Creating public awareness regarding green technology



Report Outline This report comprises of five main chapters. CHAPTER 1 introduces about stand

alone solar power systems and also explains the problem statement, objectives and scope of projects. Meanwhile CHAPTER 2 is discussed about literature review which explains the development of photovoltaic history, technology and the future. For the CHAPTER 3 are discussed the methodology that involved from designing until simulating the projects. This chapter also focused HOMER software analyzing and simulating. CHAPTER 4 comes with the discussion about the result obtain from calculating, designing, analyzing and simulating with HOMER software.

Meanwhile the CHAPTER 5 concludes the entire project and certain recommendations for future works and how to commercialization it. The last section is references and appendices regarding the contents of this report.





Photovoltaic (PV) Power Solar energy is cheap, clean and readily available natural energy resource. The

amount of solar energy intercepted by the planet Earth is 170 trillion kW. Of this amount, 30 % is reflected to space, 47% is converted to low temperature heat and reradiated to space, and 23 % powers the evaporation/precipitation cycle of the biosphere. Less than 0.5 % is presented in the kinetic energy of the wind and waves and in photosynthesis storage in plants [6]. On average, each square meter of land is exposed to enough sunlight to receive 1700 kWh of energy every year. The monthly average daily solar radiation in Malaysia is 4000 - 5000 W hr/m2, with the monthly average daily sunshine duration ranging from 4 hours to 8 hours [6]. The applications of solar energy can be classified into two categories: thermal systems which convert solar energy into thermal energy and PV systems which convert solar energy into electrical energy. PV system used semiconductor material known as PV cells to convert sun radiation into electricity. The common applications for PV system include grid-


connected for homes and business, off -grid or stand alone such as for mobile phone repeater and also hybrid power system.


Figure 2.1: History development of global cumulative PV power installed per region [7]

From Figure 2.1 shows that the history of global cumulative PV power between the regions in the world. It was very obvious that all region in between ten years from 1998 until 2008 rapidly increased their installation PV power. Meanwhile from the Table 2.1 show that in Malaysia PV generation also increases from year 1990 until year 2000.

Table 2.1 Growth of photovoltaic generation capacity in Malaysia [ ] Year Up to 1990 199 1997 2000 Capaci 0 120 2 0 1 00 (kWp)

2.1.1 PV Cell Module and Array


The most important parts of the PV system are the cells which is the basic building block of the unit. The physical of the PV cell is very similar to the classical diode with p-n junction which is based on the semiconductor technology. When the junction absorbs light, the energy of absorbed photons is transferred through mobile charge carriers which are the hole-electron pairs. If these hole-electron pairs reach the vicinity of the junction, the electric field in the depletion region will push the holes into the p-side and push the electrons into the n-side. The p-side accumulates holes and the n-side accumulates electrons, which creates a voltage that can be used to deliver current as shown like Figure 2.2 below.

Figure 2.2: P-N junction of PV Cell generating electricity [8]

PV cells are generally made either from crystalline silicon or thin film. Crystalline silicon cells are the most common technology used representing about 90% of the PV market today. Three main types of crystalline cells are mono-crystalline, polycrystalline and ribbon sheets. The thin film technology has a lower production costs compared to the crystalline technology but substantially it has lower efficiency rates.

Some types of thin film modules those are commercially available are amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, copper indium and multi junction cells. The 23

performance of a solar cell is measured in terms of its efficiency at turning sunlight into electricity. A typical commercial solar cell has an efficiency of 15% which is about one sixth of the sunlight striking the cell generates electricity. A typical PV cell is just a few square inches size and produces about 0.5 V or 1 W only. To obtain high power, numbers of PV cells is pre-wired in series consisting such as 36 cells or 72 cells with a few square meter size known as PV module. In addition, multiples modules could also be connected in a group as PV array to generate the required power supply. It could be wired in series to increase the voltage level or in parallel to increase the current. Those statements above were determined by Figure 2.3 below.

Figure 2.3 : Equivalent PV Electrical Circuit [9]

2.1.2 I-V and P-V curves The electrical characteristics of the PV cells or modules are normally represented by the current vs. voltage (I-V) curve. From this curve the open circuit voltage, VOC and short circuit current, ISC for the module could be known. VOC is the voltage when the current is zero. In this condition there will be no current flowing since the load is not connected. ISC is the current when the output voltage is zero. In this condition there will be no voltage at the output since the output is short circuit. In both cases since power is the product of current and voltage, no power is delivered by the


module and no power is received by the load. When the load is actually connected, some combination of current and voltage will result and power will be delivered. The Maximum Power Point (MPP) is that spot near the knee of the I-V curve at which the product of current and voltage reaches its maximum. The voltage and current at the MPP are sometimes designated as VM and IM for maximum voltage and maximum current or VR and IR for rated voltage and rated current. Some manufacturer¶s data sheet may have Power vs. Voltage (P-V) curve as addition to I-V curve. Meanwhile from Figure 2.4, P-V curve is the product of current and voltage from the I-V curve and its shows the maximum power, P M or rated power, PR that could be produced by the module. Both I-V and P-V curves are influenced by the solar irradiance and temperature. Higher the irradiance will increase the VOC hence rising the power. Lower the temperature will increase the ISC and raising the power.

Figure 2.4: Current / Power vs. Voltage Characteristics at 25oC [10]

2.1.3 Design Consideration There are a lot of factors that need to be considered when designing the PV system. Solar intensity will have a big influence to output power. The magnitude of the photocurrent will be maximums under a full bright sun which is equal to 1000 W/m 2.


At lower intensity, the I-V curve will shift downward hence will produce lower power output. Thus it is necessary to use a device called Maximum Power Point Trackers (MPPT) to reduce the effect of intensity variation. The sun angle is another factor to be considered. From Figure 2. below, the sun position at any time of the day through out the year could be described in terms of solar altitude angle, and solar azimuth angle, ØS. The solar radiation is maximums when the PV module is facing the sun at solar noon. Thus in order to collect maximum irradiance, the method of mounting the PV module needs to be considered. Three common methods of mounting the PV module are fixed tilted angle, one-axis tracking with fixed tilted angle and double axis tracking.

Figure 2. : Solar altitude and solar azimuth angles [9]

Another factor is the shadowing or obstruction effect. A large PV array as Figure 2. below may get partially shadowed due to the obstruction with the sun line. The output of a PV module can be reduced dramatically when even a small portion of it is shaded. Unless special efforts are made to compensate for shade problems, even a single shaded cell in a long string of cells can easily cut output power by more than half. The commonly used method to eliminate loss of string power due to a possible shadow is to subdivide the circuit length in several segments with external bypass diode in parallel with the module. The diode across the shadowed segment bypasses only that segment of the string. This causes a proportionate loss of the string voltage and current without losing the whole string power.


Figure 2. : Used of bypass diode to mitigate shading [9]

The other factor is the temperature effect and be shown by Figure 2.7. As cell temperature increases, the open-circuit voltage decreases substantially while the short circuit current increases only slightly thus reducing the power output. This fact showed that the PV module will perform better on cold and clear days than hot ones. Cells vary in temperature not only because ambient temperatures change, but also because insolation on the cells changes. Most of that incident energy is absorbed and converted to heat since only a small fraction of the insolation hitting a module is converted to electricity and carried away. In order to account for changes in cell performance with temperature, manufacturers often provide an indicator called the Nominal Operating Cell Temperature (NOCT). The NOCT is cell temperature in a module when ambient is 200C and solar irradiation is 0.8 kW/ m2.

Tcell = Tamb. + NOCT - 200 0.8



Figure 2.7: Effect of temperature to I-V curve [11]

So for this stand alone solar power system is comprised of several units of component such as PV panel, switch, batteries, Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), inverter and meters. From Figure 2.8 below clearly stated the items and various types of suitable load can be attached.

Figure 2.8: Stand Alone PV System [8]



Battery Energy generated from renewable sources for stand alone application will need

some method of energy storage to be used especially when the resources are limited hence cannot meet the demand power. Battery is an electrochemical device and is commonly used to store energy and works as backup power supply. In addition to energy storage, batteries provide several other important energy services for PV systems, including the ability to provide surges of current that are much higher than the immediate current available from the array, as well as the inherent and automatic property of controlling the output voltage of the array so that loads receive voltages that are within their own range of acceptability.

The most familiar type of rechargeable battery used today is the lead acid battery that continues to be the workhorse of hybrid power system because of its high performances over cost ratio even though it has the least energy density by weight and volume. Other types of batteries include nickel cadmium, nickel metal hydride, lithium ion, lithium polymer, and nickel zinc technologies.

2.2.1 Battery Storage Capacity Energy stored in a battery is commonly given in units of amp-hours (Ah) at a specified rated voltage and discharge rate. For example a 200Ah battery that is delivering 20 A is said to be discharging at a C/10 rate, where the C refers to Ah of capacity and the 10 is hours it would take to reduce. Moreover, the Ah capacity depends on the rate at which current is withdrawn. Rapid discharging of a battery results in lower Ah capacity, while long discharge times result in higher Ah capacity. The State of Charge (SOC) of the battery is given by the equation below.


= Ah capacity remaining in the battery Rated Ah capacity



Deep-cycle batteries intended for photovoltaic systems are often specified in terms of their 20 hours discharge rate (C/20), which is more or less of a standard, as well as in terms of the much longer C/100 rate that is more representative of how they are actually used. Table 2.2 below provides some examples of such batteries, including their C/20 and C/100 rates as well as their voltage and weight.

Table 2.2: Trojan Deep Cycle Lead-Acid Battery Characteristics Model L16RE-2V T105-RE L16RE-A L16RE-B Voltage (V) 2 6 6 6 Weight (kg) 54 30 52 54 Ah @ C/20 1110 225 325 370 Ah @ C/100 1235 250 360 410

Meanwhile from Figure 2.9, the amp-hour capacity of a battery is not only ratedependent, but also depends on temperature. Both of these phenomena by comparing capacity under varying temperature and discharge rates to a reference condition of C/20 at 25oC. These curves are approximate for typical deep-cycle lead-acid batteries, so specific data available from the battery manufacturer should be used whenever possible. As shown in Figure, battery capacity decreases dramatically in colder conditions. At 30o C a battery that is discharged at the C/20 rate will have only half of its rated capacity. Thus cold temperature will affect on battery¶s performance which is decreased capacity hence decreased the output voltage. The cold temperature also increased battery¶s vulnerability to freezing when discharged hence needs to be well protected in cold climates. Also the apparent improvement in battery capacity at high temperatures does not mean that heat is good for a battery. In fact, a rule of thumb estimate is that battery life is shortened by 50% for every 10oC above the optimum 25oC operating temperature.


Figure 2.9: Lead-acid battery discharge rate and temperature [9]

Most PV battery systems are based on 6V or 12V batteries which may be wired in series and parallel combinations to achieve the needed Ah capacity and voltage rating. For batteries wired in series, the voltages add, but since the same current flows through each battery, the amp-hour rating of the string is the same as it is for each battery. For batteries wired in parallel the voltage across each battery is the same, but since currents add, the amp-hour capacity is additive.


Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT)

In PV systems the devices called MPPT are very significant to make sure that efficiency gains could be achieved. As explained when solar panel varies with irradiation and temperature so the usage of MPPT to obtain and maintain maximum power from solar array are very crucial [9]. The key is to be able to convert DC voltages from on level to another and also remain as controller for the whole circuit. MPPT systems are used mainly in system where source of power is nonlinear such as solar PV modules.


Normally MPPT comprise with DC to DC converter, switch on-off to allow current get along or blocks it and battery chargers to charging of battery which is used for the storage of electrical energy.

2.3.1 MPPT systems work The MPPT used a pulse width modulation to deliver a constant charging voltage to the batteries and hence produced a stable charge current. Additionally, the controller monitored temperature and made adjustments to handle the electrochemical properties of the battery to limit the amount of heat gained during charging [12]. To maintain a constant power output must requires a power converter to control the voltage and current to match a specified range that maximizes output efficiency and prevents overcharging the capacitor. When using MPPT the efficiency will increases and lowers the cost and amount of equipment needed for the system. Constantly monitoring the load allows for adjustments to be continuously made by moving the operating points up or down to hold the current and voltage at the maximum power point. The control flexibility and constant monitoring provide increased systems production and monitors the condition of the battery to prevent damage due to over-charging and overdischarging.

The MPPT optimizes the voltage to provide the most favorable recharging conditions at 13.5V to properly charge the cells [12]. With less than desirable voltage, the battery will not properly recharge; with excessive voltage the battery will overheat, causing terminal damage to the battery cells. To prevent over-charging when the battery is fully charged, the MPPT will switch from normal charging currents to a value that holds the cells at their peak level. This immediately drop charge can cause damage to the battery if the cells have been at maximum capacity for many days, thus decreasing the lifespan. There is a limit to the level of the output voltage the MPPT will provide. In combination with a power converter, the voltage output will match the input characteristics of the load or capacitor.


2.3.2 DC to DC Converter Another power electronics converter that is common to the standalone PV power system is the DC to DC converter. This converter will convert DC voltage from the input side to a different DC voltage level at the output side. Among the application is for battery charging and discharging. In the charging process, the buck converter or steps down converter is used as input bus voltage to the battery voltage during battery charging. It is understood that the renewable resources such as solar and wind are not consistent and sometimes the power generated might beyond the demand. Thus this excessive voltage must be controlled through buck converter to produce a rated and consistent voltage to the battery.



The most common power electronics circuit used in PV system is the inverter which functioning to convert DC into AC and monitor the load current to control against power surges. The DC input to the inverter can be inversed to AC output of the PV power modules. The variable frequency and variable voltage output is then converted into fixed voltage 60 Hz or 50 Hz terminal output to match with output or utility requirement. This conversion is done by rectifier-inverter system. Basically the standard operating voltage of most inverters is 12V. The options for the inverter that could handle a load of 500W and could run off 24V, or use a 12V inverter with a DC-DC converter to reduce the voltage. The other option added more to the cost of the system and decreased the amount of energy that reached the load. The final selection came down to availability of 24V inverters. The wattage requirements eliminated all but the 900W inverter. From Figure 2.10 the output sine wave from inverter can be determined as acceptable quality sine wave and may provides many features option.


Figure 2.10: Sine wave output inverter [9]


Introduction of Homer Software HOMER are stand for Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables

which developed by National Renewable Energy Lab, a division of the United States Department of Energy. Based in Boulder, Colorado, HOMER Energy was incorporated in 2009 to commercialize. The HOMER Energy LLC provides the software, services, and community tools to professionals, researchers, and enthusiasts in the energy industry who desire to analyze and optimize distributed power systems and systems that incorporate high penetrations of renewable energy sources [13]. HOMER Energy offers additional services, such as web-based and in person training and assistance in the use of HOMER. HOMER software is the micro power optimization model, simplifies the task of evaluating designs of both off-grid and gridconnected power systems for a variety of applications. HOMER's also optimization and sensitivity analysis algorithms make it easier to evaluate the many possible system configurations.


2.5.1 History Of Homer Software HOMER software grew out of NREL's Village Power Program. This was part of the US government's response to the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 [5]. Throughout the 1990's NREL was very active helping developing countries incorporate renewable power into their rural electrification program. NREL needed a model for its internal use to understand the design trade-offs between different system configurations. The original HOMER utilized specialized optimization software and ran on a UNIX workstation. By 1997, HOMER were converted into Windows application written in C++ and started distributing it over NREL's website.

Dr. Peter Lilienthal created HOMER as a linear program back in 1993. Meanwhile Tom Lambert created the HOMER Windows application in 1997. Some figures involved of this biggest project are Paul Gilman joined the HOMER team in 2002 as interface designer, Tom Ferguson has contributed to the website, Hope Corsair joined the HOMER in 2002 that put the model through myriad imaginative contortions and Tony Jimenez has been using the model and contributes to the simulation logic.

2.5.2 Usage Of Homer Software HOMER software provides the model with inputs, which describe technology options, component costs, and resource availability. HOMER uses these inputs to simulate different system configurations, or combinations of components, and generates results which can view as a list of feasible configurations sorted by net present cost. HOMER also displays simulation results in a wide variety of tables and graphs which can compare configurations and evaluate them on their economic and technical merits. When explored the effect that changes in factors such as resource availability and economic conditions might have on the cost-effectiveness of different system configurations, it can use the model to perform sensitivity analyses.


To perform a sensitivity analysis, HOMER will provide with sensitivity values that describe a range of resource availability and component costs. HOMER simulates each system configuration over the range of values. HOMER used the sensitivity analysis results to answer general questions about technology options to inform planning and policy decisions.

2.5.3 Simulation with Homer Software HOMER simulates the operation of a system by making energy balance calculations for each of the 8,760 hours in a year. For each hour, HOMER compares the electric and thermal demand in the hour to the energy that the system can supply in that hour and calculates the flows of energy to and from each component of the system. When the systems that include batteries or fuel-powered generators, HOMER also decides for each hour how to operate the generators and whether to charge or discharge the batteries.

HOMER also will perform the energy balance calculations for each system configuration that to consider and whether a configuration is feasible or not, and estimates the cost of installing and operating the system over the lifetime of the project. The system cost calculations account for costs such as capital, replacement, operation and maintenance, fuel, and interest. After simulating all of the possible system configurations, HOMER displays a list of configurations, sorted by net present cost which will use to compare system design options.






This chapter explains the method from beginning of the project until finished. It starts from understanding concept to the final stage of the analysis project. It obviously summarize in the project methodology as Figure 3.1 below.

Figure 3.1 Flow chart of the project methodology



Desi n Calculation The most important thing in this chapter is to calculate and design the project

depends on selected site and selected system which compliment with real situation and certain choosing load.

3.2.1 Selected Site Arau is the royal capital of Perlis and located in Peninsular Malaysia, 1 kilometers southeast of the official state capital of Kangar. This town is disembarkation point for visitors travelling from Kuala Lumpur to Langkawi by train. Meanwhile this town will be the nearest town to the education hub region for Ulu Pauh which consist University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Politeknik Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin (PTSS) and Maktab Rendah Sains Mara (MRSM). The details location was exactly shown as Figure 3.2 and Figure 3.3 below. Ulu Pauh are selected which about 10 km from town of Arau because of strategic location which included three main education region there and also main campus for the UniMAP.

Figure 3.2: Location Arau in the map.


Figure 3.3: Location Ulu Pauh, Arau, Perlis.

3.2.2 Climate Information Situated at latitudes 6°26¶0¶¶and longitudes 100°16¶0¶¶E, Ulu Pauh, Arau has a tropical monsoon climate with a high annual temperature of between 24°C to 33°C. The region observes two different seasons during a year. Dry season and wet season are the two prevailing seasons. The dry season is from November to March when the winds blow predominately from the northeast. The weather is generally fine with nice cool sailing breeze but tends to be much dryer than other parts of Malaysia. The wet season prevails from the month of April till October. During these months winds from the west and the southwest dominate the region. Ulu Pauh, Arau enjoys heavy rainfall during this time and its average rainfall is 2500 mm. The humidity level remains high about 80% throughout the year.


3.2.3 Meteorological Data From Table 3.1 the minimum solar irradiation per day is 4.18 kWh/m2 and the maximum solar irradiation per day are 5.81 kWh/m2. The average daily solar irradiation is 4.96 kWh/m2 for the Ulu Pauh, Arau is obtained from Hat Yai International weather station which the nearest station. With permission Meteorological Department of Malaysia (MMD) and via internet [14] the data for 2006, 2007 and 2008 are listed in Table 3.1 and Table 3.2 below. Table 3.1: Data Solar Irradiation from internet [14] Kampung Ulu Pauh, Arau, Perlis, Malaysia

Your location:

Using data from Hat Yai Intl (AFB) weather station Min. solar irradiation per day Average solar irradiation per day Max. solar irradiation per day 4.18 kWh / m2 4.96 kWh / m2 5.81 kWh / m2


Table 3.2: Daily Average Solar Insolation in kWh/m2 (Malaysian Meteorological Department) MONTH January February Mac April Mei Jun July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Annual Average 2006 5.41 5.76 5.88 5.59 4.56 4.35 4.24 5.09 4.60 4.86 4.99 4.93 5.02 2007 4.83 6.18 5.87 5.41 4.83 4.57 4.58 4.34 4.75 4.27 4.73 4.34 4.89 2008 5.11 5.73 5.54 5.29 4.74 4.33 4.15 4.91 4.49 4.94 4.13 4.44 4.82 AVERAGE 5.12 5.89 5.76 5.43 4.71 4.42 4.32 4.78 4.61 4.69 4.62 4.57 4.91

Certain data for humidity, air and solar radiation also figure out at Figure 3.4, Figure 3.5 and Figure 3.6 below [14]. From the whole data obtained it is obvious that the Ulu Pauh, Arau has a good insolation for the very suitable for stand alone PV system.




k Pa or %




0 Jan













Figure 3.4: Humidity and Air Pressure at Ulu Pauh, Arau, Perlis



Air Temp Ground



Jan Feb Mac Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


Figure 3. : Air and Ground Temperature at Ulu Pauh, Arau, Perlis



kW/m /d or ms



Solar Wind


0 Jan Feb Mac Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


Figure 3. : Solar radiation and Wind at Ulu Pauh, Arau, Perlis



Load Analysis The most important for the load that it must be analysis to make sure the selected

load are very compliance with the PV system which want to develop and analysis.

3.3.1 Estimating The Load Actually for this temporary pilot project load are chosen to estimate for total 125W only. Therefore suitable electrical appliances are ceiling fan with 65W, fluorescent lamp 16W and certain component stereo with 44W. The usage of those electrical appliances is from 8.00 am until 6.00 pm (about 10 hours per day).


Design Solar Power System The value of daily load demand could be calculated as below: Daily load demand (AC) = Load x Hours per day

= 125W x 10 Hours per day = 1250 Wh / day Daily load demand (DC) = Daily load demand (AC) / inverter efficiency = 1250 Wh / day / 0.9 = 1388.89 Wh / day When the load is over than 1200 W (AC) the system voltage for those electrical appliances selected is 24 V. Hence the daily load demand express in Ah per day is:


Total daily load

= Total daily load (Wh/day) / System Voltage (V) = 1388.89 / 24V = 57.87 Ah/day

To size the PV array, the peak-hours of daily insolation approach is used. From previous Table 3.2 indicated that the worst average daily insolation is in July which is 4.32kWh/m2. The PV module is selected Suntech STP 130-12/Tb, 130 Watt 12 Volt poly crystalline. The electrical performance of the PV module under Standard Test Condition (STC) is listed in Table 3.3 below. Table 3.3: Electrical Performance under STC for Suntech STP 130-12/Tb [11] Specifications Value Maximum Power (P max) Maximum Power Voltage (V mp) Maximum Power Current (I mp) Open Circuit Voltage (Voc) Short Circuit Current (Isc) Maximum System Voltage Temperature Coefficient of Voc Temperature Coefficient of Isc Efficiency of cells Value 130 W 17 V 7.47 A 22 V 8.09 A 1000 VDC -(75 + 10) % / K (0.055 + 0.01) % / K 18.0 %

From Table 3.3 also indicated that the maximum power current, I mp is 7.47 A. By using 0.90 as a default value for both de-rating factor and Coulomb efficiency, the amount of energy delivered per string could be calculated as below.

Energy delivered

= Insolation x Imp x De-rating x Coulomb = 4.32 x 7.47 x 0.9 x 0.9 = 26.14 Ah/day per string


The number of parallel strings of module is String in parallel = Total daily load (Ah/day) Ah/day per string = 57.87 Ah/day 26.14 Ah/day = 2.21 The number of module in series is Module in series = System Voltage (V) Nominal Module Voltage (V) = 24 V 12 V =2

To size the battery bank, the number of days of storage needed is set to be 3 days. Thus the usable storage needed could be calculated as below:

Usable storage

= Total daily load (Ah/day) x Days of storage = 57.87 x 3 = 173.61 Ah

The Maximum Depth Of Discharge (MDOD) of the battery is set to be 0.80. Hence the minimum storage capacity is:

Minimum storage capacity

= Usable storage (Ah) MDOD = 173.61 Ah 0.80 = 217.01 Ah


The battery used is Trojan T-105. The nominal voltage for this battery is 6V and the battery capacity is 225 Ah at 20 hour rate. The electrical and mechanical characteristics of battery Trojan T-105 are listed in Table 3.4 below.

Table 3.4: Electrical and mechanical characteristics for Trojan T-105 [15] Specifications Value Battery voltage Capacity minutes at 25 Amps Capacity minutes at 75 Amps Capacity rate at 5 hour rate Capacity rate at 20 hour rate Dimensions Weight Value 6V 447 mins 115 mins 185 Ah 225 Ah 264 L x 181 W x 276 H (mm) 28 kg

The number of batteries in series is Batteries in series = System Voltage (V) Nominal Battery Voltage (V) = 24 V 6V =4

The number of parallel strings of batteries is String in parallel = Minimum storage capacity (Ah) Capacity of single battery (Ah) = 217.01 Ah 225 Ah = 0.96


58.09 Ah/day Charge Controller + 24 V P V P V + 24 V -

52.28 Ah/day


+ 6V + 6V + 6V + 6V -

+ 24 V -



+ 24 V -

24 V 225 Ah

Figure 3.7: Design of PV System for the selected load

Based on the PV array and battery size calculated previously, the value of energy delivered by the system is PV array with 0.90 de-rating factor will deliver

PV Output

= 2 strings x 7.47 A/string x 4.32 kWh/d x 0.9 = 58.09 Ah/days at 24V

The batteries with 0.90 Coulomb efficiencies will deliver: Battery Output = 58.09 Ah/day x 0.90 = 52.28 Ah/day at 24V

Lastly the real schematic diagram can be figured out as Figure 3.7 above with selected load. The performance of the PV system throughout the year could be calculated based on average daily insolation for each mo nth. The results for average daily PV energy produced are shown in Table 3.5 below. From observation, since it is designed for the worst month, the PV system produced more energy than required during the rest of the year. It also shows that in Figure 3.8 the real demand power with load capacity which suitable with this designed system.




24 V 125

Table 3. : Average Daily PV Energy Produced Month Daily Insolation (kWh/day) January February Mac April May June July August September October November December .12 5.89 5.7 5.43 4.71 4.42 4.32 4.78 4.61 4.69 4.62 4.57 PV Output(Ah/day) 8.11 78.35 7 . 2 72.23 2. 5 58.79 57.46 63.58 61.32 62.39 61.46 60.79 1 35 1880 1839 1734 1504 1411 1379 1526 1472 1497 1475 1459 PV Output(Wh/day)


150 Load Demand 125 W

- Load Capacity - Load Demand




Jan Feb Mac Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


Figure 3.8: Average monthly energy produced and demand



System Cost There are several components associates with the cost of PV which are the

capital cost, the replacement cost and the maintenance cost. The capital cost is the initial cost needed in order to install the system. This includes the equipment cost, cost of support structures, civil works and cost of workers. The replacement cost is the cost when equipment reached the end of its useable life and need to be replaced. Typically the life cycle of the PV panels may last for 20 years and batteries may have a shorter period of life cycle. The replacement cost should cover equipment cost as well as any workers and other costs involved in replacing the component. For simplicity, the residual value which is the value at the end of the life cycle could be taken as zero although the old PV panels may still be working and may have some value as second hand equipment. In addition, the technological advances in 20 years may make some items virtually worthless even if they are still in working order. Lastly, the maintenance cost is the ongoing costs related with each piece of equipment. This includes maintenance costs, workers cost and spare parts. The cost of travel to and from a site should also be considered in the analysis. However this could be included in separate item such as travel or call out cost for one annual maintenance visit per year.

3.5.1 PV Module

A capital cost for PV array installed can cost from $ 1500 to $2000 per kW installed. This cost depends mainly on the price of modules and also the support structures, foundations, cabling and workers. For a replacement cost, the PV modules usually will have around 20 years of life cycle. It is very unusual to perform a life cycle analysis for a period greater than that, therefore no replacement is necessary within this period. However could include a replacement cost for a small percentage of modules every 5 years due to premature failure. A maintenance cost associates with the PV modules is generally is small and is done periodically within 6 or 12 month intervals. For simplicity, 1% of the capital cost is usually sufficient as an approximate value.


3.5.2 Battery Banks A capital cost for a battery bank can vary from $350 to $500 per kW installed depending on the capacity size. Therefore the actual battery costs should be used along with costs for stands, trays, signage, cabling, fusing and workers. In general, the maintenance associated with batteries is keeping the battery terminals clean and tight, topping up with distilled water and checking the specific gravity of cells. Cleaning might only be once a year with checking on connections as often as one month but at least every six months. Topping up with distilled water if using the lead acid batteries is depends on brand of battery and could vary from monthly to yearly while checking the specific gravity of cells for flooded cells is done at least every three month. For simplicity, a figure of 2% of the capital cost is usually sufficient as an approximate figure. For replacement cost, batteries normally have a life span from 3 years to 15 years. It is recommended that datasheet from the manufacturer is used in predicting the life of the batteries in the system in conjunction with the daily depth of discharge.

3.5.3 Converter A converter actually required for this systems with DC inputs for serve the AC load. This converter can be an inverter (DC inverse to AC), rectifier (AC to DC) or both which actually compact in the whole system. A capital cost for a these converter can vary from $1500 to $2000 per kW installed depending on the price of set and also the support structures, foundations, cabling and workers. For a replacement cost, the converter usually will have around 15 years of life cycle. It is very unusual to perform a life cycle analysis for a period greater than that, therefore no replacement is necessary within this period. However could include a replacement cost for a small percentage of modules every 5 years due to premature failure. A maintenance cost associates is generally small and is done periodically within 6 or 12 month intervals. For simplicity, 1% of the capital cost is usually sufficient as an approximate value.


3.5.4 Design Capital Cost The design cost for this project is considering the capital cost only. The information on the cost for each equipment obtained from internet [14]. The cost listed in Table 3.6 below is just estimation.

Table 3.6: Estimate capital cost for each component Component Cost per unit ($) PV Module (1kW) Battery ( 4 unit) Converter (1kW) TOTAL 1500 1500 500 500 2000 2000 6000 1500 Cost of Installation ($) 500 Total Set ($) 2000






By using HOMER, the optimization of the design system could be simulated and analyzed. The Help menu in HOMER is very useful to make the user understand each of the component, data required and the limit of this software. After done design the model, the parameter of each model are been setup from the data in chapter 3. After running the simulation, the detail result was being obtained and the value optimized output.

Actually in this chapter the results for hybrid solution for power system have been done and simulated. This is because to compare between PV panel and wind turbine at selected area which are more effective and suitable for that selection area customer. Although this report focused on solar power system but for more reliable on the real situation wind power also included to analyze. Simulation results from PV and Wind power system are been achieved by using HOMER simulation software. The different result from each of the simulation will be compared to get the best optimization cost of energy and electrical production so that the best renewable energy system in Ulu, Pauh, Arau will be know after this research completed.



Analysis Component Part In these power system data, there are several component will be discussed.

Firstly about PV panel that has been used for this project. The PV module is selected Suntech STP 130-12/Tb, 130 Watt 12 Volt polycrystalline. Secondly to compare whether suitable using wind energy or not, the low wind speed wind turbine has being choose. The SW Whisper 200 with 1 kW power rated was selected. Third component is battery model Trojan T-105 with nominal voltage 6V and the capacity is 225 Ah at 20 hour rate was chosen. Another component for this power system is the converter. Finally the data about solar radiation and wind speed in Ulu Pauh that was been gathered from Meteorological Department of Malaysia (MMD).

4.2.1 Load and Temperature Data

The stand ± alone system for selected load are about 125 W peak energy demand. For temperature, the value of average temperature in Ulu Pauh, Arau is not considered. All this data are been put in HOMER for running optimization analysis project.

4.2.2 Solar Radiation Data Solar radiation that being used was from Meteorological Department of Malaysia, from January until December was been compared to get the best solar radiation. The Table 4.1 below shows the solar radiation for every month of 2006 and minimize solar radiation at Ulu Pauh is 4.32 kWh/m2/d.


Table 4.1: Solar Radiation Data at Ulu Pauh, Arau (2006) Month Solar radiation (kWh/m2/d) January February March April May June July August September October November December 5.24 5.55 5.93 5.80 4.67 4.86 4.32 5.23 4.82 4.60 4.71 4.69

4.2.3 Wind Speed Data

This data of wind speed just to make the comparison for the analyze system. This data used was from Meteorological Department of Malaysia, from January until December was been compared to get the best wind speed. The Table 4.2 below shows the wind speed for every month of 2006 and the minimize wind speed at Ulu Pauh, Arau is 0.7 m/s on the May and July.


Table 4.2: Wind Speed Data at Ulu Pauh, Arau (2006) Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Wind Speed (m/s) 1.6 1.8 1.5 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.8 1.2 1.5


Simulation By Using Homer Software

These processes are done by hybrid between PV solar panel and wind turbine to get the optimization of the design system could be simulated and analyzed. From these a lot of founding can be obtained and jump for certain concrete conclusion.

4.3.1 Selected Load Actually for temporary pilot project load are chosen to estimate for total 125W only. Therefore suitable electrical appliances are ceiling fan with 65W, fluorescent lamp 16W and certain component stereo with 44W. The usage of those electrical appliances is from 8.00 am until 6.00 pm (about 10 hours per day).


The information on the selected load base on the design criteria has been used as input data for HOMER. After that the simulation is performed to determine the optimize solution for the design. Figure 4.1 below are the interface of HOMER Software for the first timer to open.

Figure 4.1: Interface of HOMER software

4.3.2 Initial Setup Firstly after chose all the equipment such as PV panel, wind turbine, converter and battery with selected load, the system will shows like Figure 4.2 below. These schematic diagrams show that all the input and the load with their connection. The most important about this schematic diagram is to shows the equipment has been used for simulation and the data will be inserted in all the icons with their resources.


Figure 4.2: Schematic of hybrid power system

Meanwhile as been described in CHAPTER 3, the selected load is a constant AC load at 24V and consumed 125W power. The load is entered hour by hour as shown in Figure 4.3 and the load factor is set to 1.0 which means the load is constant at any time throughout the day. All the items for those load inputs must be put in properly in data base to ease comparison done between simulation and calculation.


Figure 4.3: Primary load inputs

For PV array size that could be considered for simulation was between 200W until 1kW with step size of 200W. The cost of PV array is set be $2,000 for every 1kW. From there, the capital cost is set to be $1500 for replacement and $50 per year for maintenance. The lifetime are set to 20 years, with de-rating factor is 80%. The PV array will be fixed mounted with no tracking and the slope of PV array is 6o which is equal to the latitude angle of the site facing south. In addition azimuth angle is set to 00 and ground reflectance is set to 20%. All descriptions are for figure 4.4 below and this inputs most important to make sure HOMER can analyze and simulate well.


Figure 4.4: Characteristics PV inputs

After that all the characteristics for wind turbine inputs must be key-in as Figure 4.5 below. Those characteristics of wind turbine inputs are using 1kW rated power with the cost for 1 set estimated $2,000 for every 1kW. From there, the capital cost is set to be $1500 for replacement and $50 per year for maintenance while their lifetimes are set to 15 years.

Figure 4.5: Characteristics Wind Turbine inputs 59

Figure 4.6: Characteristics Battery inputs

The input for battery bank is shown in Figure 4.6 above. The battery used is Trojan T-105, a 6V battery with capacity of 225Ah. From design calculation, the size of battery bank is a string of 4 batteries that will produce 24V at 225Ah. Therefore battery per string is set to 4 and number of string to consider is from 1 to 4 strings. The cost of per unit battery is set be $2000 for the capital cost, $1500 for replacement and $50 per year for maintenance.

Figure 4.7: Characteristics converter inputs 60

Meanwhile the most important thing because the load using AC but the PV input and wind turbine input are DC so the usage of converter are very important. Therefore the converter input have been key - in as Figure 4.7 above. The solar resource input is shown in Figure 4.8 below and is based on the information from data average monthly have been key in. The input is based on the monthly average. The location of the site is 6o 26¶N and 100o 16¶E with time zone of GMT +8 which is same time zone for China, Mongolia, Bali and Perth. In addition, the clearness index should also be considered.

Figure 4.8: Characteristic solar resource inputs The wind resources input is the condition of the system that must be satisfied during analysis with it is shown in Figure 4.9 below. For this selected load it use hybrid solar powered with wind turbine, so the characteristics of wind also must be key-in. From that characteristic the average monthly wind speed was put in to ease the HOMER to simulate and analyze it. Regarding the data the selection area Ulu Pauh, Arau, Perlis have a very low wind speed from 0.7 m/s to 1.6 m/s.


Figure 4.9: Characteristics wind resources inputs

4.3.3 Simulation Result For Figure 4.10 below it show that the complete result after analyzes and simulate with the schematic circuit.

Figure 4.10: Optimization result for given schematic diagram


From that result, it shown that total initial cost are $6,000 and 4 set battery are been used while only 600 W for PV panel and 1 set for wind turbine. Meanwhile the overall result have been summarize with figure 4.11 below. It show that all the categories which optimize for system needs. The optimization of the system figure out that 600 W PV panel with 400 W converter used for inverter from DC input to AC load. Figure 4.11 also show that real situation when those system function in a real situation with valid data included.

Figure 4.11: Overall results for the schematic diagram given

After finish analyze and simulate which about take around 5 seconds, this HOMER software provided all the results which competence and reliable depend on user needs. Such as the entire from Figure 4.12 until Figure 4.17 it¶s about the result depend on the different categories. Start from result of cost, PV, wind turbine until electrical part that have been used by those created schematic diagram base on real data have been included. Each data very important to simulate and analyze before the real system have been created.


Figure 4.12: Result for costing

First of all, from Figure 4.12 above shows that wind turbine are about 30% from total cost for the whole system which overall is $ 9885.00. The highest are battery Trojan T-105 which about 35% meanwhile PV panel only cost about $ 1707. When compared with usage of PV panel as Figure 4.13 below it show that very reasonable and practical with cost and the usage of them.

Figure 4.13: Simulation result for the PV


Figure 4.14: Simulation result for the wind turbine

Unfortunately for the Figure 4.14 above which simulation result for wind turbine compared with cost it so obvious that not practically usage. Imagine when using about $3770 cost but totally production are only 3.60kWh per year which mean 600Wh per month. From that result also it so unproductive cost and irrelevance item when using the wind turbine.

Figure 4.15: Simulation result for the battery


From Figure 4.15 above, simulation result for the battery have been obtained. This batteries are using 24 V which consist 4 set for optimize the usage for the whole system. Actually this is the same as calculation in the Chapter 3.

Figure 4.16: Simulation result for the converter

Meanwhile simulation result of the converter as Figure 4.16 shown above the capacity of usage of inverter and rectifier only 400 W. The detail result will shown overall electrical part as Figure 4.17 below. From the graph it shows that only February obviously wind turbine is used. Compare for overall usage between PV panels with wind turbine per year, PV are used 863 kWh meanwhile wind turbine only used 4 kWh. This means that for total AC load 453kWh/year it consumes totally from PV panel and the wind turbine like nothing to do with it. The pattern of the monthly electric production also depends on weather, solar radiation and wind speed for the whole year.


Figure 4.17: Simulation result for the electrical part



From the results have been detailed before, PV stand-alone system is very optimal to use in chosen location. PV system can become as alternative energy source for homes in Malaysia rather than others renewable energy. After comparison between calculation have been done in chapter 3 with analyze and simulation by Homer software: the batteries are suggested 4 set meanwhile total PV module are totally 4 which connected series and parallel but the optimize cost is using 1kW PV module. Although the simulation and analysis deal with hybrid system included wind turbine, but not reach about 1% usage of the wind turbine for that system. So that means there very unpractical about using the wind turbine for selected area. Overall the detail as figure 4.14 above show that about the cost which for the whole system only $ 9,885.00.


Find that the system should contain the size or quantity of each component and the system dispatch it should be use the optimization are very helpful. In the optimization process, HOMER simulates many different system configuration, discard the infeasible ones (those that do not satisfy the user ± specified constraints), ranks the feasible ones according to total net present cost and present the feasible one with the lowest total net present cost as the optimal system configuration.

Optimization can help to find the optimal system configuration out of many possibilities. In analyzing the options for redesigning system, may want to consider the arrangement of components in Figure 4.1, but would not know in advance what number of wind turbines, what size of PV arrays, what number of batteries and what size of converter minimize the life-cycle cost. These three variables would therefore be decision variables in this analysis. The dispatch strategy could also be a decision variable, but for simplify this discussion will exclude the dispatch strategy. At the end this optimization process, HOMER simulates every system configuration in the search space and displays the feasible ones in a table, sorted by total net present cost with detail result.




From the whole project this PV stand alone system are very optimal to use in Ulu Pauh, Arau, Perlis. This system is fully utilized with solar power rather than wind energy. Those factors described detailed in CHAPTER 4 which 100% are came out from analyzing from HOMER software which very useful tool to analyzed and optimized. Obviously from Load Analysis compare with HOMER software determined that almost same characteristics were found which can conclude this project is very successful. This project also achieved the objectives which starting from design, develop the stand alone PV system, monitoring the performances with Load Analysis compare with HOMER software analyze and simulate to make the public aware with green technology especially the lecturers and students of UniMAP.

This successful project are very costly totally amount $ 9, 885.00 which convert to Malaysian Ringgit are RM 29,655.00 (if currency $1.00 same as RM 3.00 are as average value to consider). For the future as recommendation this implementation of projects are to make the prototype model first before turn to real, competitive and commercial project. This project implementation also can show that the renewable energy has of a lot of benefits and useful compared to the conventional energy.




Richard Hantula, 2010. Science in the Real World: How Do Solar Panel Works. Infobase Publishing, New York, USA. Mukund R. Patel, 1999. Wind and Solar Power System. CRC Press, New York, USA. Gamma Solar, Gamma Engineering Ltd. 10MW Solar Power Project Proposal. Ontario, Canada. A. Goetzberger and V.U. Hoffmann, 2005. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, German. HOMER Energy, (2009). History of HOMER,, 30 April 2011.






Kamaruzzaman Sopian, Mohd Yusof Hj Othman, Baharuddin Yatim, 1999. Renewable Energy: Resources and Applications in Malaysia. Pusat Tenaga Malaysia, Malaysia. "Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics until 2013", European Photovoltaics Industry Association (EPIA). Vigneswaran a/l Appadu @ Applasamy, 2008. Economic Evaluation of a Stand Alone PV System for a residential household in Malaysia. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia. Gilbert M. Masters, 2004. Renewable and Efficient Electric Power Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publication, New Jersey, USA. Energy Matters, (2007). Current / Power vs. Voltage Characteristics at 25oC,, 30 April 2011.







Energy Matters, (2007). 12 Volt Multicrystal Photvoltaic Module 2007, module-p-866.html, 3 Mei 2011. Joshua David Bollinger, 2007. Applications of Solar Energy to Power Stand Alone area and street lighting. University of Missouri-rolla, USA. HOMER Energy, (2009). About HOMER Energy,, 30 April 2011. Energy Matters, (2007). Stand Alone Power Systems (SAPS),, 2 Mei 2011. Energy Matters, (2007). Trojan Flooded Lead Acid Battery 6V 250Ah,, 3 Mei 2011.






Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful