Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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BLT2012 Examples

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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BLT2012 Hydraulics 2C

Worked Examples

1)

If the pressure in a water main is 2 bar, how high will the water rise in an

adjoining block of flats?

P= gh

where P = pressure in N/m2 (1 bar = 100,000 N/m2)

is the density of water = 1000 kg/m3

g is the acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s2

h is the height of the water column in m

h= P =

g

2)

200000 = 20.38 m

1000x9.81

Determine the velocity of flow in a 225 mm diameter pipe when the flow rate of

water Q is 3600 litres/min.

Q=Av

Where Q is the flow rate in m3/sec (1000 litres of water in a cubic metre)

A is the cross sectional area of the pipe in m2 (d is the pipe diameter in m)

v is the velocity of flow of the water in the pipe in m/sec

A = d2 = 3.142 x 0.2252 = 0.0398 m2

4

4

Q=

3600

= 0.060 m3/sec

1000 x 60

A

0.0398

3)

Water flows along a 150mm diameter water main, which has a Darcy friction

factor value of 0.025, at a flow rate Q of 10 litres/sec. The pipe is 400m long,

has a level of 230m AOD at the start (1) and 235m AOD at the end (2). If the

pressure at the start is 3 bar determine the pressure at the end.

Total Energy Line (TEL)

hf

P1/ g + v12/2g

P2/ g + v22/2g

2

1

v 12

P1

v 22

P

z1 +

+

= z2 +

+ 2 + hf

2g g

2g g

h f = L v2

2gd

or

Bernoullis equation

hf = L Q 2

12.1 d5

4

4

Q = 0.010 m3/sec

A

0.0177

hf = L v2 = 0.025 x 400 x 0.5662 = 1.089 m

2gd

2 x 9.81 x 0.15

hf = L Q2 = 0.025 x 400 x 0.012 = 1.088 m

12.1 d5

12.1 x 0.155

z1 = 230 m

z2 = 235 m

19.62

9810

19.62

9810

P2 = 24.493 x 9810 = 240276.3 N/m2 = 2.403 bar

which connects into a distribution system at a point where the pressure is 3 bar.

The water level in the reservoir (1) is 400m AOD, the ground level at the

distribution system (2) is 362.92 m AOD. If the required flow rate is 50 litres/sec

and the pipeline will have a Darcy friction factor value of 0.030, determine the

required pipe diameter.

v 12

P1

v 22

P

z1 +

+

= z2 +

+ 2 + hf

2g g

2g g

P2 = 300,000 N/m2, z2 = 362.92 m , assume v22/2g is negligible

400 = 362.92 + 300000 + hf

9810

hf = 400 362.92 30.58 = 6.50 m

hf = L Q2 = 6.50

12.1 d5

0.03 x 600 x 0.052 = 6.50

12.1 x d5

d5 = 0.03 x 600 x 0.052 = 5.722 x 10-4

12.1 x 6.50

d = (5.722 x 10-4)1/5 = (5.722 x 10-4)0.2 = 0.225m = 225 mm

A = d2 = 3.142 x 0.2252 = 0.040 m2 , v2 = 0.05/0.04 = 1.25m/sec, v22/2g = 0.08m

4

4

1. The water pressure in a distribution main is 3.6 bars, determine the pressure in

kN/m2 and the pressure head in metres. (360 kN/m2, 36.7m)

2. The flow rate of water in a 600mm diameter pipe is 37,322 litres/minute,

determine the velocity of flow. Determine the diameter of pipe in which this flow

rate would give a velocity of 3.0m/sec. (2.2 m/sec, 450mm)

3. Water flows between two reservoirs A & B. The water level in A is 384.0 m AOD

and in B is 365m AOD. The reservoirs are connected by a 450mm diameter pipe,

1200m in length, which has a Darcy friction factor of 0.025. The lowest point in

the pipeline is a distance of 400m from A and has a level of 360m AOD.

Determine the rate of flow through the pipeline and the pressure at the lowest

point. (376 litres/sec, 170.2 kN/m2)

4. Determine the pipe size required to deliver 30 litres/sec of water between two

reservoirs 1300m apart when their water levels differ by 25m. Take the Darcy

friction factor as 0.025. For the pipe size chosen, calculate the difference in

water levels needed to pass 40 litres/sec. (157mm, 45m)

Oil flows through a 75mm diameter horizontal pipeline, which is 150 m long, at an

average flowrate Q of 75 litres/min. The coefficient of dynamic viscosity for the oil is

0.015 kg/ms and the density of the oil is 850 kg/m3. Taking into account only frictional

losses determine:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

The pressure loss along the pipeline.

The maximum velocity of flow in the pipe.

The velocity of flow 5mm from the pipe wall

The shear stress 0 at the pipe wall.

Q = 0.075/60 = 0.00125 m3/sec, A = 3.142 x 0.0752/4 = 0.0044 m2

1.

A

Re = v d = v d = 850 x 0.283 x 0.075 = 1203 i.e. laminar flow

0.015

2.

z1 +

v 12

P

v2

P

+ 1 = z2 + 2 + 2 + hf ,

2g g

2g g

P1 P 2 = h f

g

P 1 P2 = g h f

16)

g d2

850 x 9.81 x 0.0752

P1 P2 = dP = 850 x 9.81 x 0.430 = 3585.6 N/m2

3.

v = dp (R2 r2)

4 dx

(Pg 14 in notes)

4 dx

4x 0.015 x 150

vmax =

4.

v32.5 =

5.

3585.6

(0.03752 0.03252) = 0.139 m/sec

4 x 0.015 x 150

2 dx

2 x 150

6

Water flows through 225mm diameter pipeline which is 500m long at a rate of 50

litres/sec. Assuming the pipe has a value of 0.024 determine the frictional head loss

across the pipeline and determine the actual velocity of flow at the pipe centreline using

the universal velocity distribution equation. Take the coefficient of dynamic viscosity

for water as 1.14 x 10-3 kg/ms.

h f = L v2

2gd

or

hf = L Q 2

12.1 d5

4

4

Q = 0.050 m3/sec

A

0.040

h f = L v2

2gd

19.62 x 0.225

= 4.247m

v * (R r )

v

=

5

.

75

log

+ 5.5

v*

= dp d

4L

(Pg 18 in notes)

4 x 500

v* =

4.687

1000

= 0.069m/sec

v

= 5.75 log

+ 5.5 = 5.75 log [ 6840 ] + 5.5

0.069

1.14 x 10 3

7

During a recent network calibration exercise the head loss due to friction over an

existing 220m length of 150mm diameter pipe was calculated to be 0.6m when the

measured flowrate was 7.5 litres/sec. Estimate the pipe wall roughness k s. Assume the

coefficient of dynamic viscosity for water is 1.14 x 10-3 kg/ms.

h f = L v2

2gd

or

hf = L Q 2

12.1 d5

L Q2

220 x 0.00752

A = d2 = 3.142 x 0.152 = 0.0177 m2

4

4

Q = 0.017 m3/sec

A

0.0177

Re = v d = 1000 x 0.424 x 0.15 = 55790

1.14 x 10-3

k

5.1286

= 2 log s +

R 0e.89

3.7d

ks

5.1286

= 2 log

+

55790 0.89

0.045

3.7 x0.15

1

ks

4.714 = 2 log

+ 3.059 x 10 4

0.555

0.555

10-2.357 =

ks

+ 3.059 x 10-4

0.555

4.395 x 10-3 =

ks

+ 3.059 x 10-4

0.555

8

A 450mm diameter cement lined ductile iron pipe (reason for precision of description to

be explained later) 2000m long supplies water from a storage reservoir to a service

reservoir. If the difference in water levels in the two reservoirs is 20m determine the flow

rate Q between them. Take the pipe wall roughness k s as 0.03mm and the coefficient of

kinematic viscosity for water as 1.14 x 10-6 m2/s (at 15C).

1

Applying Bernoulli between the water surfaces in the reservoirs i.e. between 1 and 2

z1 +

v 12

P

v2

P

+ 1 = z2 + 2 + 2 + hf

2g g

2g g

h f = L v2

2gd

= 2gd hf = 2gd S0 - equation (1) (S0 = hf/L is the friction gradient = 20/2000 = 0.01)

L v2

v2

k

2.51

= 2 log s +

3.7d R e

where Re = v d/

k

2.51

log s +

3.7d d 2gdS O

= 2 2gdS O

= 2 2 x9.81x0.45 x0.01

0.03 x10 3

2.51x1.14 x10 6

log

+

3.7 x0.45

v = -0.593 log [ 1.802 x 10-5 + 2.14 x 10-5] = -0.593 log [ 3.942 x 10-5]

v = 2.612 m/sec

= 2gd S0

v2

2.6122

k

5.1286

= 2 log s +

R 0e.89

3.7d

1.14 x 10-6

0.03 x10 3

5.1286

= 2 log

+

0.89

1031053

3.7 x0.45

1

8.7792

= 0.013

= 0.013

ks = 0.003x10-3 = 0.000067

D

0.45

10

An old tuberculated water main (in normal condition with a slight degree of attack),

having a ks value of 1.5mm, has a diameter of 150mm and is 800m in length. When the

flow rate Q is 17 litres/sec, the pressure recorded at the inlet is 3 bar and the pressure

recorded at the outlet is 1.851 bar. Determine the difference in the pipe levels at the

inlet and outlet. Take the coefficient of kinematic viscosity for water as 1.14 x 10-6

m2/sec. Using the universal velocity distribution equation determine the pipe centreline

velocity.

Total Energy Line (TEL)

hf

P1/ g + v12/2g

P2/ g + v22/2g

2

1

z1 +

v 12

P

v2

P

+ 1 = z2 + 2 + 2 + hf

2g g

2g g

h f = L v2

2gd

or

Bernoullis equation

hf = L Q 2

12.1 d5

4

4

Q = 0.017 m3/sec

A

0.0177

1.14 x 10-6

k

5.1286

= 2 log s +

R 0e.89

3.7d

Barrs equation

1.5 x10 3

5.1286

= 2 log

+

0.89

= 0.0386

11

h f = L v2

2gd

19.62 x 0.150

= 9.710m

z1 + 0.9622 + 300000 = z2 + 0.9622 + 185100

19.62

9810

19.62

9810

+ 9.710

Check using Moody chart

ks = 1.5 x 10-3

zone)

d

0.15

v * (R r )

v

=

5

.

75

log

+ 5.5

v*

= dp d

4L

(Pg 18 in notes)

(Note Because pipe is not horizontal, rises 2.0m, dp P1 P2 in this calculation.

P1 P2 = 300000 185100 = 114900 N/m 2 which is equivalent to 11.71m head.

i.e hf + 2.0 )

4 x 800

v* =

4.465

1000

= 0.067m/sec

v

= 5.75 log

+ 5.5 = 5.75 log [ 4396 ] + 5.5

0.067

1.14 x 10 3

HRS table examples

v

= 2 2gdS O

k

2.51

log s +

3.7d d 2gdS O

12

v

1.5 x10 3

2.51x1.14 x10 6

log

+

v = -0.251 log [ 2.027 x 10-3 + 1.142 x 10-4] = -0.251 log [ 2.141 x 10-3] = 0.670 m/sec

Q = A v = 3.142 x 0.22/4 x 0.670 = 0.021 m3/sec = 21.0 litres/sec

A 150mm diameter main conveying water at a flow rate of 20 litres/sec rises 1.5m over

a distance of 300m. If the pipeline has a roughness value ks of 1.5mm and the pressure

at the start is 4 bar determine the pressure at the other end in kN/m2.

Total Energy Line (TEL)

hf

P1/ g + v12/2g

P2/ g + v22/2g

2

1

z1 +

v 12

P

v2

P

+ 1 = z 2 + 2 + 2 + hf

2g g

2g g

4

4

Q = 0.020 m3/sec

A

0.0177

From HRS tables page (3 in notes) So = 1/60 = 0.0167

hf = 0.0167 x 300 = 5.0m,

z2 z1 = 1.5 m

19.62

9810

19.62

9810

P2 = 34.275 x 9810 = 336238 N/m2 = 3.360 bar

HRS tables examples

1) Determine the frictional head loss in a 375mm diameter uncoated steel pipe in

normal condition when it conveys 163 litres/sec of water over a distance of 800m.

13

If the pipe material is to be coated steel (good condition) and the allowable

frictional head loss is 3m determine the required pipe diameter.

3) A 150mm diameter main conveying water at a flowrate of 20 litres/sec rises 1.5m

over a distance of 300m. If the pipeline has a roughness value ks of 1.5mm and

the pressure at the start is 4 bars, determine the pressure at the other end, in

kN/m2.

4) A 300mm diameter concrete sewer (ks = 1.5mm) is required to deliver 88

litres/sec. Determine the minimum gradient at which the sewer should be laid for

it not to be surcharged.

5) A 225 mm diameter concrete sewer (ks = 1.5mm) is 60m long and laid at a

gradient of 1/154. What will be the height of surcharge at the upstream manhole

when the flowrate is 60 litres/sec.

A section of a pipeline consists of two pipes in parallel as shown below. Pipe A has a

diameter of 150mm, a length of 150m, a ks value of 0.03mm and a value of 0.0188.

14

value of 0.0163. If the friction head loss HL across the section (between 1 and 2) is 0.6m

determine the flow in each pipe.

A

B

The 0.6m head loss across the parallel section ( 1 to 2) is the same in each pipe i.e.

HLA = HLB = 0.6m

A L A Q 2A

12 .1 d 5A

B L B Q B2

12 .1 dB5

= 0.6m

and

QA =

QB =

0.6 x 12 .1 x 0.15 5

0.0188 x 150

0.6 x 12 .1 x 0.225

0.0163 x 120

SOA =

0.6

150

= 0.004 ( 1 in 250)

SOB =

0.6

120

= 0.005 ( 1 in 200)

For pipe B 225mm diameter QB = 46.253 litres/sec

Parallel Pipelines Example 2

A service reservoir is to be constructed to provide a water supply for a town 1 km

distant. The initial population is expected to be 86,000 and the average rate of demand

is 200 litres/head/day.

15

Design the supply pipeline which connects the reservoir to the distribution system. The

pipe material is to be metal with a concrete lining, which has a Darcy friction factor of

0.013. Allow a peaking factor of 2. The top water level in the reservoir is 415.6m AOD

and the pipe level at the start of the distribution system is 376.3m AOD. The pressure at

the start of the distribution system is to be 2.94 bar.

After 25 years the population increases to 125,000. If the water level in the service

reservoir and the pressure in the distribution system remains unchanged determine:

(a)

(b)

(c)

the length of a parallel pipeline, of the same diameter and material as the original

pipeline, required to ensure that the demand for water is met.

the length of a parallel pipeline, of 525mm diameter and the same material as

the original pipeline (with a Darcy friction factor value of 0.011), required to

ensure that the demand for water is met.

the diameter of a lined ductile iron parallel pipeline, of length 850m and Darcy

friction factor of 0.014, required to ensure that the demand for water is met.

Parallel pipeline example solution

A 415.6m AOD

B

376.3m AOD

24 x 3600

Pressure head H in distribution system = PB = 294,000

g

9810

= 30m

zA +

v 2A

P

v2

P

+ A = zB + B + B + hf

2g g

2g g

hf = L Q2 = 0.013 x 1000 x 0.3982

12.1 d5

12.1 x d5

= 9.3m

16

12.1 x 9.3

= 0.45m = 450mm.

(Table 14 page 13 in HRS handout) Q = 0.398 m3/sec, d = 450mm

(a)

find length.

QN = 2 x 125,000 x 200

24 x 3600

Insert parallel pipeline along bottom section of original pipeline to accommodate new

flow and maintain pressure in distribution system.

A

1

3

2

Thus

i.e.

HL2 = HL3

2 L2 Q22 = 3 L3 Q32

12.1 d25

12.1 d35

Identical pipes, L2 = L3 , d2 = d3 ,

Therefore Q2 = Q3

( note if any of the above relationships are not equal then Q2 Q3 and the relationship

between Q2 and Q3 has to be determined by calculation.)

Q1 = Q2 + Q3 = 0.579 m3/sec

As Q2 = Q3 = 0.579/2 = 0.290 m3/sec

1000 = L1 + L3, therefore L1 = 1000 - L3

HL = 9.3m = HL1 + HL3

1 L1 Q12

12.1 d15

0.013 x (1000 L3) x 0.5792

12.1 x 0.455

+ 3 L3 Q32 = 9.3

12.1 d35

+

17

0.013 x L3 x 0.2902

12.1 x 0.455

= 9.3

10.219 = 0.0146 L3

L3 = 700m

By HRS table 14 (pg 13 ): d1= d3 = 450mm, Q1= 0.579 m3/sec, Q3 = 0.290 m3/sec, HL = 9.3m

Ks = 0.03mm (all pipes), So1 = 1 in 54 (0.0185) and So3 = 1 in 198 (0.0051)

HL1 + HL3 = So1 x L1 + So3 x L3 = 0.0185 (1000 - L3) + 0.0051 L3 = 9.3

18.518 - 0.0185 L3 + 0.0051 L3 = 9.3

9.218 = 0.0134L3

L3 = 688m

(b)

find length.

QN = 0.579 m3/sec

A

1

3

2

Thus

i.e.

2 L2 Q22 = 3 L3 Q32

12.1 d25

12.1 d35

L2 = L3 , d2 = 450mm , d3 = 525mm

0.013 x Q22 =

0.455

= 0.013,

0.011 x Q32

0. 5255

Q32 = 2.551 Q22

Q3 = 1.597 Q2

Q1 = Q2 + Q3 = 0.579 m3/sec

18

= 0.011

HL2 = HL3

Q2 = 0.223 m3/sec and Q3 = 0.356m3/sec

1000 = L1 + L3,

therefore L1 = 1000 - L3

1 L1 Q12

12.1 d15

+ 3 L3 Q32 = 9.3

12.1 d35

12.1 x 0.455

12.1 x 0.5255

10.219 = 0.0166L3

L3 = 615.6m

By HRS tables (pg 12 &13) Ks = 0.03mm (all pipes): d1= d2 = 450mm, d3 = 525mm,

Q1= 0.579 m3/sec = Q2 + Q3

So1 = 1 in 54 (0.0185), So2 = So3

Need to look down HRS table to find friction gradient (So) where Q2 + Q3 = 0.579 m3/sec

For So = 1 in 303 (0.0033) Q2 = 0.231 m3/sec Q3 = 0.348 m3/sec

HL1 + HL3 = So1 x L1 + So3 x L3 = 0.0185 (1000 - L3) + 0.0033 L3 = 9.3

18.519 - 0.0185 L3 + 0.0033 L3 = 9.3

9.219 = 0.0152 L3

L3 = 606.5m

(c)

L3 = 850m, L1 = 150m,

19

HL1 =

12.1 d15

12.1 x 0.455

= 2.928m

Determine flowrate Q2 going down existing pipe (2)

HL2 =

L2 Q22

12.1 d25

12.1 x 0.455

0.013 x 850

Q1 = Q2 + Q3 = 0.579 m3/sec

Therefore Q3 = 0.579 - 0.359 = 0.220 m3/sec

HL3 = 6.732m =

12.1 d35

12.1 x d35

12.1 x 6.732

By HRS tables (pg 13) d1 = d2 = 450mm, Q1= 0.579 m3/sec, L1= 150m, L3 = 850m,

HL = 9.3m

Ks = 0.03mm (all pipes), from HRS table So1 = 0.0185 (1 in 54)

HL1 = So1 x L1 = 0.0185 x 150 = 2.778m

HL2 = HL3 = 9.3 - 2.778 = 6.522m

So2 = So3 = 6.552 = 0.0077 (1 in 130)

850

From HRS table, Q2 = 0.363 m3/sec

Therefore Q3 = 0.579 0.363 = 0.216 m3/sec

From HRS table, d3 = 375mm

Hydraulics 2C Flow Balancing Example

The reservoir A at a treatment plant feeds two service reservoirs B and C as shown below.

Use the Flow Balancing Method to approximately determine the flows entering the service

reservoirs.

20

A

J

B

C

Reservoir

A

B

C

Pipe

A-J

J-B

J-C

95

80

76

Diameter (mm)

300

225

150

Length (m)

900

1100

800

21

Ks(mm)

1.5

1.5

1.5

1st estimate

2nd estimate

Hj = 90.5m

Pipe

3rd estimate

Hj = 91.5m

Hj = 90.9m

hf across

SO

hf across

SO

hf across

SO

Pipe (m)

(1 in)

(litre/s)

Pipe (m)

(1 in)

(litre/s)

Pipe (m)

(1 in)

(litre/s)

4.5

200

69.2

3.5

257

61.0

4.1

220

65.9

10.5

105

-44.5

11.5

96

-46.8

10.9

101

-45.4

14.5

55

-20.9

15.5

52

-21.6

14.9

54

-21.1

Error in Q = 3.8l/sec

Error in Q = -7.4l/sec

22

Error in Q = 0.6l/sec

See diagram on page 24.

Based on the draw-off from the network, the reservoir supplies 340 litres/sec to node A

From HRS table 14, ks = 0.03mm for 450mm pipe carrying 340 litres/sec then hydraulic

gradient So = 0.00681 ( 1 in 147).

Head loss from reservoir to A = 0.00681 x 900 = 6.13m

Total head at A = 136.13 6.13 = 130m (AOD)

By inspection of diagram, decide on flow directions and quantities (remember more water

will pass down bigger, shorter and smoother pipes). Because the pipe A-C is common to

two loops it is shown as if it is split into two in the diagram below. In reality of course it is just a

single pipe and there can only be one value for the flow passing down it common to both

loops.

Note clockwise flows are deemed +ve and anti-clockwise flows ve as are their respective

friction head losses. The basic logic is that when the flows are correctly allotted the head

losses in a loop will sum to zero.

i.e. in the top loop:

For pipe A-B, Q = 130 litres/sec (clockwise), dia = 300mm, L = 550m

HRS table 3 gives So = 0.00833 and thus hf = 0.00833 x 550 = +4.58m

Complete table on page 25.

23

24

Pipe

Dia

(mm)

1st Adjustment

Length

(m)

Q

(m /sec)

3

hf

(m)

2nd Adjustment

hf/Q

Q

(m /sec)

hf

(m)

3rd Adjustment

hf/Q

Q

(m /sec)

3

300

550

+0.130

4.58

35

+0.127

4.57

34

+0.129

4.50

B-C

200

450

+0.040

3.10

78

+0.037

2.68

72

+0.039

2.93

A-C

250

800

-0.080

-6.64

83

-0.088

-7.92

90

-0.085

-7.40

+1.04

196

-0.87

196

hf

1.04

=

= 0.003m3 / s

h

2 x 196

2 f

Q

A

130

B

125.5

C

122.6

30

27.5

21.6

0.03

Q=

+0.002m3/s

= - 0.008m3/s

AC = 0.003m3/s

A-C

250

800

+0.080

6.64

83

+0.008

7.92

90

+0.085

+7.50

D-C

250

250

-0.060

-1.21

20

-0.055

-1.05

19

-0.056

-1.06

A-D

300

850

-0.130

-6.94

54

-0.126

-6.59

53

-0.126

-6.70

-1.57

157

+0.28

162

Q =

Pressure

Head

(m)

hf

(m)

A-B

Q =

Total

Head

(m)

hf 1.57

=

= + 0.005m3 / s

hf

2 x 157

2

Q

-0.001m /s

Q=

= + 0.008m3/s

AC = -0.003m3/s

25

-0.26

A

130

C

122.3

D

123.3

27.3

Design the foul sewer system shown below. Assume 3 persons per dwelling, 250

litres/head/day water consumption and 40 litres/head/day infiltration. The new system is to

connect into a existing combined sewer at A4 which has an invert level of 95.00m AOD. There

is an existing 600mm diameter surface water sewer midway between A2 and A3 of invert level

95.02m AOD and a water main midway between C1 and C2 invert level 98.10m AOD.

A1

C2

A2

A3

C1

B1

A4

Pipe run

Length

(m)

90

80

85

120

50

100

A1-A2

B1-A2

A2-A3

C1-C2

C2-A3

A3-A4

Number of

houses

250

220

300

180

150

280

Ground level

upstream Mh

100.00

100.27

98.94

100.15

98.49

97.86

Ground level

downstream Mh

98.94

98.94

97.86

98.49

97.86

97.19

Sewer run

Cumulative

houses

Cumulative

flow

(litres/sec)

Ground

gradient

Pipe

diameter

(mm)

Min Pipe

gradient

(1 in)

Chosen pipe

gradient

(1 in)

A1-A2

250

15.1

1 in 85

150

1 in 100

1 in 100

B1-A2

220

13.3

1 in 60

150

1 in 133

1 in 100

A2-A3

770

46.5

1 in 79

225

1 in 96

1 in 96

C1-C2

180

10.9

1 in 72

150

1 in 133

1 in 100

C2-A3

330

20.0

1 in 79

150

1 in 59

1 in 59

A3-A4

1380

83.4

1 in 149

300

1 in 138

1 in 138

26

Check overall fall, say invert level @ A4 = 95.150m AOD and @ A1, B1 & C1 invert level is

2.0m below ground.

Fall between A1 A4 = 98.0 95.15 = 1 in 96 which is OK

275

Fall between: B1 A4 = 1 in 85 and C1 A4 = 1 in 90.

Complete table

a)

24 x 3600

c) Ground gradient = 100 98.94 = 1 in 85

90

d) 1st pipe in system 150mm dia minimum gradient 1 in 100

e) A2 A3 cumulative houses = 770

f)

24 x 3600

g) Ground gradient = 1 in 79

h) Pipe dia = 225mm, gradient = 1 in 96

Manhole Invert levels & depths

A3 = 95.15 + 100 = 95.88m AOD

138

Depth = 97.86 95.88 = 1.98m

A2 = 95.88 + 0.075 + 85 = 96.84m AOD, depth = 2.10m

96

A1 = 96.84 + 0.075 + 90 = 97.82m AOD, depth = 2.18m

100

B1 = 96.84 + 0.075 + 80 = 97.72m AOD, depth = 2.55m

100

27

59

C1 = 96.88 + 120 = 98.08m AOD, depth = 2.07m

100

Check service clearance A2 A3

A2

A3

clearance

2

SW sewer top of pipe level = 95.02 + 0.6 + 0.1 = 95.72m AOD

Clearance = 0.64m 0.05m (pipe wall) = 0.59m

Check service clearance C1 C2

Water main invert level = 98.10

C1 C2 invert level midway = 98.08 + 96.88 = 97.48m AOD

2

Clearance = 98.1 (97.48 + 0.15 + 0.05) = 0.42m

28

Analyse the above storm sewer system using the Rational method for a 1 in 1 year event

taking the time of entry Te as 2.0 mins. ks for all pipes is 0.6mm. Rainfall table provided. See

Table below.

Difference in level = 1.10m, length = 63.1m,

Gradient = 1.10 = 1 in 57, choose pipe dia = 150mm

63.1

V = 1.33m/sec from HRS tables (pg 7 in HRS handout)

Time of flow = TF = 63.1 = 47.4 secs = 0.79 mins

1.33

Time of entry = TE = 2.0 mins.

For 1st pipe in branch: Time of concentration = TC = TE + TF

TC1.00 = 2.0 + 0.79 = 2.79 mins

From table (pg 31) rainfall intensity = i = 70.5 mm/hr. AP = impermeable area (ha)

Q1.00 = 2.778 x AP x i = 2.778 x 0.102 x 70.5 = 20.0 litres/sec

Note capacity of 150mm dia @ 1 in 57 is 23.6 litres/sec OK

29

Choose 225 mm dia pipe, from HRS tables V = 1.7m/sec

TF = 66.1 = 38.9 secs = 0.65 mins

1.7

TC = TC1.00 + TF1.01 = 2.79 + 0.65 = 3.44 mins

i = 63.0 mm/hr, AP = 0.102 + 0.226 = 0.328 ha

Q1.01 = 2.778 x 0.328 x 63.0 = 57.4 litres/sec

Check capacity 225 @ 1 in 59 = 67.9 litres/sec OK

Pipe length 2.02

Choose 300mm dia pipe, V = 2.74 m/sec

Note when calculating TC2.02 use the LONGER of the two upstream times of concentration.

i.e. TC2.01 = 2.78 mins and TC3.00 = 2.56 mins.

Therefore TC2.02 = TC2.01 + TF2.02 = 2.78 + 0.33 = 3.11 mins

AP = 0.647 ha

and i = 65.5 mm/hr and Q2.02 = 2.778 x 0.647 x 65.6 = 117.7 litres/sec

30

RAINFALL TABLE - Rates of rainfall in mm/h for a range of durations for given return periods

RETURN PERIOD (YEARS)

DURATION

10

20

50

100

2.0 MINS

2.5 MINS

3.0 MINS

3.5 MINS

4.0 MINS

4.1 MINS

4.2 MINS

4.3 MINS

4.4 MINS

4.5 MINS

4.6 MINS

4.7 MINS

4.8 MINS

4.9 MINS

5.0 MINS

5.1 MINS

5.2 MINS

5.3 MINS

5.4 MINS

5.5 MINS

5.6 MINS

5.7 MINS

5.8 MINS

5.9 MINS

6.0 MINS

6.2 MINS

6.4 MINS

6.6 MINS

6.8 MINS

7.0 MINS

7.2 MINS

7.4 MINS

7.6 MINS

7.8 MINS

8.0 MINS

8.2 MINS

8.4 MINS

8.6 MINS

8.8 MINS

9.0 MINS

9.2 MINS

9.4 MINS

9.6 MINS

9.8 MINS

10.0 MINS

10.5 MINS

11.0 MINS

11.5 MINS

12.0 MINS

12.5 MINS

13.0 MINS

13.5 MINS

14.0 MINS

14.5 MINS

15.0 MINS

16.0 MINS

17.0 MINS

18.0 MINS

19.0 MINS

20.0 MINS

85.6

76.5

66.3

62.8

59.6

59.1

58.5

57.9

57.4

56.9

56.3

55.8

55.3

54.8

54.3

53.9

53.4

53.0

52.5

52.1

51.7

51.2

50.8

50.4

50.0

49.3

48.5

47.8

47.1

46.4

45.8

45.2

44.5

44.0

43.4

42.8

42.3

41.8

41.2

40.8

40.3

39.9

39.4

39.0

93.4

87.5

82.3

77.8

73.8

73.1

72.3

71.6

71.0

70.3

69.6

69.0

68.3

67.7

67.1

66.5

65.9

65.4

64.8

64.3

63.7

63.2

627

62.2

61.7

60.7

59.8

58.9

58.0

57.2

56.4

55.6

54.8

54.1

56.4

52.7

52.0

51.4

50.7

50.1

49.5

49.0

48.4

47.9

38.6

37.6

36.7

35.8

35.0

34.2

33.4

32.7

32.0

31.4

30.8

29.36

28.6

27.6

26.7

25.9

120.5

113.4

107.2

101.7

96.8

95.9

95.0

94.1

93.2

92.4

91.6

90.8

90.0

89.2

88.5

87.7

87.0

86.3

85.6

84.9

84.2

83.5

82.9

82.3

81.6

80.4

79.2

78.1

77.0

75.9

74.9

73.9

72.9

71.9

71.0

70.1

69.3

68.4

67.6

66.8

66.0

65.3

64.6

63.8

47.4

46.1

44.9

43.8

42.8

41.8

40.8

39.9

39.1

38.3

37.5

36.1

34.8

33.5

32.4

31.4

138.3

130.4

123.4

117.3

111.8

110.8

109.8

108.8

107.9

106.9

106.0

105.1

104.2

103.4

102.5

101.7

100.9

100.1

99.3

98.5

97.8

97.0

96.3

95.6

94.9

93.5

92.2

90.9

89.6

88.4

87.3

86.1

85.0

84.0

82.9

81.9

81.0

80.0

79.1

78.2

77.3

76.4

75.6

74.8

63.1

61.5

59.9

58.4

57.0

55.7

54.4

53.3

52.1

51.0

50.0

48.1

46.3

44.7

43.2

41.8

158

149

141

135

128

127

126

125

124

123

122

121

120

119

118

117

116

115

115

114

113

112

111

110

110

108

107

105

104

102

101

100

99

97

96

95

94

93

92

91

90

89

88

87

74.0

72.1

70.2

68.5

66.9

65.4

64.0

63.6

61.3

60.0

58.8

56.6

54.6

52.7

51.0

49.3

187

177

168

161

154

152

151

150

149

148

146

145

144

143

142

141

140

139

138

137

136

135

134

133

132

130

129

127

125

124

122

121

119

118

117

115

114

113

112

110

109

108

107

106

86

84

82

80

78

76

75

73

72

70

69

65

64

62

60

58

213

202

192

184

176

174

173

172

170

169

168

166

165

164

163

162

160

159

158

157

156

155

154

153

152

150

148

146

144

143

141

139

138

136

135

133

132

131

129

125

127

125

124

123

105

102

100

97

95

93

91

89

87

86

84

81

78

76

73

71

31

121

118

116

113

111

108

106

104

102

100

98

94

91

88

85

83

1

Pipe

length

ref No

2

Difference

in level

3

Pipe

length

4

Pipe

gradient

5

Vel

7

Time

of

Conc.

(min)

8

Rate of

rainfall

i

(mm/hr)

9

Imp.

Area

(m/s)

6

Time

of

flow

(min)

(m)

(m)

(1 in )

1.00

1.10

63.1

57

1.33

0.79

2.79

70.5

150

1.01

1.12

66.1

59

1.70

0.65

3.44

63.0

225

1.02

0.73

84.7

116

0.081

300

2.00

1.40

44.8

32

225

2.01

0.61

49.1

80

0.150

300

3.00

0.98

48.5

49

0.129

150

2.02

1.65

54.3

33

1.03

1.22

27.7

23

2.32

2.74

0.32

0.33

2.32

3.11

82.5

65.5

(ha)

11

Flow

Q

12

Pipe

dia.

(m3/s)

(mm)

0.356

32

10

Cum Imp.

Area

AP

(ha)

300

Table 1 Lloyd Davies method: Time of entry = 2 mins, ks = 0.6mm, 1 in 1 year storm

1

Pipe

length

ref No

2

Difference

in level

3

Pipe

length

4

Pipe

gradient

5

Vel

7

Time

of

Conc.

(min)

8

Rate of

rainfall

i

(mm/hr)

9

Imp.

Area

(m/s)

6

Time

of

flow

(min)

(m)

(m)

(1 in )

1.00

1.10

63.1

57

1.33

0.79

2.79

70.5

150

1.01

1.12

66.1

59

1.70

0.65

3.44

63.0

225

1.02

0.73

84.7

116

1.46

0.97

4.41

57.4

300

2.00

1.40

44.8

32

2.32

0.32

2.32

82.5

225

2.01

0.61

49.1

80

1.77

0.46

2.78

70.0

300

3.00

0.98

48.5

49

1.43

0.56

2.56

76.0

150

2.02

1.65

54.3

33

2.74

0.33

3.11

65.5

1.03

1.22

27.7

23

3.29

0.14

4.55

56.9

33

(ha)

10

Cum Imp.

Area

AP

(ha)

11

Flow

Q

12

Pipe

dia.

(m3/s)

(mm)

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