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# BSc (Hons) in Civil Engineering

BLT2012 Hydraulics 2C
Worked Examples

## BSc level 1 Hydraulics revision examples

1)

If the pressure in a water main is 2 bar, how high will the water rise in an
P= gh
where P = pressure in N/m2 (1 bar = 100,000 N/m2)
is the density of water = 1000 kg/m3
g is the acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s2
h is the height of the water column in m
h= P =
g

2)

200000 = 20.38 m
1000x9.81

Determine the velocity of flow in a 225 mm diameter pipe when the flow rate of
water Q is 3600 litres/min.
Q=Av
Where Q is the flow rate in m3/sec (1000 litres of water in a cubic metre)
A is the cross sectional area of the pipe in m2 (d is the pipe diameter in m)
v is the velocity of flow of the water in the pipe in m/sec
A = d2 = 3.142 x 0.2252 = 0.0398 m2
4
4
Q=

3600
= 0.060 m3/sec
1000 x 60

## v = Q = 0.060 = 1.507 m/sec

A
0.0398

3)

Water flows along a 150mm diameter water main, which has a Darcy friction
factor value of 0.025, at a flow rate Q of 10 litres/sec. The pipe is 400m long,
has a level of 230m AOD at the start (1) and 235m AOD at the end (2). If the
pressure at the start is 3 bar determine the pressure at the end.
Total Energy Line (TEL)
hf
P1/ g + v12/2g

P2/ g + v22/2g

2
1
v 12
P1
v 22
P
z1 +
+
= z2 +
+ 2 + hf
2g g
2g g

h f = L v2
2gd

or

Bernoullis equation

hf = L Q 2
12.1 d5

4
4

Q = 0.010 m3/sec

## v1 = v2 = Q = 0.010 = 0.566 m/sec (note v2/2g = 0.016m)

A
0.0177
hf = L v2 = 0.025 x 400 x 0.5662 = 1.089 m
2gd
2 x 9.81 x 0.15
hf = L Q2 = 0.025 x 400 x 0.012 = 1.088 m
12.1 d5
12.1 x 0.155
z1 = 230 m

z2 = 235 m

## 230 + 0.5662 + 300000 = 235 + 0.5662 + P2 + 1.089

19.62
9810
19.62
9810
P2 = 24.493 x 9810 = 240276.3 N/m2 = 2.403 bar

## Water is to be discharged from a service reservoir through a 600m long pipeline

which connects into a distribution system at a point where the pressure is 3 bar.
The water level in the reservoir (1) is 400m AOD, the ground level at the
distribution system (2) is 362.92 m AOD. If the required flow rate is 50 litres/sec
and the pipeline will have a Darcy friction factor value of 0.030, determine the
required pipe diameter.

v 12
P1
v 22
P
z1 +
+
= z2 +
+ 2 + hf
2g g
2g g

## P1 = 0 (atmospheric), v1 = 0 (large reservoir), z1 = 400 m

P2 = 300,000 N/m2, z2 = 362.92 m , assume v22/2g is negligible
400 = 362.92 + 300000 + hf
9810
hf = 400 362.92 30.58 = 6.50 m
hf = L Q2 = 6.50
12.1 d5
0.03 x 600 x 0.052 = 6.50
12.1 x d5
d5 = 0.03 x 600 x 0.052 = 5.722 x 10-4
12.1 x 6.50
d = (5.722 x 10-4)1/5 = (5.722 x 10-4)0.2 = 0.225m = 225 mm
A = d2 = 3.142 x 0.2252 = 0.040 m2 , v2 = 0.05/0.04 = 1.25m/sec, v22/2g = 0.08m
4
4

## Pipeflow revision tutorial

1. The water pressure in a distribution main is 3.6 bars, determine the pressure in
kN/m2 and the pressure head in metres. (360 kN/m2, 36.7m)
2. The flow rate of water in a 600mm diameter pipe is 37,322 litres/minute,
determine the velocity of flow. Determine the diameter of pipe in which this flow
rate would give a velocity of 3.0m/sec. (2.2 m/sec, 450mm)
3. Water flows between two reservoirs A & B. The water level in A is 384.0 m AOD
and in B is 365m AOD. The reservoirs are connected by a 450mm diameter pipe,
1200m in length, which has a Darcy friction factor of 0.025. The lowest point in
the pipeline is a distance of 400m from A and has a level of 360m AOD.
Determine the rate of flow through the pipeline and the pressure at the lowest
point. (376 litres/sec, 170.2 kN/m2)
4. Determine the pipe size required to deliver 30 litres/sec of water between two
reservoirs 1300m apart when their water levels differ by 25m. Take the Darcy
friction factor as 0.025. For the pipe size chosen, calculate the difference in
water levels needed to pass 40 litres/sec. (157mm, 45m)

## Laminar pipe flow example

Oil flows through a 75mm diameter horizontal pipeline, which is 150 m long, at an
average flowrate Q of 75 litres/min. The coefficient of dynamic viscosity for the oil is
0.015 kg/ms and the density of the oil is 850 kg/m3. Taking into account only frictional
losses determine:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

## The flow type.

The pressure loss along the pipeline.
The maximum velocity of flow in the pipe.
The velocity of flow 5mm from the pipe wall
The shear stress 0 at the pipe wall.
Q = 0.075/60 = 0.00125 m3/sec, A = 3.142 x 0.0752/4 = 0.0044 m2

1.

## Average velocity of flow = v = Q = 0.283 m/sec

A
Re = v d = v d = 850 x 0.283 x 0.075 = 1203 i.e. laminar flow

0.015
2.
z1 +

## Apply Bernoulli between two ends of pipeline

v 12
P
v2
P
+ 1 = z2 + 2 + 2 + hf ,
2g g
2g g

P1 P 2 = h f
g

P 1 P2 = g h f

## hf = 32 L v = 32 x 0.015 x 150 x 0.283 = 0.430 m (Hagen-Poiseuille equation Pg

16)
g d2
850 x 9.81 x 0.0752
P1 P2 = dP = 850 x 9.81 x 0.430 = 3585.6 N/m2
3.

v = dp (R2 r2)
4 dx

(Pg 14 in notes)

## dp R2 = 3585.6 x 0.03752 = 0.560 m/sec (Note twice average velocity)

4 dx
4x 0.015 x 150

vmax =
4.

v32.5 =

5.

3585.6
(0.03752 0.03252) = 0.139 m/sec
4 x 0.015 x 150

2 dx
2 x 150
6

## Turbulent pipeflow velocity profile example

Water flows through 225mm diameter pipeline which is 500m long at a rate of 50
litres/sec. Assuming the pipe has a value of 0.024 determine the frictional head loss
across the pipeline and determine the actual velocity of flow at the pipe centreline using
the universal velocity distribution equation. Take the coefficient of dynamic viscosity
for water as 1.14 x 10-3 kg/ms.
h f = L v2
2gd

or

hf = L Q 2
12.1 d5

4
4

Q = 0.050 m3/sec

A
0.040
h f = L v2
2gd

19.62 x 0.225

= 4.247m

v * (R r )
v
=
5
.
75
log

+ 5.5

v*

= dp d
4L

(Pg 18 in notes)

4 x 500

v* =

4.687
1000

= 0.069m/sec

## 1000 x 0.069 x 0.113

v
= 5.75 log
+ 5.5 = 5.75 log [ 6840 ] + 5.5
0.069
1.14 x 10 3

## Barrs equation example

7

During a recent network calibration exercise the head loss due to friction over an
existing 220m length of 150mm diameter pipe was calculated to be 0.6m when the
measured flowrate was 7.5 litres/sec. Estimate the pipe wall roughness k s. Assume the
coefficient of dynamic viscosity for water is 1.14 x 10-3 kg/ms.
h f = L v2
2gd

or

hf = L Q 2
12.1 d5

## = 12.1 d5 hf = 12.1 x 0.155 x 0.6 = 0.045

L Q2
220 x 0.00752
A = d2 = 3.142 x 0.152 = 0.0177 m2
4
4

Q = 0.017 m3/sec

## v1 = v2 = Q = 0.0075 = 0.424 m/sec (know v hence we can calculate Re )

A
0.0177
Re = v d = 1000 x 0.424 x 0.15 = 55790

1.14 x 10-3

k
5.1286
= 2 log s +

R 0e.89

3.7d

ks
5.1286
= 2 log
+
55790 0.89
0.045

3.7 x0.15
1

ks

4.714 = 2 log
+ 3.059 x 10 4
0.555

0.555

10-2.357 =

ks
+ 3.059 x 10-4
0.555

4.395 x 10-3 =

ks
+ 3.059 x 10-4
0.555

## Turbulent pipe flow example 1

8

A 450mm diameter cement lined ductile iron pipe (reason for precision of description to
be explained later) 2000m long supplies water from a storage reservoir to a service
reservoir. If the difference in water levels in the two reservoirs is 20m determine the flow
rate Q between them. Take the pipe wall roughness k s as 0.03mm and the coefficient of
kinematic viscosity for water as 1.14 x 10-6 m2/s (at 15C).
1

Applying Bernoulli between the water surfaces in the reservoirs i.e. between 1 and 2
z1 +

v 12
P
v2
P
+ 1 = z2 + 2 + 2 + hf
2g g
2g g

h f = L v2
2gd

## (Dont know Q and hence v, so cant determine Re - use Colebrook-White)

= 2gd hf = 2gd S0 - equation (1) (S0 = hf/L is the friction gradient = 20/2000 = 0.01)
L v2
v2
k
2.51
= 2 log s +

3.7d R e

where Re = v d/

## Substituting for from equation (1) into equation (2) gives

k
2.51
log s +

3.7d d 2gdS O

= 2 2gdS O

= 2 2 x9.81x0.45 x0.01

0.03 x10 3

2.51x1.14 x10 6
log
+

## 0.45 2x9.81x0.45 x0.01

3.7 x0.45

v = -0.593 log [ 1.802 x 10-5 + 2.14 x 10-5] = -0.593 log [ 3.942 x 10-5]
v = 2.612 m/sec

= 2gd S0
v2

2.6122

k
5.1286
= 2 log s +

R 0e.89

3.7d

1.14 x 10-6
0.03 x10 3

5.1286
= 2 log
+
0.89
1031053

3.7 x0.45

1
8.7792

= 0.013

## Compare with Moody Chart

= 0.013

ks = 0.003x10-3 = 0.000067
D
0.45

## Turbulent pipe flow example 2

10

An old tuberculated water main (in normal condition with a slight degree of attack),
having a ks value of 1.5mm, has a diameter of 150mm and is 800m in length. When the
flow rate Q is 17 litres/sec, the pressure recorded at the inlet is 3 bar and the pressure
recorded at the outlet is 1.851 bar. Determine the difference in the pipe levels at the
inlet and outlet. Take the coefficient of kinematic viscosity for water as 1.14 x 10-6
m2/sec. Using the universal velocity distribution equation determine the pipe centreline
velocity.
Total Energy Line (TEL)
hf
P1/ g + v12/2g

P2/ g + v22/2g

2
1

z1 +

v 12
P
v2
P
+ 1 = z2 + 2 + 2 + hf
2g g
2g g

h f = L v2
2gd

or

Bernoullis equation

hf = L Q 2
12.1 d5

4
4

Q = 0.017 m3/sec

A
0.0177

1.14 x 10-6

k
5.1286
= 2 log s +

R 0e.89

3.7d

Barrs equation

1.5 x10 3
5.1286
= 2 log
+
0.89

= 0.0386
11

h f = L v2
2gd

19.62 x 0.150

= 9.710m

## Subs into Bernoullis equation

z1 + 0.9622 + 300000 = z2 + 0.9622 + 185100
19.62
9810
19.62
9810

+ 9.710

## z2 z1 = 2.003m (i.e point 2 is 2.003m above point 1)

Check using Moody chart
ks = 1.5 x 10-3
zone)
d

0.15

v * (R r )
v
=
5
.
75
log

+ 5.5

v*

= dp d
4L

(Pg 18 in notes)

## dp = g hf = 9810 x 9.71 = 95255 N/m2

(Note Because pipe is not horizontal, rises 2.0m, dp P1 P2 in this calculation.
P1 P2 = 300000 185100 = 114900 N/m 2 which is equivalent to 11.71m head.
i.e hf + 2.0 )

4 x 800

v* =

4.465
1000

= 0.067m/sec

## 1000 x 0.067 x 0.075

v
= 5.75 log
+ 5.5 = 5.75 log [ 4396 ] + 5.5
0.067
1.14 x 10 3

## vmax = 0.067 ( 20.948 + 5.5 ) = 1.772 m/sec

HRS table examples
v

= 2 2gdS O

k
2.51
log s +

3.7d d 2gdS O

12

v

1.5 x10 3

2.51x1.14 x10 6
log
+

## 3.7 x 0.2 0.2 2 x 9.81x 0.2 x 0.004

v = -0.251 log [ 2.027 x 10-3 + 1.142 x 10-4] = -0.251 log [ 2.141 x 10-3] = 0.670 m/sec
Q = A v = 3.142 x 0.22/4 x 0.670 = 0.021 m3/sec = 21.0 litres/sec
A 150mm diameter main conveying water at a flow rate of 20 litres/sec rises 1.5m over
a distance of 300m. If the pipeline has a roughness value ks of 1.5mm and the pressure
at the start is 4 bar determine the pressure at the other end in kN/m2.
Total Energy Line (TEL)
hf
P1/ g + v12/2g

P2/ g + v22/2g

2
1
z1 +

v 12
P
v2
P
+ 1 = z 2 + 2 + 2 + hf
2g g
2g g

4
4

Q = 0.020 m3/sec

## v1 = v2 = Q = 0.020 = 1.130 m/sec

A
0.0177
From HRS tables page (3 in notes) So = 1/60 = 0.0167
hf = 0.0167 x 300 = 5.0m,

z2 z1 = 1.5 m

## 0 + 1.1302 + 400000 = 1.5 + 1.1302 + P2 + 5.0

19.62
9810
19.62
9810
P2 = 34.275 x 9810 = 336238 N/m2 = 3.360 bar
HRS tables examples
1) Determine the frictional head loss in a 375mm diameter uncoated steel pipe in
normal condition when it conveys 163 litres/sec of water over a distance of 800m.

13

## 2) A water main is to be designed to convey 560 litres/sec over a distance of 700m.

If the pipe material is to be coated steel (good condition) and the allowable
frictional head loss is 3m determine the required pipe diameter.
3) A 150mm diameter main conveying water at a flowrate of 20 litres/sec rises 1.5m
over a distance of 300m. If the pipeline has a roughness value ks of 1.5mm and
the pressure at the start is 4 bars, determine the pressure at the other end, in
kN/m2.
4) A 300mm diameter concrete sewer (ks = 1.5mm) is required to deliver 88
litres/sec. Determine the minimum gradient at which the sewer should be laid for
it not to be surcharged.
5) A 225 mm diameter concrete sewer (ks = 1.5mm) is 60m long and laid at a
gradient of 1/154. What will be the height of surcharge at the upstream manhole
when the flowrate is 60 litres/sec.

## Parallel Pipelines Example 1

A section of a pipeline consists of two pipes in parallel as shown below. Pipe A has a
diameter of 150mm, a length of 150m, a ks value of 0.03mm and a value of 0.0188.
14

## Pipe B has a diameter of 225mm, a length of 120m, a ks value of 0.03mm and a

value of 0.0163. If the friction head loss HL across the section (between 1 and 2) is 0.6m
determine the flow in each pipe.
A

B
The 0.6m head loss across the parallel section ( 1 to 2) is the same in each pipe i.e.
HLA = HLB = 0.6m
A L A Q 2A
12 .1 d 5A

B L B Q B2
12 .1 dB5

= 0.6m

and

## SOA LA = SOB LB = 0.6m

QA =

QB =

0.6 x 12 .1 x 0.15 5
0.0188 x 150
0.6 x 12 .1 x 0.225
0.0163 x 120

## Using HRS table 3 (ks = 0.03mm pg 11 HRS tables handout)

SOA =

0.6
150

= 0.004 ( 1 in 250)

SOB =

0.6
120

= 0.005 ( 1 in 200)

## For pipe A 150mm diameter QA = 13.952 litres/sec

For pipe B 225mm diameter QB = 46.253 litres/sec
Parallel Pipelines Example 2
A service reservoir is to be constructed to provide a water supply for a town 1 km
distant. The initial population is expected to be 86,000 and the average rate of demand
15

Design the supply pipeline which connects the reservoir to the distribution system. The
pipe material is to be metal with a concrete lining, which has a Darcy friction factor of
0.013. Allow a peaking factor of 2. The top water level in the reservoir is 415.6m AOD
and the pipe level at the start of the distribution system is 376.3m AOD. The pressure at
the start of the distribution system is to be 2.94 bar.
After 25 years the population increases to 125,000. If the water level in the service
reservoir and the pressure in the distribution system remains unchanged determine:
(a)
(b)
(c)

the length of a parallel pipeline, of the same diameter and material as the original
pipeline, required to ensure that the demand for water is met.
the length of a parallel pipeline, of 525mm diameter and the same material as
the original pipeline (with a Darcy friction factor value of 0.011), required to
ensure that the demand for water is met.
the diameter of a lined ductile iron parallel pipeline, of length 850m and Darcy
friction factor of 0.014, required to ensure that the demand for water is met.
Parallel pipeline example solution
A 415.6m AOD

B
376.3m AOD

24 x 3600

## Pressure in distribution system = 2.94 bar = 294,000 N/m2

Pressure head H in distribution system = PB = 294,000
g
9810

= 30m

## Apply Bernoulli between A & B (ignore residual K.E. at B)

zA +

v 2A
P
v2
P
+ A = zB + B + B + hf
2g g
2g g

## hf = zA zB 30 = 415.6 - 376.3 - 30 = 9.3m

hf = L Q2 = 0.013 x 1000 x 0.3982
12.1 d5
12.1 x d5

= 9.3m

16

12.1 x 9.3

= 0.45m = 450mm.

## By HRS tables: Ks = 0.03mm, So = 9.3/1000 = 0.0093 (1 in 108)

(Table 14 page 13 in HRS handout) Q = 0.398 m3/sec, d = 450mm
(a)

## Population increases to 125,000 identical parallel pipe diameter specified,

find length.

QN = 2 x 125,000 x 200
24 x 3600

## = 579 litres/sec = 0.579 m3/sec

Insert parallel pipeline along bottom section of original pipeline to accommodate new
flow and maintain pressure in distribution system.
A
1
3
2

## Total Head loss between A & B = HL = HL1 + HL2 = HL1 + HL3

Thus

i.e.

HL2 = HL3

2 L2 Q22 = 3 L3 Q32
12.1 d25
12.1 d35
Identical pipes, L2 = L3 , d2 = d3 ,

Therefore Q2 = Q3

( note if any of the above relationships are not equal then Q2 Q3 and the relationship
between Q2 and Q3 has to be determined by calculation.)
Q1 = Q2 + Q3 = 0.579 m3/sec
As Q2 = Q3 = 0.579/2 = 0.290 m3/sec
1000 = L1 + L3, therefore L1 = 1000 - L3
HL = 9.3m = HL1 + HL3
1 L1 Q12
12.1 d15
0.013 x (1000 L3) x 0.5792
12.1 x 0.455

+ 3 L3 Q32 = 9.3
12.1 d35
+

17

0.013 x L3 x 0.2902
12.1 x 0.455

= 9.3

## 19.519 - 0.0195 L3 + 0.0049 L3 = 9.3

10.219 = 0.0146 L3
L3 = 700m
By HRS table 14 (pg 13 ): d1= d3 = 450mm, Q1= 0.579 m3/sec, Q3 = 0.290 m3/sec, HL = 9.3m
Ks = 0.03mm (all pipes), So1 = 1 in 54 (0.0185) and So3 = 1 in 198 (0.0051)
HL1 + HL3 = So1 x L1 + So3 x L3 = 0.0185 (1000 - L3) + 0.0051 L3 = 9.3
18.518 - 0.0185 L3 + 0.0051 L3 = 9.3
9.218 = 0.0134L3
L3 = 688m
(b)

## Population increases to 125,000 different parallel pipe diameter specified,

find length.
QN = 0.579 m3/sec
A
1
3
2

## Total Head loss between A & B = HL = HL1 + HL2 = HL1 + HL3

Thus

i.e.

2 L2 Q22 = 3 L3 Q32
12.1 d25
12.1 d35
L2 = L3 , d2 = 450mm , d3 = 525mm
0.013 x Q22 =
0.455

= 0.013,

0.011 x Q32
0. 5255

## 0.704 Q22 = 0.276 Q32

Q32 = 2.551 Q22
Q3 = 1.597 Q2
Q1 = Q2 + Q3 = 0.579 m3/sec

18

= 0.011

HL2 = HL3

## Q2 + 1.597 Q2 = 2.597 Q2 = 0 .579

Q2 = 0.223 m3/sec and Q3 = 0.356m3/sec
1000 = L1 + L3,

therefore L1 = 1000 - L3

1 L1 Q12
12.1 d15

+ 3 L3 Q32 = 9.3
12.1 d35

12.1 x 0.455

12.1 x 0.5255

## 19.519 - 0.0195 L3 + 0.0029 L3 = 9.3

10.219 = 0.0166L3
L3 = 615.6m
By HRS tables (pg 12 &13) Ks = 0.03mm (all pipes): d1= d2 = 450mm, d3 = 525mm,
Q1= 0.579 m3/sec = Q2 + Q3
So1 = 1 in 54 (0.0185), So2 = So3
Need to look down HRS table to find friction gradient (So) where Q2 + Q3 = 0.579 m3/sec
For So = 1 in 303 (0.0033) Q2 = 0.231 m3/sec Q3 = 0.348 m3/sec
HL1 + HL3 = So1 x L1 + So3 x L3 = 0.0185 (1000 - L3) + 0.0033 L3 = 9.3
18.519 - 0.0185 L3 + 0.0033 L3 = 9.3
9.219 = 0.0152 L3
L3 = 606.5m

(c)

## Length of parallel pipe defined, diameter required

L3 = 850m, L1 = 150m,

19

HL1 =

12.1 d15
12.1 x 0.455

= 2.928m

## HL3 = HL2 = 9.3 2.928 = 6.372m

Determine flowrate Q2 going down existing pipe (2)
HL2 =

L2 Q22
12.1 d25

12.1 x 0.455

## Q2 = ( 6.372 x 12.1 x 0.455 )1/2 = 0.359 m3/sec

0.013 x 850
Q1 = Q2 + Q3 = 0.579 m3/sec
Therefore Q3 = 0.579 - 0.359 = 0.220 m3/sec
HL3 = 6.732m =

12.1 d35
12.1 x d35

## d3 = ( 0.014 x 850 x 0.2202 )1/5 = 0.375m

12.1 x 6.732
By HRS tables (pg 13) d1 = d2 = 450mm, Q1= 0.579 m3/sec, L1= 150m, L3 = 850m,
HL = 9.3m
Ks = 0.03mm (all pipes), from HRS table So1 = 0.0185 (1 in 54)
HL1 = So1 x L1 = 0.0185 x 150 = 2.778m
HL2 = HL3 = 9.3 - 2.778 = 6.522m
So2 = So3 = 6.552 = 0.0077 (1 in 130)
850
From HRS table, Q2 = 0.363 m3/sec
Therefore Q3 = 0.579 0.363 = 0.216 m3/sec
From HRS table, d3 = 375mm
Hydraulics 2C Flow Balancing Example
The reservoir A at a treatment plant feeds two service reservoirs B and C as shown below.
Use the Flow Balancing Method to approximately determine the flows entering the service
reservoirs.

20

A
J

B
C

Reservoir
A
B
C

Pipe
A-J
J-B
J-C

## Water Level m AOD

95
80
76

Diameter (mm)
300
225
150

Length (m)
900
1100
800

21

Ks(mm)
1.5
1.5
1.5

1st estimate

2nd estimate
Hj = 90.5m

Pipe

3rd estimate
Hj = 91.5m

Hj = 90.9m

hf across

SO

hf across

SO

hf across

SO

Pipe (m)

(1 in)

(litre/s)

Pipe (m)

(1 in)

(litre/s)

Pipe (m)

(1 in)

(litre/s)

4.5

200

69.2

3.5

257

61.0

4.1

220

65.9

10.5

105

-44.5

11.5

96

-46.8

10.9

101

-45.4

14.5

55

-20.9

15.5

52

-21.6

14.9

54

-21.1

Error in Q = 3.8l/sec

Error in Q = -7.4l/sec

22

Error in Q = 0.6l/sec

## Hardy Cross/Synergee example

See diagram on page 24.
Based on the draw-off from the network, the reservoir supplies 340 litres/sec to node A
From HRS table 14, ks = 0.03mm for 450mm pipe carrying 340 litres/sec then hydraulic
gradient So = 0.00681 ( 1 in 147).
Head loss from reservoir to A = 0.00681 x 900 = 6.13m
Total head at A = 136.13 6.13 = 130m (AOD)
By inspection of diagram, decide on flow directions and quantities (remember more water
will pass down bigger, shorter and smoother pipes). Because the pipe A-C is common to
two loops it is shown as if it is split into two in the diagram below. In reality of course it is just a
single pipe and there can only be one value for the flow passing down it common to both
loops.

Note clockwise flows are deemed +ve and anti-clockwise flows ve as are their respective
friction head losses. The basic logic is that when the flows are correctly allotted the head
losses in a loop will sum to zero.
i.e. in the top loop:

## Calculate head loss hf for each pipe:

For pipe A-B, Q = 130 litres/sec (clockwise), dia = 300mm, L = 550m
HRS table 3 gives So = 0.00833 and thus hf = 0.00833 x 550 = +4.58m
Complete table on page 25.

23

24

Pipe

Dia
(mm)

Length
(m)

Q
(m /sec)
3

hf
(m)

hf/Q

Q
(m /sec)

hf
(m)

hf/Q

Q
(m /sec)
3

300

550

+0.130

4.58

35

+0.127

4.57

34

+0.129

4.50

B-C

200

450

+0.040

3.10

78

+0.037

2.68

72

+0.039

2.93

A-C

250

800

-0.080

-6.64

83

-0.088

-7.92

90

-0.085

-7.40

+1.04

196

-0.87

196

hf
1.04
=
= 0.003m3 / s
h
2 x 196
2 f
Q

A
130
B
125.5
C
122.6

30
27.5
21.6

0.03

Q=
+0.002m3/s

= - 0.008m3/s

AC = 0.003m3/s

A-C

250

800

+0.080

6.64

83

+0.008

7.92

90

+0.085

+7.50

D-C

250

250

-0.060

-1.21

20

-0.055

-1.05

19

-0.056

-1.06

A-D

300

850

-0.130

-6.94

54

-0.126

-6.59

53

-0.126

-6.70

-1.57

157

+0.28

162

Q =

Pressure
(m)

hf
(m)

A-B

Q =

Total
(m)

hf 1.57
=
= + 0.005m3 / s
hf
2 x 157
2
Q

-0.001m /s

Q=

= + 0.008m3/s
AC = -0.003m3/s
25

-0.26

A
130
C
122.3
D
123.3

27.3

## Foul Sewer Design Example

Design the foul sewer system shown below. Assume 3 persons per dwelling, 250
litres/head/day water consumption and 40 litres/head/day infiltration. The new system is to
connect into a existing combined sewer at A4 which has an invert level of 95.00m AOD. There
is an existing 600mm diameter surface water sewer midway between A2 and A3 of invert level
95.02m AOD and a water main midway between C1 and C2 invert level 98.10m AOD.
A1

C2
A2

A3
C1

B1
A4
Pipe run

Length
(m)
90
80
85
120
50
100

A1-A2
B1-A2
A2-A3
C1-C2
C2-A3
A3-A4

Number of
houses
250
220
300
180
150
280

Ground level
upstream Mh
100.00
100.27
98.94
100.15
98.49
97.86

Ground level
downstream Mh
98.94
98.94
97.86
98.49
97.86
97.19

Sewer run

Cumulative
houses

Cumulative
flow
(litres/sec)

Ground

Pipe
diameter
(mm)

Min Pipe
(1 in)

Chosen pipe
(1 in)

A1-A2

250

15.1

1 in 85

150

1 in 100

1 in 100

B1-A2

220

13.3

1 in 60

150

1 in 133

1 in 100

A2-A3

770

46.5

1 in 79

225

1 in 96

1 in 96

C1-C2

180

10.9

1 in 72

150

1 in 133

1 in 100

C2-A3

330

20.0

1 in 79

150

1 in 59

1 in 59

A3-A4

1380

83.4

1 in 149

300

1 in 138

1 in 138

26

## Foul Sewer Design Example

Check overall fall, say invert level @ A4 = 95.150m AOD and @ A1, B1 & C1 invert level is
2.0m below ground.
Fall between A1 A4 = 98.0 95.15 = 1 in 96 which is OK
275
Fall between: B1 A4 = 1 in 85 and C1 A4 = 1 in 90.
Complete table
a)

## b) Cumulative flow = 6 x 250 x 3 x 290 = 15.1 l/sec

24 x 3600
c) Ground gradient = 100 98.94 = 1 in 85
90
d) 1st pipe in system 150mm dia minimum gradient 1 in 100
e) A2 A3 cumulative houses = 770
f)

## Cumulative flow = 6 x 770 x 3 x 290 = 46.5 l/sec

24 x 3600

g) Ground gradient = 1 in 79
h) Pipe dia = 225mm, gradient = 1 in 96
Manhole Invert levels & depths
A3 = 95.15 + 100 = 95.88m AOD
138
Depth = 97.86 95.88 = 1.98m
A2 = 95.88 + 0.075 + 85 = 96.84m AOD, depth = 2.10m
96
A1 = 96.84 + 0.075 + 90 = 97.82m AOD, depth = 2.18m
100
B1 = 96.84 + 0.075 + 80 = 97.72m AOD, depth = 2.55m
100

27

## C2 = 95.88 + 0.15 + 50 = 96.88m AOD, depth = 1.61m

59
C1 = 96.88 + 120 = 98.08m AOD, depth = 2.07m
100
Check service clearance A2 A3
A2

A3
clearance

## A2 A3 invert level midway = 96.84 + 95.88 = 96.36m AOD

2
SW sewer top of pipe level = 95.02 + 0.6 + 0.1 = 95.72m AOD
Clearance = 0.64m 0.05m (pipe wall) = 0.59m
Check service clearance C1 C2
Water main invert level = 98.10
C1 C2 invert level midway = 98.08 + 96.88 = 97.48m AOD
2
Clearance = 98.1 (97.48 + 0.15 + 0.05) = 0.42m

28

## Lloyd Davies Rational method example

Analyse the above storm sewer system using the Rational method for a 1 in 1 year event
taking the time of entry Te as 2.0 mins. ks for all pipes is 0.6mm. Rainfall table provided. See
Table below.

## Pipe length 1.00

Difference in level = 1.10m, length = 63.1m,
Gradient = 1.10 = 1 in 57, choose pipe dia = 150mm
63.1
V = 1.33m/sec from HRS tables (pg 7 in HRS handout)
Time of flow = TF = 63.1 = 47.4 secs = 0.79 mins
1.33
Time of entry = TE = 2.0 mins.
For 1st pipe in branch: Time of concentration = TC = TE + TF
TC1.00 = 2.0 + 0.79 = 2.79 mins
From table (pg 31) rainfall intensity = i = 70.5 mm/hr. AP = impermeable area (ha)
Q1.00 = 2.778 x AP x i = 2.778 x 0.102 x 70.5 = 20.0 litres/sec
Note capacity of 150mm dia @ 1 in 57 is 23.6 litres/sec OK

29

## Pipe length 1.01

Choose 225 mm dia pipe, from HRS tables V = 1.7m/sec
TF = 66.1 = 38.9 secs = 0.65 mins
1.7
TC = TC1.00 + TF1.01 = 2.79 + 0.65 = 3.44 mins
i = 63.0 mm/hr, AP = 0.102 + 0.226 = 0.328 ha
Q1.01 = 2.778 x 0.328 x 63.0 = 57.4 litres/sec
Check capacity 225 @ 1 in 59 = 67.9 litres/sec OK
Pipe length 2.02
Choose 300mm dia pipe, V = 2.74 m/sec

## TF2.02 = 0.33 mins

Note when calculating TC2.02 use the LONGER of the two upstream times of concentration.
i.e. TC2.01 = 2.78 mins and TC3.00 = 2.56 mins.
Therefore TC2.02 = TC2.01 + TF2.02 = 2.78 + 0.33 = 3.11 mins
AP = 0.647 ha

and i = 65.5 mm/hr and Q2.02 = 2.778 x 0.647 x 65.6 = 117.7 litres/sec

30

RAINFALL TABLE - Rates of rainfall in mm/h for a range of durations for given return periods
RETURN PERIOD (YEARS)
DURATION

10

20

50

100

2.0 MINS
2.5 MINS
3.0 MINS
3.5 MINS
4.0 MINS
4.1 MINS
4.2 MINS
4.3 MINS
4.4 MINS
4.5 MINS
4.6 MINS
4.7 MINS
4.8 MINS
4.9 MINS
5.0 MINS
5.1 MINS
5.2 MINS
5.3 MINS
5.4 MINS
5.5 MINS
5.6 MINS
5.7 MINS
5.8 MINS
5.9 MINS
6.0 MINS
6.2 MINS
6.4 MINS
6.6 MINS
6.8 MINS
7.0 MINS
7.2 MINS
7.4 MINS
7.6 MINS
7.8 MINS
8.0 MINS
8.2 MINS
8.4 MINS
8.6 MINS
8.8 MINS
9.0 MINS
9.2 MINS
9.4 MINS
9.6 MINS
9.8 MINS
10.0 MINS
10.5 MINS
11.0 MINS
11.5 MINS
12.0 MINS
12.5 MINS
13.0 MINS
13.5 MINS
14.0 MINS
14.5 MINS
15.0 MINS
16.0 MINS
17.0 MINS
18.0 MINS
19.0 MINS
20.0 MINS

85.6
76.5
66.3
62.8
59.6
59.1
58.5
57.9
57.4
56.9
56.3
55.8
55.3
54.8
54.3
53.9
53.4
53.0
52.5
52.1
51.7
51.2
50.8
50.4
50.0
49.3
48.5
47.8
47.1
46.4
45.8
45.2
44.5
44.0
43.4
42.8
42.3
41.8
41.2
40.8
40.3
39.9
39.4
39.0

93.4
87.5
82.3
77.8
73.8
73.1
72.3
71.6
71.0
70.3
69.6
69.0
68.3
67.7
67.1
66.5
65.9
65.4
64.8
64.3
63.7
63.2
627
62.2
61.7
60.7
59.8
58.9
58.0
57.2
56.4
55.6
54.8
54.1
56.4
52.7
52.0
51.4
50.7
50.1
49.5
49.0
48.4
47.9
38.6
37.6
36.7
35.8
35.0
34.2
33.4
32.7
32.0
31.4
30.8
29.36
28.6
27.6
26.7
25.9

120.5
113.4
107.2
101.7
96.8
95.9
95.0
94.1
93.2
92.4
91.6
90.8
90.0
89.2
88.5
87.7
87.0
86.3
85.6
84.9
84.2
83.5
82.9
82.3
81.6
80.4
79.2
78.1
77.0
75.9
74.9
73.9
72.9
71.9
71.0
70.1
69.3
68.4
67.6
66.8
66.0
65.3
64.6
63.8
47.4
46.1
44.9
43.8
42.8
41.8
40.8
39.9
39.1
38.3
37.5
36.1
34.8
33.5
32.4
31.4

138.3
130.4
123.4
117.3
111.8
110.8
109.8
108.8
107.9
106.9
106.0
105.1
104.2
103.4
102.5
101.7
100.9
100.1
99.3
98.5
97.8
97.0
96.3
95.6
94.9
93.5
92.2
90.9
89.6
88.4
87.3
86.1
85.0
84.0
82.9
81.9
81.0
80.0
79.1
78.2
77.3
76.4
75.6
74.8
63.1
61.5
59.9
58.4
57.0
55.7
54.4
53.3
52.1
51.0
50.0
48.1
46.3
44.7
43.2
41.8

158
149
141
135
128
127
126
125
124
123
122
121
120
119
118
117
116
115
115
114
113
112
111
110
110
108
107
105
104
102
101
100
99
97
96
95
94
93
92
91
90
89
88
87
74.0
72.1
70.2
68.5
66.9
65.4
64.0
63.6
61.3
60.0
58.8
56.6
54.6
52.7
51.0
49.3

187
177
168
161
154
152
151
150
149
148
146
145
144
143
142
141
140
139
138
137
136
135
134
133
132
130
129
127
125
124
122
121
119
118
117
115
114
113
112
110
109
108
107
106
86
84
82
80
78
76
75
73
72
70
69
65
64
62
60
58

213
202
192
184
176
174
173
172
170
169
168
166
165
164
163
162
160
159
158
157
156
155
154
153
152
150
148
146
144
143
141
139
138
136
135
133
132
131
129
125
127
125
124
123
105
102
100
97
95
93
91
89
87
86
84
81
78
76
73
71

31

121
118
116
113
111
108
106
104
102
100
98
94
91
88
85
83

1
Pipe
length
ref No

2
Difference
in level

3
Pipe
length

4
Pipe

5
Vel

7
Time
of
Conc.
(min)

8
Rate of
rainfall
i
(mm/hr)

9
Imp.
Area

(m/s)

6
Time
of
flow
(min)

(m)

(m)

(1 in )

1.00

1.10

63.1

57

1.33

0.79

2.79

70.5

150

1.01

1.12

66.1

59

1.70

0.65

3.44

63.0

225

1.02

0.73

84.7

116

0.081

300

2.00

1.40

44.8

32

225

2.01

0.61

49.1

80

0.150

300

3.00

0.98

48.5

49

0.129

150

2.02

1.65

54.3

33

1.03

1.22

27.7

23

2.32

2.74

0.32

0.33

2.32

3.11

82.5

65.5

(ha)

11
Flow
Q

12
Pipe
dia.

(m3/s)

(mm)

## 0.174 0.647 117.7 300

0.356

32

10
Cum Imp.
Area
AP
(ha)

300

Table 1 Lloyd Davies method: Time of entry = 2 mins, ks = 0.6mm, 1 in 1 year storm
1
Pipe
length
ref No

2
Difference
in level

3
Pipe
length

4
Pipe

5
Vel

7
Time
of
Conc.
(min)

8
Rate of
rainfall
i
(mm/hr)

9
Imp.
Area

(m/s)

6
Time
of
flow
(min)

(m)

(m)

(1 in )

1.00

1.10

63.1

57

1.33

0.79

2.79

70.5

150

1.01

1.12

66.1

59

1.70

0.65

3.44

63.0

225

1.02

0.73

84.7

116

1.46

0.97

4.41

57.4

300

2.00

1.40

44.8

32

2.32

0.32

2.32

82.5

225

2.01

0.61

49.1

80

1.77

0.46

2.78

70.0

300

3.00

0.98

48.5

49

1.43

0.56

2.56

76.0

150

2.02

1.65

54.3

33

2.74

0.33

3.11

65.5

1.03

1.22

27.7

23

3.29

0.14

4.55

56.9

33

(ha)

10
Cum Imp.
Area
AP
(ha)

11
Flow
Q

12
Pipe
dia.

(m3/s)

(mm)